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LIBRARY Fhld t.rtillery Schoof Fort Sill, Oklahoma.'

July, 1943





For Use in Resident Instruction at the Field Artillery School only.








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CHAPTER Paragraphs l.-PRINCIPLES OF THE EMPLOYMENT 1- 24 OF ARTILLERY ---------------------------SECTION I. Characteristics of field artillery . . 1- 5 Pages 1-10


6- 9 Organization -------.-------------------_ 10- 18 Types of employment ----------_ 19- 21 Zones of fire ---------------__ Displacements ..._. .._. ._ 22- 24 2.-TYPES OF ARTILLERY FIRE._ .. .._ 25- 34
II. III. IV. V. 58 37 52 56 58


3 4 7 8

9-10 11-13 14-20 14-15

3.-ARTILLERY ON THE MARCH AND AT HALTS ---------------.---------------.--.-----------. 35SECTION1. Artillery on the march, general ... 35II. Artillery with advance, rear, and flank guards .._. ._______________ 38III. Artillery with the main body ._________35 IV. Artillery at march halts and in bivouac 574.-ARTILLERY CO 1\1 BAT

15-18 18-20


IN OFFENSIVE . .. .______________ 9- 77 5 67' 70 73 75 77


SECTION 1. General -_.-----------------------_____________95 II. Artillery in the attack in a meeting engagement --------.-------..... .________ 68III. Artillery during operations prior to attack of organized posgion .____ 71IV. Artil!e!y in attack of organized POSl bon 74V. Artillery in the pursuit . ._. "_. 76CHAPTER

27-28 28-30

30-31 32-40 32 32-39 39-40 41-44

41-42 42-43

5.-ARTILLERY IN DEFENSIVE CO 1\1 BA T ._ .... . . . . 78-95 SECTION 1. General __ ._____________________________ 78 II. Employment of artillery in defense __ 79- 93 ._ III. Artillery in attack from the defensive 94- 95


6.-ARTILLERY IN RETROGRADE M0VE 1\1 E N T S . .... __ .______________________ . 96-102 SECTION 1. Withdrawals from action __ . .. 96- 98 II. Delaying action ._______99-100 III. Retirements .-..------------ . . . 101-102


Paragraphs CHAPTER 7.-ARTILLERY IN SPECIAL OPERATIONS SECTIONI. General II. Raids and night attacks III. River crossings .:.__ 103-120 103 104-105 106-107

Pages 45-57

45-46 46-47 48-49 49-54 54-55 55-57 58-59 60-61 62-65 66-68 69-73

IV. Defense of river line -------.---108-110 V. Operations in snow and extreme cold, mountain operations, jungle warfare, and desert warfare .__ 111-115 VI. Defense of coast lines 116-117 VII. Attack of fortified locality 118-120 CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER . CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER 8.-EMPLOYMENT OF ARMORED' DIVISION ARTILLERY 9.-EMPLOYMENT OF ARTILLERY WITH CAVALRY 10.-EMPLOYMENT OF AIRBORNE FIELD ARTILLERY 11.-LIAISON _-------------------12.-ARTILLERY ANTIAIRCRAFT AND ANTIMECHANIZED DEFENSE 13.-ARTILLERY DEFENSE AGAINST AIRBORNE TROOPS, INFILTRATION DETACHMENTS AND FIFTH COLUMNIS TS 14.-ARTILLERY CHEMICAL DEFENSE ATTACK AGAINST 121-122 123-129 130-138 139-143 144-148

149-152 15:l-155







1. II. III. IV. V.

Paragraphs Characteristics of field artillery 1- 5 Organization 6- 9 Types of employment 10-18 Zones of fire , 19-21 Displacements ----------.------------.22-24 SECTION

Mission Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics Projectiles and of light artillery of medium artillery of heavy artillery fuzes

-----------------------------1 -_--_ 2 3 4 5

1. MISSION.-a. Field artillery contributes to the action of the entire force through the fire support it renders other arms. It has two principal missions in combat: It supports other arms by, neutralizing or destroying those targets which are most dangerous to the supported arms; it give depth to combat by counterbattery fire, by fire on hostile reserves,~by restricting movement in 'rear areas, and by disrupting hostile command agencies (FM 100-5). . b. The flexibility and long range of its trajectories make it possible for the field artillery to adapt itself rapidly to every tactical situation; the destructive power and morale effect of its projectiles and the. ability to shift fires without shifting position are the characteristics of its combat. :Massed, surprise fire greatly increases its effect and is always sought . 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHT ARTILLERY.-a. General.- The characteristics of light artillery are mobility, flexibility of fire," a high rate of fire, and rapidity of getting in and out of position. These characteristics, coupled with its range, enable it to render continuous support to other ground forces over areas of great width and depth.



b. IIorse artillery.-Horse artillery has great battlefield mobility. As the cannoneers are individually mounted, their mounts furnish an immediate reservoir for draft replacements and relays. It ~an march and maneuver with horse cavalry. c. Pack artillery.-Pack artillery can operate over ground that is difficult or impassable for other types of artillery. It is suitable for landing operations and as accompanying artillery, and is especially suitable for mountain and jungle combat. Pack artillery cannot move at faster than a walk, except for short distances. It marches quietly. The pack (field) howitzer is especially adapted to movement by air transport, small landing vessel, light motor vehicle, or manpower. d. Truck-drawn artillery.-On good roads, truck-drawn light artillery can maintain a high average speed. It can readily ford streams up to two feet in depth. It can be towed across stream;o:; of greater depth, but extensive waterproofing is necessary. With traction devices installed on the prime movers, its mobility over difficult terrain approaches that of half-track vehicles. e. Self-propelled artillery.-Artillery on self-propelled mounts can move at high speed on roads. It has the cross-country mobility of a medium tank. f. Airb.orne artillery.-Airborne artillery is dropped with parachutes and landed from gliders and planes. After landing, it has limited mobility . 3. CHARACTERISTICS F :MEDIUM O ARTILLERY.-Medium artillery has a lower rate of fire but"greater power than light artillery. Its power makes it preferable to light artillery for counterbattery when the battle position has been organized. Its mobility over difficult terrain is appreciably less than that of truck-drawn light artillery . 4. CHARACTERISTICS OFHEAVYARTILLERY.-Heavy artillery has a relatively low rate of fire, great power, and long range. It executes all types of fire deep within the enemy lines and can intensify and extend the neutralizing fires of light and medium artillery. It requires appreciably more time for emplacement than doeH light and medium artillery. Both medium and heavy artillery are more vulnerable to mechanized attack than is light artillery.



5. PROJECTILESAND FUZEs.-Shells employed by the field artilery are: High explosive (HE), antitank (HE-AT), and a chemical smoke. Fuzes are combination superquick-delay and a combination time-superquick. a. HE shell.-HE shell with fuze set at superquick is effective against personnel. HE shell with fuze set at delay and a large angle of impact has a depth effect in breaking through cover. HE shell with fuze set at delay, and a small angle of impact and hard ground will produce ricochets which, detonating after rebounding into the air, have great effect against personnel, even those in trenches and foxholes. HE shell with the time fuze produces air bursts that are especially effective against personnel, even those in trenches and foxholes. Shells that fail to explode in air explode on impact with superquick action. Time fire is especially suitable for transfers of fire. b. Antitank shell.-Antitank shell (HE-AT) is designed for use against tanks with direct laying. c. Smoke shell.-Bmoke shell is effective in the blinding of enemy observation and screening movements of the supported troops. SECTIONII ORGANIZATION
War Department. reserve artillery Corp sarti IIery Groll pmen t o rganiza tion for comba t Paragraph
. =::::::... -----------

6 7 8 -----------------------------______________________ .__________________________ 9

6. WAR DEPARTMENTRESERVEARTILLERY.-War Department reserve artillery is normally organized into groups, each consisting of a group headquarters and headquarters battery and four separate battalions. The battalions are of equal mobility. It includes all artillery under the commander of the field forces that is not organic to the several corps and divisions. It amounts to an artillery pool and is, in effect, the commander's artillery reserve.' " 7. CORPSARTILLERY.-There is no organic corps artillery fire power. Artillery allocated to a corps, may be attached to the division of the corps, retained under corps control, or part may




be attached to the divisions and part retained under corps control. Employment of corps artillery is treated in Instruction Memorandum T-5 . 8. GROUPMENT.-A groupment is a temporary tactical unit made up of two or more artillery battalions (or larger units). The purpose of forming a groupment is to coordinate fire, observation, . and liaison; administration is not pertinent except for ammunition supply. The guiding principle in forming a' groupment is that all units of it have a common mission, regardless of caliber or other characteristics. If the artillery organization for combat includes the forming of a groupment, the artillery commander's order specifies the commander of the groupment, the units that are to compose it, and its mission. If a groupment in excess of two battalions is to be formed, an additional headquarters and headquarters battery is desirable for its command . 9. ORGANIZATION FOR COMBAT.-In the divison, organization for combat should provide artillery in general support, artillery in direct support. and-when necessary-attached artillery. In the corps, it should provide groupments for counterbattery, for long-range fire, and for reinforcing the fires of division artillery.



i!fgfg~~~~c~rrN~if~~~~~~~~~::~: !l
Artillery A ttached with reinforcing a rtillery mission ._. __ . ..__ . __ . __ __ . ._. . .__ . .---------.---14 . . __---- -.. ------... ...-.--.--- 15

~~;m~ry~nn;e;di n e~_=~=~~~~~~~~=:==~~:~~:==:-_-_--_.:~:_~-_~_-_._-:_ .. ~----~~-----.---~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ Artillery remaining when infantry is withdrawn .. .._ . ...__ .. ._. .. . 18

10. TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT,GENERAL.-Artillery may be employed in general support, in direct support of units of other arms, as attached artillery, or as roving guns. A unit employed in general support may be given a secondary mission of reinforcing the fires of another artillery unit.




11. GENERAL-SUPPORT ARTILLERY.--a. General.-General-support artillery supports the command as a whole, such as the division. It may reinforce the fires of direct-support artillery. It is held under the. control of the next higher artillery commander; for example, if the division medium battalion is in general support, it is held under the control of the division artillery commander. With all of his artillery under centralized control, the artillery commander's ability to mass fires is at a maximum. In brief, the mission of general support is an order to the artillery: (1) To be prepared to fire anywhere in the zone of action or sector of the supported force, or in so much of that zone or sector as is prescribed by higher headquarters. (2) To observe in its normal zone. b. Divison artillery.-The division medium artillery is usually in general support. In addition, it usually has a reinforcing mission. c. Corps artillery.-Corps artillery is normally in general support during coordinated operations and executes three general missions: Counterbattery, long-range interdiction, and reinforcing the fires of the artillery with the divisions . 12. DIRECT-SUPPORT ARTILLERY.--a. General.-
Placing artillery in direct support of an infantry (cavalry) (armored) unit permits closer cooperation between the artillery and the infantry (cavalry) (armored) and insures greater promptness in answering calls for artillery support in a rapidly changing situation. The primary function of direct-support artillery is the delivery of fire for the supported unit. The majority of its missions come directly from the commander of the supported unit. However, it remains under the control of the division artillery officer and may at any time be assigned missions, in its zone of fire, outside the zone of action of the supported unit. In turn it may request reinforcement of its fire. \Vhen communication between a directsupport battalion and the next higher artillery headquarters fails, the direct-support battalion functions as though it were attached artillery. In brief, the mission of direct support is an order to the artillery: . (1) To be prepared to fire in the zone of action or sector of the supported unit. (2) To observe in its normal zone.



(3) To respond directly to calls for fire from the supported unit. (4) To maintain liaison with the headquarters of the supported unit and with its front-line battalions. b. Allocation.-Tables of Organization for infantry divisions provide light artillery in the proportion of one battalion of light artillery to a regiment of infantry. 'Vhenever practicable, a particular artillery unit is always placed in direct support of the same infantry unit . 13. REINFORCING ARTILLERY.-The artillery organically assigned to a division is the minimum with which the divison can operate. For any attack, except against weak forces, or for a strong defense, additional artillery is necessary . 14. ARTILLERY WITH REINFORCING MISSION.-In brief, the mission of reinforcing the fires of another artillery unit is an order to the artillery: a. To be prepared to fire in the zone of fire of the unit whose fires it is to reinforce, or in so much of that zone as higher authority designates. b. To answer calls for fire from the reinforced unit, when answering such calls will not interfere with its primary mission (usually general support). c. To maintain liaison with the unit whose fires it is to reinforce . 15. ATTACHEDARTILLERY.-a. GeneTal.-An artillery unit may be attached to a unit of another arm or it may be attached to another artillery unit. An attached unit is under the direct tactical and administrative control of the commander of the unit to which it is attached. An artillery unit is attached only when the next higher artillery commander cannot effectively exercise command over it. b. Division artillery.-vVhenever the situation permits, the division artillery is retained under centralized control, so that the division commander can most effectively employ its fire power as a reserve to influence the combat. However, he frequently cannot control the fire of all of his artillery efficiently because of the character of the operations, unusual extension of frontages, difficulties of terrain, lack of suitable observation, or insufficiency

PRINCIPLESOF THE EMPLOYMENT ARTILLERY 15-19 OF of signal communication. Urider such conditions the division artillery officer should recommend the attachment of a part or all of the division artillery to infantry (cavalry) (armored) units. If battalions are attached, the division artiliery officer maintains contact with them, prepares plans of reestablishing centralized control, and at the appropriate time!. recommends to -the division commander that it be reestablished . 16. ROVINGGUNs.-Roving guns may be used by any artillery unit to deceive the enemy as to the strength or position of the artillery, particularly during registration. They may be used for missions which cannot be executed from the regular positions, or to avoid enemy counterbattery fire. 17. ARTILLERYIN READINESS.- The term artillery in readiness designates a unit that is held out of action, but that is prepared to occupy without delay previously reconnoitered and surveyed positions. An artillery unit may be held in readiness (usually in a defensive situation) when the situation is obscure and the definite need for the artillery fire power in a particular sector cannot be foreseen . 18. ARTILLERYREMAINING WHEN INFANTRY IS WITHDRAWN. When the infantry of one division of a corps is withdrawn to rest or reorganize, the artillery of that divison may be required to remain in position to support other divisions. \Vhen the infantry re-enters battle, the artillery rejoins it.

IV-Paragraph -------------------19 ----- 20 ---.----------21

Zones of fire, general Norm a 1 zon es Zon es in d ep th


19. ZONES OF FIRE, GENERAL.-The zone within which an artillery unit is to be prepared to deliver fire is called its zone of fire. That portion of the zone of fire within which the unit has primary responsibility for observation and ordinarily delivers fire on its own initiative is called its normal zone. The other portions of its zone of fire are called ccntingent zones; the unit delivers fire in its contingent zones on order of higher artillery headquarters. An



artillery unit has but one normal zone; it may have several contingent zones. Whenever practicable, the limits of zones of fire should coincide with prominent terrain features and should be pointed out on the ground. The normal zones of the various echelons (par. 20, below) are designated by the lines showing the zones of action of the various corps and divisions. The exterior limits of the contingent zones, and consequently of the zones of fire, of the various units are designated by lines labeled to show the fire power-usually expressed in battalions,. calibers, and types-with which the units must reach the exterior limits. Thus the exterior limit of the left contingent zone of the 4th Division Artillery may be shown by a line labeled "4th Div Arty reach w /1 bn (105-mm) 1 bn (155-mm)." 20. NORMAL ZONES.-a. Battery.-The normal zone of each battery of a battalion is the normal zone of the battalion. b. Division artillery.-The normal zone of a division artillery unit in direct support coincides laterally with the zone of action or sector of the supported unit; thus a battalion (groupment) of light artillery in direct support of an infantry regiment has a normal zone coinciding with the zone of action or sector of the infantry regiment. The normal zone of division artillery in general support usually coincides with the zone of action or sector of the division. c. COrJJsartillery.-The normal zone of the corps artillery coincides laterally with the zone of action or sector of the corps, but the normal zones of the various groups, groupments, and battalions of the corps artillery mayor may not coincide with the zones of action or sectors of the front-line divisions of the corps . 21. ZONES IN DEPTH.-In the operation of a corps or larger unit, zones delimited in depth may be assigned to the several artillery echelons to coordinate, in depth, primary responsibility for observation and fire. The coordinating line between the division artillery and the corps artillery is called the XX-line. If the corps artillery zone is further divided in depth between the medium howitzers and the heavy guns, that coordinating line is called the .YY-line. As a general guide in delimiting zones in depth it may be considered that the initial targets of the division artillery in direct support are at ranges of from 2000 to 4500 yards, and that the targets of the corps artillery are at ranges of from 2500 to 7000 yards.


Displacements, general .__ -Displacement of direct-support artillery Displacement of general-support artillery.!:----------------Paragraph 22 23 24

22. DISPLACEMENTS,GENERAL.-a. Purpose. - Artillery displaces during combat in order to fire at effective ranges and to maintain continuous communication with liaison officers and forward observers. b. Method.-The method of displacement is such that some fire support is furnished at all times ; for example, in a battalion two batteries may displace while one remains in position. c. Reassignment of 'missions.-The artillery commander temporarily reassigns the essential missions of the displacing units to units that are in position. This reassignment of missions must be foreseen at the time that reinfocing missions and contingent zones are assigned to the several units. d. Length of displacements.-The time that batteries are out of action while displacing should be reduced to a minimum. As a general rule, the distance of displacement should be at least onehalf the maximum effective range of the displacing pieces; however, the maintenance of communication with liaison officers and forward observers may require shorter and more frequent displacements. e. Coordination 'With movements 'Of'other units.-When two or more artillery units must displace over the. same route, the next, higher artillery commander coordinates the movements. When artillery must displace over a route used by units of other arms, the force commander coordinates the movements . 23. DISPLACEMENTOF DIRECT-SUPPORTARTILLERY.-The displacement of direct-support artillery is coordinated with phases of the engagement. The artillery commander plans his displacement in conference with the supported unit commander, sipce the supported unit's plan influences the time of .displacement, the method of displacement, and the selection of the new position area. The commander of the direct-support artillery displaces his unit on his own initiative, in accordance with the plan arranged



with the supported unit commander. When practicable, fies the division artillery officer'before displacing .

24. DISPLACEMENT GENERAL-SUPPORTOF ARTILLERY.-The displacement of general-support artillery is coordinated with the action of the command as a whole. The unit displaces on orders of the next higher artillery commander; for example, the division artillery in general support displaces on order of the division artillery officer.




N eu tral iza tio n fire Destru cti 0 n f ire ~i~~~~

g~~~~~a nt.e~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~=~~~~~~ ~~ ~
Fires on targets In te rd icti 0 n H a ras sing fire of opportunity, general --------------------------------------------------------32 ------------------------------.---.-------------3 3 -----------------.---.-----------.-.------~--34

Paragraph ----------------------------------------------------25 --,--------------------------------------26

!~E%~~lfs-I~:~~~~~r:i====:::=:=~:~===: ~~

25. NEUTRALIZATIONFIRE.-Neutralization fire is fire delivered to cause severe losses, interrupt movement or action, and in general destroy the combat efficiency of enemy personnel, .animals, vehicles, and weapons. Neutralization is established by delivering surprise fire in intense masses. It is maintained by intermittent bursts of fire in lesser amounts, reinforced at irregular intervals with the initial intense masses. Observation is desirable. A transfer of fire is required for surprise (see FM
6-40) .

. 26. DESTRUCTION FIRE.-Destruction fire is fire delivered for the sole purpose of destroying material objects. It is usually precision fire. It requires a great deal.!2! ammunition and time. Observation is essential. For the destruction of most targets, medium and heavy artillery are better suited than light artillery . 27. CONCENTRATIONS, GENERAL.-A concentration is a volume of fire placed on an area within a limited time. The term is applied regardless of the tactical purpose of the fire or the nature of the tactical operation. Thus, nearly all artillery fires are concentrations. Missions requiring registration or destruction, and certain kinds of harassing and interdiction fires, are exceptions . 28. CHEMICALCONCENTRA TIONS.--a. Restrictions on use.-See paragraph 66. b. Persistent gas.-Persistent gas is used in counterbattery, interdiction, denying hostile troops the use of areas, and as a casualty agent. It is most effective when well distributed on vege-11-



tation, materiel, and the ground. To obtain this effect the light weapon is preferable to the medium. or heavy. The frequency with which concentrations of persistent gas should be repeated depends upon the terrain and weather (FM 21-40). As the temperature decreases below 58 F., the effect of mustard gas is dimished;below 50 F. mustard is fired only in anticipation of later effect when the temperature rises. c. Nonpersistent gas.'-N onpersistent gas is used jn harassing fire and as a casualty agent. A concentration should be built up within two minutes. Transfers are made when possible. For fir-ing concentrations of nonpersistent gas, the 155-mm howitzer is the most suitable weapon. Phosgene is ineffective at temperatures below 11 F. d. Smoke.-Smoke is used primarily to blind enemy observation and to screen the movements of friendly troops; white phosphorus also produces casualties and has some incendiary effect. Smoke is useful in identifying rounds to observers and as prearranged messages to the infantry. Transfers for unobserved fire may be made, but observed fires are best. To establish a screen with a light weapon requires a relatively high rate of fire; heavy artillery is used to lay down white phosphorus smoke .

29. BARRAGES.-a. Normal barrage.-A normal barrage is a concentration place on an area, close to the front lines, that can-' not be effectively covered by the weapons of the supported troops. It is a prearranged fire employed ordinarily as a defensive measure. A battery has one normal barrage .. The front that can be covered by the normal barrage of the 105-mm howitzer battery is 200 yards. The normal barrage is fired on call and has first priority among the battery's direct-support missions. At night the battery is generally kept laid on its normal barrage when not firing other missions. b. A group of concentrations can be used to enclose two or more sides of an enemy area. It is used to isolate the area during a raid by friendly troops. . 30. SAFETYLIMITS IN COMBAT.-If friendly troops are to conform to the movement of artillery fire, they will follow the fire at whatever distance safety and the tactical situation permit. If artillery fire is to conform to the movement of friendly troops, or is to be placed in front of entrenched troops, an estimate of



the minimum distance in front of them that the fire may be safely placed is based on: The accuracy of the data, the observation,' the cover afforded friendly troops, the terrain in the impact area, the calibration of the pieces, the effective .radius of large fragments of projectiles, and dispersion ..
! .

31. PREARRANGED FIRES, GENERAL.-Fires are said to be prearranged when they are planned, and data are prepared for them, well in advance. They may be prearranged as to location and time of firing-for example, as part of a preparation; or they may be prearranged as to location only and then fired on call-for example, as'a normal barrage . 32. FIRES ON TARGETSOF OPPORTUNITY,GENERAL.-Targets for which fires are not prearranged are known as targets of opportunity. If an observer reports such a target while the unit is firing a prearranged mission, the artillery commander who receives the report decides whether to continue the current firing or to attack the new target. He is governed by his knowledge of the situation and by the plans and orders that are currently in force. In general, a mechanized force, unless widely dispersed, is always taken under fire . 33. INTERDICTIoN.-Interdiction is fire delivered on points or areas to prevent the enemy from using them. Characteristic targets are roads used for moving supplies or reserves, crossroads, assembly areas, routes of approach, railroads stations, de. training points, defiles, bridges, and fords. Zone fire at irregular intervals throughout an extended period of time gives satisfactory results. All echelons of artillery may fire interdiction; however, interdiction is generally assigned to corps artillery . fire is fire delivered during a relatively quiet period to interfere with the enemy and to keep his troops alerted unnecessarily. Fire may be by a single piece, platoon, or battery; the fire is intermittent. All echelons of artillery may fire harassing fire. Division artillery, generally using roving guns, fires in the hostile forward areas; corps artillery fires on areas at the more distant ranges.

34. HARASSINGFIRE.-Harassing




Paragraphs I. Artillery on the march, general .. 35-37 II. Artillery with advance, rear, and flank guards 38-52 ~___________________________________ III. Artillery with the main body 53-56 IV. Artillery at march halts and in bivouac ~_________________ 57-58


Paragraph .---------------:35 --------3G -- 37

Cen eral Marches in the presence of the enemy N igh t ma rch es

35. GENERAL.-A command may march in one column or in multiple columns. \Vhen the command marches in multiple columns each column usually includes some artillery. The artillery is attached to the march group until centralized control is ordered by a higher headquarters. Marches may be classified according to the imminence of contact, and according to whether the march is made during daylight or at night. For antiaircraft and antimechanized defense on the march, see chapter 12. For marches not in the presence of the enemy, see FM 25-10 . 36. :MARCHESIN THE PRESENCE OF THE ENEMY.- When the column is marching in the presence of the enemy, tactical considerations, time and space factors, the road net, and the condition of the roads determine the disposition of artillery units in the column. Except when emplaced to support the advance, truckdrawn artillery, because of its speed and mobility, marches by bounds at the tail of the main body. If that disposition will prevent its moving forward and going into action promptly, it marches elsewhere . 37. NIGHT :MARCHEs.-Artillery is of little combat value a night march. Consequently, at night it usually marches tail of the main body during an advance and at the head main body during a retrograde movement. If the night

during at the of the march



is to extend beyond daybreak, location of the artillery during the night is such as will facilitate its possible action after daybreak.


Paragraph 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 . 47 48 49 50 51 52

Strength of advance-guard artillery -----------------------------------Location of advance-guard artillery in column ------------Location of advance-guard artillery commander ------Advance-guard artillery reconnaissance and liaison Air observation with advance-guard artillery ----------Advance-guard artillery, combat imminent ---------------Strength of rear-guard artillery -------------.--------------Location of rear-guard artillery in column ----------------Location of rear-guard artillery commander ---------Rear-guard artillery reconnaissance and liaison Air oLservation with the rear-guard artillery ---------Rear-guard artillery in combat Flank-guard artillery, general -------------------------Location of flank-guard artillery --------------------Flank-guard artillery reconnaissance and liaison

38. STRENGTHOF ADVANCE-GUARDRTILLERY.-If the advance A guard is basically an infantry battalion, usually no artillery is attached; when the advance guard deploys, artillery with the main body occupies position to support the advance guard on orders of the column commander. However, if the supported unit is of equal mobility with the artillery'" or if the enemy is strong in mechanized units or if the artillery from the main body would have to move up over poor or congested roads, light artillery, usually a battery, should be attached. For larger advance guards, light artillery, usually a battalion, is attached. \Vhen a single battery is attached, it may have attached to it additional liaison and communication personnel and equipment, and a section of the ammunition train. l\iedium artillery is attached to the advance guard artillery if its early employment is foreseen . 39. LOCATION ADVANCE-GUARD OF ARTILLERY COLUMN.-The IN artillery of the advance guard should be so located that it can- enter action promptly and the advance-guard infantry can protect it from enemy surprise attacks. Usually the ammunition train of the advance-guard artillery accompanies it; the train may march



elsewhere as long as it is readily available. Truck-drawn light artillery of the advance guard usually moves by bounds in the space between the advance guard and the main body. Medium artillery usually follows the light artillery . 40. LoCATION OF ADVANCE-GUARDARTILLERY COMMANDER. The commander of the advance-guard artillery normally marches 'with the commander of the advance guard. He is ac.companied by such members of his detail as are necessary for the prompt issuance of orders for the support of the advan'ce guard (FM 100-5) . 41. ADVANCE-GUARDRTILLERY A RECONNAISSANCE ANDLIAISON. Reconnaissance details of advance-guard artillery accompany the leading elements of the advance guard or the cavalry preceding the advance guard. Liaison officers (ch. 11) of the advanceguard artillery accompany commanders of appropriate infantry units. Reconnaissance officers and liaison officers maintain communication with their artillery commanders by radio and mes, senger . 42. AIR OBSERVATION WITH ADVANCE-GUARD ARTILLERY.-Air observation should be made available to the advance-guarJ artil. lery whenever practicable. Hostile march columns, assembly areas, and artillery in defiladed positions are always important targets. To place effective fire on such targets during the initial phases of an advance-guard action will nearly always require air observation using high-performance (Air Force) planes . 43. ADVANC&-GUARD ARTILLERY, COMBAT IMMINENT.-When combat is imminent, the advance guard deploys on a wide front. Any artillery attached to the advance guard occupies position at once to cover the deployment. For employment of artillery in ad. vance-guard action, see paragraph 69 . 44. STRENGTH OF REAR-GUARDARTILLERY.-The rear guard should be especially strong in artillery. Seldom less than a battalion of light artillery is attached to the rear guard of a division; some medium artillery should be included in the rear guard artillery . 45. LOCATION OF REAR-GUARDARTILLERY IN COLUMN.-
a. 'l'ruck-drawn artillery.-Truck-drawn artillery of the rear guard



usually marches by bounds in the interval between the rear guar3 and the main' body. b. Ammunition trains.-The ammunition train of the rearguard artillery marches at the head of the reserve. When the rear-guard artillery is in action, the ammunition train may establish small ammunition dumps along the route of withdrawal and near the position areas that the artillery plans to occupy during its withdrawal. However, the maximum reserve of ammunition must be kept mobile; dumped ammunition that cannot be salvaged must be destroyed . 46. LoCATION OF REAR-GUARD ARTILLERY COMMANDER.-The commander of the rear-guard artillery marches with the commander of the rear guard. He is accompanied by such members of his detail as are necessary for the prompt issuance of orders . 47. REAR-GUARD ARTILLERY RECONNAISSANCE AND LIAISON. After one position has been selected, reconnaissance details immediately reconnoiter for new artillery positions in rear. If an artillery commander employs two reconnaissance parties, one reconnoiters the first position to be occupied, marks the route, and remains in the area until the artillery is established; the second party reconnoiters for the second position, marks the route, ar..d remains in the second area until the artillery is established. The first reconnaissance party, after the first position is occupied; leapfrogs the second party and reconnoiters for the third artillery position. Liaiso'n officers (ch. 11) of rear-guard artillery accompany appropriate supporteacommanders. Forward observers remain with the units in contact . 48. AIR OBSERVATION WITH THE REAR-GUARD ARTILLERY.-Air observation, employing high-performance planes, should be made available to the rear-guard artillery whenever practicable. Longrange fire is particularly important in rear-guard action . 49. REAR-GUARD ARTILLERY IN COMBAT.--a. Deployment. When in contact with the enemy, the rear guard deploys on a wide front, occupying the stronger tactical positions and covering the intervals with fire. b. Artillery positions.-The rear-guard artillery occupies positions well forward to p~rmit distant interdiction and early delivery of fire on hostile advancing columns. Whenever practicable,



the positions are near suitable observation and covered routes for withdrawal. c. Artillery support.-Artillery support of the rear guard is as prescribed for artillery support in withdrawals (pars. 96-98) and in delaying actions (pars. 99-100) . 50. FLANK-GUARDARTILLERY,GENERAL.-Artillery is usually attached to a flank guard when the need for it is anticipated. The amount of artillery required is dependent upon the mission, and the dispositions required to accomplish it. The employment of this artillery is similar to the employment of rear-guard artillery. When no artillery is attached, the artillery of the main body is disposed in column so as to facilitate its prompt support of the flank guard . 51. LOCATIONOF FLANK-GUARDARTILLERY.-The flank guard makes arrangements for its own security on the march. The artillery attached to the flank guard marches on parallel roads between the flank guard and the main body when the road net is favorable and when the artillery so disposed can support the flank guard without delay. When the artillery cannot march on an interior road, it marches in column with the flank guard. The ammunition train of the flank-guard artillery marches wIth its artillery. The commander of the flank-guard artillery marche . ;; with the commander of the flank guard . 52. FLANK-GUARDARTILLERY RECONNAISSANCE AND LIAISON. Reconnaissance and liaison personnel of flank-guard artillery operate as .prescribed for reconnaissance and liaison personnel of advance-guard and rear-guard artillery (pars. 41 and 47). SECTION III ARTILLERY \VITH THE MAIN BODY
Paragraph Location of artillery with the main body in an advance 5:l Location of the artillery with the main body in a retirement --------------------54 Location of the artillery commander with the main body 5;' Reconnaissance by artillery with the main body -------------------------------------------5(j

53. LoCATIONOF ARTILLERYWITH THE MAIN BODYIN AN ADVANCE.-a. Truck-drawn artillery.-When the division or smaller unit is advancing in multiple columns, the truck-drawn artillery



of each column usually follows the foot and animal elements of the main body. When the force is advancing in one column, some of the artillery may be placed farther forward in the column so that it may go into action promptly (FM 100-5). b. Artillery for flank guards.-When no artillery is attached to the flank guard, the artillery is disposed in column so as to facilitate its prompt support of the flank guard. c. Corps artillery.-Corps artillery attached to a division usually follows the division truck-drawn artillery, at the tail of the main body of each column. d. Ammunition trains.-Battalion ammunition trains of the main body are usually combined and march in rear of the last combat unit of the main body. Should the ammunition train of the advance guard be marching in rear of the main body, it precedes the trains of the main body. If corps artillery is attached to the main body, its ammunition train marches according to the relative position in column of its parent organization . 54. LOCATION OFTHE ARTILLERY WITH THE MAIN BODYIN A RETIREMENT.-If the enemy is aggressive, the bulk of the artillery with the main body is so disposed in the column as best to protect the main body or support the rear and flank guards. If aggressive action by the enemy is not anticipated, the bulk of the artillery may precede the main body . 55. LOCATION THE ARTILLERYCOMMANDER OF WITH THE IVlAIN BODy.-The artillery commander m~ches with the column commander, generally near the head of the main body in an advance and generally near the tail of the main body in a retrograde movement. He is accompanied by such members of his detail as are necessary for the prompt issuance of orders . 56. RECONNAISSANCE BYARTILLERY WITH THE l\iAIN BODY.--a. In an advance.-Reconnaissance elements from the artillery with the main body accompany the advance guard. They reconnoiter for positions from which the artillery of the main body can support the advance-guard artillery and cover the deployment of the main body. These reconnaissance elements should maintain contact with the reconnaissance officers of the advance-guard artillery to learn the location of positions which will be occupied by the advanceguard artillery.



b. In a retirement.-Reconnaissance elements continually recon, noiter for positions from which the artillery of the main body can reinforce the artillery of the rear or flank guarus, and for positions from which the artillery can support the main body should the column commander be forced into a defensive position with. his entire force.
Artillery Artillery


Paragraph ----------------- 7 5 -. 58

during march halts when troops bivouac

57. ARTILLERY DURING MARCH HALTS.- When the command makes a long halt during a march in the presence of the enemy, the advance or rear guard establishes a march outpost. Units of the support occupy critical terrain features, establish outguards, and send out patrols. Antiaircraft and antimechanized defense is stressed. The artillery of the r.dvance, rear, and flank guards and of the main body occupy positions to cover probabl~ routes of approach of enemy mechanized units. Usually the positions are for direct laying; if so, reconnaissance is made for alternate indirectlaying positions. Whenever the artillery halts for more than a few minutes it digs in . 58. ARTILLERY WHEN TROOPS BIVOUAC.-a. General.-When the command bivouacs in the presence of the enemy, an outpost is organized, usually by the advance or rear guard. It is divided from rear to front into a reserve, supports, outguards, and-when cavalry is attached-outpost cavalry. It is assigned an outpost line of resistance to hold in case of hostile attack (FM 100-5). The column commander assigns bivouac areas to artillery units of his column. The force commander plans a complete all-round defense. b. Artillery positions.-Artillery positions are selected primarily to permit support of the outpost line of resistance. The positions should permit fire on the probable routes of approach and on critical areas that cannot be covered by infantry weapons. c. Artillery procedure.-The artillery attached to the outpost occupies position or is held in readiness. The commander of the artillery establishes his command post near that of the outpost commander. Defensive fires are prearranged; liaison, observation, and communication are established.





Paragraphs . SECTION1. General --------------59-67 II. Artillery in the attack in a meeting engagement --------------- 68-70 III. Artiller~ during .operations prior to attack of organIzed posItIOn .___________________________ 71-73 IV. Artillery in attack of organized position 74-75 V. Artillery in the pursuit . . 76-77 SECTION

Paragraph Artillery positions in offensive com~at 59 Artillery fires in support of offensIve combat, general GO Fires prior to the artillery preparation 61 Artillery preparation, general . ----------------62 Missiong during preparation .. . , ._----- 63 Supporting fires during attack . -------- 64 Registration .. . ..-------------------.-------------------------------------65 Tactical restrictions on employment of chemicals 66 Artillery when supported unit is relieved . . .67

59. ARTILLERY POSITIONS IN OFFENSIVE COMBAT.--a. General. Artillery positions in offensive combat are well forward in order that the range of the weapons may be exploited and displacements may be reduced to the minimum necessary to maintain communication with forward observers and'-liaison officers. The protection of positions is covered in chapters 12 to 14, following. b. Division artillery.-A battalion in direct support usually occupies position in the zone of action of the unit it supports. A battalion in general support usually occupies position in the zone of action of the division. c. Corps artillery.-Though corps artillery should be well forward to furnish support during displacement to the division artillery, the overcrowding of forward areas must be avoided. Artillery that has been attached to a corps or division and that will revert to a senior command upon reaching the limit of"'its range from initial positions is usually emplaced farthest forwaru. A corps will frequently make advance reservations of position areas for its artillery.



60. ARTILLERYFIRES IN SUPPORTOF OFFENSIVECOMBAT,GENERAL.-Artillery fires in support of offensive combat are divided into three phases: Fires prior to the artillery prepartion, the preparation, and supporting fires during the attack. These divisions are tactical. Actually much of the artillery, especially corps artillery, will have the same missions throughout the three phases.

61. FIRES PRIORTO THE ARTILLERYPREPARATION.-Fires prior to the artillery preparation comprise, as appropriate, fires in support of an advance-guard action, including the development and deployment of the main body; and fires in support of preliminary combat to drive in enemy covering forces and develop the hostile main position. They may include long-range interdiction, counterbattery, neutralization of defensive and assembly areas, and harassing fire . 62. ARTILLERY PREPARATION, GENERAL.--a. Definition.-An artillery preparation is a system of intensive fires delivered during the period immediately b3fore the infantry crosses the line of departure. It is designed to secure domination over hostile artillery and infantry. It may be divided into two or more phases to obtain concentration of effect. b. Prearrangement.-Fires prearranged as to location and time are limited to known targets whose locations are determined from the latest intelligence obtained. When sufficient ammunition is available, fire may be delivered on areas that are strongly suspected of containing remunerative targets. Certain units are assigned additional missions of attacking important targets of opportunity that are discovered too late to be included in the prearranged fires. Artillery units that have to use borrowed corrections should not be required to execute unobserved fires close to friendly troops (par. 65c). c. Decision to fire preparation.-The force commander decides whether a preparation is to be fired. He considers that: (1) The probable effect of the preparation must justify the attendant loss of tactical surprise. (2) A sufficient number of remunerative targets must be accurately located in time for preparing the fires. (3) The status of ammunition supply must warrant the expenditure.



d. Duration.-The force commander also decides the duratioil of the preparation. In general, a preparation should be long enough to accomplish the effect sought, but not so long as to permit the enemy to change his major tactical dispositions in time to meet the attack. The duration may be governed also by the ammunition supply. e. Coordination of preparation.-All of the artillery participates in the preparation. The force commander, through his artillery officer, coordinates the echelons by prescribing the duration, the time of each phase, and the missions that are to receive priority during each phase . 63. MISSIONS DURING PREPARATION.-The number of phases, length of phases, and missions are varied to fit the particular situation. In a three-phase preparation the mission might be as follows: a. First phase.-During the first phase the corps artillery, reinforced as necessary by division artillery, to gain ascendency over the hostile artillery; units not required for counterbattery to neutralize enemy systems of command, communication, and observation. b. Second phase.-(l) Corps artillery.-To maintain neutralization of artillery neutralized during the first phase; execute counterbattery of enemy artillery located after the preparation starts. ______ (2) Division artillery.-To neutralize enemy systems of command, communication, and observation; neutralize defensive areas, reserves, and assembled mechanized units; destroy mine fields and obstacles. c. Third phaBe.-(l) Corps artillery.-To continue counterbattery. The missions of corps artillery units not required for counterbattery are to reinforce division artillery in neutralizing enemy defensive areas; smoke enemy observation. (2) Division artillery.-To deliver massed fires successively on defensive areas in the forward portion of the enemy position, with priority to known defensive elements that most seriously threaten the success of the attack . 64. SUPPORTING FIRES DURINGATTACK.-Supporting fires ar~ concentrated on the front where the attacking echelon is making'




the greatest progress. The supporting fires during the attack have as their objective: a. Assisting the advance of the infantry by attacking defensive areas, wire entanglements, and emplaced weapons. b. Assisting the infantry in gaining fire superiority for each successive objective at the proper place and time so that the lead .. ing echelons can close to assaulting distance. c. Protecting the supported units during periods of reorganization. d. Assisting in breaking up counterattacks; this requires that concentrations on likely areas and routes for counterattacks be prearranged so as to mass artillery on the counterattack before it gets under way. e. Continuing the neutralization of hostile observation. f. Preventing or harassing, as the situation permits, any effort of the enemy to disengage his forces. g. In the event that the attack does not attain its objectivp., assisting the supported units in holding the ground gained .

65. REGISTRATION.--a. Advantages and disadvantages.-By increasing the accuracy of subsequent fires, registration furthers the delivery of surprise fire, permits placing unobserved fires closer to friendly troops than would otherwise be justifiable, and saves ammunition. On the other hand, unrestricted registration discloses the artillery positions and thereby reveals the deployment of the force, indicates the commander's intentions, and invites untimely neutralization of the artillery. The disadvantageous results of registration can be minimized by using special registration positions (FM 6-40), by keeping the number of registering batteries to the effective minimum, and by registering as late as practicable. The enemy is unlikely to benefit from information revealed by registration conducted immediately before the artillery preparation (launching of the attack). Likewise, when two forces have been in contact during daylight, the enemy will not gain information if. a single weapon per battalion is sent forward just prior to dusk for the purpose of registration. This action permits the delivery of accurate defensive fires during the night. b. Decwion as to registration.-The force commander makes the decision whether registration will be restricted or prohibited, and in the case of restricted registration the time it may be begun





or the time by which it is to be completed. The artillery commanders prescribe the number of pieces each unit may register. Artillery advisers should always be sure that the advantages of registration are' duly presented. c. Procedure.-The technique of registration is covered in F:J\i 6-40. Night registration, by high-burst and center-of-impact adjustments, is often feasible. A unit that occupies position too late to register should be furnished the latest corrections (for the same type and caliber of weapon and the different powder lots available) that have been secured by registration from nearby positions. The enemy will probably avoid localities that have been registered upon; the selection of check points should be governed accordingly. Coordination with the infantry is necessary, especially in defensive combat, to prevent registration fires from endangering friendly covering forces. d. Registration during action.-Units that have not been able to fire prior to becoming actively engaged should register at the first opportunity that presents itself during the action . 66.

a. General.-Instructions

covering the use of chemical agents are usually included in the field orders of the higher headquarters. , b. Nonpersistent gas.-The only restriction on the employment of nonpersistent gas is that a concentration must be at such distance from friendly troops that they will not be required to mask. c. Persistent 'gas.-:-Persistent gas concentration must be at such distance from friendly troops that they will not be endangered, and must be restricted to areas which friendly troops will not have occasion to enter. d. Smoke.-Plans for the use of smoke should be sufficiently flexible to allow for changes in wind direction .

67. ARTILLERY WHEN SUPPORTED UNIT Is RELIEVED.-When a supported unit is relieved during. an attack (FM 100-5), the artillery of the unit usually remains in action and continues to support the attack.




.. . . action __..... ._ _. _ _. _._. .__ _. . . Paragraph .__ ._______ 68 ..._. 69 ._ ... . 70

Meeting engagement, general . _._ __ Employment of artillery in advance-guard Support of attack in meeting engagement

68. MEETING ENGAGEMENT, GENEltAL.-A meetin-g engagernent is a collision between two opposing forces, neither of which is fully developed for battle . 69. EMPLOYMENTOF ARTILLERYIN ADVANCE-GUARD ACTION. a. Occupation of positions.-When the advance guard deploys, any artillery attached to it occupies position at once to cover the deployment. If the division is marching in multiple columns, usually no artillery is attached to the advance guard; when the advance guard of one of the columns deploys, all of the artillery of the column occupies positbn immediately to furnish support. The artillery moving to positions is given priority on roads. b. Afissions.-The artillery missions in the advance-guard action include interdiction of routes and assembly areas, counterbattery, fires on enemy forward elements, and the attack of other transient targets. Air observation is of primary importance. The early employment of the reconnaissance and survey elements of the observation battalion is usually desirable. c. Control.-\Vhen control remains decentralized to the column commanders, the division commander may reinforce one or more columns with additional artillery from columns not engaged. When control of the advance-guard actions is centralized, control of the' division artillery is centralized as soon as practicable . 70. SUPPORTOF ATTACK IN MEETING ENGAGEMENT.-a. Poxition.-Artillery positions are well forward. Units that have occupied positions during the advance-guard action may have to displace early in order to be in suitable positions to support the attack by the time it jumps off. b. Afissions.-The scarcity of definitely located targets usually precludes a preparation, or requires that it be very short. Prearranged fires in support of the attack are generally limited to concentrations covering the initial advance from the line of de-26-



parture. Subsequent fires in support of the attack are called for by air observers, observers at observation posts, forward observers, and liaison officers. Detachments from the observation battalion (pars. 69a and 93c) execute flash ranging and sound ranging for the division artillery. SECTIONIII ARTILLERY DURING OPERATIONS PRIOR TO ATTACK OF ORGANIZED POSITION

Paragraph Organized positions, general : ------- 71 Artillery during development of main p~sition --:--~---------------------------------. 72 Preparations for the attack of an orgamzed posItion, general -----------------73

71. ORGANIZED POSITIONS,GENERAL.-Organized positions vary from hastily constructed defensive works disposed in little depth to elaborate systems of successive positions and strongly fortified localities disposed in great depth. The attack of a fortified locality is a special operation, and is covered in section VII, chapter 7. 72. ARTILLERYDURING DEVELOPMENT MAIN POSITION OF .--a. Supporting jires.-\Vhen the leading troops gain contact with the enemy covering forces, the bulk-often all-of the division artillery is committed. Corps artillery is employed if available. Control is centralized to the greatest ex~nt practicable. Special attention is paid to protecting the leading troops from counter. attack, both while the covering forces are being driven in and after the leading troops have established themselves on critical points. If a minor breakthrough operation is necessary to drive in the covering forces, artillery is usually a part of the task force assigned that mission; other artillery supports the operation, with particular attention to the flanks of the breakthrough. Artillery moving up after the covering forces are driven in is usually kept silent to. maintain secrecy. b. Observation and reconnaissa.nce.-During the development of the hostile main position, the artillery ground observation' is extended and pushed well forward. The artillery employs air observation, sound ranging, and flash ranging to supplement other observation. It extends survey. It reconnoiters in antici-27-



pation of its missions in support of the attack proper, the reconnaissance covering observation, positions, and routes for the organic artillery and for the reinforcing artillery whose employment can be foreseen. 73. PREPARATIONS FORTHE ATTACKOFAN ORGANIZED POSITION, GENERAL.-Preparations that the command makes before the occupation of final assembly positions include the systematic organization of ground observation to insure continuity of observed fires, the completion of the signal communication system, organization of the command for combat, organization of the anlmunition supply, assembling supplies and equipment in forward areas, the movement of the artillery into position, and the coordination of the supporting fires of all arms. Engineer units clear obstacles and assist in the movement of tanks, artillery, and heavy transport. Operations that might reveal the attacker's plan must be carried out secretly or deferred as long as practicable.


Paragraph 74 75

Artillery in en velopmen t Artill ery in pen etra ti on

bulk of the artillery supports the main attack and in general occupies positions behind it. If the main and secondary attacks are sufficiently close together, the positions should permit the bulk of the artillery to support the secondary attack also. Artillery in position during the operations preceding the attack may have to displace laterally to occupy positions for the support of the main attack. The gun units of the corps artillery have a wide choice of position areas. b. Artillery preparation.-By interpretation of air photos, by sound ranging and flash ranging, and through other intelligence agencies, usually enough profitable targets will have been located to justify an artillery preparation. If the secondary attack is to be launched prior to the main attack, the preparation on the front of the secondary attack precedes that on the front of the main attack; it is participated in only by artillery whose positions






are such that firing from them will not disclose the location of the main attack. c. Control.-\Vhen the distance between the main and secondary attacks is such that the force commander cannot effectively control both, he retains personal command of one force and delegates command of the other. In this case;!:part of the' artillery is attached to the force that is to operate under delegated command; the remainder of the artillery is under centralized control. d. Coordination to insure artillery does not fire on own troop.~. Because the main and secondary attacks are launched in converging directions, careful coordination of the artillery, particularly as the troops near the objective, is necessary to insure that the artillery supporting one attack does not fire on troops making the other. One means of effecting coordination is to establish coordinating lines, laterally and in depth, beyond which units are forbidden to fire after a certain hour or after receipt and acknowledgement of a prearranged message or signal. e. Flexibility.-An attack seldom proceeds exactly as planned; for example, the secondary attack may make unexpected progress and become in effect the main attack. To meet such contingencies as this and. counterattacks, artillery plans must be flexible . 75. ARTILLERY IN PENETRATION.-a. Reinforcing artiller1J. The need for reinforcing artillery is particularly great in a penetration. For estimates of artillery requirements, see Instruction Memorandum T-16. b. Positions.-The bulk of the artnlery supporting the main attack in general occupies positions in the zone of action of the main-attack force. c. Artille1'y prelJaration.-The artillery preparation preceding a penetration is in general long-cr and more violent than that preeeding an envelopment. The bulk of the preparation fires are placed on the front and flanks of the intended penetration, with special attention to known or suspected assemblies of hostile tanks. In its final phase the preparation maintains ascendency over hostile artillery in order to minimize any counterpreparation. d. Fire.~ ngainst counternttncks.-Fires to break up counterattacks launched against the flanks of the penetration are of particular importance as are artillery observation and liaison.



e. Attachment to exploiting [orce.-It is usually necessary to attach some artillery to the exploiting force. The amount attached may be limited' by the road net, since timely entry into fast-moving action is difficult or impossible for artillery at the rear of long columns. Plans for the attachment are made in time for the issuance of warning orders. The supply of ammunition and motor fuel for the attached artillery is important. - The artillery officer of the echelon planning the exploitation is responsible for providing the attached artillery with pioneer troops, decontamination troops, air observation, and additional security. Artillery not attached to the exploiting. force supports the exploitation, utilizing air and forward observers increasingly. [. Coordination with airborne troop.s.-All artillery must be kept informed of the movements of friendly airborne and armored troops.
. Pu rsu its, general Employment of artillery . . in pursuit

. Paragraph ------..------.---.76 77

76. PURSUITS,GENERAL.-The object of pursuit is the annihilation of the hostile forces. Direct pressure against the retreating forces must be combined with an enveloping or encircling maneuver to place troops across the enemy's lines of retreat. Encirclement of both flanks of the retreating force, or of its separate elements is attempted when practicable. In particular, the enemy must not be permitted to form columns. The commander should anticipate the pursuit sufficiently in advance to allow the artillery time for plans and orders. The encircling forces should include the most mobile troops available. Artillery nearly always forms a part. Airborne troops are especially suitable for seizing critical points in rear of a retreating enemy. Combat aviation blocks defiles and attacks retreating columns, rearguard artillery in position, and hostile reserves . 77. EMPLOYMENTOF ARTILLERYIN PURSUIT.-a. Direct-]Jressure [orce.-Often some of the artillery supporting the directpressure force must be attached to the elements of it that arc





making the m~st progress. Long~range artillery remaing under centralized control. Its missions include interdiction of routes of retreat and counterbattery of the enemy's rear-guard artillery. It requires air observation. b. Encircling /orce.-The artillery in support of an encircling force is nearly always attached to it.~: In general, considerations of fire power, mobility, and ammunition supply make the l05-mm howitzer the most suitable weapon; medium weapons may be used. Other considerations permitting, the units that are least actively engaged are selected. Shortages of materiel and. personnel in those units should be replaced before the attachment. Forward ammunition dumps and fuel dumps are established to the practicable maximum. Artillery reconnaissance officers and liaison officers with the leading elements make their reports by radio or by messages left at prearranged points. Almost entirely by means of air observation and reliable radio communications, the artillery. keeps track of the movements of friendly troops. Pioneer troops, decontamination troopg, and additional security for the artillery are important. In overcoming enemy resistance, the emplacement of more artillery than the immediate mission requires is likely to cause delay in supporting subsequent actions.



.... . . .. Paragraphs --... 78 .__ ._. ..__ 79-93 ..... ...__ 94-95


I. General __ . .. . .--II. Employment of artillery in defense . III. Artillery in attack from defensive ...

Def ensi ve combat, general ...._._._. . ._ .. . . Paragraph ... 78

78. DEFENSIVE COMBAT,GENERAL.-Our defensive doctrine contemplates the organization of a battle position to be held at all costs, and the use of covering forces whose principal mission is to delay and disorganize the advance of the enemy and deceive him as to the location of the battle position. The decisive element of defense is the counterattack. Thus the defense is conducted on mobile lines, mobile reserves being so maneuvered about pivots of rigid resistance as to concentrate maximum forces for ~ountcrattack at the decisive place and time. SECTIONII ENIPLOYl\IENT OF ARTILLERY IN DEFENSE

Paragraph -..- 79 Artillery positions in defensive combat . ..__ ..._. .__ .. ...__ .__ __ .____ .__ ... . __ ._ .._ __ Artillery observation in defensive combat . ._. .._._ ..._._. . . .._ 80 .. Artillery fires in support of defensive combat, general ... ._.__ ..._. .._ 81 . Fires delivered before enemy forms for attack __ .. ..._ __ .. .... .____ 82 .. . _ __ Counterpre par ati on ._. ._.. .... .. ..._. _. ...._ __ _ __ ._ ..__ __ ---.. .. . .. ._. . ....-. 83 Authority to fire counterpreparation . .. .__ .. .. . .__ .------ 84 . ..-. __ __ Missions in counterpreparation _._ . .. .. .._ _._ 85 Fires to break up attack after it is launched __ .. . ._._._. ._. _. 86 __ Fires in support of counterattacks . ._. . .._. .__ .._._--.------- 87 ..-. Use of chemicals in defensive combat ._ . . . ._. ._. .__ ._.--.----. 88 .. . Coordination of artillery fires in defense ..__ ___.. ._. .. . ..__ . ... . 89 __ _ Artillery support of covering forces _. ._. .... .__ .._. .. .._ ----.---.--. 0 9 _ _ __ _ 91 Artillery support for protection of flanks .. ._._._._._._ ._ . _ __ .._._. _._._.. ._ Artillery support of rear position .__ .._ .-.-.- -..---. 92 Counterbattery in defensive combat .. ._ ... .__ . ._ _ . .. .-- -.-. 93

79. ARTILLERY POSITIONSIN DEFENSIVECOMBAT.-a. Location. Artillery pos!tions are usually in the sector of the supported unit.




All light artillery and all medium howitzers must be able to fire in close support of the main line of resistance. The bulk of the light artillery must be able to fire in close support of the regimental reserve line. The positions of forward units are usually just in rear of the regimental reserve line to facilitate counterbattery, interdiction, and harassing fire. The positions of other units are echeloned in depth to provide flexibility of fire and to permit continuity of support in case artillery in forward positions is forced back by local successes of the enemy. Gun units are given priority in choice of positions. Natural tank obstacles are considered particularly in the assignment of positions to heavy artillery. b. Occu:pation amI organization.-In addition fo the usual measures taken upon occupying position, lateral circuits are usually laid to provide alternate communication; principal circuits are buried when practicable; and alternate command posts are prepared. Positions are occupied with maximum secrecy. c. Preparations for units not in position.-Preparations for the artillery initially attached to covering forces (par. 98) and for the reinforcing artillery coming in later are made by units already in position or by advance parties from the attached reinforcing units. The preparations are those given in paragraph )00. d. Alternate and temporary position.~.-In order to remain in action in the face of hostile superiority the artillery must exploit its mobility. Alternate positions must be prepared to which batteries move when there ar?-indications that the occupied positions have. been discovered. Temporary positions may be used for counterbattery and harassing fire in quiet periods, and are habitually used for registration. Positions for the support of units protecting exposed flanks are prepared as described in paragraph 47 . 80. ARTILLERY OBSERVATION IN DEFENSIVE COMBAT. - a. Ground obsenmtion.-Artillery observation is so organized ag to prov~de continuity of observation throughout the enemy's approach and attack. In addition to the observers of the artillery with the mobile advanced covering forces and outposts',. forward observers of the artillery behind the battle position are initially in the vicinity of the outpost line of resistance. Observation posts are selected throughout the depth of the battle

position Survey operate ranging tion.

TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT FIELD ARTILLERY OF and for the support of units protecting exposed flanks. and reconnaissance elements of the observation battalion on the outpost line of resistance or in front of it. Soundand flash-ranging bases are installed in the battle posi-

b. Air observation.-Air observation is employed to the maximum practicable. 'However, since the offensive usually implies local air superiority, the defender's air observation is usually subject to enemy interference. c. Air photos.-Recent air photos of the attacker's zone of action are particularly valuable in the preparation of counterbattery fires .
81. ARTILLERYFIRES IN SUPPORTOF DEFENSIVECOMBAT,GENERAL.-Artillery fires in support of defensive combat are usually divided into four phases: a., Fires delivered before the enemy forms for attack. b. The counterpreparati~n. c. Fires to break up the attack after it is launched, final defensive fires, and fires to continue neutralization of the attacking force. d. Fires to support counterattacks .

82. FIRES DELIVEREDBEFORE ENEMY FORMS FOR ATTACK.-a. Time of opening fire.-The time at which various artillery units,
other than those supporting the outpost, are to open fire is decided by the force commander. The governing consideration is that by premature firing the artillery iR exposed to neutralization-and the scheme of defense may be revealed-unduly early. In general, the bulk of the artillery remains silent until dangerous or highly remunerative targets are discovered. b. Positions.-Units required to fire prior to the counterpreparation should do so from positions other than those from which they are to deliver counterpreparation fires. c. Registration.-Registration is highly important; tactical considerations of registration are covered in paragraph 65. d. }'fir;sionsof echelons.-Within the restrictions on opening fire, the missions of the various echelons are, in general: (1) Corps artillery.-Counterbattery, with special attention to enemy artillery not yet in position; support of advanced cover-34-



ing forces and the outpost; neutralization of hostile reserves; interdiction; harassing fires. (2) Division artillery.-Support of the outpost; harassing fires; counterbattery; neutralization of hostile reserves; neutralization of targets of opportunity. .~: 83. COUNTERPREPARATION.--aDe[inition.-A .. counterpreparation is a system of intensive prearranged fire delivered when the imminence of the enemy attack is discovered. It is designed to break up enemy attack formations; disorganize the enemy's. systems of command, communication, and observation; decrease the effectiveness of his artillery preparation; and impair his offensive spirit. The minimum range line of a counterpreparation is the line held by the enemy forward elements. b. General counterpreparation.-A general counterpreparatioll is one that is planned to meet a general attack. It involves the entire front; all of the artillery participates. Since the enemy may launch his main attack from any of several areas, the planning of more than one general counterpreparation may be necessary; in this case each is given a specific designation. The general counterpreparation of a field army is planned under the supervision of the army commander, who fixes its duration,.announces the part to be played by the army artillery, and coordinates the general counterpreparation plans of the several corps. The corps commanders similarly supervise and coordinate the general counterpreparation plans of their divisions. c. Local counterpreparation.-A local counterpreparation involyes only that part of the front that is threatened by a local attack. In the field army (corps) the term local applies to a counterpreparation fired by one or more, but not by all, of the frontline corps (divisions); a division is the smallest unit to execute a counterpreparation. If a corps or division must plan several local counterpreparations, it gives each a specific designation. A division or corps may be required to reinforce the local counterpreparation of an adjacent unit .


may be expected to use every artifice to induce the defender to fire his counterpreparation prematurely. Such premature firing furnishes the enemy with counterbattery data for his artillery preparation, indicates to the enemy what areas are to be avoided




in forming for the attack, and expends ammunition that may not be replaceable by the time the actual attack is launched. On the other hand, the counterpreparation must be fired in time to meet the attack. For these reasons, the order to fire a counterpreparation requires a command decision of great moment; the military intelligence upon which the decision is based must be reliable and prompt. If the force commander delegates to the commanders of lower echelons the authority to fire local counterpreparations, he usually imposes strict conditions under which the delegated authority is to be exercised . 85. l\iISSIONS IN COUNTERPREPARATION.-a. General.-EsRential to the success of the counterpreparation are counterbattery, the disruption of the enemy's systems of command and communication, and the neutralization of assemblies of tanks. Air observation and air support contribute greatly to its success. b. 1vfissions of echelons.-The counterpreparation missions of the various echelons are, in general: (1) Corps artillery.-Primarily counterbattery, with certain units having the additional mission of attacking enemy batteries discovered too late to be included in the prearranged fires. Other corps artillery missions are neutralization of tank assemblies and the enemy system of command; reinforcing the fires of division artillery. (2) Division artillery.-Neutralization of known or suspected routes and assembly positions of troops forming for the attack; enemy systems of communication, observation, and command; hostile forward elements; known or suspected assemblies of t~nks and reserves. Division medium howitzers may reinforce the corps artillery counterbattery . 86. FIRES TO BREAK UP ATTACK AFTER IT IS LAUNCIIED.-a. General.-Upon completing counterpreparation fires, an artillery unit must know which of its defensive fires is to be immediately executed. Should the enemy succeed in launching his attack, the artillery delivers intensive massed fires against the main attack at the critical times. It keeps the enemy under fire by defensive concentrations on his attack echelons and his reserves; these concentrations are delivered on call of the supported unit or in accordance with reports of air and ground observers. Counterbattery is continued. Profitable targets of opportunity



are attacked; special attention is paid to enemy mechanized elements. As the enemy approaches the main line of resistance of the supported unit, normal barrages (par. 29a) and other final defensive concentrations are fired on call. Should the, enemy succeed in penetrating the position, concentrations are fired to disorganize his forces and stop their progress; these fires are observed and, as far as practicable, are prearranged. b. l'rfissions of echelons.-In breaking up the attack after it is launched, the missions of the various echelons are, in general: (1) Corps artillery.-Counterbattery; neutralization of hostile mechanized elements and reserves; reinforcing the fires of the division artillery. (2) Division artillery.-Defensive concentrations on advancing hostile elements; barrages and other final defensive concentrations; fires within the battle position to limit hostile penetrations . 87. FIRES IN SUPPORTOF COUNTERATTACKS.--a.Local counterattaclc.~.-Concentrations in support of local counterattacks are prearranged to the greatest extent practicable. Liaison, air observation, and ground ob~ervation are highly important. b. General counterattacks.-A general counterattack is given maximum artillery support, which usually includes an artillery, preparation. Secrecy is paramount. ' 88. USE OF CHEMICALSIN DEFENSIVECOMBAT.-Persistent gas is especially. effective in counterbatt~y, fires on tank assemblies, and interdiction, since it forces the enemy to decontaminate his materiel and to avoid contaminated areas. Smoke is effective in screening counterattacks and in blinding the enemy observation posts. For restrictions on the employment of chemicals see paragraph 66 . 89. COORDINATION ARTILLERYFIRES IN DEFENSE.--a. GenOF eral.-As fully as time permits, fires are prearranged to the maximum and are coordinated both laterally and in depth throughout the defensive sector. Except for initial attachments to covering forces (par. 98), the artillery is held under centralized control in the defense so that fires can be massed on critical areas at critical times. b. lVith 1:nfantry.-Coordination of artillery with. infantry in the defense is in general as described in paragraph 79a. The



planning is influenced by the requirement that all light artillery and all medium howitzers must be able to fire in close support of the main line of resistance, and the requirement that the bulk of the light artillery must be able to fire in close support of the regimental reserve line. The plans must be flexible, in order to meet contingencies in the defense. There should be a clear understanding that, because barrages and other final defensive concentrations require great expenditures of ammunition, they should be called for only when the emergency warrants .. c. Coordination with other arms.-Artillery support is coordinated as necessary with that of combat aviation, antitank units, and antiaircraft units that have antitank missions . 90. ARTILLERY SUPPORTOF COVERING FORCEs.-Strong artillery support is attached to the advanced mobile covering forces; suitably mobile weapons with the longest range should be included. If the general outpost is beyond the effective supporting range of direct-support artillery emplaced in the battle position, artillery from the main force is attached. Upon withdrawal, artillery attached to the advanced covering force or to the outpost is released from attachment when it crosses the main line of resistance . 91. ARTILLERYSUPPORTFORPROTECTION FLANKs.-The OF artillery plan must provide for the rapid movement of designated units to positions from which they can support infantry sent to protect an exposed flank. When the situation is obscure, and particularly when both flanks are exposed, a part of the artillery may be held in readiness. Complete preparations for artillery support are made in advance. Observation posts are selected, battery positions prepared, wire lines laid, survey established, and firing data computed .


preparing the defense, the force commander may designate a rear position to which the force will move in case a withdrawal from the battle position becomes necessary. The rear position is at such distance from the battle position that the enemy must regroup his forces and displace his artillery before resuming the attack. When a rear position is 'designated, the artillery reconnoiters, and prepares to the extent practicable, positions and observation for its support.



93.. COUNTERBATTERYIN DEFENSIVE COMBAT.--a. General. Certain features of counterbattery are peculiar to defensive combat. b. Enemy artillery superiority.-The attacker usually has artillery superiority. Consequently the defender's artillery is kept silent as long as practicable. Those units required to execute missions prior to the counterpreparation do so from alternate positions. c. Observation.-Owing to the attacker's freedom of maneuver, keeping track of enemy batteries is particularly difficult. Though air observation is employed to the maximum practicable, it is subject to enemy interference. Consequently, heavy reliance is placed on sound ranging, flash ranging, and recent air photos.


Paragraph ---------------- .1 9 ----------------------_:---_.-------95

De fen s ive-of fen s ive The cou n tero ff en sive __ .

94. DEFENSIVE-OFFENSIVE.-a. General.-A commander - with an offensive mission may decide to assume the defensive initially Lecause of temporary combat inferiority in numbers of dispositions, or to create a situation which will place the enemy at a tactical disadvantage and offer opportunity for a decisive counteroffensive (FM 100-5). In either case, by inducing the enemy ----to attack first, the commander hopes to fix and exhaust him and then, when he is disorganized, to launch the counteroffensive. The defensive phase differs from the protracted defense discussed in section I, above, in that the defensive position is not as completely organized, and a larger proportion of the close-combat elements of the command is assembled concealed in a position favoring the execution of the contemplated counteroffensive. The conduct of the counteroffensive phase is as described for th,~ attack (ch. 4, above). b. Artiller1J.-The amount of artillery supporting the defei1d~ ing force is the minimum necessary for the successful execution of the defensive mission. The remainder of the artillery is held in readiness in locations that provide positive concealment;' a part



may be emplaced in concealed positions silent during the defense .

95. THE COUNTEROFFENSIVE.- he artillery is employed as in T offensive action (ch. 4, above). Essential to the effectiveness of its employment are: a. A thorough knowledge of the counteroffensive plan. b. Complete preparations, to include observation, positions, routes, survey, prearrangement of fires, and coordination of fire~ with those of other arms. c. A careful computation of time and space factors, with appropriate margins of safety. d. Secrecy of execution.



Paragraph~ 96- 98

from action ~ --------------

. I::: N:li:e~~n:ct~~~~ t ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1~i=I~g


1. Withdrawals

Wi thd ra wal~, g"cncr al -------------------------------------------------. . .. 96 Nigh t wi thd ra wal ----------~----------------.--.-.-----..-----.------------_. .________________________ 97 na~'Iig h t wi th dra wal -_.----.---------------.---------.-------.---------- .________________________ 98

D6. WITHDRAWALS,GENERAL.-A withdrawal from action is the operation of breaking off combat with a hostile force (F1\1 100-5). It may be the initial phase of a retirement; it habitually is a part of a delaying action .

D7. NIGHT \VITHDRAWAL.-a. Element.~ left in contact.-In a night withdrawal weak outpost elements, well supplied with automatic weapons and formed from troops nearest the enemy, are left in immediate contact with the hostile force to screen the withdrawal. Artillery sufficient to keep up the appearance of normal activity is left in position in direct support of the outpost elements. When only organic artillery has been present, one battery per battalion is appropriate support. \Vhen reinforcing artillery has been present, the amount of artillery left in position is increased. Single batteries remaining in position should have headquarters battery personnel attached to them so that parts of the liaison and observation systems remain in operation. Units remaining must b.e well supplied with ammunition; either ammunition sections are attached to them, or ammunition is dumped at the positions. b. Fires of artillery left in position.-The fires of the artillery left in position are as nearly as practicable the same in quantity and type as those previously executed by the artillery of the force. c. lVithdruwal.of artille1'y left in position.-The artillery that is left in position withdraws just before the outpost elements.



However, it must be prepared for all-round defense, and it sacrifices itself if necessary to insure the withdrawal of the force. d. lVithdrawal of artillery not left in. position.-The artillery that is not to remain in position is usually withdrawn shortly after dark, moving to assembly points where march columns are formed or to positions from which it will support a new defensive position. All of this artillery may. move at one time when the road net permits; otherwise, priority is usually given to the heavier calibers. . 98. DAYLIGHT WITHDRAWAL.-a. General.-A daylight withdrawal is an emergency measure. Because it often is forced on the commander without much warning, it usually is hastily planned. Local infantry commanders designate local covering forces to assist their firing lines in breaking off the engagement. The force commander designates a general covering force, mobile and strong in fire power. b. Artillery of general covering force.-Some artillery is attached to the general mobile covering force. 'At least a battalion is desirable; it is the smallest unit capable of delivering massed fires, and it can furnish continuous support while displacing by echelon. c. Artillery of main force.-Normally, the artillery of the main force displaces by echelon and furnishes continuous support as the main force withdraws. The artillery in direct support remains in action to the last possible moment and may be ordered to sacrifice itself. All available units support counterattacks; the plans must be prearranged. In exceptional cases artillery may be attached to local covering forces. The corps artillery is moved to the rear early so as to clear the routes of withdrawal, unless the demand for fire power prohibits this action. SECTIONII DELAYING ACTIONS
Paragraph ---------.----.-----------.... 99 . .. .. 100

Delayi ng actions, general Artillery in delaying action, successive positions .

99. DELAYINGACTIONS, GENERAL (FM 100-5) .-The purpose of a delaying action is to gain time while avoiding decisive action,



by defensive action in one position, by delaying action in successive positions, or by any combination of these methods. Offensive action, and defensive action in one position, are covered in preceding chapters .






a. Missions.-The artillery begins the defense of the position by executing counterbattery and by interdicting routes of hostile approach. Later it fires on enemy rear assembly areas and covers the withdrawal of elements of the outpost. As the enemy develops his columns prior to deployment for attack, the artillery executes counterpreparation fires, paying special attention to enemy forward assembly areas. Interdiction of hostile movements toward the flanks and rear is important. b. Artillery positions.-In general, the artillery. is placed well forward behind the firs~ main position to permit long-range fire; ordinarily close support of a delaying position need not be provided for. If a daylight withdrawal is anticipated, the artillery is disposed in depth, with some of it in rear of the next position. Thus continuity of support during a withdrawal from the advanced position is insured. c. Displacement.-\Vhen all of the artillery is emplaced well forward behind the first delaying position, some of it must be withdrawn early to cover the displacement of the remainder. d. Reconnaissance for rearu:ar;d posilionB.-Artillery reconnaiRsance for positions to be occupied after displacement to the rear must be initiated as soon as a forward position is occupied. This reconnaissance is necessary if the rearward displacement is to be made at the most opportune time. c. Obse'rvation.-Each delaying position should be so located as to provide adequate ground observation for the artillery. Air observation is of special importance during all stages of delaying action. f. Control.-\Vhen practicable, control of the artillery in rear . of each position is centralized to permit the massing of all artillery fire on critical points at critical times. Control is decentralized when the width of front, the terrain between main elements of the command, or the rapidity or uncertainty of the action so requires.




Reti remen ts, gen eral Artillery in a retirement

.__ ._..

Paragraph .-____________________________________ 101 -----------------------102

II 101. RETIREMENTS, GENERAL.-A retirement is a retrograde movement in which a force seeks to gain freedom of action, the movement being part of a well-defined plan which has for its purpose the refusal of decisive combat under the existing situation (FM 100-5). It may be made in one stage or in several stages, depending upon the distance involved. A retirement is initiated, whenever practicable, by a night withdrawal. Allround security must be provided .

102. ARTILLERYIN A RETIREMENT.-S~fficient artillery is provided the flank and rear guards to support them in the execution of their missions. If the enemy presses his pursuits, the remainder of the artillery is so disposed in the column or columns as best to protect the main body or furnish additional support for the security detachments. Otherwise,. the bulk of the artillery may precede the main body so as to clear the routes.





Paragraphs General _. . . . . -------------------------.---- 103 Raids and night attacks . 104-105 River crossings 106-107 Defense of river line __ .. 108-110 Operations in snow and extreme cold, mountain operations jungle warfare, and desert warfare 111-115 VI. Defense' of coast lines 116-117 VII. Attack of fortified locality 118-120 I. II. I I I. IV. V.

Special operations, general .__. .. . Paragraph 103

103. SPECIAL OPERATIONS,GENERAL.-Special operations are operations in which the terrain, the weather, or the nature of the operation itself create the need for special measures and techniques. Special operations are covered in detail in other manuals. In this chapter are given the measures that are peculiar to or are stressed in the employment of artillery in each type of special operation.


Artillery Artillery support support of raid . . . of night attack . .__ . . . ._. . Paragraph 104 ._-- 105

104. ARTILLERYSUPPORTOF RAlD.-Artillery fires in support of a raid are prearranged. 'They may include counterbattery, neutralization of hostile reserves, neutralization of known or suspected elements of the position to be raided, interdiction .of routes leading to the area, concentrations and barrages to isolate the area, and protective concentrations to cover the withdrawal. . 105. ARTILLERYSUPPORTOF NIGHT ATTACK.-The artillery in support of a night attack completes the necessary survey ~ estab-45-

, 105-106


lishes liaison, and prearranges fires before dark. Recent air photos are sought. All plans must be simple. If an artillery preparation is fired, it is short and intense. Fires in support of the attack include counterbattery, protective fires during the infantry reorganization on the objective, fires to break up enemy counterattacks, and fires to cover a withdrawal. They may include fires to box off the zone of attack.

River crossings, genera] Artillery support of river crossing

.. . . Paragraph .____ 106 .. .__----------107

106. RIVER CROSSINGS, GENERAL.-a. Mission.-The mission of the attacker is to secure a bridgehead on the far bank. PORsession of the near bank is 3. prerequisite. The attack across an unfordable river requires special technical and tactical preparations proportionate to the size of the river and the :elative strength of the opposing forces. b. Preparatory phase.-During the preparatory phase, air photos are requested, and reconnaissance is intensive and continuous; materiel and equipment adequate for the crossing are brought forward and concealed, convenient for use. Troops move into concealed areas close to their attack position; the artillery occupies positions or is in readiness. Secrecy is of the greatest importance. c.. Attack.-The attack includes the actual crossings and the capture of successive objectives: (1) Terrain which will eliminate enemy aimed small-arms fire on the crossing. (2) Terrain which will eliminate enemy ground observation for artillery fire on the selected ponton bridge sites, and which preferably is within range of supporting artillery on the attacker's side of the river. (3) Terrain which will eliminate all enemy artillery fire on the bridge sites and which will provide on the enemy side of the river the necessary maneuver space for the command.



d. Feints and demonstrations.-TroopR may be assigned to make feints or demonstrations on the points other than the main crossing. Strong support by artillery and combat aviation is provided. e. Air support.-Close support by: combat aviation is essential in all large offensive operations at river lineR. Local air superiority is gained and maintained during the operation . 107. ARTILLERY SUPPORT OF RIVER CROSSING.--a. General. Positions are well forward. Some of the artillery may occupy positionR from which it can support both a feint and the main crossing. Fires are prearranged and coordinated with those of infantry heavy weaponR. Signal communications must be simple, rapid, and positive. Air observation is usually essential. Secrecy is furthered by the selection of concealed positions, careful planning of march serials, postponing occupation of positions as long as practicable, and limiting or prohibiting registration. b. Attack of first objective.-If the probable effect outweighs the advantage of secrecy, an artillery preparation may be fired; otherwise, all fire is normally held until the leading attack waves have been discovered. Artillery obsen'ers and reconnaissance -
details accompany the leading waves. ~. Attack of second objective.-As soon as the leading'elements of the supported unit advance from the firRt objective, the artillery begins displacing across the river. It generally displaces by battery, using ferries. The first artillery units to cross are attached to the supported unit until the bulk of the artillery has crossed. When the second objecth'e has been taken, or the hostile artillery neutralized, the superior commander normally directs the construction of ponton bridges. d. Attack of third objectire.-It may be necessary for the sup- . ported unit to reorganize on the second objective and launch a coordinated attack. The bulk of the artillery should be ready to render continuous support from positions on the enemy side of the river; centralized control is highly desirable. Ammunition supply is of paramount importance.




Paragraph ._-:-------- 08 1 : 109 . 110

.Defense of river line, general . Use of artillery when river line is employed as obstacle Use ,of artillery when river line is aid to defensive-offensive

108. DEFEN'SEOF RIVER LINE, GENERAL.-An 'unfordable river may be employed as an obstacle in front of a defensive or delayIt may be employed as an aid to counteroffensive ing position. action which seeks to strike the enemy while his forces are astride the river . 109. USE OF ARTILLERYWHENHIVERLINE Is EMPLOYEDAS OBSTACLE.--a. Defen.sive position.-When the river is employed as an obstacle in front of a defensive position, the main line of resistance is placed on or near the river bank. The artillery is employed as in the defense of a position (ch. 5) except that usually only a .part of the artillery is emplaced initially-to cover the most likely crossing places, probable assembly areas, and avenues of approach; the remainder is usually held in readiness to support the defense when the location of the main crossing is discovered. The enemy will employ every subterfuge to cause the defending artillery to open fire and thus disclose its positions. To defeat these attempts, some units may be directed to open fire only on orders of higher headquarters. Likewise, the artillery held in readiness must not be committed prematurely. b. Delaying position.-When the river is to be used as an obstacle in front of a delaying position, the artillery is employed as in a delaying action (pars. 99-100) . 110. USE OF ARTILLERYWHEN RIVER LINE Is AID TO DEFENSIVE-OFFENSIVE.--a. General.-When the river line is employed as an aid to a defensive-offensive designed to strike the enemy while his forces are astride the river, the river line is held by relatively weak infantry outpost detachments; the bulk of the force is held in reserve, prepared to strike the offensive blow as soon as the main hostile crossing is recognized. Artillery observation posts covering the probable points of crossing must be established and organized in advance. Organizing observation posts in depth facilitates artillery support in the event of a local success by the enemy. Liaison is established with the com~ander of each sector.




,.b. Outpost artiller1J.~Someartmerytis attached to the outpost detachments .. ' It is employed' as iIi-the shpport 'of~an outpost of a defensivepositiori.Platoons ;-or'batteries are emplaced in con~ cealed positions to cover' the probabM points of crossing and the approaches to them .. These'.units .. remain silent until'suitable targets present themselves; they thEm deliver surprise fire.' c. Artillery in support of defensit'e-offensive.-The mass of the artillery is held in readiness, prepared to support the defen. sive-offensive. The artillery plans usually cover two phases: First, support of the outpost detachments where a hostile cross. ing is being made; second, support of the main force in its counter. offensive. In the first phase, as soon as definite information is available concerning the enemy's intentions, the artillery occupies positions from which it can concentrate against the hostile points of crossing, bridges under construction, and hostile approaches to the river. In the second phase, the artillery is employed as in the support of an attack. Since the mass of the hostile artillery will still be on the far side of the river, the neutralization of hos. tile observation is especially important.

Paragraph Artillery operations in snow and extreme col<L._._ ..__ ... ... .. . .__ 111 .. Employment of artillery in mountain operations -.-.._. _ . ...__ .__ 112 _ . J un go Ie wa rf are, ge nera I ---.-.-.------------------~---..-. . .__ . . .. ._._. 113 A rtill ery in jungle warfare .... --..---------.--. ... ----.__ .__ . . .. ._. .. .. 114 Employment of field artiller~' in desert warfare .__ . .._. . .._._.115

111. ARTILLERY OPERATIONS IN SNOW AND EXTREME COLD. The measures necessitated by snow and extreme cold are technical rather than. tactical. In deep snow, it may be necessary to re. place the truck-drawn artillery with tractors, and to place run. ners under the piece wheels. In extreme cold, special lubricants must be provided weapons and instruments; recoil oil is warmed Lefore use. Metal seats and eyepieces are padded. Explosives and special tools are required for the preparation of emplace. ments. Operations in snow and extreme cold are covered in de. tail in FM 31-15.



.' 112. EMPLOYMENTOF ARTILLERY IN MOUNTAIN OPERATIONS. a. Reconnaissance. (FM 100-5) .-Maps of mountainous regions are seldom accurate. A correct knowledge of the terrain can be gained only by a study of the ground itself, supplemented by a study of air photos. The employment of reliable local guides is advantageous.

b. Positions.-Motorized or horse-drawn artillery is emplaced near the roads. Pack artillery may occupy defiladed positions in the more difficult terrain overlooking the valleys~ c. Artillenj fires.-In general, counterbattery is relatively ineffective because of the difficulty of locating hostile batteries. Interdiction and fires on enemy assembly areas are particularly effective because the points that the enemy is compelled to pass and the areas in which he will form for attack may be almost conclusively determined by a study of the terrain. d. Observation.-Forward observers accompany leading elements. Because of the decreased efficiency of air observation, ground observation posts are particularly important. T.hey are echeloned in altitude as well as in width and depth since observation is subject to sudden blinding due to atmospheric changes. e. Communication.-Radio and visual signaling are the primary means of signal communication. Dead spaces in radio reception are to be expected. f. Control.-Control of artillery is generally decentralized .
113. JUNGLE WARFARE,GENERAL.-The jungle does not change the principles of employment of artillery. It does affect certain of their applications, chiefly by restricting observation, movement of materiel, and supply. The amount of artillery employable in jungle operations varies between wide extremes. Occasionally only a single mountain gun can be brought into action, and such a gun may influence the operation critically. Another situation may call for several battalions, of types and calibers to include the heaviest. Jungle warfare is covered in detail in FM 31-20 . 114. ARTILLERYIN JUNGLE WARFARE.--a. Movement of artillery.-The 105-mm howitzer M2 and lighter pieces may be transported by air to the general vicinity of position areas. Movement by other means is generally restricted and slow. Methods


. ........



of transport-include motor, pack animal, draft animal (including carabaos,' elephants, or whatever else the region may afford), barge, boat, improvised handcart or sled, and manpower (native carriers whenever available). Tractors and lit-ton trucks are most useful. Winches and capstans are needed. Artillery generally moves by section, by day more often than at night. b. Observation.-(l) Air.-Air observation is practically indispensable. Target areas usually cannot be seen except from directly overhead. The situation often requires the use of a relatively high performance (Air Force) plane instead of the organic artillery airplane. (2) TerrestriaL-Suitable battalion and battery OP's are seldom found. Observation from a boat off shore occasionally becomes feasible in' coastal regions.' Great reliance attaches to forward observers. These must usually be numerous because visibility from any single locality is limited. Clearly defined targets are seldom seen in the jungle. In order to locate 'profitable targets forward observers may accompany infantry reconnaissance patrols, may conduct patrols of' their own, or may be assisted at their observation posts by individuals who have done recent patrolling in the vicinity. Various improvised methods of adjustment become necessary, the human ear sometimes coming into playas a sound-ranging instrument. (3) So~nd 'I-anging and flash ranging.-Sound ranging is sometimes practicable, flash ranging occasionally. Both are of exceptional value when feasible. RudiJ~entary, improvised forms of both may be quite effective. c. Maps and air photos.-There is a special need for maps and air photos, particularly the latter. ~Iaps available initially are likely to be unreliable. Scarcity of prominent terrain features often hampers control in assembling mosaics. Important terrain features, particularly streams and existing trails, are frequently hidden from the aerial camera. Such missing information generally. can be secured from white persons who know the country, from friendly natives, and through ground reconnaissance. Since the jungle canalizes operations, the locations of hostile routes of approach, assembly positions, command posts~ and the like can often be readily deduced from air photos. Timely concentration~ on such suspected localities have repeatedly paid .dividends.




d. Survey and firirig charts.-The jungle is a formidable obstacle to survey. Traversing is the rule, intersection the exception. Expedients not in the book have to be devised on the spot. It is seldom feasible to tie positions to target areas by survey; this must be done by firing. A few check points can usually be found. An observed-fire chart, based on air-observed registration is use4 initially. Since many fires will be unobserved, survey is necessary. Survey is slow, but since jungle warfare is slow, survey can usually be accomplished. e. Communication.-Communication is relatively restricted and slow. Waterproofing of signal equipment,with special attention to dry batteries, is critically important because surf landings, swollen streams, persistent rains, and a heavily humid atmosphere are practical certainties. (1) lVire.-'Vire is the principal means of ground communication. The supply of wire and the means for. laying it are at a. minimum; much has to be laid by hand. Maximum recovery is necessary. Existing trails have to be used for line routes initially. Circuits are later rerouted through the jungle, buried along original routes, or raised overhead .. Wire parties may requira protection by accompanying patrols.' Communication with forward observers is chiefly by wire. Proximity to the enemy sometimes necessitates disconnecting the ringer circuits ill forward observers' telephones. (2) Radio.-The jungle blankets radio signals and greatly re .. duces range. Failures due to moisture are common. Heavy and bulky apparatus taxes the limited transport. Radio thus becomes a secondary means of ground communication, supplementary to wire. It is vitally important for communication with observation planes, however, because visual air-ground methods are nearly always useless in the jungle. (3) Other means.-Messengers find considerable use. Oral messages are preferable because danger of written matter falling into enemy hands is relatively great. Visual signalling may find semi-occasional use.

f. Positions.-Though relatively restricted, the availability of positions may vary widely. Flash defilade is usually obtainable. Weapons capable of firing effectively at elevations above 800 mils have a relatively wide choice of positions. Alternate and dummy positions may be just as important as in n:ore open terrain.




Proximity to landing fields, beaches, trails, and streams facilitates supply but decreases security from hostile artillery and aviation. g. Local security.-Camouflage and concealment are relatively easy. Since incoming bombs and projectiles are likely to burst in the treetops, overhead cover for p~rsonnel is desirable. Ground attack by infiltration is a threat at night, and noisy radio genera. tors and the like invite such attacks. Scouting and patrolling 'are at a maximum. Infantry training in minor tactics pays dividends. Each battery and similar installation establishes sentries and patrols its perimeter. Trip wires and similar de. vices are widely used. The chance that wire parties, messengers, and" visiting officers may be fired upon by friendly sentries and patrols is at a maximum. Individual weapons should be light in weight and possess great fire power at short ranges. Hand grenades are required. A few rifles and bayonets are desirable. Tanks, though favored by excellent cover, are generally hampered by lack of maneuver space. Aircraft are hard to identify because they are hard to see. Good judgment is necessary in the matter of opening fire on hostile aircraft, for premature firing may dig. close a position that the enemy would not otherwise find. h. Amrnunition.-Time shell has little use except for high-burst adjustment. Instantaneous fuzes give a high percentage, of tree. top bursts. Only a delay fuze will assure a ground burst in 3. jungle-covered area. Smoke shell for adjustment is virtually a necessity. i. Firing.-Fires are largely prearranged and unobserved. The -----prevalence of night fighting considerably increases the number of concentrations that must be prearranged for delivery on call. The need for reliable metro information is especially pressing because supporting fire occasionally has to be placed as close as 50 yards to dug-in friendly troops, because atmospheric conditions are apt to fluctuate widely, and because opportunities to register are generally few and untimely .







a. General.-Desert" warfare is covered in detail in Fl\I 31-25." The fietd artillery uses its normal types of fire and fire direction in desert warfare. In highly mobile situations it may execute a great deal of direct fire.



b. Marches.-The formation for' a desert march is usually a column of lines, rather than a column of single vehicles. The artillery generally marches in. the middle of a large armored column and near the tail of a small one. It may march in the leading lines (behind the security and reconnaissance forces) and on the flanks of a motorized column. Movement in the desert is conducted by careful navigation, which consists of following predetermined compass directions for given distances. c. Security.-Because the flanks of a desert force are exposed, security against ground attacks is stressed. Each unit must provide its own. Dispersion, at all times, is the primary means of passive defense against air attack; in particular, pieces are widely dispersed within the firing battery. d. Observation.-Ground observation is frequently limited to 2000 yards by undulations of the terrain and by shimmering atmosphere. Forward observers are used extensively. Portable observation towers may be employed. Air observation, sound ranging, and flash ranging are employed to the maximum. SECTIONVI DEFENSE OF COAST LINES
.. . Paragraph ------------------116 .. 117

Defense of coast lines, general Employment of artillery in defense of coast lines

116. DEFENSE OF COAST LINES, GENERAL.-For defense of coast lines, a defense command is usually subdivided into sectors. subsectors within the sectors, and local (unit) sectors ,within the subsectors; these divisions are based largely on geographical considerations. The defense consists essentially of the establishment of outposts at practicable landing beaches and the employment of highly mobile reserves to provide timely support by occupying beach positions to reinforce the fires of the troops engaged, by counterattacking, or by a combination of both. Each outpost itself should be highly mobile so that it may be used to support another outpost when its own beach is not threatened. The defense of coast lines is covered in detail in FM 31-10 . 117. EMPLOYMENTOF ARTILLERYIN DEFENSE OF COASTLINES. The bulk of the subsector field artillery must be able to oppose a



hostile main attack and to support a counterattack by the subsector reserve. Until the location of the main attack is known, a large part of the artillery is emplaced initially to support the outposts actively engaged; the amount so emplaced depends on the mobility of. the artillery and on the road net. -The initial positions should be near roads to facilitate prompt displacement. Light artillery supporting the outposts is placed well forward in the probable landing areas to execute direct fire on enemy shipto-shore' movements, support organized tactical localities along the shore line, and enfilade critical areas of the beach. The remainder of the artillery may be held in readiness or emplaced in depth to support the defensive position. ,The selection of alternate positions and the camouflage of all artillery are habitual.

Paragraph 118 119 120

Attack of -fortified locality, general --------------Artillery support in reduction of outpost -----Artillery support of break-through

118. ATTACK OF FORTIFIED LoCALITY, GENERAL.--a. Reference. The attack of fortified locality is covered in detail in Fl\I 100-5. b. Components of fortified locality.-A fortified locality is a single strongly organized position, or a series of strongly organized mutu~lly supporting positions. u~sed in great width and depth. The main battle position is composed of camouflaged, mutually-supporting concrete and steel fortifications which may or may not be connected by underground passages. The main battle position is protected br a system of concrete and steel artillery and automatic-weapon emplacements, tank traps, arid obstacles disposed in great depth. It is generally backed up by strong mobile reserves. c. Phases of attack.-The attack of a fortified locality may be divided generally into four phases which mayor may not overlap: (1) Reducing the hostile outpost system and gaining close contact with the maJn position. .. (2) Breaking points. through the fortifications at the most favorable





(3) Extending the gap by isolating aildreducing hostile emplacements on its flanks. (4) Completing the action by moving mobile reserves through the gap to ,complete the encirclement and isolation of remaining fortifications while continuing the attack against them from the front. .

d. Differentiation from penetration.-The principal differences between an attack of a fortified locality and a penetration of any other position (par. 75) are the relatively greater training and combat superiority required, the absolute secrecy and thoroughness of preparations, the types of special equipment and troops required, and the frontage subjected to the initial assault. e. Preparations for attack.-Special composite assault detachments are organized. Training is conducted by having these detachments rehearse the contemplated operations on terrain and against fortifications similar to those to be encountered. The field artillery that is to furnish close support of the detachments participates in the rehearsals. .


ing targets.-All

intelligence agencies are fully exploited to determine in detail the locations of all elements of the hostile position. Because air supremacy is the first requirement for opera~ tions against a fortified locality (FM 100-5), the production and distribution of aii' photos will be unusually extensive.

b. Missions.-Part of the heavy artillery assists the preliminary operations by constant bombardment of the hostile main position, paying particular attention to fortifications from which hostile artillery can bring fire to bear upon the troops engaged. The rest of the artillery, of all calibers, furnishes close suppor.t of the assault echelons. The advance through the enemy outpost system is a step-by-step process; supporting fires conform to the movements of the assault units. The heavy calibers place fire on emplacements, massive obstacles, and wire entanglements in the outpost system; flat-trajectory weapons with high muzzle velocity employ direct laying in fire against armored turrets. Fires are also placed on flank positions and troop emplacements not being attacked, and particular attention is paid to locating and bringing fire to bear on hostile mechanized elements and local reserves forming for counterattack.



c. Liaison and communication ...-Liaison and effective communication between the artillery and the supported troops, tanks, and combat aviation are vital. m 120. ARTILLERY SUPPORT OF BREAK- THROUGH.--a. Locating targets.-While the preliminary operations are in progress, the exploitation of all intelligence agencies to determine enemy dispositions continues. b. ~Iissions.-The amount of ammunition and artillery available, the degree of surprise possible, the amount of hostile artillery present, and the depth of the fortifications on the front of the penetration determine the length and intensity of the preparation. In any event the bombardment of the entire front that was begun during the preliminary operations is maintained. Prior to the hour of the attack, the bulk of all supporting fires is concentrated on the front of the initial penetration. Heavy and medium artillery are concentrated on points in the fortifications that offer the greatest danger to the success of the attack; the flat-trajectory weapons are employed against lighter obstacles and loopholes in the fortifications. Smoke is used extensively. When the preparation is completed, the bulk of the artillery fires is shifted to the next fortifications to be reduced, or is placed to meet hostile reaction to the initial assault. As in the preliminary operations, fires are maintained against fortifications not subject to assault. Because an enemy in a fortified locality is able to organize and launch counterattacks with unusual rapidity, particular attention is paid to the support of the units extending the flanks of the gap. -
------. c. Subsequent operations.-Once the break-through of the entire locality has been effected, highly mobile artillery is attached to mobile reserves pushed through the gap, .while other artillery supports the units keeping the gap open. Ammunition supply, anti mechanized defense, and air observation are vital considerations to the artillery.


/ /

Gene ral Tactical and technical differences

Paragraph 121 122


121. GENERAL.-The for the employment of field artillery. However, these principles as they sion. Details of these in FM 17-60, Armored

principles set forth in this memorandum field artillery are applicable to armored there are differences in the application of apply to the artillery of the armored dividifferences in employment are set forth Division Artillery .

122. TACTICALANDTECHNICALDIFFERENcEs.-a. Tactical differences.-The organization for combat of an armored division is based on the task-force principle. As a result of this principle the control of armored field artillery differs in two important respects from the classical conception. First, the division commander places his artillery under subordinate commanders for combat instead of retaining control in his own hands. Second, he often holds a part of it in reserve instead of committing it all to action as soon as possible. These differences stem from the nature of armored combat. As to the first difference, whereas an infantry division commander relies upon his artillery as a powerful medium with which he can affect the course of action, the commander of an armored division relies more upon his reserve of tanks to produce this sudden and severe effect. As to the second difference, the situation is commonly very obscure. The division is in the midst of hostile forces which may counterattack from any direction. Serious crises arise very quickly and must be met with units held in hand. The proper direction to commit the artillery in the reserve may not appear until the initial hostile front line has been left far behind. b. Organizational and technical differences.-(l) Organization of the firing battery: Each battery contains six self-propelled howitzer sections. (2) The armor protection of the vehicles of the battalion reduces the vulnerability to hostile small-arms fire and shell frag-58-



ments, and permits arms. (3) Armored high percentage

action within the range of the enemy small

field artillery units are equipped with a very of individual weapons, most of which are auto-

matic. (4) Forward observers are depended on almost exclusively for observation. ". (5) Radio is the primary and principal means of communication. (6) Armored field artillery must follow the attack very closely to avoid being cut off. Displacements will be frequent and short. (7) There is no front in armored action. Attacks may come from any direction. Artillery positions permitting shifts of 2000 to 3200 mils must be selected.



Paragraph 123 124 125 126 127 . 128 129


The cavalry divis ion Artillery with cavalry on the march Reconnaissance of .artillery with ca valry Positions of artillery with cavalry Communication in cavalry operations Control of artillery with cavalry Artillery with cavalry on counterreconnaissance

~ ~

123. THE CAVALRYDIVI~ION.-a. Composition.-The cavalry division may be considered as composed of three main groups. (1) A command group which includes the mechanized recon~ naissance squadron. (2) A combat force of two brigades (horse) and the division artillery. (3) The motorized service elements. b. Marching.-The division marches in multiple columns whenever practicable. Each column' furnishes its. own advance and rear guards. The flank columns furnish flank guards. c. Co-rnbat.-Cavalry combat in general is characterized by rapidity of development and rapid action following the development. Except for small elements, cavalry maneuvers mounted and fights dismounted. It uses its mobility to gain the advantage of surprise against the hostile flanks and rear, then makes a decisive fire attack dismounted. The main attack normally consists of a mounted approach followed by a dismounted attack. The secondary attack constitutes the pivot of maneuver and normally includes the base of fire. Because of its mobility, cavalry in defensive action is best suited to defensive-offensive tactics and to delaying action. When required to occupy a defensive position, cavalry operates the same as infantry. 124. ARTILLERY WITH CAVALRYON THE MARCII.- The horse artillery with the main body marches far enough forward in the columns to insure its prompt entry into action. Because of the rapidity of cavalry action, a battery or more of horse artillery may march with each advance guard approximating a squadron.

EMPLOYMENT ARTILLERY OF WITH CAVALRY 124-129 The truck-drawn battalion usually marches well forward in the division motor column . 125. RECONNAISSANCE ARTILLERY WITH CAVALRY.-Artil-
OF' lery reconnaissance is governed by the speed of cavalry operations. Reconnaissance parties accompany the forWard elements of the advance guard and the mechanized reconnaissance elements. In addition, forward observers should accompany' the advance guard in order to provide means of bringing prompt artillery fire on enemy columns or other appropriate targets that may be observed . '126. POSITIONS.OF ARTILLERY WITH CAVALRY.-Artillery positions should be as far forward as cover from the direct fire of hostile small arms will permit. They should be as close as practicable to available observation in order to facilitate signal communication. Displacement will, in general, be more frequent during cavalry attacks than during infantry attacks. 127. COMMUNICATION CAVALRYOPERATIONs.-Artillery IN of cavalry divisions employs wire, radio, visual, and messenger communication. The speed' and distances involved require relatively heavy dependenc~ ~n r.adio.
. .

128. CONTROL OF ARTILLERY \VITH CAVALRY.-The truckdrawn battalion is usually in general support. It is often necessary to attach artillery, usually a battalion, to a cavalry brigade or regiment. It is frequently feasible to reinforce the fires of artillery so attached. Liaison personnel and forward observers function essentially as they do with infantry. . . . ~. 129., ARTILLERY WITH CAVALRY COUNTERRECONNAISSANCE. ON Usually the bulk of the artillery is held in readiness, prepared to . move with the main body to resist hostile efforts to penetrate the friendly screen ..




Paragraph The air borne divis ion '.. 130 Organization of the airborne division 131 Limitations of the tactical employment of airborne forces 132 Role of airborne field artillery 133 Types of airborne field artillery "134 ~ Distinctive characteristics of airborne field artillery ---------------.135 Em pIoym en t 136 Reconnaissance and 0 bserva tion ~__________________________ 137 Comm un icat ion . ~___________________________ 138

130. THE AIRBORNEDIVISION.-The role of the airborne division is to broaden and deepen the action by envelopment from the air, ordinarily in conjunction with other ground forces. This type of tactical operation involves troop movements by powered aircraft and gliders . 131. ORGANIZATION THE AIRBORNEDIVISIoN.-The airborne OF division is a self-contained unit of the several arms and services organized expressly for independent action for a limited period of time. The entire striking force is capable of being landed in a combat area by parachute and glider. The division is not capable of prolonged, sustained action. The organization is flexible. It permits the formation of three air teams . 132. LIMITATIONSOF THE TACTICALEMPLOYMENT AIRBORNE OF FORCES.-a. Airborne operations are limited by the availability of air transport and escorting aircraft, departure airdromes, and landing areas. They are further limited by the fact that suitable flying weather is essential for the duration of the operation. b. Airborne operations require careful prior planning of intelligence measures, operations, and supply. c. The mobility of airborne troops after landing is that of foot troops with a few light vehicles. Upon landing, airborne troops make every effort to gain greater mobility by the capture of enemy transportation.
d. When in flight an airborne force is vulnerable to enemy aviation and antiaircraft fire. Fighter protection is provided during flight. An airborne force is particularly vulnerable while land-62-

EMPLOYMENT AIRBORNE OF FIELDARTILLERY 132-135 ing and for a short time thereafter. Immediately before and during the landing, aerial bombardment of the defender's position is essential to neutralize antiaircraft fire and to afford protection for the landing . 133. ROLE OF AIRBORNE FIELD ARTILLERY.-Airborne field artillery has the normal role of close. and continuous support of airborne infantry units. There is a relatively greater decentralization of supporting artillery immediately upon landing . 134. TYPES OF AIRBORNEFIELD ARTILLERY.-Parachute field artillery is transported by powered aircraft to a position relatively close to the objective. Personnel, materiel, and equipment are landed by means of parachutes. Glider field artillery is transported and landed in gliders or powered aircraft. Air-transported field artillery is divisional artillery that is especially trained for transport by air. 135. DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS AIRBORNE FIELD AROF TILLERy.-The special features of the employment of airborne field artillery are: a. Movement of howitzers, supplies, and equipment by hand. b. Reliance on radio and visual communication. c. Decentralized control, in many cases down to the individual section. d. Extensive use of direct laying, not only for local security but in rendering fires in close support.

e. Necessity to conserve ammunition.

/. Initial fires of a defensive nature, for protection of rallying -------and assembly areas. g. Preparation to support an attack in any direction. h. First round often fired at an actual target owing to lack of time to register. i. Forward-observation methods of fire adjustment, including rocket and other rapid methods.
j. Rapidity

of survey. liaison and obser-

k. Extensive use of alternate positions. l. Difficulty in establishing and maintaining vation.





136.' EMPLOYMENT.~. Parachute field' artillery.-The mission of parachute field artillery is to fire in close~upport of airborne infantry, normally parachute infantry, in the tactical operations after dropping. One parachute field artillery battery may be dropped immediately after the leading parachute infantry elements to provide initial support. Immediately after the sections of a parachute field artillery battery have been' dropped, the howitzers are assembled and put into action individually or in pairs until the battery can be formed. Officers and chiefs of section direct the fire of the howitzers~ seek observation, and maintain liaison with infantry units in the immediate vicinity. As time and opportunity permit, each howitzer is moved to a predesignated rallying area and reported to the battery commander or his representative. Every effort is made to get the battery promptly into action as a unit. In some operations it is possible for parachute field artillery to operate as a battalion. When the battalion has been assembled by battery and communication, liaison, and forward observation have been established, the battalion commander establishes centralized control. b. Glider field artillerlJ.-The mission of glider field artillery is to fire in close support of airborne infantry, usually glider infantry, in the tactical operations afterlanding.:L~ndirlg areas are secured and protection i.s afforded by parachute or glider infantry, or both, prior to the landing of glider field artillery. Notwithstanding this security, glider field artillery IS vulnerable to enemy aircraft and ground units upon landing and immediately thereafter. Therefore every effort is made to disembark promptly, organize, and move to predesignated rallying areas or battery positions. Glider field artillery elements are' prepared. to go into action by section, platoon, or battery. However, the assembly of sections and the gaining of centralized control by battery and battalion -
can be accomplished, more quickly after landing than with parachute field artillery. c. Air-transported field artillery.-Air-transported field ar-' tillery operates very much like glider field artillery. -It generally carries more transportation equipment, and supplies." Upon deplaning the supported troops immediately assume a deployed formation. Artillery units should be ready to render full support as soon as landed. Detailed plans to gain initial objectives are issued prior to leaving the departure airdromes. Operations follow the

EMPLOYMENT AIRBORNE OF FIELDARTILLERY 136-138 general principles of any tactical operation involving combined arms . . d. The division artillery commander and elements of the division artillery headquarters battery normally land with the division command group. The division artillery commander gains centralized control of his battalions as rapidly as possible in order to permit early massing of the fires . 137. RECONNAISSANCE AND OBSERVATION.-a. Reconnaissance elements of the field artillery are dropped with the advance para. chute infantry units. One or more forward observers are disposed well forward so as to be immediately available to locate targets and adj ust fire. b. Suitable air photos or maps of landing areas and the surrounding terrain must be available. Generally plans are made prior to the take-off as to locations of forward observers, battery positions, and the like . 138. COMMUNICAT!ON.-The speed required in the installation of initial communication systems, the necessity for flexibility and for the elimination of excess weight and bulk place an added responsibility on radio, visual, and sound communication. Prearranged messages and signals should be prepared in advance and memorized by all concerned. Every effort is made to conserve the limited supply of field wire.



Command liaison Liaison by means of liaison officers The liaison officer Procedure of liaison officer Liaison secti on Paragraph -------------------------- 9 13 140 -------------- 41 1 142 -------------------------- 143

139. COMMAND LIAISON.-a. Command liaison is personal conference between the artillery commander and the commander of the supported unit. During the interval when command liaison is not maintained the artillery commander is' represented at the command post of the supported unit by a staff officer. Command liaison is essential during the initial planning period, critical phases of the operation, and subsequent planning periods during the progress of the action. In this way changes in infantry plans can be communicated without delay to the artillery command post and a competent artillery adviser is continuously available to the infantry. The commander of an artillery unit assi6'ned a mission of reinforcing the fires of another artillery unit usually establishes command liaison with the commander of the reinforced unit. b. When it is possible to locate the command post of the supporting or reinforcing field artillery unit in the vicinity of the command post of a supported or reinforced unit, the probability of continued command liaison during combat is greatly increased.


command liaison, the artillery maintains liaison with each of the supported battalions or similar units. Thi3 is done through the artillery liaison officer. Prior to an advance, an artillery liaison officer and section join each of the battalions in the column. This action saves time after contact has been made; it assures that an artillery liaison officer is with the supported battalion commanders when initial orders come from regiment, when the supported battalion commander makes his reconnaissance, and when he issues his battalion order. If this liaison has not been established at the time the artillery receives its support mission, ~



the. artillery commander has it established without delay. The supporting unit is responsible for establishing communication with the unit it supports. .

141. THE LIAISONOFFICER.-The artillery liaison officer is the personal representative of his commander. He reports to the commander of the unit to which he is sent; he remains under the control of his artillery commander. He is assisted by a liaison section (par. 158). The mission of the liaison officer is twofold: a. Primarily, to keep his artillery commander informed of the plans and disposition of the supported or reinforced unit and to assist the commander of that unit in obtaining the desired supporting or reinforcing fires.
b. Secondarily, to adjust artillery fires. Since the commander of the supported unit 'will frequently be at an observation post, the liaison officer will frequently be able to adjust fire . 142. PROCEDUREOF LIAISON OFFICER.-a. After receiving the instructions of his ccmmander, the liaison officer arranges details of communication with the communication officer. He learns from S-3 the locations of base point and check points and the methods of calling for fires, if this information is available. If the liaison officer has reported to the supported or reinforced units on the march, the artillery commander sends him that information. -
b. Upon reporting to the commander of the unit to which he is sent, the liaison officer informs that commander of the artillery commander's plans (a, above), and of the location of the artillery. He should be present when the supported regimental commander issues his order. He accompanies the infantry battalion commander on reconnaissance. He learns the location, duration, and nature of desired fires, the location of friendly and enemy front lines, and the infantry scheme of maneuver. He transmits this information to his commander, generally returning to the artillery command post with it. c. During the progress of the action, the liaison officer' keeps the commander of the supported unit informed of the possibilities of artillery support, particularly when contingencies require changes in the basic plan of support. He keeps the artillery com,,: mander informed of the location of supported and enemy troops, . and of changes in the infantry scheme of maneuver. He transmits requests for fire promptly. \Vhen any requested fire is be-67-

142-143 . TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT FIELD ARTILLERY OF YQndthe capabilities of his own unit, he so notifies the commander of the supported or reinforced unit; however, he still transmits the request in order that artillery other than his own may furnish the fire. d. The liaison officer must be alert to his responsibility as an intelligence agent for both his immediate commander and the force commander. Members of his section are continuously engaged in seeking information and in rendering prompt reports on it . 143. LIAISON SECTION.-The liaison section is commanded by the liaison officer. It maintains signal communication with its own headquarters. Personnel of the section perform the duties of the liaison officer during his temporary absence from the unit to which he is sent. The composition of the liaison section is given in Tables of Organization.





Paragraph 144 145 146 147 148

General Antiaircraft-antimechanized defense on the march Antiaircraft and anti mechanized defense of bivouac Antiaircraft-antimechanized defense of position Considerations for battery antimechanized defense

144. GENERAL.-a. Terrain.-Artillery is especially vulnerable to air and mechanized attack while in defiles or other passages that restrict it to the.road. Map, ground, and air reconnaissance will disclose these points, also the avenues of approach favoring mechanized attacks. b. Warning syste-nt.-Security against air and mechanized attack requires an efficient warning system. The system includes air observers, ground observers, security detachments, and effective signal communication. The elements of the system must be so coordinated that information of the presence and movement of hostile air and mechanized units is transmitted to commanders early and continuously. .c. Means of defense.-The means of passive defense include concealment, cover, natural and artificial obstacles, sentries, antitank mines; these means are dependent on continuous reconnaissance. The means of active defense aze combat aviation, antiaircraft weapons, antitank rockets, organic field artillery weapons, rifles, carbines, grenades, and bombs. The .50-caliber machine guns of the field artillery, though primarily for antiaircraft defense, can be used effectively against mechanized vehicles, and against the apertures, the vision slits, and other vulnerable parts of a tank. 145. ANTIAIRCRAFT-ANTIMECHANIZED DEFENSE ON THE l\IARCH. a.Disposition of rocket launchers.-A field artillery battalion is most vulnerable to air and mechanized attack when leaving and entering a bivouac, rendezvous, or position area .. A portion of the battalion antitank rocket launchers and the antitank guns'should be in position for the anti mechanized defense of the battalion at these critical times.



b. Disposition of antiaircraft weapons.-Motor vehicles march at distances of from 200 to 300 yards during daylight hours. Each battery commander distributes his machine guns throughout the length of the column for its protection. c. Warning sentinels.-It is desirable to have two antiaircraft sentinels in each vehicle to provide all-round observation. At least one sentinel should at all times be looking into the sun, since that is the direction from which air attack is most likely to be made. d. Procedure in air attack.-When a high-level bombing attack is made, the vehicles continue the march. When a low-flying (including dive-bombing) attack is made, the vehicles are halted clear of the center of the road; the machine gunners fire from their vehicles; other personnel get away from the road, take advantage of any cover that may be available, and open fire, with small arms. The fire of all small arms is concentrated on the best target, usually the lowest-flying airplane. e. Procedure in mechanized attack.- When warning is received of a mechanized threat in force, the column commander makes the decision whether to continue the march, change direction, or halt, and prepares to meet the attack. If the column is halted, vehicles are concealed, organic pieces are placed in positions to obtain the best all-round field of fire, and the antitank rocket launchers are emplaced in positions that cover avenues favoring mechanized approach. If time permits and the attack is definitely canalized, the antitank rocket launchers may be moved so as best to meet the known threat. The antiaircraft machine guns are placed in position. f. Procedure in harassing attack.-Occasional enemy mechanized reconnaissance vehicles may penetrate the column's security and reconnaissance screen undetected. This type of harassing attack will seldom necessitate halting the entire column; usually only a few vehicles carrying machine guns or rocket launchers, or towing organic weapons, need be halted to cleal with the hostile vehicles . 146. ANTIAIRCRAFTAND ANTIMECHANIZEDDE FEN S E S 0 F BIVOUAC.-a. Battery.-Immediately after the battery arrives in its bivouac area, the battery machine guns are put in positions affording 360 field of fire and as close to 50 yards from the battery position as is practicable. Individual. pieces and rocket launchers are sited to cover avenues favoring the approach of




mechanized vehicles. Sentinels are posted to warn the battery of impending air and mechanized attacks. As soon as practicable the battery commander sends an overlay or sketch to the battalion command post. showing the positions of the machine guns, the rocket launchers, the avenues of ~pproach covered by organic pieces, and the posts of the warning sentinels. b. Battalion.-The battailon commander insures that a portion of the antitank weapons are in position to protect the entry of the battalion into the bivouac area. A staff officer charged with antitank defense should arrive at the bivouac area before or with the leading elements of the battalion; if practicable, he accompanies any billeting or reconnaissance party that precedes the battalion. He learns the location of the protective weapons already in position, makes a hasty reconnaissance of the entire area, and orders the disposition of the other elements as they arrive. After the battalion has occupied the bivouac area and the batteries have posted their orga~ic weapons, the staff officer reconnoiters the entire area to locate obstacles and favorable avenues of mechanized approach. He then presents to the battalion commander a coordinated plan for the antimechanized defense of the area. The weapons of the batteries are then redisposed if necessary, so that the defense will be a coordinated one that is based, on obstacles, the'best fie:lds of fire covering favorable approaches, and the establishment of a centralized warning system .

147. ANTIAIRCRAFT-ANTIMECHAN!ZED DEFENSE OF POSITION. a. Selection of position.-In the selection of battery positions, consideration is given to facilities for antimechanized practicable, the position should be such that: defense. When

(1) Protection is afforded by natural obstacles, such as streams, marshes, and heavy woods. (2) The battery has an all-round field of direct fire. This field should extend at least 1000 :rards down the avenues favoring mechanized attacks. (3) Adjacent batteries can mutually support each other. Frequently a compromise must be made between these and other desirable characteristics of a battery position; for example, it may be necessary to locate the pieces far behind the covering mask in order to obtain a suitable field of direct fire.




b. Occupation of position.-Because the batteries are extremely vulnerable during the initial stages of the occupation, the utmost speed is essential in uncoupling the pieces, moving them into position, and unloading the ammunition and equipment. The measures taken for the antiaircraft and antimechanized defense of the bivouac area (par. 161, above) are taken for the defense of the positions. In addition, when time permits, artificial obstacles are constructed to supplement the natural obstacles, and antitank mines are set out. The locations of the mine fields must be accurately reported to all troops in the area, and there must' be a warning sentinel to indicate their presence to friendly vehicles . 148. CONSIDERATIONS FOR BATTERY ANTIMECHANIZED DEFENSE. The following are considerations for battery antimechanized defense: a. The battery is habitually emplaced in an irregular formation, diamond or half-moon, or such other formation as will provide an all-round defense. ' b. Sentinels are posted with means of warning the battery, and are instructed not to run toward the battery after giving warning of approaching tanks. c. The position is prepared for all-round defense. d. Effective fields of direct fire are sought. e. A sector is assigned to each piece. f. Ranges to key points are measured and recorded. g. Several prepared rounds are kept ~t each piece (HE-AT projectiles are used against tanks; high-explosive shell may be used against other vehicles). h. Fire is opened at the command of the executive, who is responsible for tank recognition. An artillery piece discloses itself to a tank the instant it opens fire; premature opening of fire must be avoided. i. Each section opens fire on the most dangerous tank in its field of fire. (Gun squads are trained to look for the hull-down, overwatching tank, since it is stationary while firing.)
j. One cannoneer in each section observes in its sector during firing, in order to point out new or more dangerous targets. k. An observer who sees a hull-down tank should lay the piece himself, and not try to point out the target t9 the gunner. -72-



l. No piece is idle during a mechanized attack, even if only one hostile vehicle appears. m. No attempt is made to destroy a disabled tank while a mobile, tank is in range, unless the disabled tank is firing effectively. n. Cannoneers are equipped with carbines, and may improvise bombs; they are organized into squads with rocket launchers to stalk halted vehicles and destroy their personnel. o. Tanks are comparatively blind when buttoned up. Machinegun and small-arms fire is used to force tanks to button up before tanks spot the gun positions. p. The objective is one round, one tank.




General . . . Defense against airborne troops Defense against infiltration detachments Defense against fifth columnists . .Paragraph . 149 . ----------150 151 ----------152

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149. GENERAL.-Field artillery installations are among the first objectives of enemy paratroops, airlanding troops, and infiltration detachments of tanks or dismounted troops. These units attempt not only to silence the guns, but also to capture vehicles and to disrupt signal communication. Consequently, the field artillery soldier must be trained to regard fighting in the rear areas, at times completely surrounded, as a normal situation. He must be as proficient with the rifle, carbine, machine gun, grenade, and bomb as he is with the basic weapon. The field artillery officer and noncommissioned officer must be familiar with the tactics of small infantry units. Whenever practicable, the fielc artillery coordinates its local defense with that of nearby supported troops; however, it is always prepared to defend itself without assistance . 150. DEFENSE AGAINST AIRBORNE TROOps.-The defense against airborne troops landing in or near artillery areas is based on destroying them when they are most vulnerable. Alone or in conjunction with nearby troops, the artillery: a. Establish~s a thoroughly reliable warning system. b. Rehearses planned measures when practicable. c. Delivers small-arms fire on each low-flying plane or glider. d. Destroys landed gliders or planes. e. Destroys paratroops while they are descending or as soon as they land. The artillery must prevent the paratroops from reaching their heavy weapons and organizing for combat; it must block their attempts to seize motor transportation. f. Prepares to meet all airborne attacks with speed. The airborne troops must work quickly; the defending troops must strike even more quickly. Prompt, bold action will be decisive.







151. DEFENSE AGAINST INFILTRATION DETACHMENTs.-For defense against infiltration detachments, including airborne troops who have reached the area from a landing some distance away, the artillery takes the following measures. a. Warning systems.-A warning system is established not only for each gun position but also for each command post and truck park. The system may include security sentinels concealed at approaches to the position, prowler patrols, and officer patrols. Arrangements for mutual warning are made with nearby supported units. b. Prowler patrols.-Prowler patrols work in pairs, one patrol covering the other's movements. and noncommissioned-officer pac. Officer patrols.-Officer trols are dispatched at irregular intervals to cover the ground between battery positions and the battalion command post. d. Countersign.-A countersign is used to answer challenges. The countersign' is changed frequently. e. ~Veapons.-Personnel must have carbines, rifles, pistols, grenades, and ammunition readily available at all times. f. Terrain.-Personnel should be familiar with the terrain in the immediate vicinity of the battalion area. They should be able to find the way to different battery installations at night. g. Disposition in case of attack.-Because the infiltration detachment may make the initial attack with a part of its personnel and hold the remainder for a later decisive attack, the all-round defense of the position is maintained while a group drives off the initial attackers. Because the infiltration detachment may use a part of its personnel to draw the defenders away from the position, pursuit must be restricted. In general, the artillery holds off an infiltration detachment until the local infantry can arrive to destroy it. . h. Rallying point.-A battery rallying point is designated for, the assembly of personnel in case of an enemy br~ak-in. This locality is defended to the last man. i. ~lachine guns.-During the hours of darkness the battery .50-caliber machine guns should be placed on ground mounts and sited to cover approaches for vehicles and personnel into the position. j. ]gnition.-The ignition of each vehicle is switched off and the key removed every time the vehicle is halted.



k. Spies.-Certain designated noncommissioned officers of the . battery should observe new replacements. Any tendency on the part of an individual to wander away from the battery position or to seek solitude is regarded with suspicion anq is investigated.
152. DEFENSE AGAINST FIFTH COLUMNISTS.-Fifth columnists may work both before and after the troops have taken the field. They conduct an insidious campaign to lower morale and to damage or destroy equipment and installations. Friendly troopssome of them unknowingly-may fall in with' fifth columnists. In order to combat the operations of fifth columnists, officers must be in such close touch with their men that they can instantly determine when any outside pressure is being made against their morale and actions. Certain trusted enlisted men may be given a .confidential mission of reporting subversive activity. Commanding officers should see that neither civilian nor military visitors are allowed to enter the unit area until they have established their identity. lVIilitary personnel are trained to regard every stranger with suspicion; enlisted men do not hesitate to stop an unknown officer and ask to see his War Department identification card. When not in use, all equipment and property are guarded.



Paragraph 153 154 155


Reference .. .. .. -- ...... ... ------~-!: --- -.. General measures for defense against gas attack Conduct during chemical attack

153. REFERENCE.-Defense in detail in FM 21-40 .

against chemical attack is covered

154. GENERALMEASURESFORDEFENSE AGAINSTCHEMICAL ATTACK.-The general measures taken for defense against chemical attack include: a. Establishment of u:arning system.-Though special sentinels may be posted upwind from the installation, all personnel are trained to identify and give warning of gas. l\Iechanical detectors may be placed throughout the installation or worn by personnel. Unless the issue gas alarm is available, the rapid and continuous striking of a bell, triangle, iron rail, cartridge case, or similar object is used. The employment of sir~ns, whistles, vehicle horns, and klaxons as gas alarms is prohibited. b. Personnel gas shelters.-Special gas shelters for personnel may be built. Covered trenches may be made gasproof and equipped with collective protectors. c. Care of food and u:ater.-Prec:intions against contamination include keeping food and forage in air-tight containers, the construction of gasproof shelters for food, and keeping kitchens covered with paulins as protection against chemical spray. Cans sprayed with gas are decontaminated by boiling before they are opened. Contaminated food and water are generally discarded; when the water must be used, a medical officer supervises its decontamination. d. Care of materiel awl ammunition.-As a precaution, unpainted parts of materiel are kept well coated with oil or grease; ammunition and instruments are kept in containers or cases. Decontamination of materiel and ammunition is performed by decontamination squads of the unit. '. e. Decontamination of ground.-'Vhen the ground has been contaminated it may be decontaminated by decontamination squads,



or the installation'may be moved to an alternate position. Areas left contaminated with persistent gas are plainly marked and reported to higher headquarters. The signs used to mark the area show the type of gas-HS, M1, ED, PS, or Nitrogen- Mustard and . -
the date discovered. f. First aid for gas casualties.-Gas casualties are removed from gassed areas and given first aid as prescribed in FM 21-40. Lung-irritant casualties are litter cases; they are prevented from walking to an aid station even though they insist on doing so. 155. CONDUCT DURINGCHEMICAL ATTACK.-a. Movement.-In general, movement is kept to a minimum during a chemical attack. b. Masks.-Personnel put on gas masks at the warning of a chemical attack. Personnel keep their masks on until an officer gives permission to remove masks, and even then each individual must test for gas before removing his mask. c. Firing-During a chemical attack other than airplane spray attack, the battery continues firing. During an airplane spray attack, the battery executes only emergency fire missions. For spray attack the protective cover is put on first, then the gas mask. Antigas eyeshields are worn habitually in the the&ter of operations where use of gas is anticipated. Personnel not required to man the pieces and antiaircraft weapons may seek cover under paulins or in prepared shelters.

FAS, Fort Sill, Okla., (8.2.43-10,000)-27590