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Chapter 12 - Investments

Chapter 12
Investments

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW OF KEY TOPICS


Question 12-1

Investment securities are classified as held-to-maturity, trading, or available-for-sale securities. Increases and decreases in the market value between the time a debt security is Question 12-2acquired and the day it matures to a prearranged maturity value are ignored for a security classified as held-to-maturity. These changes arent important if sale before maturity isnt an alternative, which is the case if an investor has the positive intent and ability to hold the security to maturity. GAAP distinguishes between three levels of inputs to fair value determination, Question 12-3with level 1 being readily observable fair values (for example, from a securities exchange), level 2 inputs are other observable amounts (for example, quoted values for similar items, or important inputs like interest rates), and level 3 inputs are unobservable, like the companys own assumptions. GAAP requires disclosure of the amount of fair values based on each of these three classes of inputs. For investments to be held for an unspecified period of time, fair value information is more relevant than for investments to be held to maturity. Changes Question 12-4 in fair values are less relevant if the investment is to be held to maturity because sale at that fair value is not an option. The investor receives the same contracted interest payments for the period held to maturity and the stated principal at maturity, regardless of movements in market values. However, when the investment is of unspecified length, changes in fair values indicate managements success in deciding when to acquire the investment and when to sell it, as well as the propriety of investing in fixed-rate or variable-rate securities and long-term or short-term securities. The way unrealized holding gains and losses are reported in the financial Question 12-5statements depends on whether the investments are classified as securities available-for-sale or as trading securities. Securities available-for-sale are reported at fair value, and resulting holding gains and losses are not included in the determination of income for the period. Rather, they are reported as a separate component of shareholders equity, as part of other comprehensive income (OCI). (Available-for-sale securities for which the investor has chosen the fair value option are reclassified as trading securities.)

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Answers to Questions (continued)


Comprehensive income is a more expansive view of the change in Question 12-6shareholders equity than traditional net income. It encompasses all changes in equity from non-owner transactions. The non-income part of comprehensive income is called Other comprehensive income. Other comprehensive income includes net unrealized holding gains (losses) on AFS investments, and also the non-credit-loss component of other-than-temporary impairments of HTM investments. Unrealized holding gains or losses on trading securities are reported in the income statement as if they actually had been realized. Trading securities are Question 12-7 actively managed in a trading account with the express intent of profiting from short-term market price changes. So, any gains and losses that result from holding securities during market price changes are suitable measures of success or lack of success in achieving that goal. On the other hand, unrealized holding gains or losses on securities available-for-sale are not reported in the income statement. By definition, these securities are not acquired for the purpose of profiting from short-term market price changes, so gains and losses from holding these securities while prices change are less relevant performance measures to be included in earnings. When acquired, debt and equity securities are assigned to one of the three reporting Question 12-8 classifications held-to-maturity, trading, or available-for-sale. The appropriateness of the classification is reassessed at each reporting date. A reclassification should be accounted for as though the security had been sold and immediately reacquired at its fair value. Any unrealized holding gain or loss should be accounted for in a manner consistent with the classification into which the security is being transferred. Specifically, when a security is transferred: 1. Into the trading category, any unrealized holding gain or loss should be recognized in earnings of the reclassification period. 2. Into the available-for-sale category, any unrealized holding gain or loss should be recorded in Other Comprehensive Income, which will then increase Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income in shareholders equity. 3. Into the held-to-maturity category, any unrealized holding gain or loss should be amortized over the remaining time to maturity. This would be the case for Western Die-Castings investment in the LGB Heating Equipment bonds.

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Yes. Although a company is not required to report Answers to Questions (continued) individual amounts for the three categories of investments held-to-maturity, available-for-sale, or trading on the face of the balance sheet, that information should be presented Question 12-9 in the disclosure notes. The following also should be disclosed for each year presented: aggregate fair value, gross realized and unrealized holding gains, gross realized and unrealized holding losses, the change in net unrealized holding gains and losses, and amortized cost basis by major security type. Information about the level of the fair value hierarchy upon which fair values are based should be provided, and more disclosure is necessary with respect to amounts based on level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. In addition, information about maturities should be reported for debt securities, by disclosing the fair value and cost for at least 4 maturity groupings: (a) within 1 year, (b) after 1 year through 5 years, (c) after 5 years through 10 years, and (d) after 10 years.

Question 12-10
According to U.S. GAAP, the fair value of an equity security is considered readily determinable only if its selling price is currently available on particular securities exchanges or over-the-counter markets. If the fair value of an equity security is not readily determinable, U.S. GAAP uses the cost method. Under IFRS, equity investments typically are measured at fair value, even if they are not listed on an exchange or over-the-counter market. Under IAS No. 39, the cost method only is used if fair value cannot be measured reliably, which occurs when the range of reasonable fair value estimates is significant and the probability of various estimates within the range cannot be reasonably estimated. Under IFRS No. 9, the cost method is prohibited, although cost can sometimes be used as an estimate of fair value. Therefore, in general, use of the cost method is less prevalent under IFRS than under U.S. GAAP.

Question 12-11
When a company elects the fair value option for held-to-maturity or available-for-sale investments, it simply reclassifies those investments as trading securities and accounts for them in that fashion. U.S. GAAP allows companies complete discretion in electing the fair value Question 12-12option when an investment is made. The only constraint is that the election is irrevocable. IFRS only allows companies to elect the fair value option in specific circumstances, e.g., when electing the fair value option for an asset or liability allows a company to avoid the accounting mismatch that occurs when some parts of a fair value risk-hedging arrangement are accounted for at fair value and others are not.

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The equity method is used when an investor cant Answers to Questions (continued) control but can significantly influence the investee. For example, if effective control is absent, the investor still might be able to exercise significant influence over the Question 12-13 operating and financial policies of the investee if the investor owns a large percentage of the outstanding shares relative to other shareholders. By voting those shares as a block, the investor often can sway decisions in the direction desired. We presume, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, that the investor exercises significant influence over the investee when it owns between 20% and 50% of the investee's voting shares. The equity method, like consolidation, views the investor and investee as a special type of single entity. By the equity method, though, the investor doesnt include separate financial statement items of the investee on an item-by-item basis as in consolidation. Rather, by the equity method, the investor reports its equity interest in the investee as a single investment account. That single investment account is periodically adjusted to reflect the effects of consolidation, without actually consolidating financial statements.

Question 12-14

The investor should account for dividends from the investee as a reduction in the investment account. Since investment revenue is recognized as the investee earns it, it would be inappropriate to again recognize revenue when earnings are distributed as dividends. Rather, the dividend distribution is considered to be a reduction of the investees net assets, indicating that the investors ownership interest in those net assets declines proportionately.

Question 12-15

Question 12-16
The equity method attempts to approximate the effects of accounting for the purchase of the investee as a consolidation. Consolidated financial statements report acquired net assets at their fair values as of the date the investor acquired the investee. The accounting in the consolidated financial statements subsequent to the acquisition date is based on those fair values. So, if Finest had consolidated its acquisition of Penner, Penners depreciable assets would have been put on Finests balance sheet in their respective asset accounts at their fair value on the date of acquisition and then depreciated over 10 years. Under the equity method, Finests investment in Penner is shown in a single investment account. Therefore, for the equity method to approximate consolidation, it would reduce both investment revenue (as if depreciation expense were being recognized) and the investment (as if the book value of the asset were being reduced) by the negative income effect of the extra depreciation the higher fair value would cause. This would equal 40% x $12 million 10 years = $480,000 each year for ten years.

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Answers to Questions (continued)


The investment account was decreased by $40,000 (40% x $100,000). Cash Question 12-17increased by the same amount. There is no effect on the income statement. When it becomes necessary to change from the equity method Question 12-18to another method, no adjustment is made to the carrying amount of the investment. The equity method is simply discontinued and the new method is applied from then on. The investment account balance when the equity method is discontinued would serve as the new cost basis for writing the investment up or down to fair value in the next set of financial statements. IFRS require that accounting policies of investees be adjusted to correspond to Question 12-19those of the investor when applying the equity method. U.S. GAAP has no such requirement. Also, IFRS allow investors to account for a joint venture using either the equity method or proportionate consolidation, whereby the investor combines its proportionate share of the investees accounts with its own accounts on an item-by-item basis. U.S. GAAP generally requires that the equity method be used to account for joint ventures. When a company elects the fair value option for a significant-influence Question 12-20investment, that investment is not reclassified as a trading security. Rather, the investment still appears in the balance sheet as a significant-influence investment, but the amount that is accounted for at fair value is indicated in the balance sheet either parenthetically on a single line that includes the total amount of significant-influence investment or on a separate line. As with trading securities, unrealized gains and losses are included in earnings in the period in which they occur. A financial instrument is: (a) cash, (b) evidence of an ownership interest in Question 12-21an entity, (c) a contract that (1) imposes on one entity an obligation to deliver cash or another financial instrument and (2) conveys to a second entity a right to receive cash or another financial instrument, or (d) a contract that (1) imposes on one entity an obligation to exchange financial instruments on potentially unfavorable terms and (2) conveys to a second entity a right to exchange other financial instruments on potentially favorable terms. Accounts payable, bank loans, and investments in securities are examples. These instruments derive their values or contractually required cash flows Question 12-22from some other security or index.

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Answers to Questions (continued)


Since this money wont be used within the upcoming operating cycle, it is a Question 12-23noncurrent asset. It should be reported as part of Investments . Part of each premium payment the company makes is not used Question 12-24by the insurance company to pay for life insurance coverage, but rather is invested on behalf of the insured company in a fixed-income investment. As a result, the periodic insurance premium should not be expensed in its entirety; an appropriate portion should be recorded instead as a noncurrent asset cash surrender value. If the investor intends to sell the investment, or thinks it will be more likely Question 12-25than not that it will be required to sell the investment prior to recovering the impairment, the investor is required to recognize the entire impairment loss in the income statement as an OTT impairment, writing down the investment to fair value in the balance sheet. Otherwise, the investor considers whether credit losses exist. If there are no credit losses, no impairment loss is recognized. On the other hand, if there are some credit losses, then the investment is written down to fair value in the balance sheet. However, only the credit loss component is recognized in net income. Any non-credit losses are recognized in OCI. In the income statement, the entire impairment loss is shown, and then the amount of non-credit loss is subtracted, leaving only the credit loss reducing net income. If the OTT impairment relates to an equity investment, the entire amount of Question 12-26impairment is recognized in net income. Any previously recorded unrealized losses are reclassified out of AOCI. If the OTT impairment relates to a debt investment, the accounting is more complicated. First, if the investor intends to sell the investment, or thinks it will be more likely than not that it will be required to sell the investment prior to recovering the impairment, it is required to recognize the entire impairment loss in the income statement as an OTT impairment, writing down the investment to fair value in the balance sheet. Otherwise, the investor considers whether credit losses exist. If there are no credit losses, no impairment loss is recognized. On the other hand, if there are some credit losses, then the investment is written down to fair value in the balance sheet. However, only the credit loss component is recognized in net income. Any non-credit losses are recognized in OCI. In the income statement, the entire impairment loss is shown, and then the amount of non-credit loss is subtracted, leaving only the credit loss reducing net income. Given that the decline in shares relates to a new law Answers to Questions (concluded) banning a primary approach used by the company, it likely would be treated as an other-than-temporary impairment. So, when the investment is written down to its fair value, Question 12-27 the amount of the write-down should be treated as if it were a realized loss, meaning the loss is included in income for the period. This could require a reclassification adjustment if any unrealized losses were included previously in OCI, just as if the investment was being sold. Subsequent to the other-than-temporary write-down, the usual treatment of unrealized gains or losses should be resumed. Therefore, later changes in fair value will be reported as a separate component of shareholders equity, accumulated other comprehensive income. U.S. GAAP and IFRS differ somewhat. Under IFRS, OTT impairments only Question 12-28are recognized on debt that is classified as HTM to the extent that credit losses

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exist, so there is no non-credit-loss component of OTT impairments under IFRS. OTT impairments are recognized on debt classified as AFS in their entirety, with no distinction made between credit losses and non-credit losses. Also, under IFRS, OTT impairments can be recovered in earnings for debt investments, but not for equity investments.

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BRIEF EXERCISES
Brief Exercise 12-1(a)
Investment in bonds (face amount) Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds).......................................... 720,000 120,000 600,000

(b) Cash (1.5% x $720,000).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (2% x $600,000)....................... 10,800 1,200 12,000

Unlike for securities available-for-sale, unrealized holding gains and losses for trading securities are included Brief Exercise 12-2in earnings. S&L reports its $2,000 holding loss in 2011 earnings. When the fair value rises by $7,000 in 2012, that amount is reported in 2012 earnings ($5000 as a realized gain, and $2000 as the reversal of the unrealized loss that was recognized in 2011). S&Ls journal entries for these transactions would be: 2011 December 27 Investment in Coca Cola shares .......................................... Cash.................................................................................. December 31 Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S..................... Fair value adjustment ($875,000 873,000)........................ 875,000 875,000

2,000 2,000

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Brief Exercise 12-2 (concluded) 2012 January 3 Cash (selling price).................................................................. Gain on investments (to balance)....................................... Investment in Coca Cola shares (account balance).............. 880,000 5,000 875,000

Assuming no other trading securities, the 2012 adjusting entry to remove the fair value adjustment associated with the sold securities would be: December 31 Fair value adjustment (account balance).................................. Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S (to balance) 2,000 2,000

Unlike for trading securities, unrealized holding gains and losses for securities available-for-sale are not included in earnings. S&L reports its $2,000 holding loss in 2011 as Other comprehensive income in the statement of comprehensive income. When the fair value rises to $880,000 in 2012, the amount is reported in 2012 earnings is the $5,000 gain realized by the sale of the securities. S&Ls journal entries for these transactions would be:

Brief Exercise 12-3

2011 December 27 Investment in Coca Cola shares .......................................... Cash.................................................................................. December 31 Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI..................... Fair value adjustment ($875,000 873,000)........................ 2012 875,000 875,000

2,000 2,000

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January 3 Cash (selling price).................................................................. Gain on investments (to balance)....................................... Investment in Coca Cola shares (cost)..............................

880,000 5,000 875,000

Assuming no other transactions involving securities available-for-sale, the 2012 adjusting entry to remove the fair value adjustment associated with the sold securities would be: December 31 Fair value adjustment (account balance).................................. Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI................. 2,000 2,000

Brief Exercise 12-4


Securities available-for-sale are reported at fair value, and resulting holding gains and losses are not included in the determination of net income for the period. Rather, they are reported as other comprehensive income in the statement of comprehensive income. The accumulated balance of net holding gains and losses is reported as a separate component of shareholders equity, as part of accumulated other comprehensive income. The adjusting entry needed to increase the fair value adjustment from $110,000 to $170,000 is: Fair value adjustment ($670,000 610,000)........... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI. ..............................................................60,000 60,000

These are securities available-for-sale and are reported at their fair value, $4,000,000. We know this because securities held-to-maturity are debt securities that an investor has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity. Actively traded investments in debt or equity securities acquired principally for the purpose of selling them in the near term are classified as trading securities. The FedEx shares have been held for over a year. They are classified as available-for-sale since all investments in debt and equity securities that dont fit the definitions of the other reporting categories are classified this way. Of course, the equity method isnt appropriate either because 40,000 shares

Brief Exercise 12-5

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of FedEx certainly dont constitute significant influence. Investments in securities available-for-sale are reported at fair value.

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Because S&L elected the fair value option, it would classify this investment as a trading security and account for it in that fashion. Therefore, S&L reports its $2,000 holding loss in 2011 earnings. When the fair value rises by $7,000 in 2012, that amount is reported in 2012 earnings ($5000 as a realized gain, and $2000 as the reversal of the unrealized loss that was recognized in 2011). S&Ls journal entries for these transactions would be:

Brief Exercise 12-6

2011 December 27 Investment in Coca Cola shares .......................................... Cash.................................................................................. December 31 Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S..................... Fair value adjustment ($875,000 873,000)................... 2012 January 3 Cash (selling price).................................................................. Gain on investments (to balance)....................................... Investment in Coca Cola shares (account balance).............. 880,000 5,000 875,000 875,000 875,000

2,000 2,000

Assuming no other trading securities, the 2012 adjusting entry to remove the fair value adjustment associated with the sold securities would be: December 31 Fair value adjustment (account balance).................................. 2,000

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Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S (to balance)

2,000

An investor should account for dividends from an investment not accounted for by the equity method as investment revenue. Since Turner holds only 10% of ICA stock, its assumed that it does not have significant influence over the company. Turners cash increased by $500,000 (10% x $5 million). It also reports $500,000 as investment revenue in the income statement.

Brief Exercise 12-7

An investor should account for dividends from an equity method investee as a reduction in its investment account. Brief Exercise 12-8Since investment revenue is recognized as the investee earns it, it would be inappropriate to again recognize revenue when earnings are distributed as dividends. Instead, the dividend distribution is considered to be a reduction of the investees net assets, reflecting the fact that the investors ownership interest in those net assets declined proportionately. Turners cash increased by $2 million (40% x $5 million). Its investment account declined by the same amount. There is no effect on the income statement.

With the equity method we attempt to approximate the effects of accounting for the purchase of the investee as a consolidation. Consolidated financial statements report acquired net assets at their fair values. Both investment revenue and the investment would be reduced by the negative income effect of the extra depreciation the higher fair value would cause. This would equal 30% x $50 million 15 years = $1 million each year for fifteen years.

Brief Exercise 12-9

Brief Exercise

Under proportionate consolidation, Park would have included its portion of Walliss depreciable assets in the 12-10Park depreciable asset accounts on its consolidated balance sheet. Those depreciable asset accounts would be

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reduced by the extra depreciation the higher fair value would cause. This would equal 50% x $50 million 15 years = $1.67 million each year for fifteen years.

The investment would be increased by $12 million. Financial statements would be recast to reflect the equity method for each year reported for comparative purposes. A disclosure note also should describe the change, justify the switch, and indicate its effects on all financial statement items. The answer would not be the same if Pioneer changes from the equity method. Rather, no adjustment is made to the carrying amount of the investment. Instead, the equity method is simply discontinued, and the new method is applied from then on. The balance in the investment account when the equity method is discontinued would serve as the new cost basis for writing the investment up or down to market value in the next set of financial statements. There also would be no revision of prior years, but the change should be described in a disclosure note. Given Turners election of the fair value option, it Brief Exercise 12-12would account for this investment similar to a trading security, while still preserving its classification as a significant-influence investment and showing it as a non-current asset in the balance sheet.

Brief Exercise 12-11

2011

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January 2 Investment in ICA Company ..............................................10,000,000 Cash.................................................................................. 10,000,000 December 30 Cash (40% x $500,000) ........................................................... Investment revenue .........................................................

200,000 200,000

December 31 Fair value adjustment ($11.5M 10M)................................... 1,500,000 Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S (may also labeled Investment revenue)........................ 1,500,000 Note: A different approach to reach the same outcome would be for Turner to use equity-method accounting throughout the year, and then at the end of the year make whatever adjustment to fair value is necessary to adjust the investment account to fair value. Under that approach, Turner would recognize 40% of ICAs $750,000 income ($300,000) as investment income, it would not recognize investment income associated with ICAs dividend, and it would end up with an Investment account containing $10,100,000 ($10,000,000 + $300,000 200,000). Turner then would need to make a fair value adjustment of $1,400,000 ($11,500,000 10,100,000) to its ICA investment. So the total amount of income recognized would be $1,700,000 ($300,000 investment income + $1,400,000 unrealized gain). Note that this alternative produces the same total amount of investment income as is produced above, $1,700,000 ($200,000 investment revenue + $1,500,000 unrealized gain). Because the drop in the market price of stock is considered to be other-than-temporary, LED records the impairment of $450,000 ($4.50 x 100,000 shares) and reclassifies previously recognized unrealized losses of $100,000 ($1.00 x 100,000 shares) as follows:

Brief Exercise 12-13

Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S..... AFS Investment (Branch) ...............................

450,000 450,000

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Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and losses OCI

100,000 100,000

In the income statement, the entire $450,000 will be shown as an OTT impairment loss. A $100,000 reclassification adjustment will increase OCI (because the $100,000 decreased OCI and therefore AOCI in a prior period, it must be backed out of OCI and AOCI in the current period). Therefore, the net effect on comprehensive income during the current period will be $350,000.

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Brief Exercise 12-14


LED believes it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is not relevant. LED must recognize the entire OTT impairment in earnings, reducing the carrying value of the LED bonds by crediting a discount on bond investment account. LED records the impairment of $450,000 and reclassifies previously recognized unrealized losses of $100,000 as follows: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S..... Discount on bond investment ......................... Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and losses OCI 450,000 450,000 100,000 100,000

In the income statement, the entire $450,000 will be shown as an OTT impairment loss. A $100,000 reclassification adjustment will increase OCI (because the $100,000 decreased OCI and therefore AOCI in a prior period, it must be backed out of OCI and AOCI in the current period). Therefore, the net effect on comprehensive income during the current period will be $350,000.

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Brief Exercise 12-15


LED does not intend to sell the investment, and it does not believe it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is relevant. LED must recognize the $200,000 credit loss component of the OTT impairment in earnings, and the $250,000 non-credit-loss component in OCI. LED records the impairment of $450,000 and reclassifies previously recognized unrealized losses of $100,000 as follows: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S..... Discount on bond investment.......................... OTT impairment loss OCI................................ Fair value adjustment...................................... Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and losses OCI 200,000 200,000 250,000 250,000 100,000 100,000

LED still would have to include the entire $450,000 in the income statement before backing out the $250,000 to leave a $200,000 reduction of earnings. The $100,000 reclassification adjustment will increase OCI (because the $100,000 decreased OCI and therefore AOCI in a prior period, it must be backed out of OCI and AOCI in the current period). Therefore, the net effect on comprehensive income will be $350,000 during the current period ($200,000 from net income, $150,000 from OCI).

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Brief Exercise 12-16

Wickum would have recorded a journal entry previously that recognized the OTT impairment in earnings and reduced the investment account: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S...... Discount on debt investment .......................... 500,000 500,000

Upon recovery of $300,000 of fair value, Wickum would reverse the impairment by that amount: Discount on debt investment............................... 300,000 Recovery of other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S 300,000

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EXERCISES
Exercise 12-1Requirement 1
($ in millions)

Investment in bonds (face amount) Discount on bond investment (difference)......... 40.0 Cash (price of bonds).......................................... 200.0

240.0

Requirement 2 Cash (3% x $240 million)........................................ Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (4% x $200)............................. 8.0

7.2 .8

Requirement 3 Tanner-UNF reports its investment in the December 31, 2011, balance sheet at its amortized cost that is, its book value: Investment in bonds............................................ Less: Discount on bond investment ($40 .8 million) Amortized cost................................................ $240.0 39.2 $200.8

If sale before maturity isnt an alternative, increases and decreases in the market value between the time a debt security is acquired and the day it matures to a prearranged maturity value are relatively unimportant. For this reason, if an investor has the positive intent and ability to hold the securities to maturity, investments in debt securities are classified as heldto-maturity and reported at amortized cost rather than fair value in the balance sheet. Requirement 4 Cash (proceeds from sale)....................................... Discount on bond investment (balance, determined above) Loss on sale of investments (to balance)............... Investment in bonds (face amount)....................
($ in millions)

190.0 39.2 10.8 240.0

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Exercise 12-2

November 1
($ in millions)

Cash................................................................. Investment revenue..................................... December 1 Investment in Facsimile Enterprises bonds..... Cash.............................................................

2.4 2.4

30 30

December 31 Investment in U.S. Treasury bills ................... Cash............................................................. December 31 Investment revenue receivableConvenience bonds ($48 million x 10% x 2/12)........................ Investment revenue receivableFacsimile Enterprises bonds ($30 million x 12% x 1/12)..... Investment revenue ...................................
Note: Securities held-to-maturity are not adjusted to fair value.

8.9 8.9

0.8 0.3 1.1

Exercise 12-3

Investment in GM common shares Cash ([800 shares x $50] + $1,200) ................................41,200 41,100 100

41,200

Cash ([800 shares x $53] $1,300)....................... Loss on sale of investments............................ Investment in GM common shares .............

41,200

Exercise 12-4Requirement 1
2011

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December 17 Investment in Grocers Supply preferred shares ................. Cash.................................................................................. December 28 Cash...................................................................................... Investment revenue.......................................................... December 31 Fair value adjustment........................................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ([$4 x 100,000 shares] $350,000)......................................... 2012 January 5 Cash (selling price).................................................................. Gain on investments (to balance)....................................... Investment in Grocers Supply preferred shares (account balance).................................................

350,000 350,000

2,000 2,000

50,000 50,000

395,000 45,000 350,000

Assuming no other trading securities, the 2012 adjusting entry to remove the fair value adjustment associated with the sold securities would be: December 31 Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S..................... Fair value adjustment (account balance).............................. 50,000 50,000

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Exercise 12-4 (concluded) Requirement 2 Balance Sheet (short-term investment): Trading securities.................................................... Income Statement: Investment revenue (dividends)........................................... Net unrealized holding gains and losses (from adjusting entry) $400,000 $ 2,000 50,000

Note: Unlike for securities available-for-sale, unrealized holding gains and losses for trading securities are included in income.

Exercise 12-5

Requirement 1
.

Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI Fair value adjustment ($45,000 20,000) Requirement 2

25,000 25,000

None. Accumulated net holding gains and losses for securities available-for-sale are reported as a component of shareholders equity (in accumulated other comprehensive income), and changes in the balance are reported as other comprehensive income or loss in the statement of comprehensive income rather than as part of earnings. This statement can be reported either (a) as an extension of the income statement, (b) as part of the statement of shareholders equity, or (c) as a separate statement in a disclosure note.

Exercise 12-6Requirement 1
Securities held-to-maturity are debt securities that an investor has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity. Actively traded investments in debt or equity securities acquired principally for the purpose of selling them in the near term are classified as trading securities. The IBM shares are neither. They are

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classified as available-for-sale since all investments in debt and equity securities that dont fit the definitions of the other reporting categories are classified this way. Of course, the equity method isnt appropriate either because 10,000 shares of IBM certainly dont constitute significant influence. Investments in securities available-for-sale are reported at fair value, and holding gains or losses are not included in the determination of income for the period. Instead, they are reported as other comprehensive income or loss in the statement of comprehensive income. This statement can be reported either (a) as an additional section of the income statement, (b) as part of the statement of shareholders equity, or (c) as a separate statement in a disclosure note. Accumulated net holding gains and losses for securities available-for-sale are reported as a separate component of shareholders equity in the balance sheet. Requirement 2 December 31, 2011 Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI (10,000 shares x [$58 60]) ......................................................... Fair value adjustment............................................................ 20,000

20,000

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Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-6 (concluded) Requirement 3 December 31, 2012 ($ in 000s) Available-for-Sale Securities IBM shares Dec. 31, 2012 Cost $600 Fair Value $610 Accumulated Unrealized Gain (Loss) $10

Moving from a negative $20 (2011) to a positive $10 (2012) requires an increase of $30:
Balance needed in fair value adjustment Existing balance in fair value adjustment: Increase (decrease) needed in fair value adjustment: Fair Value Adjustment $10 ($20) $30

--------------------------------------------------------20 0 +10 +30 ----------------------------->

Fair value adjustment 10,000 shares x [$61 58])............................ Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI (-$20 less $10). . . 30,000

30,000

Exercise 12-7Requirement 1
2011

12-25

Chapter 12 - Investments

March 2
($ in millions)

Investment in Platinum Gauges, Inc. shares ............................... Cash......................................................................................... April 12 Investment in Zenith bonds......................................................... Cash......................................................................................... July 18 Cash............................................................................................. Investment revenue.................................................................. October 15 Cash............................................................................................. Investment revenue.................................................................. October 16 Cash............................................................................................. Investment in Zenith bonds..................................................... Gain on sale of investments..................................................... November 1 Investment in LTD preferred shares ........................................... Cash.........................................................................................

31 31

20 20

2 2

1 1

21 20 1

40 40

12-26

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-7(continued) December 31


($ in millions)

Available-for-Sale Securities Platinum Gauges, Inc. shares LTD preferred shares Totals
* $32 x 1 million shares ** $74 x 500,000 shares

Cost $31 40 $71

Fair Value $32* 37** $69

Accumulated Unrealized Gain (Loss) $1 (3) $(2)

Adjusting entry: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI ($71 69)............. Fair value adjustment ($71 69)............................................... 2 2

2012 January 23
($ in millions)

Cash ([1 million shares x 1/2] x $32)................................................ Gain on sale of investments (difference).................................... Investment in Platinum Gauges shares ($31 million cost x 1/2)................................................... March 1 Cash ($76 x 500,000 shares)............................................................. Loss on sale of investments (difference)........................................ Investment in LTD preferred (cost)..........................................

16.0 0.5 15.5

38 2 40

Note: As part of the process of recording the normal, period-end fair value adjusting entry at 12/31/2012, Construction would debit Fair value adjustment and credit Net

12-27

Chapter 12 - Investments

unrealized gains and lossesOCI for the $2.5 million associated with the sold investments to remove their effects from the financial statements. (Construction sold only half the Platinum investments so only half of the Platinum fair value adjustment should be removed. The 2.5 amount comes from 3.0 LTD - 0.5 Platinum.)

12-28

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-7 (concluded) Requirement 2 2011 Income Statement


($ in millions)

Investment revenue (from July 18; Oct. 15)..................................... Gain on sale of investments (from Oct. 16).................................... Other comprehensive income:* Net unrealized holding gains and losses on investments**. .

$3 1 $2

** Assuming Construction Forms chooses to report Other comprehensive income as an


additional section of the income statement. Alternatively, it can report this (a) as part of the statement of shareholders equity or (b) as a separate statement in a disclosure note.

Note: Unlike for trading securities, unrealized holding gains and losses are not included in income for securities available-for-sale. Rather, they are included in other comprehensive income, and accumulated in shareholders equity in accumulated other comprehensive income.

Exercise 12-8Requirement 1

12-29

Chapter 12 - Investments

Purchase

($ in millions)

Investment in Jackson Industry shares........................................ Cash ........................................................................................


Net income

90 90

No entry
Dividends

Cash (5% x $60 million).................................................................. Investment revenue..................................................................


Adjusting entry

3 3

Fair value adjustment ($98 90 million)......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI.........................

8 8

Requirement 2 Investment revenue.......................... $3 million

Note: An unrealized holding gain is not included in income for securities available-for-sale. Rather, it is included in other comprehensive income, and accumulated in shareholders equity in accumulated other comprehensive income.

Exercise 12-91.
Security B Security C Security E Total

Investments reported as current assets. Security A $ 910,000 100,000 780,000 490,000 $2,280,000

12-30

Chapter 12 - Investments

2. Investments reported as noncurrent assets. Security D $ 915,000 Security F 615,000 $1,530,000

3. Unrealized gain (or loss) component of income before taxes. Trading Securities: Cost Security Totals A B $ 900,000 105,000 $1,005,000 Fair value $ 910,000 100,000 $1,010,000 Unrealized gain (loss) $10,000 (5,000) $ 5,000

4. Unrealized gain (or loss) component of AOCI in shareholders equity. Securities Available-for-Sale: Cost Security Totals C D $ 700,000 900,000 $1,600,000 Fair value $ 780,000 915,000 $1,695,000 Unrealized gain (loss) $80,000 15,000 $95,000

Exercise 12-10Requirement 1
Accumulated ($ in 000s) Available-for-Sale Securities IBM shares Dec. 31, 2011 Cost $1,345 Fair Value $1,175 Unrealized Gain (Loss) $(170)

Moving from a negative $145 (Jan.1) to a negative $170 requires a reduction of $25:

12-31

Chapter 12 - Investments

Balance needed in fair value adjustment Existing balance in fair value adjustment: Increase (decrease) needed in fair value adjustment: --------------------------------------------------------170 -145 0 <---------------- 25

Fair Value Adjustment ($170) ($145) ($ 25)

Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI........................ Fair value adjustment ($1,175,000 1,200,000)...................

25,000 25,000

12-32

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-10 (continued) Requirement 2 ($ in 000s) Available-for-Sale Securities IBM shares Dec. 31, 2011 Cost $1,345 Fair Value $1,275 Accumulated Unrealized Gain (Loss) $(70)

Moving from a negative $145 (Jan.1) to a negative $70 requires an increase of $75:
Balance needed in fair value adjustment Existing balance in fair value adjustment: Increase (decrease) needed in fair value adjustment: Fair Value Adjustment ($ 70) ($145) $ 75

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------145 -70 0 +75 ---------------------->

Fair value adjustment ($1,275,000 1,200,000) ........................ Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI.................

75,000 75,000

12-33

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-10 (concluded) Requirement 3 ($ in 000s) Available-for-Sale Securities IBM shares Dec. 31, 2011 Cost $1,345 Fair Value $1,375 Accumulated Unrealized Gain (Loss) $30

Moving from a negative $145 (Jan.1) to a positive $30 requires an increase of $175:
Balance needed in fair value adjustment Existing balance in fair value adjustment: Increase (decrease) needed in fair value adjustment: Fair Value Adjustment $ 30 ($145) $175

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------145 -70 0 +30 +175 -------------------------------------------------------->

Fair value adjustment ($1,375,000 1,200,000) ........................ Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI.................

175,000 175,000

Exercise 12-11Requirement 1
The sale of the A Corporation shares decreased Harlons pretax earnings by $5 million. The purchase of the C Corporation shares had no effect on Harlons 2012 earnings (because the shares are classified as available-for-sale investments, any unrealized gains or losses occurring after purchase during 2012 would not affect 2012 earnings). Here are the entries used to record those two transactions: June 1, 2012 Cash Loss on sale of investments (difference)
($ in millions)

15 5

12-34

Chapter 12 - Investments

Investment in A Corporation shares (cost) September 12, 2012 Investment in C Corporation shares Cash 15

20

15

12-35

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-11 (concluded) Requirement 2 Harlons securities available-for-sale portfolio should be reported in its 2012 balance sheet at its fair value of $101 million: December 31, 2012
($ in millions) Cost, Dec. 31 Securities Available-for-Sale 2011 2012 Fair Value, Dec. 31 2011 2012

A Corporation shares B Corporation bonds C Corporation shares D Industries shares Totals

$20 35 na 45 $100

na $35 15 45 $95

$14 35 na 46 $95

na $ 37 14 50 $101

In 2011, Harlon would have had a net unrealized loss of $5 (cost of $100 fair value of $95). Moving from a negative $5 (2011) to a positive $6 requires an increase of $11:
Fair Value Adjustment Allowance $ 6 (5) $11

Balance needed in fair value adjustment Existing balance in fair value adjustment: Increase (decrease) needed in fair value adjustment:

---------------------------------------------------------5 0 +6
+11 ----------------------------->

Fair value adjustment ($5 credit to $6 debit) Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI

11 11

12-36

Chapter 12 - Investments

The adjustment has no effect on earnings. Unlike for trading securities, unrealized holding gains and losses are not included in income for securities available-for-sale. Rather, they are included in other comprehensive income, and accumulated in shareholders equity in accumulated other comprehensive income.

Exercise 12-12Requirement 1
The investment would be accounted for as an available-for-sale investment:
Purchase

Investment in AMC common shares.................................... Cash ...............................................................................


Net income

480,000 480,000

No entry
Dividends Cash (20% x 400,000 shares x $0.25).........................................

20,000 20,000 25,000 25,000

Investment revenue.........................................................
Adjusting entry

Fair value adjustment ($505,000 480,000)............................ Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI................ Requirement 2

The investment would be accounted for using the equity method:


Purchase

Investment in AMC common shares.................................... Cash ...............................................................................


Net income

480,000 480,000 50,000 50,000

Investment in AMC common shares (20% x $250,000) ......... Investment revenue.........................................................

12-37

Chapter 12 - Investments

Dividends Cash (20% x 400,000 shares x $0.25).........................................

20,000 20,000

Investment in AMC common shares..............................


Adjusting entry

No entry

Exercise 12-13

Purchase

($ in millions)

Investment in Nursery Supplies shares.................................... Cash ....................................................................................


Net income

56 56

Investment in Nursery Supplies shares (30% x $40 million) ...... Investment revenue..............................................................
Dividends

12 12

Cash (30% x 8 million shares x $1.25)........................................... Investment in Nursery Supplies shares................................


Adjusting entry

3 3

No entry

Exercise 12-14Requirement 1
Investment in equity securities ($48 million 31 million)........... Retained earnings (investment revenue from the equity method).

($ in millions)

17 17

12-38

Chapter 12 - Investments

Requirement 2 Financial statements would be recast to reflect the equity method for each year reported for comparative purposes. A disclosure note also should describe the change, justify the switch, and indicate its effects on all financial statement items. Requirement 3 When a company changes from the equity method, no adjustment is made to the carrying amount of the investment. Instead, the equity method is simply discontinued, and the new method is applied from then on. The balance in the investment account when the equity method is discontinued would serve as the new cost basis for writing the investment up or down to fair value in the next set of financial statements. There also would be no revision of prior years, but the change should be described in a disclosure note.

12-39

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-15Requirement
adjusted or closed in 2011.

1: Error discovered before the books are

The journal entry the company made is: Cash............................................................. Investments.............................................. The journal entry the company should have made is: Cash............................................................. Investments.............................................. Gain on sale of investments ($100,000 80,000) 100,000 80,000 20,000 100,000 100,000

Therefore, to get from what was done to what should have been done, the following entry is needed: Investments ($100,000 80,000)..................... Gain on sale of investments.................... 20,000 20,000

Requirement 2: Error not discovered until early 2012.

12-40

Chapter 12 - Investments

Investments ($100,000 80,000)..................... Retained earnings....................................

20,000 20,000
($ in millions)

Exercise 12-16

Purchase

Investment in Carne Cosmetics shares. Cash .................................................................................

68 68

Net income

Investment in Carne Cosmetics shares (25% x $40 million) ... Investment revenue..........................................................
Dividends

10 10

Cash (4 million shares x $1)...................................................... Investment in Carne Cosmetics shares............................


Depreciation Adjustment

4 4

Investment revenue ($8 million [calculation below] 8 years).. Investment in Carne Cosmetics shares............................

1 1

Calculations:
Investee Net Assets Cost Fair value: Book value: Net Assets Purchased $68 Difference Attributed to:

$224* x 25% = $56 $192 x 25% = $48

Goodwill:$12 Undervaluation of assets: $8

12-41

Chapter 12 - Investments

*[$192 + 32] = $224 Adjusting entry

No entry to adjust for changes in fair value as this investment is accounted for under the equity method.

Exercise 12-17Requirement 1

12-42

Chapter 12 - Investments

Purchase

($ in millions)

Investment in Lake Construction shares.............................. Cash .................................................................................


Net income

300 300

Investment in Lake Construction shares (20% x $150 million) Investment revenue..........................................................


Dividends

30 30

Cash (20% x $30 million)......................................................... Investment in Lake Construction shares..........................


Adjustment for depreciation

6 6

Investment revenue ($10 million [calculation below] 10 years) Investment in Lake Construction shares..........................

1 1

calculation:
Investee Net Assets Cost Fair value: Net Assets Purchased $300 Difference Attributed to:

$900 x 20% = $180

Goodwill:

$120

Book value:

$800 x 20% = $160

Undervaluation of buildings ($10) and land ($10): $20

Requirement 2 a. Investment in Lake Construction shares __________________________________________


($ in millions)

Cost 300 Share of income 30


12-43

Chapter 12 - Investments

Balance

6 Dividends 1 Depreciation adjustment _________________ 323

12-44

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-17 (concluded)

b. As investment revenue in the income statement. $30 million (share of income) $1 million (depreciation adjustment) = $29 million c. Among investing activities in the statement of cash flows. $300 million [Cash dividends received ($6 million) also are reported - as part of operating activities. If Cameron reports cash flows using the indirect method, the operations section of its statement of cash flows would include an adjustment of ($23 million) to get from the net income figure that includes $29 million of revenue to a cash flow number that should only include $6 million of cash flow.]

Exercise 12-18Requirement 1

First we need to identify the amount of difference between book value and fair value associated with goodwill, buildings and land:
Investee Net Assets Cost Fair value: Net Assets Purchased $750 Difference Attributed to:

$900 x 50% = $450

Goodwill:

$300

Book value:

$800 x 50% = $400

Undervaluation of buildings ($25) and land ($25): $50

a.

January 1, 2011 effect on Buildings

12-45

Chapter 12 - Investments

Because half of the fair value of Lakes individual net assets are buildings, and Lake would be consolidated with Cameron, Camerons Buildings account would increase by 1/2 x $450 = $225 million. b.

January 1, 2011 effect on Land Because half of the fair value of Lakes individual net assets is land, and Lake would be consolidated with Cameron, Camerons Land account would increase by 1/2 x $450 = $225 million. January 1, 2011 effect on Goodwill Because Lake would be consolidated with Cameron, Camerons Goodwill account would increase by $300 million.

c.

d.

January 1, 2011 effect on Equity method investments Because Lake would be consolidated with Cameron, there would be no effect of this investment on Camerons Equity method investment account.

Exercise 12-18 (concluded) Requirement 2 a. December 31, 2011 effect on Buildings Because half of the fair value of Lakes individual net assets are buildings, and Lake would be consolidated with Cameron, Camerons Buildings account would increase by 1/2 x $450 = $225 million. Cameron would depreciate those buildings over their remaining 10 year life, so Lake would recognize $22.5 million of depreciation expense per year ($225 million 10 years). Therefore, at December 31, 2011, the buildings associated with the Lake investment would have a carrying value of $202.5 million ($225 million cost - $22.5 million accumulated depreciation). b. December 31, 2011 effect on Land Land is not amortized, so its carrying value would not change from its value on January 1, 2011.

c.

December 31, 2011 effect on Goodwill Goodwill is not amortized, so its carrying value would not change from its value on January 1, 2011.

d.

December 31, 2011 effect on Equity method investments Because Lake would be consolidated with Cameron, there would be no effect of this investment on Camerons Equity method investment account at December 31, 2011.

12-46

Chapter 12 - Investments

Requirement 3 The effect of the investment on Camerons December 31, 2011 retained earnings would not differ between the equity method and proportionate consolidation treatments. Under the equity method, Cameron would recognize investment revenue based on its share of Lakes net income, while under proportionate consolidation, Cameron would include its share of Lakes revenue and expenses on those lines of the consolidated income statement. Regardless, the same total amount would be included in Camerons net income and closed to Camerons retained earnings.

Exercise 12-19
Requirement 1 Electing the fair value option for held-to-maturity securities simply requires reclassifying those securities as trading securities. Therefore, this investment would be classified as a trading security on Tanner-UNFs balance sheet. Requirement 2 Investment in bonds (face amount)........................ Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds).......................................... Requirement 3 Cash (3% x $240 million)........................................ Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (4% x $200).................................. Requirement 4 The carrying value of the bonds is $240 ($40 $0.8) = $200.8. Therefore, to adjust to fair value of $210, Tanner-UNF would need the following journal entry: Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ($210 200.8) 9.2 9.2
($ in millions)

240 40 200

7.2 .8 8.0

12-47

Chapter 12 - Investments

Requirement 5 Tanner-UNF reports its investment in the December 31, 2011, balance sheet at fair value of $210 million. Requirement 6 Cash (proceeds from sale)....................................... Loss on sale of investments (to balance)............... Discount on bond investment (account balance).... Investment in bonds (account balance)...............
($ in millions)

190.0 10.8 39.2 240.0

Assuming no other trading securities, the 2012 adjusting entry would be: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S..... 9.2 Fair value adjustment (account balance) ............ 9.2

12-48

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-20

Requirement 1

Electing the fair value option for available-for-sale securities simply requires reclassifying those securities as trading securities. Therefore, this investment would be classified as a trading security on Sanborns balance sheet.

Requirement 2
Purchase ($ in millions)

Investment in Jackson Industry shares........................................ Cash ........................................................................................


Net income

90 90

No entry
Dividends

Cash (5% x $60 million).................................................................. Investment revenue..................................................................


Adjusting entry

3 3

Fair value adjustment ($98 90 million)......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S.........................

8 8

12-49

Chapter 12 - Investments

Requirement 3 Investment revenue (dividends)........................................... Net unrealized holding gains and losses (from adjusting entry) Total effect on 2011 net income before taxes 11,000 $ 3,000 8,000

Exercise 12-21Requirement 1
Electing the fair value option for significant-influence investments requires use of the same basic accounting approach that is used for trading securities. However, the investments will still be classified as significant-influence investments and shown either on the same line of the balance sheet as equitymethod investments (but with the amount at fair value indicated parenthetically) or on a separate line of the balance sheet. Requirement 2
Purchase ($ in millions)

Investment in Nursery Supplies shares.................................... Cash ....................................................................................


Net income

56 56

No entry.
Dividends

Cash (30% x 8 million shares x $1.25)........................................... Investment revenue..............................................................


Adjusting entry....................................................................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ($56 52 million)

3 3 4

12-50

Chapter 12 - Investments

Fair value adjustment...........................................................

12-51

Chapter 12 - Investments

Note: A different approach to reach the same outcome would be for Florists to use equity-method accounting throughout the year, and then at the end of the year make whatever adjustment to fair value is necessary to adjust the investment account to fair value. Under that approach, Florists would recognize 30% of Nurserys $40 million of income ($12 million) as investment income, it would not recognize investment income associated with Nurserys dividend, and would end up with an Investment account containing $65 ($56 million + $12 million $3 million). The company would need to make a fair value adjustment of $13 million ($65 million 52 million). So the total amount of loss recognized would be $1 million ($12 million investment income $13 million unrealized loss). Note that this alternative produces the same total amount of investment loss as is produced above: $1 million ($3 million investment revenue $4 million unrealized loss).

Exercise 12-22Requirement 1

Insurance expense (difference)............... Cash surrender value of life insurance ($27,000 21,000)...... Cash (2011 premium)..........................................................

64,000 6,000 70,000

Requirement 2 Cash (death benefit)......................................................... Cash surrender value of life insurance (account balance) Gain on life insurance settlement (to balance)............

4,000,000 27,000 3,973,000

Exercise 12-23Requirement 1
Insurance expense (difference)....................................... Cash surrender value of life insurance ($4,600 2,500).. Cash (premium).......................................................... Requirement 2 22,900 2,100 25,000

12-52

Chapter 12 - Investments

Cash (death benefit)......................................................... Cash surrender value of life insurance (account balance) Gain on life insurance settlement (to balance)............

250,000 16,000 234,000

Exercise 12-24 Requirement 1


Bloom believes it is more likely than not it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and noncredit losses is not relevant. Bloom must recognize the entire OTT impairment in earnings as follows: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S..... Discount on bond investment.......................... 400,000 400,000

On the income statement, the entire $400,000 will be shown as an OTT impairment loss. Requirement 2 Bloom does not plan to sell the investment, and does not believe it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is relevant. Bloom must recognize the $250,000 of credit losses as an OTT impairment in earnings, and the other $150,000 as a reduction of OCI, as follows: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S..... Discount on bond investment.......................... OTT impairment loss OCI .............................. Fair value adjustment Non-credit loss.......... 250,000 250,000 150,000 150,000

On the income statement, the entire $400,000 will be shown as an OTT impairment loss, then the amount of non-credit loss is subtracted to leave only the credit loss reducing earnings:

12-53

Chapter 12 - Investments

OTT impairment on HTM investments Total OTT impairment loss........................ Less portion recognized in OCI................. Net OTT impairment recognized in earnings

($400,000) $150,000 ($250,000)

12-54

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-24 (concluded) Requirement 3 Bloom does not plan to sell the investment, and does not believe it is more likely than not that Bloom will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, but the entire impairment consists of non-credit losses, so Bloom does not record any OTT impairment.

Exercise 12-25 Requirement 1: Assuming Bloom has not previously


recorded a $100,000 loss Scenario 1: Bloom believes it is more likely than not it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is not relevant. Bloom must recognize the entire OTT impairment in earnings. Bloom makes the following entry: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S..... Discount on bond investment.......................... 400,000 400,000

On the income statement, the entire $400,000 will be shown as an OTT impairment loss. There is no effect on OCI, and a $400,000 effect on comprehensive income. Scenario 2: Bloom does not plan to sell the investment, and does not believe it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is relevant. Bloom must recognize the $250,000 of credit losses as an OTT impairment in earnings, and the other $150,000 as a reduction of OCI. Bloom makes the following entry: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S...... Discount on bond investment.......................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI. . Fair value adjustment...................................... 250,000 250,000 150,000 150,000

12-55

Chapter 12 - Investments

On the income statement, the entire $400,000 will be shown as an OTT impairment loss, then the amount of non-credit loss is subtracted to leave only the credit loss reducing earnings: OTT impairment on AFS investments Total OTT impairment loss........................ ($400,000) Less portion recognized in OCI................. $150,000 Net OTT impairment recognized in earnings ($250,000) So, net income will be decreased by $250,000, OCI by $150,000, and comprehensive income by $400,000.

12-56

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-25 (continued) Scenario 3: Bloom does not plan to sell the investment, and does not believe it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, but the entire impairment consists of non-credit losses, so Bloom does not record any OTT impairment.

Requirement 2: Assuming Bloom has previously recorded a $100,000 loss Scenario 1: Bloom believes it is more likely than not it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is not relevant. Bloom must recognize the entire OTT impairment in earnings. Bloom makes the following entry: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S..... Discount on bond investment.......................... 400,000 400,000

Assuming a previously recorded $100,000 unrealized loss, Bloom must also reclassify that loss out of OCI and the fair value adjustment. In 2010 Bloom would have made the following entry: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI. Fair value adjustment...................................... 100,000 100,000

So to reclassify that unrealized loss, Bloom would reverse that entry. Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI 100,000 100,000

On the income statement, the entire $400,000 will be shown as an OTT impairment loss. OCI will be increased by the $100,000 reclassification, such that the net effect on comprehensive income is $300,000.

12-57

Chapter 12 - Investments

Scenario 2: Bloom does not plan to sell the Exercise 12-25 (concluded)investment, and does not believe it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is relevant. Bloom must recognize the $250,000 of credit losses as an OTT impairment in earnings, and the other $150,000 as a reduction of OCI. Bloom makes the following entry: Other-than-temporary impairment loss.............. Discount on bond investment.......................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI. . Fair value adjustment...................................... 250,000 250,000 150,000 150,000

Assuming a previously recorded $100,000 unrealized loss, Bloom must also reclassify that loss out of OCI and the fair value adjustment: Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and losses--OCI 100,000 100,000

Note that, when combined with the other journal entries, the net effect is that net income is decreased by $250,000, OCI is decreased by $50,000 ($150,000 100,000), and comprehensive income therefore is decreased by $300,000. That makes sense, because $100,000 of decrease in OCI and comprehensive income occurred in 2010, when the $100,000 unrealized loss was recognized. Scenario 3: Bloom does not plan to sell the investment, and does not believe it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, but the entire impairment consists of non-credit losses, so Bloom does not record any OTT impairment.

Exercise 12-26 December 31, 2011:


Kettle must record an unrealized loss of $10,000 to account for the fact that the fair value of Icalcs shares has fallen from the original cost of $50,000 to $40,000.

12-58

Chapter 12 - Investments

Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI........................ Fair value adjustment ($50,000 40,000)............................

10,000 10,000

This adjustment has no effect on net income, but it reduces OCI and comprehensive income by $10,000. December 31, 2012: Kettle now must record an OTT impairment. To reduce the investment from its original cost of $50,000 to $25,000, Kettle makes the following entry: Other-than-temporary impairment loss ($50,000 25,000) Investment in Icalc.......................................... 25,000 25,000

Kettle also must reclassify the 2011 unrealized loss out of OCI and remove the fair value adjustment, making the following entry that reverses the 2011 entry: Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI 10,000 10,000

On the income statement, the $25,000 will be shown as an OTT impairment loss. OCI will be increased by the $10,000 reclassification, such that the net effect on comprehensive income is $15,000. December 31, 2013: Subsequent to recording the OTT impairment, Kettle continues to treat the investment as AFS, but with an amortized cost of $25,000. Given an increase in fair value to $30,000 during 2013, Kettle records a $5,000 unrealized gain, with no effect on net income but an increase of $5,000 to OCI and comprehensive income: Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI 5,000 5,000

12-59

Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-27

Requirement 1 HTM investment, December 31, 2011

Under IFRS, only credit losses are recognized as OTT impairments with respect to HTM investments. Therefore, Flower would make the following journal entry to reduce the carrying value of the investment from its amortized cost of 1,000,000 to the present value of expected future cash flows (computed at the discount rate that applied when the investment was purchased) of 750,000: Other-than-temporary impairment loss............... Investment in James bonds.............................. 250,000 250,000

Requirement 2 HTM investment, December 31, 2012 Under IFRS, OTT impairments associated with debt investments can be recovered. Therefore, Flower would record a reversal of OTT impairment to increase the carrying value of the James investment from 750,000 to 800,000 (the present value of expected future cash flows as of December 31, 2012, computed at the discount rate that applied when the investment was purchased): Investment in James bonds................................. Recovery of other-than-temporary impairment loss 50,000 50,000

Requirement 3 AFS debt investment, December 31, 2011 Under IFRS, the entire difference between amortized cost and fair value is shown as an OTT impairment with respect to an AFS investment. Therefore, Flower would make the following journal entry to reduce the carrying value of the investment from its amortized cost of 1,000,000 to fair value of 600,000:

12-60

Chapter 12 - Investments

Other-than-temporary impairment loss............... Investment in James bonds..............................

400,000 400,000

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Chapter 12 - Investments

Exercise 12-27 (concluded) Requirement 4: AFS debt investment, December 31, 2012 Under IFRS, OTT impairments associated with debt investments can be recovered. Therefore, Flower would record a reversal of OTT impairment to increase the carrying value of the James investment from 600,000 to its fair value of 875,000: Investment in James bonds................................. Recovery of other-than-temporary impairment loss 275,000 275,000

Requirement 5: AFS equity investment, December 31, 2012 Under IFRS, OTT impairments associated with equity investments cannot be recovered. Therefore, Flower would just view the increase in fair value as an unrealized gain, adjusting the carrying value of the investment and OCI to reflect the increase in fair value from 600,000 to 875,000: Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI 275,000 275,000

Exercise 5-28Requirement 2
The specific citation that specifies the circumstances and conditions under which it is appropriate to account for investments as Held-to-Maturity is FASB ACS 32010 254: InvestmentsDebt and Equity SecuritiesOverallRecognition Circumstances Not Consistent with Held-to-Maturity Classification. Requirement 3 FASB ACS 32010254 reads as follows: An entity shall not classify a debt security as held-to-maturity if the entity has the intent to hold the security for only an indefinite period. Consequently, a debt security shall not, for example, be classified as held-to-maturity if the entity anticipates that the

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security would be available to be sold in response to any of the following circumstances: a. Changes in market interest rates and related changes in the security's prepayment risk b. Needs for liquidity (for example, due to the withdrawal of deposits, increased demand for loans, surrender of insurance policies, or payment of insurance claims) c. Changes in the availability of and the yield on alternative investments d. Changes in funding sources and terms e. Changes in foreign currency risk.

Exercise 5-29

The FASB Accounting Standards Codification represents the single source of authoritative U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The specific citation for each of the following items is: 1. Unrealized holding gains for trading securities should be included in earnings: FASB ACS 32010351a: InvestmentsDebt and Equity SecuritiesOverall Subsequent MeasurementGeneral. 2. Under the equity method, the investor accounts for its share of the earnings or losses of the investee in the periods they are reported by the investee in its financial statements: FASB ACS 32310354: InvestmentsEquity Method and Joint VenturesOverallSubsequent MeasurementGeneral. 3. Transfers of securities between categories shall be accounted for at fair value: FASB ACS 320103510: InvestmentsDebt and Equity Securities OverallSubsequent MeasurementGeneral. 4. Disclosures for available-for-sale securities should include total losses for securities that have net losses included in accumulated other comprehensive income: FASB ACS 32010502: InvestmentsDebt and Equity Securities OverallDisclosureSecurities Classified as Available for Sale.

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CPA / CMA REVIEW QUESTIONS


CPA
d. Sales price (2,000 Exam Questions shares x $14) Less: Brokerage commission Net Proceeds Less: Cost of investment Realized loss on trading security
1.

$28,000 (1,400) $26,600 (31,500) $(4,900)

If these securities had been categorized as available-for-sale, the total loss of $4,900 would have been recognized in net income. The prior year's unrealized holding loss would not have been included (recognized) in earnings (net income), but rather would have been reported as an element of other comprehensive income. A reclassification adjustment for the unrealized holding loss ($2,000) would also be included in other comprehensive income to remove it from the balance sheet and report it in income. Note: The question asks for realized loss. This is defined as the net cash proceeds from sale minus the original cost of the investment. That realized loss was recognized over two accounting periods: Year 4 (unrealized loss) and Year 5 (realized, due to sale). Be careful when answering these questions: watch for the difference between loss realized and loss recognized.

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CPA Review Questions (continued)


2. a. Marketable equity securities (equity securities with readily determinable fair

values) are categorized as either trading securities (which are classified as current assets) or available-for-sale securities (which are classified as current or noncurrent assets), as appropriate. Because Larks investments are longterm, they are categorized as available-for-sale securities. Available-for-sale securities are reported at fair value with unrealized holding gains and losses reported in other comprehensive income and included in the balance of accumulated other comprehensive income reported in equity. The unrealized holding gain included in other comprehensive income for 2011 would be $60,000 ($240,000 current fair value vs. $180,000 prior period fair value). The net unrealized holding gain, included in the accumulated other comprehensive income as of December 31, 2011 is $40,000 ($60,000 current period unrealized holding gain less $20,000 prior period unrealized holding loss). Alternative calculation shown below. Net unrealized holding gains at December 31, 2011: Fair value at December 31, 2011 $240,000 Cost (200,000) Net unrealized holding gain $ 40,000
3. d. $116,250.

LT investments in marketable equity securities at fair value $ 96,450 Plus: Net unrealized holding gains and losses on long-term marketable equity securities 19,800 Cost of LT investments in marketable equity securities $116,250 Unrealized holding gains and losses on the non-current portfolio of investments in marketable equity securities (categorized as available-for-sale securities) are reported in other comprehensive income and included in the balance of accumulated other comprehensive income reported in stockholders' equity.

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CPA Review Questions (continued)


4. d. Since the decline in value occurred in 2010, the available-for-sale security

was reduced to fair value with a related unrealized holding loss reported in other comprehensive income in 2010. In 2011, the asset continues to be carried at the same net value but the unrealized holding loss in accumulated other comprehensive income is removed and recognized as a loss in the determination of net income since the decline is considered to be permanent. The recognition of the loss (write-down to fair value) establishes a new cost basis which will not be changed for subsequent recoveries in fair value. However, subsequent unrealized holding gains and losses will be reported in other comprehensive income.
5. d. Neither a change in fair value of investee's common stock nor cash

dividends from investee affect the investor's reported investment income (equity in earnings of investee) under the equity method. Under the equity method, cash dividends would be charged against (reduce) the investment account and have no effect on income. A change in the fair value of the investee's common stock would not be recorded under the equity method unless the change were judged a permanent and substantial decline, and then the decline would be charged to a loss account rather than investment income. These rules do not apply to investments accounted for under the equity method.
6. c. The entries should have been:

Investment in affiliate (40% x 20,000) Equity in earnings of affiliate Cash (40% x $5,000) Investment in affiliate

8,000 8,000 2,000 2,000

By erroneously recognizing the $2,000 dividend as revenue, retained earnings are overstated. The dividends should have been booked as a reduction of the investment; thus the investment is overstated.

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CPA Review Questions (concluded)


7. b. Under the equity method, the investor should reflect adjustments which

would be made in consolidation, based on the investor's percentage ownership, if such adjustment (eliminations) can be recorded between investment income and the investment account. The fair value of the FIFO inventory in excess of the carrying value would reduce net income of the investee, therefore, the investor would charge investment income and credit the investment account to reflect the decrease in income. The fair value of the land in excess of its carrying value would not affect income as it is not a depreciable asset. No adjustment would be made relative to the land.
8. a. $435,000. The equity method of accounting for investments in common

stock should be used if the investor has significant influence over the operating and financial policies of the investee. Well Company's significant influence is demonstrated by its officers being a majority of the investees' board of directors. Original cost of investment Add: Share of income subsequent to acquisition 10% x $500,000 Less: Dividend of investee 10% x $150,000 $400,000 50,000 (15,000) $435,000

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CMA Exam Questions


1. c. According to GAAP, available-for-sale securities are investments in debt

securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity or trading securities and in equity securities with readily determinable fair values that are not classified as trading securities. They are measured at fair value in the balance sheet.
2. b. Available-for-sale securities include (1) equity securities with readily

determinable fair values that are not classified as trading securities and (2) debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity or trading securities. Unrealized holding gains and losses are measured by the difference between the amortized cost and fair value, excluded from earnings, and reported in other comprehensive income. The balance is reported net of the tax effect (ignored in this question). Thus, the difference at May 31, year 3 is $8,005 ($643,500 fair value $635,495 amortized cost). This unrealized gain is reported as a credit to accumulated other comprehensive income.
3. d. Debt securities that the company has the positive intent and ability to hold to

maturity are classified as held-to-maturity. Held-to-maturity securities are reported at amortized cost. Any unrealized gains or losses are not recognized.

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PROBLEMS
Problem 12-1Requirement 1
($ in millions)

Investment in bonds (face amount) Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds)..........................................

80 14 66

Requirement 2 Cash (4% x $80 million).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (5% x $66).................................... Requirement 3 Cash (4% x $80 million).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (5% x [$66 + 0.1])........................

3.20 .10 3.30

3.20 .11 3.31

Requirement 4 Fuzzy Monkey reports its investment in the December 31, 2011, balance sheet at its amortized cost that is, its book value: Investment in bonds............................................................ Less: Discount on bond investment ($14 .1 .11 million) Amortized cost................................................................ $80.00 13.79 $66.21

Increases and decreases in the fair value between the time a debt security is acquired and the day it matures to a prearranged maturity value are relatively unimportant if sale before maturity isnt an alternative. For this reason, if an investor has the positive intent and ability to hold the securities to maturity, investments in debt securities are classified as held-to-maturity and reported at amortized cost rather than fair value in the balance sheet.

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Problem 12-1 (concluded) Requirement 5 Fuzzy Monkeys 2011 statement of cash flows would be affected as follows: Operating cash flows: Cash inflow from interest of $3.2 + $3.2 = $6.4. (Note: if Fuzzy Monkey prepares an indirect method statement of cash flows, it would have interest revenue of $3.30 + $3.31 = $6.61 included in net income, so would have to include an adjustment of $6.4 $6.61 = ($0.21) to get from net income to cash from operations.) Investing cash flows: Cash outflow from purchasing investments of $66.

Problem 12-2Requirement 1

($ in millions)

Investment in bonds (face amount) Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds)..........................................

80 14 66

Requirement 2 Cash (4% x $80 million).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (5% x $66).................................... Requirement 3 Cash (4% x $80 million).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (5% x [$66 + 0.1])........................

3.20 .10 3.30

3.20 .11 3.31

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Requirement 4 Fuzzy Monkey reports its investment in the December 31, 2011, balance sheet at its fair value, $70 million in this case. For investments in trading securities, changes in market values, and thus market returns, provide an indication of managements success in deciding when to acquire the investment, when to sell it, whether to invest in fixed-rate or variable-rate securities, and whether to invest in long-term or short-term securities. To do this, we first need to determine the investments amortized cost (or book value) at the end of the year: Investment in bonds............................................................ Less: Discount on bond investment ($14 .10 .11 million) Amortized cost................................................................ $80.00 13.79 $66.21

Then, to record it at fair value, we increase the investment by $70 66.21 = $3.79 million: Fair value adjustment......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ($70 66.21) 3.79 3.79

Because these are trading securities, the unrealized holding gain of $3.79 would be recognized in Fuzzy Monkeys 2011 income statement.

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Problem 12-2 (concluded) Requirement 5 Fuzzy Monkeys 2011 statement of cash flows would be affected as follows: Operating cash flows: Cash inflow from interest of $3.2 + $3.2 = $6.4. (Note: if Fuzzy Monkey prepares an indirect method statement of cash flows, it would have interest revenue of $3.30 + $3.31 = $6.61 and an unrealized holding gain of $3.79 included in net income, totaling $10.4, so would have to include an adjustment of $6.4 $10.4 = ($4.0) to get from net income to cash from operations.) Fuzzy Monkey would also be likely to treat the cash outflow from purchasing trading securities of $66 as an operating cash flow.

Problem 12-3Requirement 1

($ in millions)

Investment in bonds (face amount) Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds)..........................................

80 14 66

Requirement 2 Cash (4% x $80 million).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (5% x $66).................................... Requirement 3 Cash (4% x $80 million).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (5% x [$66 + 0.1])........................

3.20 .10 3.30

3.20 .11 3.31

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Requirement 4 Fuzzy Monkey reports its investment in the December 31, 2011, balance sheet at its fair value, $70 million in this case. For investments in securities available-for-sale, changes in market values, and thus market returns, provide an indication of managements success in deciding when to acquire the investment, when to sell it, whether to invest in fixed-rate or variable-rate securities, and whether to invest in long-term or short-term securities. To do this, we first need to determine the investments amortized cost (or book value) at the end of the year: Investment in bonds............................................................ Less: Discount on bond investment ($14 .1 .11 million) Amortized cost................................................................ $80.00 13.79 $66.21

Then, to record it at fair value, we increase the investment by $70 66.21 = $3.79 million: Fair value adjustment......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI ($70 66.21) 3.79 3.79

Because these are available-for-sale securities, the unrealized holding gain of $3.79 would be recognized in Fuzzy Monkeys 2011 other comprehensive income, and serve to increase the accumulated other comprehensive income shown in shareholders equity.

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Problem 12-3 (concluded) Requirement 5 Fuzzy Monkeys 2011 statement of cash flows would be affected as follows: Operating cash flows: Cash inflow from interest of $3.2 + $3.2 = $6.4. (Note: if Fuzzy Monkey prepares an indirect method statement of cash flows, it would have interest revenue of $3.30 + $3.31 = $6.61 included in net income, so would have to include an adjustment of $6.4 $6.61 = ($0.21) to get from net income to cash from operations.) Investing cash flows: Cash outflow from purchasing investments of $66.

Problem 12-4Note: Because Fuzzy Monkey elected the fair value option, these

investments will be reclassified as trading securities and accounted for under that approach. Therefore, the answers to Requirements 1-5 are the same as those to Problem 12-2. Requirement 1 Investment in bonds (face amount)........................ Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds).......................................... Requirement 2 Cash (4% x $80 million).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (5% x $66)....................................
($ in millions)

80 14 66

3.20 .10 3.30

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Requirement 3 Cash (4% x $80 million).......................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue (5% x [$66 + 0.1])........................

3.20 .11 3.31

Requirement 4 Fuzzy Monkey reports its investment in the December 31, 2011, balance sheet at its fair value, $70 million in this case. For investments in trading securities, changes in market values, and thus market returns, provide an indication of managements success in deciding when to acquire the investment, when to sell it, whether to invest in fixed-rate or variable-rate securities, and whether to invest in long-term or short-term securities. To determine the journal entry that Fuzzy Monkey must make, we first need to determine the investments amortized cost (or book value) at the end of the year: Investment in bonds............................................................ Less: Discount on bond investment ($14 .10 .11 million) Amortized cost................................................................ $80.00 13.79 $66.21

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Problem 12-4 (concluded) Then, to record it at fair value, we increase the investment by $70 66.21 = $3.79 million: Fair value adjustment......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ($70 66.21) 3.79 3.79

Because these are trading securities, the unrealized holding gain of $3.79 would be recognized in Fuzzy Monkeys 2011 income statement. Requirement 5 Fuzzy Monkeys 2011 statement of cash flows would be affected as follows: Operating cash flows: Cash inflow from interest of $3.2 + $3.2 = $6.4. (Note: if Fuzzy Monkey prepares an indirect method statement of cash flows, it would have included in net income interest revenue of $3.30 + $3.31 = $6.61 and an unrealized holding gain of $3.79, totaling $10.4, so would have to include an adjustment of $6.4 $10.4 = ($4.0) to get from net income to the correct operating cash flow.)

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Fuzzy Monkey would also be likely to treat the cash outflow from purchasing trading securities of $66 as an operating cash flow. However, if Fuzzy Monkey anticipate holding these investments for a sufficiently long period, it could classify this cash outflow as an investing cash flow. Requirement 6 The answers to requirements 1-5 would not differ if the investment qualified for treatment as a held-to-maturity investment, because Fuzzy Monkeys choice of the fair value option still requires reclassification of the investment as trading securities.

Problem 12-5Requirement 1
2011 February 21 Investment in Distribution Transformers shares ......... Cash.......................................................................... March 18 Cash.............................................................................. Investment revenue.................................................. September 1 Investment in American Instruments bonds ................ Cash.......................................................................... October 20 Cash.............................................................................. Investment in Distribution Transformers ............... Gain on sale of investments..................................... November 1 Investment in M&D Corporation shares ..................... Cash.......................................................................... 400,000 400,000

8,000 8,000

900,000 900,000

425,000 400,000 25,000

1,400,000 1,400,000

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Problem 12-5 (continued) December 31 Adjusting entries: Investment revenue receivable..................................... Investment revenue ($900,000 x 10% x 4/12)............... 30,000 30,000 Accumulated Available-for-Sale Securities M & D Corporation shares American Instruments bonds Totals Dec. 31, 2011 Cost $1,400,000 900,000 $2,300,000 Fair Value $1,460,000 850,000 $2,310,000 Unrealized Gain (Loss) $60,000 (50,000) $10,000*

Fair value adjustment (calculated above)......................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI......... 10,000*

10,000

* The $10,000 credit balance in the net unrealized holding gain is reported as 2011 Other
comprehensive income in the statement of comprehensive income. It serves to increase Accumulated other comprehensive income, a component of Shareholders equity in the 2011 balance sheet.

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Problem 12-5 (continued) Requirement 2 Income statement: Investment revenue ($8,000 + 30,000) Gain on sale of investments
Note: Unlike for trading securities, unrealized holding gains and losses are not included in income for securities available-for-sale.

38,000 25,000

Statement of comprehensive income*: Net unrealized holding gains and losses on investments Balance sheet: Current Assets Investment revenue receivable 30,000 Securities available-for-sale Plus: Fair value adjustment

10,000

$ $2,300,000 10,000 $2,310,000

Shareholders Equity Accumulated other comprehensive income Net unrealized holding gain (loss) ($60,000 50,000)

10,000

* Can be reported either (a) as an additional section of the income statement, (b) as part of
the statement of shareholders equity, or (c) as a separate statement in a disclosure note.

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Problem 12-5 (continued) Requirement 3 2012 January 20 Cash.............................................................................. Gain on sale of investments (to balance).................... Investment in M&D Corporation shares (cost)......... March 1 Cash.............................................................................. Investment revenue receivable................................. Investment revenue.................................................. August 12 Investment in Vast Communications shares ............... Cash.......................................................................... September 1 Cash.............................................................................. Investment revenue..................................................

1,485,000 85,000 1,400,000

45,000 30,000 15,000

650,000 650,000

45,000 45,000

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Problem 12-5 (continued) December 31 Adjusting entries: Investment revenue receivable..................................... Investment revenue ($900,000 x 10% x 4/12)............... 30,000 30,000 Accumulated Securities Vast Communication shares American Instruments bonds Totals Dec. 31, 2012 Cost $650,000 900,000 $1,550,000 Fair Value $670,000 830,000 $1,500,000 Unrealized Gain (Loss) $20,000 (70,000) $(50,000)*

Moving from a positive $10,000 (2011) to a negative $50,000 requires a decrease of $60,000:
Balance needed in fair value adjustment Existing balance in fair value adjustment: Increase (decrease) needed in fair value adjustment: Fair Value Adjustment ($50) $10 ($60)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------50,000 0 +10,000 <-------------------------------------------- $60,000

Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI........... Fair value adjustment (calculated above)...................

60,000* 60,000

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* The $60,000 debit balance in the net unrealized holding gains and losses is reported as 2012 Other comprehensive income in the statement of comprehensive income. It serves to decrease Accumulated other comprehensive income, a component of Shareholders equity in the 2012 balance sheet, from the $10,000 credit balance it showed on the 2011 balance sheet to the $50,000 debit balance it shows in the 2012 balance sheet.

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Problem 12-5 (concluded) Requirement 4 Income statement: Investment revenue ($15,000 + 45,000 + 30,000) Gain on sale of investments $ 90,000 85,000

Note: Unlike for trading securities, unrealized holding gains and losses are not included in income for securities available-for-sale. Statement of comprehensive income*: Net unrealized holding gains and losses on investments Balance sheet: Current Assets Investment revenue receivable 30,000 Securities available-for-sale Less: Fair value adjustment $1,500,000 $1,550,000 (50,000)

(60,000)

Shareholders Equity Accumulated other comprehensive income Net unrealized holding gain (loss) ($20,000 70,000)

$ (50,000)

* Can be reported either (a) as an additional section of the income statement, (b) as part of the statement of shareholders equity, or (c) as a separate statement in a disclosure note.

Problem 12-6Requirement 1
2011
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December 12 Investment in FF&G Corporation bonds ..................................... Cash.......................................................................................... December 13 Investment in Ferry common shares ............................................ Cash.......................................................................................... December 15 Cash.............................................................................................. Investment in FF&G Corporation bonds ................................. Gain on sale of investments ($12.1 12).................................... December 22 Investment in U.S. Treasury bills ................................................ Investment in U.S. Treasury bonds .............................................. Cash.......................................................................................... December 23 Cash.............................................................................................. Loss on sale of investments ($10 11)........................................... Investment in Ferry common shares ($22 x 1/2)......................... December 26 Cash (selling price).......................................................................... Gain on sale of investments ($57 56)....................................... Investment in U.S. Treasury bills (account balance).................... December 27 Cash (selling price).......................................................................... Loss on sale of investments ($63 65)........................................... Investment in U.S. Treasury bonds (account balance).................

($ in millions)

12 12

22 22

12.1 12.0 0.1

56 65 121

10 1 11

57 1 56

63 2 65

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Problem 12-6 (continued) December 28 Cash.............................................................................................. Investment revenue................................................................... December 31


($ in millions)

0.2 0.2

Adjusting entry: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ($10 million [$22 million x 1/2])................................................... Fair value adjustment................................................................ Closing entry: Income summary (to balance)......................................................... Investment revenue ($5 + 0.2 million).............................................. Gain on sale of investments ($8 + 0.1 + 1 million)........................... Loss on sale of investments ($11 + 1 + 2 million)........................ Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S (adjusting entry)... .7 5.2 9.1 14.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

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Note: Unlike for securities available-for-sale, unrealized holding gains and losses are included in income for trading securities. Requirement 2
($ in millions)

Balance sheet (short-term investment): Trading Securities............................... Less: Fair value adjustment................. Total..................................................... Income statement:

11 (1) 10

Investment revenue (closing entry) 5.2 Gain on sale of investments (closing entry) 9.1 Loss on sale of investments (closing entry) (14.0) Net unrealized holding gains and losses on investments (closing entry) (1.0)

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Problem 12-6 (continued)

Requirement 3

2012
January 2
($ in millions)

Cash (selling price).......................................................................... Loss on sale of investments (to balance) ........................................ Investment in Ferry common (account balance)...........................

10.2 0.8 11.0

Assuming no other transactions involving trading securities, the 2012 adjusting entry to remove the fair value adjustment associated with the sold securities would be: December 31 Fair value adjustment (account balance)...................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S.......................... 1.0 1.0

January 5 Investment in Warehouse Designs bonds .................................... Cash..........................................................................................

34 34

Problem 12-72011

($ in millions)

October 18 Investment in Millwork Ventures preferred shares ..................... Cash..........................................................................................

58 58

October 31 Cash.............................................................................................. Investment revenue................................................................... November 1

1.5 1.5

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Investment in Holistic Entertainment bonds................................. Cash..........................................................................................

18 18

November 1 Cash.............................................................................................. Loss on sale of investments ($28 30)........................................... Investment in Kansas Abstractors bonds .................................

28 2 30

December 1 Investment in Household Plastics bonds...................................... Cash..........................................................................................

60 60

December 20 Investment in U.S. Treasury bonds .............................................. Cash..........................................................................................

5.6 5.6

December 21 Investment in NXS common shares ............................................ Cash.......................................................................................... December 23 Cash.............................................................................................. Investment in U.S. Treasury bonds .......................................... Gain on sale of investments ($5.7 5.6).....................................

44 44

5.7 5.6 .1

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Problem 12-7 (continued)


($ in millions)

December 29 Cash.............................................................................................. Investment revenue................................................................ December 31 Accrued interest: Investment revenue receivable - Holistic Entertainment ($18 million x 10% x 2/12)....................................... Investment revenue receivable - Household Plastics ($60 million x 12% x 1/12).................................................. Investment revenue ............................................................... Revaluations: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI
([2 million shares of Millwork Ventures x $27.50] $58 million)..........

3 3

0.3 0.6 0.9

3 3 2 2

Fair value adjustment ............................................................ Fair value adjustment ................................................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ([4 million shares of NXS x $11.50] $44 million)........................ Note: Securities held-to-maturity are not adjusted to fair value. Closing entry: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S (NXS).................... Investment revenue ($3.0 + 1.5 + .9)............................................... Gain on sale of investments (U.S. Treasury bonds).......................... Loss on sale of investments (Kansas Abstractors)...................... Income summary (to balance)................................................... 2.0 5.4 .1

2.0 5.5

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Note: Unlike for securities available-for-sale, unrealized holding gains and losses are included in income for trading securities.

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Problem 12-7 (concluded) 2012 January 7 Cash.............................................................................................. Loss on sale of investments (to balance)......................................... Investment in NXS common shares (account balance)................

43 1 44

Assuming no other transactions involving trading securities, the 2012 adjusting entry to remove the fair value adjustment associated with the sold securities would be: December 31 Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S.............................. Fair value adjustment (account balance).................................. 2.0 2.0

Problem 12-8Requirement 1
Beale should report its securities available-for-sale in its December 31, 2012, balance sheet at their fair value, $54 million. Requirement 2 The journal entry needed to enable the investment to be reported at fair value is:
($ in millions)

Fair value adjustment ($4 debit to $5 debit) 1 Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI ($4 credit to $5 credit) Requirement 3

As of December 31, 2011, the cost of the Schwab Pharmaceuticals investment was $25 million and its fair value was $27 million. Therefore, in the year-end 2011 adjustment process, Beale must have made whatever adjustment was necessary to produce a debit balance of $2 in the fair value adjustment valuation allowance for

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Schwab Pharmaceuticals and a credit balance of that amount in accumulated other comprehensive income. Because the Schwab Pharmaceuticals investment was sold during 2012, the reclassification adjustment would have to remove that amount in 2012. Beales statement of comprehensive income can be provided as (a) an extension of its income statement, (b) as part of its statement of shareholders equity, or (c) in a disclosure note in a manner similar to this: STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
($ in millions)

Net income.............................................. Other comprehensive income: Unrealized holding gains (losses) on investments Reclassification adjustment of prior years unrealized gain included in 2012 net income Net unrealized holding gains (losses) Comprehensive income $3 (2)

$xxx

1 $xxx

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Problem 12-8 (concluded) Comprehensive income includes both net income and other comprehensive income. Net income in 2012 includes the $3 million gain realized from selling the Schwab shares. However, $2 million of that gain already has been reported in comprehensive income as an unrealized holding gain in a prior year or years when the shares value increased from $25 million to $27 million. To avoid double-counting, Beale must compensate by reducing comprehensive income by the $2 million portion of the 2012 realized gain that already has been reported. Thats what the reclassification adjustment does; it reduces this years comprehensive income by the amount that was reported previously to keep it from being reported twice. For there to be a total increase in AOCI of $1 million (from $4 million to $5 million), and the reclassification serving to reduce AOCI by $2 million, $3 million of unrealized holding gains must have occurred during 2012.

Problem 12-9Requirement 1
Purchase Investment in Lavery Labeling shares.......................................... Cash ......................................................................................... Net income Investment in Lavery Labeling shares (30% x $160 million) .......... Investment revenue................................................................... Dividends Cash (10 million shares x $2)............................................................. Investment in Lavery Labeling shares...................................... Depreciation adjustment Investment revenue ([$80 million x 30%] 6 years) ...................... Investment in Lavery Labeling shares...................................... 4 4 20 20 48 48
($ in millions)

324 324

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Calculations:
Investee Net Assets Cost Fair value: Book value: Net Assets Purchased $324 Difference Attributed to:

$880* x 30% = $264 $800 x 30% = $240

Goodwill: Undervaluation of depr. assets:

$60

$24

*[$800 + 80] = $880 Adjusting entry No entry to recognize changes in the fair value of the Lavery investment, as Runyan is accounting for its investment under the equity method.

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Problem 12-9 (concluded) Requirement 2 Purchase Investment in Lavery Labeling shares.......................................... Cash ......................................................................................... Net income No entry Dividends Cash (10 million shares x $2)............................................................. Investment revenue................................................................... Adjusting entry Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI
([10 million shares x $31] $324 million)................................................. ($ in millions)

324 324

20 20

14 14

Fair value adjustment................................................................

Problem 12-10Requirement 1
Purchase Investment in Lavery Labeling shares.......................................... Cash .........................................................................................
($ in millions)

324 324

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Net income No entry Dividends Cash (10 million shares x $2)............................................................. Investment revenue................................................................... Adjusting entry Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S
([10 million shares x $31] $324 million)..................................................

20 20

14 14

Fair value adjustment................................................................

Requirement 2 Because Runyan is accounting for the Lavery investment under the fair value option, the unrealized holding loss would be included in 2011 net income. Therefore, total effect on net income would be $20 million 14 million, or $6 million.

Problem 12-11Requirement 1 (note: requirement 1 has the same answer as


does P 12-10) Purchase Investment in Lavery Labeling shares.......................................... Cash ......................................................................................... Net income No entry Dividends Cash (10 million shares x $2)............................................................. Investment revenue................................................................... 20 20
($ in millions)

324 324

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Adjusting entry Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S


([10 million shares x $31] $324 million).................................................

14 14

Fair value adjustment................................................................

Because Runyan is accounting for the Lavery investment under the fair value option, the unrealized holding loss would be included in 2011 net income. Therefore, total effect on net income would be $20 of dividend $14 of unrealized holding loss, or $6. The investment would be shown in the balance sheet at its fair value of $310.

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Problem 12-11 (continued) Requirement 2 Purchase Investment in Lavery Labeling shares.......................................... Cash ......................................................................................... Net income Investment in Lavery Labeling shares (30% x $160 million) .......... Investment revenue................................................................... Dividends Cash (10 million shares x $2)............................................................. Investment in Lavery Labeling shares...................................... Depreciation adjustment Investment revenue ([$80 million x 30%] 6 years) ....................... Investment in Lavery Labeling shares...................................... 4 4 20 20 48 48
($ in millions)

324 324

Calculations:
Investee Net Assets Cost Fair value: Book value: Net Assets Purchased $324 Difference Attributed to:

$880* x 30% = $264 $800 x 30% = $240

Goodwill: Undervaluation of depr. assets:

$60

$24

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*[$800 + 80] = $880

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Problem 12-11 (concluded) Note: After the preceding journal entries are recorded, the balance in the Lavery Labeling investment account would be: Investment in Lavery Labeling shares __________________________________________
($ in millions)

Cost 324 Share of income 48 20 Dividends 4 Depreciation adjustment _________________ 348

Balance

At December 31, 2011, the fair value of that investment is $310 (= 10 million shares x $31/share), implying need for the following adjusting entry to adjust the carrying value of the investment to fair value: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S
([10 million shares x $31] $348 million).................................................

38 38

Fair value adjustment................................................................

Because Runyan is accounting for the Lavery investment under the fair value option, the unrealized holding loss would be included in 2011 net income. Therefore, total effect on net income would be $48 million for Runyans share of Lavery income minus $4 million of depreciation adjustment and minus the $38 million unrealized holding loss, yielding a total of $6 of income. The investment would be shown in the balance sheet at its fair value of $310 million. Note that the income effect and the carrying value in the balance sheet are the same in requirements 1 and 2.

Problem 12-12Requirement 1
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Purchase Investment in Vancouver T&M shares......................................... Cash ......................................................................................... Net income Investment in Vancouver T&M shares (40% x $140 million) ......... Investment revenue................................................................... Dividends Cash (40% x $30 million).................................................................. Investment in Vancouver T&M shares..................................... Inventory adjustment Investment revenue ($5 million x 40%: all sold in 2011).................... Investment in Vancouver T&M shares..................................... Depreciation adjustment Investment revenue ([$20 million x 40%] 16 years) ..................... Investment in Vancouver T&M shares.....................................

($ in millions)

400.0 400.0

56.0 56.0

12.0 12.0

2.0 2.0

.5 .5

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Calculations:
Investee Net Assets Cost Fair value: inventory plant facilities Book value: * $775 +5 +20 Net Assets Purchased $400 Difference Attributed to:

$800* x 40% = $320 (5) x 40% (20) x 40% $775 x 40% = $310

Goodwill: Undervaluation of inventory: Undervaluation of plant:

$80 [plug]

$2 $8

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Problem 12-12 (concluded) Requirement 2 Investment Revenue ($ in millions) 56.0 Share of income Inventory 2.0 Depreciation .5 _________________ Balance 53.5

Requirement 3 Investment in Vancouver T&M shares


($ in millions)

Cost Share of income

400.0 56.0 12.0 Dividends 2.0 Inventory .5 Depreciation _________________ 441.5

Balance

Requirement 4 $400 million cash outflow from investing activities $12 million cash inflow (dividends) among operating activities (Note: if Northwest uses the indirect method to report its operating cash flows, it would need an adjustment of ($41.5) to get from the $53.5 included as investment revenue in net income to the $12 of cash actually received in dividends and needing to be shown in cash from operations.)

Problem 12-13Requirement 1

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Millers management should decide whether it has the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the Marlon Company. Ability to exercise significant influence is presumed for investments of 20 percent or more of voting stock and presumed not to exist for investments of less than 20 percent, other things being equal. Evidence to the contrary should be considered, including participation on the board of directors, technological dependency, material intercompany transactions, or interchange of managerial personnel. Requirement 2 a. Income statement: Investment revenue ($12 million x 1/6) Patent amortization adjustment ($4 million* 10)
*([$24 million] x 1/6]) ($ in millions)

$2.0 (.4) $1.6

b. Balance sheet: Investment in Marlon Company ($19 million + 2 million 1 million 0.4 million)

$19.6*

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Problem 12-13 (concluded) *Investment in Marlon Company


($ in millions)

Cost Share of income

19.0 2.0 1.0 Dividends ($6 million x 1/6) .4 Amortization adjustment _________________ 19.6

Balance

c. Statement of cash flows: $19 million cash outflow from investing activities $1 million cash inflow (dividends) among operating activities (Note: if Marlon uses the indirect method to report its operating cash flows, it would need an adjustment of ($0.6) to get from the $1.6 included as investment revenue in net income to the $1 of cash actually received in dividends and needing to be shown in cash from operations.)

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Problem 12-14

Item Reporting Category T. M. A. E. C. N. Trading securities Securities held-to-maturity Securities available-for-sale Equity method Consolidation None of these

__A_ 1. 35% of the nonvoting preferred stock of American Aircraft Company __M_ 2. Treasury bills to be held-to-maturity __M_ 3. Two-year note receivable from affiliate __N_ 4. Accounts receivable __M_ 5. Treasury bond maturing in one week

__T_ 6. Common stock held in trading account for immediate resale. __T_ 7. Bonds acquired to profit from short-term differences in price. __E_ 8. 35% of the voting common stock of Computer Storage Devices Company. __C_ 9. 90% of the voting common stock of Affiliated Peripherals, Inc. __A_10. Corporate bonds of Primary Smelting Company to be sold if interest rates fall 1/2%. __A_11. 25% of the voting common stock of Smith Foundries Corporation: 51% family-owned by Smith family; fair value determinable. __E_ 12. 17% of the voting common stock of Shipping Barrels Corporation: Investors CEO on the board of directors of Shipping Barrels Corporation.

Problem 12-15Requirement 1
Bond Fair Value at 1/1/2011: Interest [($150,000 x 6%) / 2] x 14.21240 * Principal $150,000 x 0.50257 ** = Present value of the receivable
=

$ 63,956 75,386 $139,342

* present value of an ordinary annuity of $1: n=20, i=3.5% (=7% 2) (from Table 4) ** present value of $1: n=20, i=3.5% (=7% 2) (from Table 2)

January 1, 2011 Investment in bonds (face amount)........................ Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds)..........................................

150,000 10,658 139,342

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Requirement 2 January 1, 2011 Investment in bonds (face amount)........................ Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds).......................................... June 30, 2011 Cash [(150,000 x 6%) / 2]........................................ Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue [($150,000 10,658) x 7%] / 2 . . December 31, 2011 Cash (6% / 2 x $150,000)........................................ Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue [{$150,000 ($10,658 377)} x 7%] / 2 150,000 10,658 139,342

4,500 377 4,877 4,500 390 4,890

Note: For held-to-maturity investments, there are no adjustments to fair value.

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Problem 12-15 (continued) Requirement 3 January 1, 2011 Investment in bonds (face amount)........................ Discount on bond investment (difference)......... Cash (price of bonds).......................................... June 30, 2011 Cash ($150,000 x 6%) / 2 ....................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue [($150,000 10,658) x 7%] / 2 . Bond Fair Value at June 30, 2011: Interest [($150,000 x 6%) / 2] x 13.13394 * Principal $150,000 x 0.47464 ** = Present value of the receivable 150,000 10,658 139,342 4,500 377 4,877

$ 59,103 71,196 $130,299

*present value of an ordinary annuity of $1: n=19, i=4% (=8% 2) (from Table 4) **present value of $1: n=19, i=4% (=8% 2) (from Table 2)

January 1 initial cost Increase from discount amortization June 30 amortized initial cost

$139,342 377 $139,719

Comparing the amortized initial cost with the fair value of the bonds on that date provides the amount needed to adjust the investment to its fair value. June 30 amortized initial cost June 30 fair value Fair value adjustment needed $139,719 130,299 $ 9,420 9,420 9,420

Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ............................ Fair value adjustment...........................................................

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Problem 12-15 (concluded) December 31, 2011 Cash ($150,000 x 6%) / 2....................................... Discount on bond investment (difference)............ Interest revenue [{$150,000 ($10,658 377)} x 7%] / 2 Bond Fair Value at December 31, 2011: Interest [($150,000 x 6%) / 2] x 12.15999 * Principal $150,000 x 0.45280 ** = Present value of the receivable

4,500 390 4,890

$ 54,720 67,920 $122,640

* present value of an ordinary annuity of $1: n=18, i=4.5% (=9% 2) (from Table 4) ** present value of $1: n=18, i=4.5% (=9% 2) (from Table 2)

June 30 amortized initial cost Increase from discount amortization Dec. 31 amortized initial cost

$139,719 390 $140,109

Comparing the amortized initial cost with the fair value of the bonds on that date provides the amount needed to adjust the investment to its fair value. Dec. 31 amortized initial cost Dec. 31 fair value Fair value adjustment balance needed: debit/(credit) Less: Current fair value adjustment debit/(credit) Change in fair value adjustment needed Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S ............................ Fair value adjustment........................................................... $140,109 122,640 $ 17,469 (9,420) $ 8,049 8,049 8,049

Problem 12-16Bee Company Investment

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2011: Stewart does not plan to sell the Bee investment, and does not believe it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is relevant. Stewart must recognize the $240,000 of credit losses as an OTT impairment in earnings, and the other $260,000 as a reduction of OCI, as follows: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S...... Discount on bond investment.......................... OTT impairment loss OCI .............................. Fair value adjustment Non-credit loss.......... 240,000 240,000 260,000 260,000

2012: Stewart ignores the change in Bees fair value during 2012, as the Bee investment is accounted for as an HTM investment and fair value changes are not relevant unless viewed as OTT impairments. GAAP does not allow recovery of prior OTT impairments when fair value increases. Over the remaining life of the bonds, Stewart would amortize the bonds as if they had a $240,000 discount. Stewart also would amortize the $260,000 of Fair value adjustment Non-credit loss in AOCI over the remaining life of the bonds by crediting that account and debiting Fair value adjustment non-credit loss for a portion each period, thus gradually decreasing the amount shown in AOCI and increasing the carrying amount of the bonds. Oliver Corporation Investment 2011: Stewart accounts for the Oliver investment as a trading security, so OTT impairment accounting is not relevant. Stewart simply continues to recognize in earnings any unrealized gains and losses associated with fair value changes. Given that the bonds already have a negative fair value adjustment of $200,000, and need a negative fair value adjustment of $300,000 to adjust from amortized cost of $2,500,000 to fair value of $2,200,000, Stewart must recognize additional unrealized losses of $100,000 for 2011. Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S......... Fair value adjustment........................................... 100,000 100,000

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Problem 12-16 (continued) 2012: Fair value increased to $2,700,000 during 2012, so Stewart needs to have a positive fair value adjustment of $200,000 on the balance sheet to adjust from amortized cost of $2,500,000 to fair value of $2,700,000. Therefore, Stewart must recognize an unrealized gain $500,000 for 2012, moving the fair value adjustment from a negative $300,000 to a positive $200,000. Note that this is not a recovery of the OTT impairment, but just normal ongoing accounting for a TS investment. Fair value adjustment......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S 500,000 500,000

Jones, Inc Investment 2011: Stewart does not plan to sell the Jones investment, and does not believe it is more likely than not that it will have to sell the investment before fair value recovers, so the portion of the impairment that consists of credit and non-credit losses is relevant. Stewart must recognize the $225,000 of credit losses as an OTT impairment in earnings, and the other $575,000 as a reduction of OCI, as follows: Other-than-temporary impairment loss I/S..... Investment in Jones bonds............................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI. . Fair value adjustment...................................... 225,000 225,000 575,000 575,000

Stewart also must reclassify the previously recognized $400,000 unrealized loss out of OCI and the fair value adjustment: Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI 400,000 400,000

Note that Stewart could net the latter two journal entries together to be:

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Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI. . Fair value adjustment......................................

175,000 175,000

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Problem 12-16 (concluded) However, Stewart still would need to show on the face of the income statement the total OTT impairment of $800,000 less the $575,000 in OCI, yielding a $225,000 reduction in earnings. 2012: Stewart continues to treat the Jones investment as AFS. Therefore, Stewart would show an unrealized gain associated with an increase of fair value from $2,700,000 to $2,900,000. Note that this is not a recovery of the OTT impairment, but just normal ongoing accounting for an AFS investment. The amount of credit loss and non-credit loss is not relevant to this subsequent accounting. Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI Helms Corp. Investment 2011: Because the Helms Corp. investment is equity, Stewart bases the OTT impairment on the entire difference between amortized cost and fair value. Other-than-temporary impairment loss............... Investment in Helms equity............................. 400,000 400,000 200,000 200,000

Stewart also must reclassify the previously recognized $120,000 unrealized gain out of OCI and the fair value adjustment: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI. . Fair value adjustment...................................... 120,000 120,000

2012: Stewart continues to treat the Helms investment as AFS. Therefore, Stewart would show an unrealized gain associated with an increase of fair value from $600,000 to $700,000. Note that this is not a recovery of the OTT impairment, but just normal ongoing accounting for an AFS investment.

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Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI

100,000 100,000

Problem 12-17Bee Company Investment


2011: Under IFRS only the credit loss component is relevant for debt impairments. Therefore, Stewart recognizes the $240,000 of credit losses as an OTT impairment in earnings, as follows: Other-than-temporary impairment loss.............. Discount on bond investment.......................... 240,000 240,000

2012: IFRS allows recovery of OTT impairments on debt investments. Therefore, Stewart would record a reversal of OTT impairment in earnings to increase the carrying value of the Bee investment to the level indicated by a $140,000 credit loss. Discount on bond investment.............................. 100,000 Recovery of other-than-temporary impairment lossI/S 100,000 Oliver Corporation Investment 2011: Stewart accounts for the Oliver investment as a trading security, which under IFRS would be called Fair value through profit and loss, so OTT impairment accounting is not relevant. Stewart simply continues to recognize in earnings any unrealized gains and losses associated with fair value changes. Given that the bonds already have a negative fair value adjustment of $200,000, and need a negative fair value adjustment of $300,000 to adjust from amortized cost of $2,500,000 to fair value of $2,200,000, Stewart must recognize additional unrealized losses of $100,000 for 2011. Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S......... Fair value adjustment........................................... 100,000 100,000

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Problem 12-17 (continued) 2012: Fair value increased to $2,700,000 during 2012, so Stewart needs to have a positive fair value adjustment of $200,000 on the balance sheet to adjust from amortized cost of $2,500,000 to fair value of $2,700,000. Therefore, Stewart must recognize an unrealized gain $500,000 for 2012, moving the fair value adjustment from a negative $300,000 to a positive $200,000. Note that this is not a recovery of the OTT impairment, but just normal ongoing accounting for a Fair value through profit and loss investment. Fair value adjustment......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesI/S 500,000 500,000

Jones, Inc Investment 2011: Given that this debt investment is AFS, IFRS bases the OTT impairment on fair value rather than on credit losses. Therefore, Stewart recognizes the entire $800,000 difference between amortized cost and fair value as an OTT impairment in earnings, as follows: Other-than-temporary impairment loss.............. Investment in Jones bonds............................... 800,000 800,000

Stewart also must reclassify the previously recognized $400,000 unrealized loss out of OCI and the fair value adjustment: Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI 400,000 400,000

2012: IFRS allows recovery of OTT impairments on debt investments. Therefore, Stewart would record a reversal of OTT impairment in earnings to increase the carrying value of the Jones investment to the fair value of $2,900,000.

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Investment in Jones bonds.................................. 200,000 Recovery of other-than-temporary impairment lossI/S 200,000

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Problem 12-17 (concluded) Helms Corp. Investment 2011: Because the Helms Corp. investment is classified as AFS, Stewart bases the OTT impairment on the entire difference between amortized cost and fair value. Other-than-temporary impairment loss............... Investment in Helms equity............................. 400,000 400,000

Stewart also must reclassify the previously recognized $120,000 unrealized gain out of OCI and the fair value adjustment: Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI. . Fair value adjustment...................................... 120,000 120,000

2012: IFRS does not allow recovery of OTT impairments for equity investment. However, Stewart continues to treat the Helms investment as AFS, so Stewart would show an unrealized gain associated with an increase of fair value from $600,000 to $700,000. This is not a recovery of the OTT impairment, but just normal ongoing accounting for an AFS investment. Fair value adjustment.......................................... Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI 100,000 100,000

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CASES
Real World Case 12-1
Requirement 1 Fair Value Adjustment, AFS Investments 210 220 ____________ $138 gain 128 loss on 6/27/09 10
change over first half of 2009 ($225 loss 15 gain on 12/27/08)

Requirement 2 Intel needs to record unrealized holding gains and losses associated with its AFS investments during the first half of 2009: Fair value adjustment, AFS investment.................. Net unrealized holding gains and lossesOCI 223 223

Requirement 3 Fair Value Adjustment, AFS Investments 210


unrealized gains $225 loss 15 gain on 12/27/08

223

3 to balance ____________ $138 gain 128 loss on 6/27/09 10

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Case 12-1 (concluded) What could account for the unaccounted-for credit of $3? The most likely explanation is that there are reclassification adjustments for AFS investments that have been sold or for which OTT impairments have been recognized. If Intel had previously recognized an unrealized gain for some investments, it would have increased the fair value adjustment when it included that gain in OCI. If Intel sold or impaired those investments during the first half of 2009, a reclassification entry would reduce (credit) the fair value adjustment and OCI to remove those effects.

Research Case 12-2

[Note:

This case encourages the student to reference actual annual reports.]

The footnote that describes an investment in securities available-for-sale may be headed by any one of a variety of captions or subsumed within another disclosure note. Likewise, the caption by which the investments are reported in the balance sheet can be reported separately as one of several asset titles or included within another asset caption. Investments in securities available-for-sale will be reported as current or noncurrent assets depending on the intent of management regarding the timing of their eventual sale. Realized gains or losses are reported in the income statement if any of these securities were sold during any year reported. Investments in securities available-for-sale are reported at fair value. Unrealized holding gains and losses from retaining securities during periods of price change are not included in the determination of income for the period. Rather, they are accumulated and reported as accumulated other comprehensive income, a separate component of shareholders equity. This means an unrealized holding gain would increase shareholders equity and an unrealized holding loss would decrease shareholders equity. Because unrealized gains or losses cause changes in shareholders equity, those changes are reported in the statement of shareholders equity. [Some companies may not provide a statement of shareholders equity and may provide a statement of retained earnings instead. Unrealized gains or losses have no effect on retained earnings.] By definition, securities available-for-sale are not acquired for the purpose of profiting from short-term market price changes, so gains and losses from holding these securities while prices change are not considered relevant performance measures to be included in earnings.

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Cash outflows from acquiring these investments or inflows from selling them are reported as investing activities in the companys comparative statements of cash flows unless trading securities are included in the operating activities section. Whether they are specifically identifiable depends on the degree of detail the company uses in reporting its cash flows. Information on investing activities assists investors and creditors by indicating the direction the company is directing its funds. A disclosure note may provide information not available in the financial statements, in part dependent on how much information the financial statements provide. Often the footnote will indicate the cost of the securities.

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Trueblood Accounting Case 12-3


A solution and extensive discussion materials accompany each case in the Deloitte & Touche Trueblood Case Study Series. These are available to instructors at:

www.deloitte.com/more/DTF/cases_subj.htm

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International Case 12-4


Requirement 1 Satisfied by going to http://www.iasplus.com/standard/ias28.htm. Requirement 2 Renaults decision appears appropriate, as the company has significant influence, but not control. Significant influence is indicated by a greater-than-20% equity stake and seats on the Nissan board. Lack of control is indicated by Renault not owning a majority of voting rights or board seats and not having full rights to use assets or the obligations with respect to liabilities. Requirement 3 It is not surprising that Renault makes adjustments that take into account the fair value of Nissans assets and liabilities at the time Renault invested in Nissan. For example, if the fair value of Nissans fixed assets was greater than the book value of those assets on the date of Renaults purchase, Renault would need to recognize additional depreciation over the life of those assets when applying the equity method. This is consistent with IFRS and also with U.S. GAAP. Requirement 4 Renaults harmonization adjustments are required by IFRS, which requires that, if the associate uses accounting policies that differ from those of the investor, the associate's financial statements should be adjusted to reflect the investor's accounting policies for the purpose of applying the equity method. [IAS 28.27]. U.S. GAAP has no such requirement.

International Case 12-5Note

13, Investments in joint ventures, describes Vodafones accounting for their participation in joint

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ventures. Per Note 2, A joint venture is a contractual arrangement whereby the Group and other parties undertake an economic activity that is subject to joint control; that is, when the strategic financial and operating policy decisions relating to the activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. The Group reports its interests in jointly controlled entities using proportionate consolidation. The Groups share of the assets, liabilities, income, expenses and cash flows of jointly controlled entities are combined with the equivalent items in the results on a line-byline basis. Note 14, Investments in associated undertakings, describes Vodafones accounting for their significant-influence investments. Per Note 2, An associate is an entity over which the Group has significant influence and that is neither a subsidiary nor an interest in a joint venture. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies. The results and assets and liabilities of associates are incorporated in the consolidated financial statements using the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, investments in associates are carried in the consolidated balance sheet at cost as adjusted for post-acquisition changes in the Groups share of the net assets of the associate, less any impairment in the value of the investment. Losses of an associate in excess of the Groups interest in that associate are not recognised. Additional losses are provided for, and a liability is recognised, only to the extent that the Group has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate. Any excess of the cost of acquisition over the Groups share of the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the associate recognised at the date of acquisition is recognised as goodwill. The goodwill is included within the carrying amount of the investment.

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Research Case 12-6


Answers to the questions will, of course, vary because students will research financial statements of different companies. The responses should identify securities held that are classified as trading securities, available-for-sale, or held-to-maturity. Although a company is not required to report individual amounts for the three categories of investments heldto-maturity, available-for-sale, or trading on the face of the balance sheet, that information should be presented in the disclosure notes. If securities available-forsale are held, there may be unrealized gains or losses reported in the shareholders equity section of the balance sheet. Investments in securities available-for-sale are reported at fair value, and holding gains or losses are not included in the determination of income for the period. Instead, they are reported as a separate component of shareholders equity. Unlike for securities available-for-sale, unrealized holding gains and losses are included in income for trading securities. There may also be gains or losses from the sale of investments during the year. There also will likely be investment revenue (dividends or interest) in the income statement. The statement of cash flows will report acquisitions or disposals of investments as investing activities. Investment revenue is an operating activity.

Real World Case 12-7Requirement 1


The 2008 balance sheet reports the following two current and one noncurrent asset categories ($ in millions): 2008 CURRENT ASSETS: Cash and cash equivalents Short-term investments NONCURRENT ASSETS: Investments $4,368.3 1118.1 $5,336.1 $2,894.7 2007

$ 6,491.3

$7,159.2

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In the summary of significant accounting policies (Note 2), Merck describes its policy regarding investments classified as "cash equivalents." It is consistent with the way most companies classify "cash equivalents." CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS -- Cash equivalents are comprised of certain highly liquid investments with original maturities of less than three months.

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Case 12-7 (continued) Requirement 2 Merck (in the summary of significant accounting policies) describes its policy regarding its available-for-sale securities: INVESTMENTS - For declines in fair value that are considered other-thantemporary, impairment losses are charged to Other (income) expense, net. Declines in fair value that are considered temporary, to the extent not hedged, are reported net of tax in Accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI). The Company considers available evidence in evaluating potential impairment of its investments, including the duration and extent to which fair value is less than cost and the Companys ability and intent to hold the investment. Realized gains and losses are included in Other (income) expense, net. Given that unrealized gains and losses are reported in AOCI, Merck must be classifying these investments as available-for-sale. Requirement 3 Investments accounted for using the equity method are described in note 8. The company has ongoing joint ventures and other equity-method investments with Merck/Schering-Plough, AstraZeneca LP, and several others. Requirement 4 As indicated in the income statement and in note 8, equity income recognized by Merck during 2008 was $2,560.8.

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Case 12-7 (concluded) Requirement 5 Operating section: Cash inflows from dividends are shown in operations on the statement of cash flows, and equal $4,289.6 million for 2008. Cash flows from interest income are included in net income, and given that Merck prepares an indirect-method statement of cash flows that starts the operations section with net income, interest income is included in operations via that number. Investing section: Cash outflows from acquiring investments or inflows from selling them are reported as investing activities in the companys comparative statements of cash flows. Whether they are specifically identifiable depends on the degree of disaggregation the company uses in reporting its cash flows. Merck shows 2008 cash spent on purchases of securities and other investments of ($11,967.3) million, and cash received from proceeds from sales of securities and other investments of $11,065.8 million. The company also lists a distribution from AstraZeneca LP of $1,899.3.Information on investing activities assists investors and creditors by indicating the direction the company is directing its funds.

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Real World Case 12-8


Requirement 1 The note indicates Unrealized holding losses during 2009 in the amount of ($263) million. This amount is included in other comprehensive income. It is not the amount Microsoft would include as a separate component of shareholders equity -that amount is Accumulated other comprehensive income. The 2009 amount in the disclosure note is the 2009 addition to the accumulated amount, not the accumulated amount. Requirement 2 Reclassification adjustment for losses (gains) included in net income refers to unrealized holding gains and losses that occurred in periods prior to the period in which the securities are sold. Holding gains and losses from securities available-forsale are included in earnings when they are realized by selling the securities. When Microsoft sold securities in 2009, the entire increase in the fair value of the shares since the investment was acquired was included in earnings. The portion of that increase that occurred prior to 2009, but wasnt recognized in prior earnings because it wasnt yet realized by selling the investment, is what Microsoft refers to as its reclassification adjustment. Net income in 2009 includes the $263 million of realized losses on an after tax basis (or $263 + $142 = $405 of realized losses on a before-tax basis). However, that $263 gain already has been reported in comprehensive income as unrealized holding gains that were included in other comprehensive income in periods when price increases occurred. To avoid double-counting when those same gains are realized and included in comprehensive income via net income when the securities are actually sold, Microsoft compensates by decreasing other comprehensive income by the $263 million in that period. The basic idea is that the company only gets to report the gain in comprehensive income one time, so if the company includes it later in income, it must offset that by reducing other comprehensive income by the same amount. Thats what the reclassification adjustment does; it adjusts this years other comprehensive income by the amount that was reported previously to keep it from being reported twice.

Research Case 12-9

From Recognition and Presentation of Other-ThanTemporary Impairments, FASB Staff Position (FSP) No. 115-2 and 124-2 (Norwalk, Conn.: FASB April 9, 2009), pp. 17-19,

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1. Need to reduce net income for the full difference between amortized cost

and fair value for debt investments, rather than only for credit losses, because that better suits the nee4ds of investors: Messrs. Linsmeier and Siegel believe that to the extent there is an other-than-temporary impairment, it should be measured as the entire difference between the fair value and the carrying value of the impaired item with that change fully reflected in net income as an unrealized loss. a. Messrs. Linsmeier and Siegel believe that investors generally have opined that their preference is for the fair value of financial instruments to be reflected in net income. Messrs. Linsmeier and Siegel believe that the primary purpose of financial reporting is to serve investors; therefore, if a bifurcation of the full fair value change into credit and noncredit components is needed to facilitate bank regulators in their regulatory capital decisions, that bifurcation should be provided on the face of the income statement with both components recognized in earnings consistent with investors preferences. b. Messrs. Linsmeier and Siegel also object to bifurcating (dividing) the impairment loss into credit and noncredit components because they do not believe the expected loss approach (as prescribed in this FSP) can isolate the credit loss from other losses.
2. Likely that there will be fewer OTT impairments given the new recognition

criteria: Second, Messrs. Linsmeier and Siegel object to the change in the trigger for the nonrecognition of the full impairment loss in net income. The previous GAAP requirements permitted nonrecognition of the full impairment loss when an entity could assert its intent and ability to hold the instrument to recovery of its amortized cost basis. Instead, this FSP permits nonrecognition of the noncredit portion of the full impairment loss in net income if the entity can assert that it does not intend to sell the security and it is not more likely than not that the entity will be required to sell the security before recovery to its amortized cost basis. While Messrs. Linsmeier and Siegel understand that the

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Case 12-9 (concluded) primary objective of this change is to make the held-to-recovery concept more operational, they also recognize that a likely result of this change is a reduction in the amount of impairment losses recognized in net income. A 1991 U.S. Treasury report cited delayed recognition of impairment losses as having an exacerbating effect on the length and ultimate cost of the savings and loan crisis. There also are potential parallels to the experience in Japan when delays in recognition of losses resulted in the so-called lost decade in the 1990s. Similarly, Messrs Linsmeier and Siegel are concerned that to the extent the proposed FSP results in delayed recognition of impairment losses in net income, there also may be a negative effect on investor confidence.
3. Lack of convergence with the IASB: Finally, Messrs. Linsmeier and Siegel

believe that there potentially may be other standard-setting issues that need to be addressed within the current other-than-temporary impairment model. However, they would prefer to address those concerns in the joint medium term project with the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Messrs. Linsmeier and Siegel believe that there is a high risk that the unilateral change to the recognition and presentation of other-than-temporary impairments could create the opportunity for an accounting arbitrage with pressure for FASB and IASB standards to converge to the standard perceived most lenient. In addition, when one standard setter enacts changes on its own, there is a failure to achieve convergence of accounting standards, which continues the challenges faced by investors in comparing global financial institutions reporting under two different accounting models. Note: This dissent offers interesting opportunities for classroom discussion. Points that might come up include: 1.Political pressures on the FASB (banks were pushing hard for flexibility in recognizing OTT impairments and relegating non-credit-losses to OCI, and Congress pushed as well). 2.Potential effects of unilateral standard setting on progress towards convergence. 3.The fact that even very good accountants dont always agree on which accounting approach is most correct.

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British Airways Case


Requirement 1 Per note 2, BA treats other current interest-bearing deposits as held-to-maturity so long as it has the intent and ability to hold the investments to maturity. BA carries these investments at amortized cost, amortizing any premium or discount using the effective interest method, and recognizing gains and losses when the assets are derecognized (in other words, sold) or when impairments are recognized. This is consistent with U.S. GAAP. Per note 25, BA has 979 million of those investments as of March 31, 2009. Requirement 2 Per note 2, BA treats available-for-sale assets at fair value, with gains or losses recognized as a separate component of equity (in other words, in AOCI) until the assets are derecognized (in other words, sold) or when impairments are recognized, at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously reported in equity is included in income (in other words, reclassified). This is consistent with U.S. GAAP. Per note 21, BA has 65 million of those investments as of March 31, 2009. Requirement 3 Per note 20, BA uses the equity method, which is consistent with U.S. GAAP accounting for significant influence investments. Requirement 4 BAs approach is consistent with U.S. GAAP. Per note 20, even though BA owns less than 20% of Iberia shares, it indicates that the Group has the ability to exercise significant influence over the investment due to the Groups voting power (both through its equity holding and its representation on key decision-making committees) and the nature of its commercial relationships with Iberia.

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British Airways Case (concluded) Requirement 5 The impairment recognition that BA would use for HTM investments might differ from U.S. GAAP, as under IFRS BA would always recognize only credit losses for HTM investments and would allow recovery of prior impairments to be reflected in earnings, whereas under U.S. GAAP non-credit losses would be recognized in OCI under some circumstances and no recoveries would be allowed. The impairment recognition that BA would use for AFS investments also might differ from U.S. GAAP, as BA would always recognize the entire difference between amortized cost and fair value as an impairment under IFRS, while it would recognize only credit losses under some circumstances for debt investments under U.S. GAAP, and recoveries of AFS debt investments would be allowed under IFRS but not U.S. GAAP. Requirement 6 Per note 21, BAs investment in Flybe appears to be in equity, as BA describes the investment as 15%. The impairment wrote down the investment to fair value, as it would for an AFS equity investment under U.S. GAAP. Also, BA indicates that the impairment in 2009 was due to a further decline in fair value, associated with lower rate of forecast revenue and earnings growth than previously expected. Recognizing impairments due to such a significant and prolonged decline in fair value (starting in 2008) is consistent with U.S. GAAP (the rules for impairment recognition are ill-defined under both IFRS and U.S. GAAP).

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