You are on page 1of 23

DESIGN OF JIGS, FIXTURES, PRESS TOOLS AND MOULDS UNIT I LOCATING AND CLAMPING PRINCIPLES 1. What is Locator?

Locator is a device to establish and maintain the position of a part in a Jig and Fixture to ensure the repeatability of the work holder. 2. What are the basic rules for Locating? Positioning the locators Accuracy and tolerance Fool proofing Duplicate location Motion economy 3. What do you know about Fool proofing? Fool proofing is a concept which is followed to ensure that the part will fit into the tool only in its correct position. 4. What are the locating methods? Locating from plane surface Locating from circular surface Locating from irregular surface 5. What are the types of Locator / Support? Solid support Adjustable support Equalizing support Fixed V-Locator Adjustable V-Locator 6. Differentiate Pin and Button Locator. S.No. Pin locator 1. Pin locators are longer in length 2. Used for horizontal location Button locator Button locators are shorter in length Used for vertical location

7. What are the principal of secondary locators? Explain with example. Principal locators are generally cylindrical in shape and can locate the main hole in a component having two holes to be located. An example is the locating of a connecting rod having big-end and small end holes. The secondary hole is located by means of a diamond pin locator which is not cylindrical but has six sides. Two of its sides are curved, whose profile represents the lower limit of the diameter of the second hole. The other four sides are formed by relieving the cylinder and are of straight sides. Such locators are used when the center distance between the two holes (as in the case of connecting rod) can vary as per the specified tolerances. 8. What are the disadvantages of nesting type locators? Nesting type locators are used for specific components having profiles and therefore cannot be used even for other types of components having similar profiles. Secondly, if the profiles are complicated, the cost of machining such profiles will be expensive.

9. If two or more holes to be drilled are very close, what is the method used in providing bushing? A single bush having both the holes adjacently will be provided. 10. What is the clearance provided between the drill bush and the drill bit? The clearance provided between the drill bush and the drill bit ranges between 0.001 and 0.02 mm. 11. What are the general classifications of drill bushes? The general classifications of drill bushes is given as follows: Plain Liner bush Collared bush Replaceable Collar bush Screw-type bush Locating and Clamping bush 12. Why should the drill feet be ground after the assembly with the jig frame, rather than before the assembly? The drill feet should be ground after the assembly with the jig frame as this will enable squareness of the surfaces ground with respect to the horizontal plane. In addition, this method will ensure accuracy in angular position of the drill bushes as the height of all the jig feet could be ensured to be uniform. 13. What is the general rule to decide the length of a drill bush? The length of a drill bush should be twice the diameter. 14. Generally, it is a practice to have four legs for the drill jig instead of three. Give your explanation. It is a practice to have four legs instead of three, for the drill jig to provide for better stability of the jig, especially when subjected to large thrust of drill bit. 15. What are the principles of Locators? Workpiece may move in any direction except towards the surface of the machine table. The use of three locators to establish the workpiece in a plane parallel to the reference plane Stops prevent workpiece movement but do not locate the part in the same position each time it is placed against them. Location by use of three points in the reference plane, two points in a second plane and one point in third plane. Locator should be spaced as far apart as possible to minimize the effect of inaccuracies. Circular workpiece must be located with its axis parallel with the basic reference plane. 16. What are the types of production? Job production Batch production Flow production Mass production

17. What are the types of Clamp? Strap clamp Swinging clamp Cam operated clamp Toggle clamp Screw clamp Equalising clamp Hydraulic and pneumatic clamp Spider clamp Edge clamp

18. What is the use of Ejectors? Ejectors are used to remove work from close-fitting locators, such as full nests or ring nests. These devices speed up the unloading of the part from the tool, which reduce the in-tool time and increases the production rate. 19. What are the specific advantages of conical locators? They are used to locate cylindrical holes in components such as connecting rods and hollow pipes. 20. What are the principles of clamping? Simple clamping mechanisms should be adopted over complex ones, to save the cost of manufacturing and for ease of maintenance. Clamping parts, which are subjected to wear and tear, should be heat-treated so as to withstand cyclic operations. The material of the clamps should be so selected as to have properties like hardness, toughness and strength. Some frequently wearable parts of the clamps should be so designed as to be easily replaceable. Clamping force should be applied to a heavy part of the workpiece. Thrust of the cutting tool should be away from the clamp. Pressure pads should be employed wherever soft objects or hollow objects are to be clamped to avoid damage or distortion. 21. What is six point principle /3-2-1 principle? In 6 point location method or 3-2-1 location method, 3 pins are fixed at base, 2 in vertical plane and 1 in another vertical plane. These 3 planes are perpendicular to each other. This locator is used to hold retangular surfaces. In 3-2-1 locator 9 degrees of freedom will be restricted. 22. What are the types of clamping methods? Hydraulic clamping Pneumatic clamping Mechanical clamping 23. What type of locator used for Circular and Cylindrical surface? V Locators 24. What do you know about Nesting Locator/ Cavity Locator?

The nest locators are used to position the workpiece by enclosing it in depression or recess of the same shape in the part. Nesting locators are the most accurate method for profile location.But the nesting locators are difficult to manufacture for designing complicated shapes. 25. Write the common types of nesting locators. Ring nest Full nest Partial nest 26. What are the types of Sight locators? Sight location by lines etched on the tool Sight location by slots on the tool 27. What are the types of mechanical actuation clamps? Screw clamp C-clamps Strap clamps Swing clamps Swinging strap clamp Pivoted clamp Hinged clamp Wedge clamp Latch clamp Toggle clamp Cam action clamp 28. What are characteristics of good location? Minimum locating points should be used Locator should be of minimum size Locating point should be placed as far as possible It should have provisions for interchangeability 29. What is repeatability? Repeatability is the feature of location that permits the parts to be made with in their stated tolerance, part after a part throughout the production run. 30. What are the major constraints of locator? The major constraints of locator while designing are position, tolerance, fool proof, avoiding duplicate locators and motion economy. 31. How many planes of movement for rectangular and cylindrical surface? There are 12 planes of movement for rectangular and cylindrical surface. UNIT II JIGS AND FIXTURES 1. What is Jig? Jig is a work holding device that holds, supports and locates the work piece and guides and cutting tool for a specific operation.

2. What is Fixture? Fixture is a work holding device that holds, supports and locates the workpiece and does not guide tool for a specific operation. 3. Differentiate Jigs and Fixture. S.No. 1. Jigs It is a work holding device that holds, supports and locates the work piece and guides and cutting tool for a specific operation Jigs are not clamped to the drill press table unless large diameter to be drilled and there is a necessity to move the jig to bring one each bush directly under drill The jigs are the special tools particularly in drilling, reaming, tapping and boring operation Gauge blocks are not necessary Lighter in construction Fixtures It is a work holding device that holds, supports and locates the work piece and does not guide tool for a specific operation The fixtures should be securely clamped to the table of the machine upon which the work is done Fixtures are special tools used particularly in milling machines, planners, shapers and slotting machines. Gauge blocks may be provided for effective handling Heavier construction

3.

4. 5.

4. Write the advantages of Jig and Fixtures. (i) Productivity (ii) Interchangeability and Quality (iii) Skill Reduction (iv) Cost Reduction 5. What are the essential features of Jigs and Fixtures? Reduction of idle time Cleanness Replaceable parts or standardization Provision for coolant Hardened surfaces Inserts or pads Fool-proofing Economic soundness Easy manipulation Initial location Position of clamps Clearance Ejecting devices Rigidity and stability Safety 6. General rules for designing Jigs and Fixtures. Before planning the design of a tool, compare the cost of production of the work with present tools with the expected cost of production.

Decide upon the locating points and outline a clamping arrangement Make all clamping and binding devices as quick acting as possible Make some of the locating points adjustable. Round all corners Provide holes on escapes for the chips Provide abundant clearance, particularly for rough casting

7. What are the material used in Jigs and Fixtures? High-speed steels Die steels Carbon steels Collet steels Non-shrinking tool steels Nickel chrome steels High tensile steels Mild steel Cast Iron Nylon and fibre Phospher bronze 8. List the factors to be considered for Jigs and Fixtures. Component Capacity of the machine Production requirements Location Loading and unloading arrangements Clamping arrangements Ejectors Cost Rigidity and vibration 9. Tabulate the material list for various parts of Jigs and Fixture. S.No. Part Name Material No.OFF 1 Jig body CI 1 2 Stud MS 1 3 Drill bush Gun metal 3 4 Pin MS 1 5 Nut MS 2 10. What is the difference between a drill jig and a fixture? A drill jig locates and clamps the workpiece as well as guides the drilling tool; whereas a fixture merely locates and clamps the component. However, a milling fixture identifies the cutter with respect to the component clamped for machining by means of a setting block. 11. Distinguish between a drill jig and a drill fixture. A drill jig, in addition to locating and clamping the component, guides the tool as well. In the case of drill fixture, guidance of the tool does not take place, as there is no provision of guide bushes. Such fixtures are generally used to rolled sections requiring

fabrication. Accuracy of the coordinates of importance.

the hole to be drilled is not of prime

12. What forces does a drill bit exert on a workpiece? The forces that drill bits exert on a workpiece are: Thrust in vertical direction taken over by the table. Theoretically, no clamping forces are needed to resist such thrust. Torque due to flutes in the drill bit and the same is resisted by constraints provided in the opposite direction to rotation. In case of a breakage of the drill bit while drilling, an opposite vertical force to the thrust will try to lift the component. Actually, clamping helps in preventing such lifts.

13. Is it correct to locate drill bushes in the leaf of a leaf-type drill jig? No, as this results in errors in vertically of the drill bushes. 14. State the reasons for avoiding the clamping of a component with a hinged plate of a leaf-type jig? Many times the hinges become vulnerable against the cutting and clamping forces and may create maintenance problems. 15. Why small projections that project outside the drill jig are avoided? Small projections that project outside the drill jigs are avoided: o So that such projections do not foul with the movement of components. While loading and unloading o To avoid physical injury to the operator. 16. Complex clamping devices are avoided. State True or False. Give reasons for your answer. True. Complex clamping devices are avoided because such systems are expensive and require skill in maintenance. 17. The locating points in a drill jig should be visible. State True or False. State the reason for your answer. Yes. This will enable quicker and accurate positioning of the component before clamping . However, the same may not be feasible in all the cases. Adoption of the technique of fool proofing which makes it possible to load the component to the jig in only one unique way, may enable the operator to locate without visibility of the locating pins. 18. What is the distance between the bottom of a drill bush and the workpiece? The distance between the bottom of the drill bush and the workpiece is 1.5 times the diameterof the hole drilled m and thus is provided to enable chip removal. 19. What are the methods employed for removal of chips form the jig? Manual brushing of the jig area under the component, once the component is unclamped and removed. By properly directing the compressed air so that the chips do not get entangled in bearings and joints of the machine tool By the flow of cutting solvents.

20. Why stress relieving is done for the jig bodies, which are fabricated through welding process? Stress relieving is done for the jig bodies fabricated through welding to relieve the thermal stresses retained while welding which may cause distortions. 21. What is the hardness of a drill bush? Hardness of 60-64 Rc can be used. 22. What are the main advantages for choosing cast-constructed jig body? Complicated shapes can be cast Such bodies absorb heavy vibration and chatter while drilling operation. 23. What is the type of fit between a jig body and a liner bush? How is a liner bush of outside diameter of 20 mm dimensioned in a drawing to take care of the tolerances? How does the hole in the jig frame into which the liner bush is fitted, is dimensioned? The type of fit between a jig body and a liner bush is Interference fit. The liner bush is dimensioned as 20 p 6 . The hole is dimensioned as 20H 7 24. What is the type of jig used for drilling a number of holes in more than one orthogonal plane of a component? Box type jigs are used for drilling a number of holes in more than one orthogonal plane of a component. 25. How does an indexing jig work? Indexing jig has basically two main components: Circular index plate with either slots or grooves placed equally (or) as per the requirement in the component. Index plate is allowed to rotate about an axis and the rotation is effected by a knob fitted to the index plate. Indexing mechanism consists of spring- actuated pin or ball which is designed to engage onto the slot/groove of the index plate effecting the indexing operation in discrete steps. Each time when the indexing operation is complete, the drilling is effected. The cycle is repeated until the entire drilling operations are over. 26. What are the cost considerations in the use of a fixture? The cost of manufacture of a fixture and its maintenance cost to produce components of required accuracy should be lesser than the cost saved due to productivity gain by using the fixture. 27. Why are keys/tenons mounted at the base of the milling fixture? These are provided so as to locate the fixture with respect to the machine table. 28. What are the various types of production milling? The various types of production milling are: Plain milling Straddle milling String milling Gang milling Indexing milling

29. What are the classifications of broaching fixtures? Broaching fixtures are classified into: o Internal o External 30. What are the basic differences between a lathe fixture and a milling fixture? Lathe fixture rotates with the chuck or faceplate and therefore needs to be balanced accurately to avoid imbalances. V clamps or edge-type clamps are used so that they do not interfere with facing or step turning operations. In the case of milling fixture, the fixture is mounted on the table which moves relatively at slower speed due to the feed. However, due to enormous cutting forces and chatter, the fixture needs a very rugged clamping system. Vice-like clamps are normally used in this case. 31. How are components clamped to the fixture in a surface-grinding machine? Batch of components are placed on a horizontal plane having two fixed clamping edges, which are vertical. Two movable edges, which are parallel to the fixed edges, clamp the components firmly. Alternatively, magnetic chucks could be used to hold a set of components. 32. What are the advantages of jig and fixtures? Loading and unloading of workpiece is easy Increased productivity Suitable for mass production High/Uniform quality Cost reduction 33. What are the elements of jig? Jig body Jig feet Jig bushing Jig plate or bush plate Locators Clamps Fool proof element 34. What are the two types of Jig? Drill Jig Boring Jig 35. What are the components of milling fixtures? Frame to absorb vibration and chatter Jaws or clamps to impart ruggedness in gripping Tenons and T-bolts for clamping the fixture to the milling table Setting block to identify and position the cutter accurately in relation to the workpiece 36. Write the classifications of milling fixtures? Plain milling fixture Straddle milling fixture

Gang milling fixture String milling fixture Indexing milling fixture

UNIT III PRESS WORKING TERMINOLOGIES & ELEMENTS OF CUTTING DIES 1. How is the stock guided in press tools? A stock is guided in press tools by a set of guiding pins located at the edges of strip or by providing channel stripper which will have a recess in the form of channel to guide the strip. 2. What does an OBI press mean? An OBI press means Open Back Inclinable press, which facilitates the falling of parts by gravity. It is generally used for blanking and piercing of small components. It is used for lower ranges of press capacities from 1 tonnes to 150 tonnes. Larger press capacities are of solid gap frame type. 3. What is a double-action press? A double-action press is one in which holding and subsequent blanking are done in two strokes of a hydraulic press. 4. How does a stock stop function in a manually-fed press tool operation? Pin-type or cylindrical stops are provided at the end of the blanking operation, and they stop the strip movement by being in contact with the previously sheared edge of the strip. If the movement is needed subsequent to the blanking, the strip is manually moved over the stop up to the distance of lead or advance of the strip and the sheared edge of the strip is once again allowed to butt against the stop. 5. What is meant by a compound die? Where the piercing and blanking done in single operation and in single station. 6. What is the difference between strippers, ejectors and knockouts? Strippers are meant to restrict the strip at the die surface itself without being lifted up. Ejectors, otherwise called as pressure pads, are used in drawing and bending jobs, and act as cushion at the die while the punch moves up or down, and enable ejection of the component after the forming operation is completed. Knockouts are specific devices identified and fitted with punches and perform the operation of pushing out the blank after the shearing operation is over. 7. What is the difference between coining and embossing? Both are same with respect to plastic yielding of the surface of the blank to create desired imprints on the surface. However, in the case of coining, the process is done on both sides with retainer rings provided on the edges to contain the shape. Further, the squeezing needed in coining is enormous (compressive force), so as to create projections on both sides of the coin. In embossing, projections are created in one side only by means of plastic indentation of the punch.

8. What is the advantage of air-bend dies? It is a simple V bending operation done without the component touching the bottom of the die. 9. What is meant by centre of pressure? Whenever unsymmetrical objects are blanked, the resultant force due to press action on the profile of the object need not act at the centroid or the geometric centre. Therefore, if the ram of the press is located at the geometric center, there is a likelihood of buckling loads induced to the press ram. This is not desirable. It is imperative, therefore, to determine the point at which the resultant force acts, which is otherwise called the centre of pressure to locate the ram at that point. 10. What is the difference between direct and indirect piloting? Direct piloting is one which is fixed to the punch for locating pierced holes, whereas indirect piloting registers the hole prior to punching. 11. What causes the burnished surface (often referred to as cut hand) that appears on the walls of the pierced hole and slug? The burnished surface is caused due to very close clearance between the die and the punch (say 1-2% of the thickness of the strip/component on either side of the punch) 12. What is the function of a knockout rod? The function of a knockout rod is to facilitate the removal of the blank/component subsequent to the blanking operation. 13. What is the type of force coming on the punch? How are the punches designed? The types of forces coming on the punch are mainly compressive forces. Punches are designed based on the profile to be formed. The length of a punch is decided to be the same as that of one of the sides of the blank. In the case of circular punch, the length will be equal to the diameter of the punch. 14. What is the difference between a fixed and a floating stripper? A fixed stripper is screwed on to the die block, whereas a floating stripper is suspended from a punch holder assembly through a set of spring assemblies, so as to exert optimum pressure on the strip. 15. What is the function of the air-vent provided on the punch of a drawing die? The function of the air-vent is to avoid formation of vacuum between the punch and the blank interface, making it easy for removal. 16. What is an automatic stop? An automatic stop is a spring-actuated stopper located subsequence to the final die station in a progressive die, so as to arrest the movement of the strip when the punching/piercing/blanking operation is to take place. These are generally bought out devices. 17. What is an inverted die? What as its advantage? When the drawing operation is carried out upside down with the punch being at the bottom in an inverted position and the die moves up and down, then it is known as an inverted die. The advantage is that the deep drawn tubes can be produced with much better accuracy and the ejection of the component can be carried out with ease.

18. What is notching? To create V-shaped cut profiles at the edges of strips by shearing. An example is keys having serrations either on single side or on both sides. 19. What is the difference between parting and cutting? Parting means dividing the strip through shearing in the two sides of the punch, whereas cutting is done for trimming the scrap by shearing one side of the strip. 20. What is the effect of excessive clearance between the punch and die cutting operations? The effect is plastically deformed shape of the blank without the edges being straight and burr-free. 21. What is triple-action press? A triple-action press is one which has the following three features: Holding or gripping action outer concentric ring Controlled movement of the punch Centre of pressure for fine blanking action as well as for ejection of the component. 22. What are the different methods of attaching pilots to punches? The different methods of attaching pilots to punches are: By directly screwing on to the punch By having spring cushion (assembled inside the bore made in the punch) on the spindle connecting the pilot and the punch, so as to act as a registering device on to the already pierced hole. 23. What are the elements of mechanical presses? Capacity Press action Mechanism of slide operation Frame design 24. What are the types of common presses? Fly press Open back inclinable press(O.B.I) Straight side single crank press Eccentric or end wheel press Double action crank press One point press Two point press Double and triple action press Friction screw press Hydraulic press 25. What are the press working operations? Blanking, Piercing, Bending, Swaging, Drawing, Planishing, Coining, Embossing. 26. Mention the principle accessories of common press. Base, C-Frame, Ram, Pitman, Crankshaft, Crown, Clutch, Brake, Tie rods 27. What is bending?

Producing three dimensional shape of blank without altering the thickness is named bending. The form produced may be with curve or with sharp corner. 28. What is mean by Swaging? Thinning of portion of work piece is named as swaging. This is also named as upsetting operation. 29. What is Drawing? Three dimensional shape produced by stretching the sheet in the form of a cup or a dish is named as drawing operation. 30. What do you know about Planishing? Flattering the work piece between the flat face of die and punch to remove wrinkles or burrs is termed as planishing operation. This is sometimes carried out to reduce the thickness of the sheet. 31. What is mean by Coining? Producing a design on a piece of thick metal on one or both sides when brought in between the die and punch is called coining operation. The coins are minted by this process. The Indians call coins as Chotta paisa in Hindi. 32. What is Embossing? Forming a design or letters on one side on a thin sheet of metal piece where the impressions are visible on both sides is termed as embossing operation. 33. What are types of Fixtures? Turning fixtures, Grinding fixtures, Broaching fixtures,Welding fixtures, Modular fixtures, Inspection fixtures, Painting fixtures. 34. What is modular fixtures? Whenever the size and shape of the component or workpiece changes, dedicated fixtures may not be suitable, particularly in cases like fabrication work involving welding frames, and also in assembly requirements which require comparatively less clamping forces. 35. Write the advantages of modular fixture. The most significant cost factor in operations such as welding is fit-up.80-85% of the welding process is spent arranging and aligning the weldment. Precise and flexible fixtures can dramatically improve production. Modular fixture is ideal for small- run production of 2-2000 pieces, job shops(whose work changes form job to job), and prototype work. Modular fixtures eliminate the time and money spent in designing, building, and storing dedicated fixtures. Dedicated fixtures are readily designed and are often poorly tooled. Modular fixtures are flexible and versatile. This offers a comprehensive solution for work-holding and precise positioning in a welding fixture.

Modular fixtures could be used in conjunction with computer algorithms, so as to be effective in locating and clamping polynomial components.

36. What are the disadvantages of modular fixture? Dedicated fixtures can be used for mass production of components, viz. for more than 10,000 components, without having to maintain the same. Dedicated fixtures can be designed for much higher cutting forces, whereas modular fixtures have limitations in this aspect. UNIT IV BENDING FORMING AND DRAWING DIES 1. What is the difference between bending, forming and drawing? All the three involve plastic yielding due to tension. However, bending involves angular bending of strips and sheets; whereas forming involves bending of sheets in curves of polynomial shapes. The shapes thus produced can have better stiffness, and therefore can be utilized for structural stiffeners in various applications. It involves complex die designs. In the case of drawing, which is used mainly for manufacture of tubes, cups etc., tensile yielding is effected only in the drawn tube or cylindrical portion. The bottom portion in not strained. However, the top flange is subjected to compressive stresses and hoop strains. 2. What is the function of draw die ring? The function of draw die ring is to hold the flange portion, so as to effect the drawing of the cup or tube. This eliminates the formation of wrinkles at the flanges, as it forms a grip while drawing. 3. What is a disappearing pin? Where is it used? A disappearing pin is used to act as a stopper in blanking jobs. The stopper works to stop the strip movement while the strip moves from one station to another, as in the case of progressive dies. The stopper projects at the recessed portion of the strip and dips itself while the strip moves. 4. What are the methods of reducing spring back? Spring back can be reduced by ironing, by corner setting and by having negative camber at the bottom of the die. 5. What is meant by air-bending? Air-bending means bending the strip by a punch using the span of the die block, without the strip actually making contact with the die surface. 6. What is the purpose of primary stops? The purpose of primary stops is to stop the strip in the beginning of the operation in a progressive die. 7. What is meant by curling? Curling is the process of forming the strip end in a circular fashion, so that it forms a complete loop. It is used in hinges and in certain utensils requiring smooth curly edges. 8. What is meant by a wiping die?

It is the bending die wherein the bent portion is perpendicular to the original blank. In other words, the bent segment is vertical and is formed due to vertical movement of wiping die. 9. In sheet metal piercing and blanking, what is meant by penetration? It is the distance traveled by the blanking or piercing die to complete the shearing action on the component, so as to enable the fracture to follow. 10. What is a trigger stop? A trigger stop is a stop which is actuated by spring force, which in turn can be initiated by the operator. 11. What is an air-cushion? What is the advantage of air-cushion? Air-cushion is one in which the pressure pads are provided with air-pressure at their bottom to carry out operations in a compound die. 12. What is the force required for channel bending? Force required for channel bending = (0.67L t2s)/W, where L is the length of the bent strip, t, the thickness of the stock, S the ultimate strength of the material used, and W the width of the channel. 13. What type of press is used for air-bending? Press brakes are used for air-bending. Single-action straight-side eccemtroc shaft mechanical presses can be employed 14. What is meant by lancing? Lancing is the process of shearing of strip in three sides of a rectangle and bending the strip about one of the sides not sheared. It is used for specific applications. 15. What is a combination die? A combination die is one which performs blanking and bending in one station in a single press. 16. What is meant by shut height of a press? Shut height is the distance between the top of the top bolster to the bottom of the die shoe when the press tool is in shut position or in closed position. 17. What is mean by angular clearance? The cylindrical hole at the blanking and piercing die is not designed to be exactly true. In other words, they are ground conical. The angle subtended by the vertical face of the cylinder varies from 0.5 to 1.5 so that the blank punched is ejected out with ease and the angle enables the adequate clearance for the required eviction of the blank, particularly to account for certain spring back of the blanked component. 18. What is meant by stretch forming? The process of elastically stretching a strip by gripping on two edges and applying pressure at the centre in a form required is known as stretch forming. 19. What is meant by fool proofing of a die block? Fool proofing of a die block is a unique way of feeding the strip for any press tool operation.

20. What is meant by a finger stop? Finger stop is the primary stop provided initially at the start of strip processing, particularly in progressive dies. This enables stopping of the strip in the initial operations in the first few stations before the strip reaches the automatic stop at the end. 21. What is the difference between direct and indirect knockout? Knockout provided at the punch to push out the stock or blank is known as a direct knockout; whereas in the indirect knockout the same is provided at the die, particularly used in bending and drawing jobs. 22. What is meant by fine blanking? Fine blanking means precise blanking operation requiring closer clearances between the punch and the die, so as to produce burr-free surface of the component. Triple action hydraulic presses requiring holding, drawing and ejection actions are performed to produce such components. 23. What are advantages of bottoming dies compared to air dies? The advantages of bottoming dies compared to air dies is that spring back of the component can be minimized while bending operations are performed in components such as V bends, channel bends etc. 24. What are the advantages of compound die compared to progressive die? Compound die performs blanking and piercing operations in single station of the die, whereas progressive die performs in successive stations calling for more die area. Secondly, in the compound die, the concentricity errors of pierced hole and the blank are minimal as both these operations take place in the same station. The third advantage is the increased productivity of the die for specific applications. 25. How do you determine the number of stations required for a progressive die? The number of stations required for a progressive die depends on the total number of piercing and blanking operations needed to complete the work piece. 26. What is the difference between swaging and bulging? Swaging is the process of forming a component at any one of its ends to reduce the cross-sectional area, whereas bulging is done over the entire internal surface of a component either by fluid pressure or by using polyurethane foam. 27. What is the type of press used for drawing? Why? Combination die which does blanking as well as drawing in one operation is used for drawing. This is done to achieve better alignment of the drawn product. Inverted dies are best suited for drawing operations. 28. What are the defects in drawn components? The defects in drawn components are of the following types: Spring back Wrinkles on the flange portion Excessive thinning of the drawn tube Burrs on the outer edge of the flange Cracks formed due to the fact that the formability criteria are exceeded.

29. What is ironing with respect to drawing operation? Ironing means application of lateral pressure on to the drawn tube by reducing the clearance between the punch and the die. This can be done by having wear pads at the outer side of the drawn component. Secondly, ironing can also be done by introducing all round projections in the punch along its edges. This will ensure plastic deformation at the corners of the drawn tube or component eliminating release of elastic strain. 30. What is meant by reverse redrawing? In the reverse redrawing process, the redrawing operation is performed on the component in a direction opposite to that of drawing. 31. What is the effect of insufficient clearance between the punch and the die in a cutting operation? The effect is excessive shearing force causing undue wear and tear of the punch and die. 32. What is the advantage of reversed redrawing? The advantage of reversed redrawing is that it ensures circularity of the drawn cup throughout the length and also ensures axial straightness. UNIT V DESIGN OF MOULDS 1. What is the use of Moulds and dies? Moulds and dies are unique tools used to manufacture the majority of plastics and metal products by applying different material processing techniques 2. Name few molding techniques. Injection Extrusion Blowing Printing Pressing Foundry etc. 3. What is Die casting? Die castings are among the highest volume, mass-produced items manufactured by the metalworking industry. They can be found in thousands of consumer, commercial and industrial products. Die cast parts are important components of products ranging from automotive to toys. Parts can be as simple as a trowel handle or a complex engine block. 4. Why die castings used in manufacturing? A versatile process for producing engineered metal parts, die casting calls for forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable steel molds. These molds, called dies, can be designed to produce complex shapes with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. Parts can be sharply defined, with smooth or textured surfaces, and are suitable for a wide variety of attractive and serviceable finishes. 5. What are the Die Casting Advantages? High-speed production Die casting provides complex shapes within closer tolerances than many other mass production processes. Little or no machining is required, and thousands of identical castings can be produced before additional tooling is required.

Dimensional accuracy and stability Die casting produces parts that are durable and dimensionally stable, while maintaining close tolerances. Strength and weight Die cast parts are stronger than plastic injection moldings having the same dimensions. Thin-wall castings are stronger and lighter than those possible with other casting methods. Plus, because die castings do not consist of separate parts welded or fastened together, the strength is that of the alloy rather than the joining process. Multiple finishing techniques Die cast parts can be produced with smooth or textured surfaces, and they are easily plated or finished with a minimum of surface preparation. Simplified Assembly Die castings provide integral fastening elements, such as bosses and studs. Holes can be cored and made to tap drill sizes, or external threads can be cast. 6. What are the Benefits of die casting vs. plastic molding techniques? Die casting produces stronger parts with closer tolerances that have greater stability and durability. Die cast parts have greater resistance to temperature extremes and superior electrical properties. 7. What are the Benefits of die casting vs. sand casting? Die casting produces parts with thinner walls, closer dimensional tolerances and smoother surfaces. Production is faster, and labor costs per casting are lower. Finishing costs are also less. 8. What are the Benefits of die casting vs. permanent mold techniques? Die casting offers the same advantages versus permanent molding as it does compared with sand casting. 9. What are the Benefits of die casting vs. forging? Die casting produces more complex shapes with closer tolerances, thinner walls and lower finishing costs. Intricate internal passages are not possible without additional machining operations in a forging. 10. What are the Benefits of die casting vs. stamping techniques? Die casting produces complex shapes with variations possible in section thickness. One casting may replace several stampings, resulting in reduced assembly time and cost. 11. What are the Benefits of die casting vs. screw machine products? Die casting produces shapes that are difficult or impossible from bar or tubular stock, while maintaining tolerances without tooling adjustments. Die casting requires fewer operations and reduces waste and scrap. 12. Choose the proper alloy for die casting. Each of the metal alloys available for die casting offer particular advantages for the completed part. Magnesium The easiest alloys to machine, magnesium has an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and are the lightest alloys commonly die cast. Aluminum These alloys are lightweight, while possessing high dimensional stability for complex shapes and thin walls. Aluminum alloys have good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as strength at high temperatures.

Zinc The easiest alloys to cast, zinc offers high durability, high impact strength and is easily platable. Zinc is economical for small parts, has a low melting point and promotes long die life. Copper (Bronze) These alloys possess high hardness, high corrosion resistance and the highest mechanical properties of alloys cast. Copper alloys offer excellent wear resistance and dimensional stability, with strength approaching that of steel parts. 13. Discuss the Die casting process. The basic die casting process consists of injecting molten metal under high pressure into a steel mold called a die. Die casting machines are typically rated in clamping tons equal to the amount of pressure they can exert on the die. Machine sizes range from 200 tons to 5,000 tons. Regardless of their size, the only fundamental difference in die casting machines is the method used to inject molten metal into a die. The two methods are hot chamber or cold chamber. A complete die casting cycle can vary from less than one second for small components weighing less than an ounce, to two-to-three minutes for a casting of several pounds, making die casting the fastest technique available for producing precise non-ferrous metal parts. 14. What do you know about Die construction? Dies, or die casting tooling, are made of alloy tool steels in at least two sections, the fixed die half, or cover half, and the ejector die half, to permit removal of castings. There are four types of dies: Single cavity to produce one component Multiple cavity to produce a number of identical parts Combination die to produce several different parts for an assembly Unit die to produce different parts at one time 15. What is Die casting Design? Die casting is one of the fastest and most cost-effective methods for producing a wide range of components. However, to achieve maximum benefits from this process, it is critical that designers collaborate with the die caster at an early stage of product design and development. Consulting with the die caster during the design phase will help resolve issues affecting tooling and production, while identifying the various trade-offs that could affect overall costs. 16. List the types of Molds for Aluminum Casting. Sand Casting Mold Die Casting Molds Shell Mold Ceramic Mold Permanent Mold Casting Plaster Molds Graphite Casting Molds 17. What is Sand Casting Mold? It is the oldest type of mold for aluminum casting and has being in existence since the time of Egyptians. This mold is especially used for engine manifolds, engine blocks and other types of large and heavy castings. The mold, -crafted of wood, metal or any kind of solid material - is made by creating a cavity in sand and then held in a box or a flask.

18. What is Casting Molds? Die casting molds is made of steel dies or molds to manufacture uniform castings. Like other metals, the molten metal is poured under high pressure into these molds for aluminum casting. Large scale to medium-size castings is possible from this. 19. What is Shell Mold? These types of molds for aluminum casting helps produce a better surface finish with more accurate dimensions. However, the process is pretty expensive. 20. What is Ceramic Mold? Ceramic mold is crafted of plastic or wax which melts when the mold is fired while it is being created and is primarily used in investing casting process. After the wax is lost the mold is ready to receive the molten metal. This type of casting can also be used for precision casting" thanks to the precise castings created with this process. 21. What is Permanent Mold Casting? Permanent aluminum casting molds is made of steel or iron. The molten aluminum is poured into the permanent mold cavity. The most remarkable aspect of this mould being: it is permanent in nature, unlike sand casting molds which are normally destroyed while extracting the castings once they are cooled. Moreover, it is less expensive when large scale castings are to be carried out. 22. What is Plaster Molds? Plaster molds are made of plaster slurry that is poured around wax or throwaway material such as foam. As the plaster mold is baked, the pattern melts out, leaving a representation of the pattern. Molten metal is then poured into the cavity of the plaster molds. 23. What is Graphite Casting Molds? Graphite molds and cores are used in aluminum centrifugal casting. This process pushes metal into the mold and makes use of rapid chilling to manufacture quality castings. 24. What is Chill? To control the solidification structure of the metal, it is possible to place metal plates, chills, in the mold. The associated rapid local cooling will form a finer-grained structure and may form a somewhat harder metal at these locations. In ferrous castings the effect is similar to quenching metals in forge work. 25. What is the need of Core? Core used to produce cavities within the casting 26. What are the types of sand molding? Mechanized sand molding Automatic high pressure sand molding lines Match plate sand molding Vertical sand flask less molding

Horizontal sand flask molding Vacuum molding 27. What is Mechanized sand molding? The first mechanized molding lines consisted of sand slingers and/or jolt-squeeze devices that compacted the sand in the flasks. Subsequent mould handling was mechanical using cranes, hoists and straps. After core setting the copes and drags were coupled using guide pins and clamped for closer accuracy. The moulds were manually pushed off on a roller conveyor for casting and cooling. 28. What is automatic high pressure sand molding lines? Increasing quality requirements made it necessary to increase the mould stability by applying steadily higher squeeze pressure and modern compaction methods for the sand in the flasks. In early fifties the high pressure molding was developed and applied in mechanical and later automatic flask lines. The first lines were using jolting and vibrations to pre compact the sand in the flasks and compressed air powered pistons to compact the molds. 29. What is Horizontal sand flask molding? In the first automatic horizontal flask lines the sand was shot or slung down on the pattern in a flask and squeezed with hydraulic pressure of up to 140 bars. The subsequent mould handling including turn-over, assembling, pushing-out on a conveyor were accomplished either manually or automatically. 30. What is Vertical sand flask less/ Disa molding? For reduction of the labor costs, higher productivity casting quality and improved dimensional accuracy. Due to constantly increasing wages reduction of the human labor became important. This required automation. In 1962 Danish company Dansk Industri Syndikat A/S (DISA) implemented an ingenious idea of molding without flasks applying vertically parted and poured moulds. 31. What is Match plate sand molding The principle of the match plate, meaning pattern plates with two patterns on each side of the same plate, was developed and patented in 1910, fostering the perspectives for future sand molding improvements. However first in the early sixties the American company Hunter Automated Machinery Corporation launched its first automatic flask less, horizontal molding line applying the match plate technology. 32. What is Vacuum molding? Vacuum molding (V-process) is a variation of the sand casting process for most ferrous and non-ferrous metals, in which un bonded sand is held in the flask with a vacuum. The pattern is specially vented so that a vacuum can be pulled through it. PART-B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. UNIT-I Explain briefly with neat sketch cylindrical and adjustable locators. Explain briefly non-conventional clamping. Explain briefly with neat sketch latch and wedge clamping. Explain briefly magnetic clamping. With a neat sketch explain pneumatic and hydraulic clamping. What is meant by vacuum clamping? Explain.

7. Explain the types of locating devices. 8. Explain the types of clamping devices. 9. Explain the latch clamp with suitable example. 10. State the significance of clamping force in relation to cutting force. 11. Mention the various locating methods with suitable example. 12. What is the use of dowel pins? Explain with example? UNIT-II 1. Mention the advantages disadvantages of jigs and fixtures 2. Describe the design principles for jigs and fixtures. 3. Explain briefly materials used in jigs and fixtures. 4. Describe the elements of jigs and fixtures. 5. Describe the accessories of jigs and fixtures. 6. Explain briefly 3-2-1 location of principle. 7. Explain the functions of jig bushes? 8. Explain the condition of using plain and flanged bushes in jigs. 9. Explain the different types of jigs? 10. Explain the different types of fixtures? 11. Sketch the channel jig with an example. 12. Explain indexing jig with suitable example. UNIT-III What are the design factors to be considered while designing a lathe fixture? Briefly explain the construction and working of faceplate turning fixture. Explain any one type of lathe mandrel. List out the various types of milling fixtures and explain any two in detail. Define the tennon and setting block in milling fixture. Explain with a neat sketch the working of a gang milling fixture and compare with straddle milling fixture. 7. Differentiate straddle milling fixture and key-way milling fixture. 8. Define broaching and explain the types of broaching fixtures with neat sketch. 9. Design a milling fixture to make a slot of 120 X 120 X 15. 10. What are factors to be considered while designing milling fixture? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. UNIT-IV 1. Describe briefly the various press working operations. 2. Write short notes on terminology. 3. What are the factors to be considered while selecting a press? 4. Explain briefly the functions of following parts in press tool. (i) Stripper (ii). Pilots (iii). Shedder. 5. Explain fixed stripper and spring loaded stripper with sketch. 6. Sketch complete die- set assembly. 7. Describe with neat sketches any two dies used in press working operations. 8. Describe with a neat sketch a compound die and compare its merits and demerits with combination die. 9. Explain with example center of pressure. 10. Differentiate between compound die, combination die and progressive die. 11. Write short notes on the following. (i) Bending and forming die

(ii). Combination and compound die. (iii). Calculation of center or pressure with example. UNIT-V 1. Write short notes on bending, forming and drawing. 2. Write down the step by step design procedure of cutting dies 3. Write down the step by step design procedure of drawing dies 4. Design for drawing die as shown in figure from medium carbon steel take ft = 36 KN/CM2 5. Sketch and design a drawing die as shown in figure from medium carbon steel 3600 Kg/CM2 6. Explain with example to estimate the number of draws in drawing process. 7. Write short notes on types of forming dies, 8. Sketch and design a blanking die to make 30mm diameter part from 1.6mm thick mild steel metal. Take 320 N/mm2 9. Sketch and design a blanking die to make 25mm diameter part from 2mm thick medium carbon steel metal. 10. Sketch and design a blanking die to make diameter 30mm part from 3mm thick carbon steel sheet metal. Take fs = 32 Kg/mm2 11. How to calculate bending allowance in bending process? Explain. 12. What is spring back? And how is it controlled in bending die? 13. Write short notes: (i) Design of drawing die (ii). Design of bending die. (iii).Types of cutting operations. 14. Calculate the developed length of part as shown in figure. 15. Explain modern press tool with application.