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Zachary Randall (2nd Edition)

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 32

A Thorough Knowledge Of The Bible Is Worth More Than A College Education. Theodore Roosevelt

ALTHOUGH MANY TIMELINES of world history have been created, I hold this timeline to be unique in that it
follows the legal genealogy of Jesus Christ and that it focuses on covering nearly every verse in the bible that records the passage of time. This timeline covers from eternity to the resurrection of our Lord in A.D. 32. Though a few dates are fixed and immovable and are universally known to be true (such as the Decree of Artaxerxes in 445 B.C.), the majority of dates in the Old Testament vary among authors and scholars. But with no doubt it can be said that between Creation and Christ is a span of approximately 4,000 years; how much more than 4,000 years depends on who you agree with. The beginning of the timeline relies mainly on dates calculated in A.M. (Anno Mundi, in the year of the world), until the Kingdom of Judah and Israel, where A.M. and secular B.C. dates meet. The Jewish calendar (after the Exodus) begins with the lunar month of Nisan (March-April). Therefore, +1 B.C. year is the most typical chronological difference amongst timelines. Difference in interpretation of the text (See: Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson, page 34) is what makes many chronologies vary the most. Introduction Final Comments Appendix I: Judahs Co-Regencies Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson Appendix III: Chronologies and Tables Page 1 Page 2 Page 34 Page 35 Page 40

Author: Zachary Randall, Copyright 2013 Download PDF:

Zachary D. Randall, 2/18/2013 A.D.

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Final Comments
It should be made clear that though Creation is dated at 4175 B.C. in this timeline, it is a very conservative date. Some may object to this however, and argue that it is not conservative enough. The date of Creation can be reduced by making the Exodus 430 years after the Call of Abraham (See: Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson, page 34). 4175 B.C. has been calculated strictly by dates given in the Bible with the exception of Judahs co-regencies according to J. Vernon McGees notes and Sir Robert Andersons calculation of the sixty-ninth week of Daniel. Some will say that there should be intervals inserted as Anderson does, making the Earth slightly older (See: B.C. Date Conflict with This Timeline, page 38). An event of which the exact date is questionable has [correct placement?] next to it. Groups of events whose dates are unknown, but are hypothesized using Biblical exegesis and historical research are distinctly marked with Hypothetically speaking before and after the group. All scripture is quoted from the New King James Version.

Key: Here is a template for a timeline entry:

(Date in) A.M.\B.C. (or) A.D. [correct placement?]: (Author, Date): The event that occurred; names of those in the Messianic legal lineage in red. (References)(*differences in other references) Text... *Notes and comments. or:
Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2...etc

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70

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<0\: From before the foundation of the world, GOD was (Rev. 1:8).
Before Me there was no God formed, nor shall there be after Me (Is. 43:10b). ...He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love (Eph. 1:4).

In the Beginning...
Day 1\4175: Creation of the heavens and earth by the Sovereign LORD (Gen. 1:1, 5). Day 6\4175: Creation of Adam and Eve by Elohiym (Gen. 1:26-31).
The Hebrew word for God (Elohiym) used in Genesis 1 is plural; this is evidence of the Trinity from the very beginning of history: the use of the word us in Gen. 1:26 helps prove this (Dictionary and Word Search for elohiym (Strongs 430), Blue Letter Bible).

Day 8<\4175?: Fall of Mankind ??: Eve gave birth to Cain, and as a result of the curse, in pain (Gen. 3:16; 4:1). ??: Eve gave birth to Abel, also in pain (Gen. 4:2). ???: The first prophet is murdered (Gen. 4:8; Luke 11:49-51). 130\4045: Adam (130) begot Seth in his own image (Gen. 5:3). 235\3940: Seth (105) begot Enosh (Gen. 5:6). 325\3850: Enosh (90) begot Cainan (Gen. 5:9). 395\3780: Mahalalel was begotten by Cainan (70) (Gen. 5:12). 460\3715: Mahalalel (65) begot Jared (Gen. 5:15). 622\3553: Enoch was begotten by Jared (162)(Gen. 5:18). 687\3488: Enoch (65) begot Methuselah (Gen. 5:21). 874\3301: Methuselah (187) begot Lamech (Gen. 5:25). 930\3245: Death of Adam (930) (Gen. 5:5). 987\3188: Enoch (527) was taken by God. He is the first of only two men never to die (Gen. 5:23, 24). 1042\3133: Death of Seth (912) (Gen. 5:8). 1056\3119: Lamech (182) begot a sonNoah (Gen. 5:28, 29).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70 Hidden within the first ten generations is a message, or more properly, the gospel: Table 1: The Genealogy of Adam (Gen. 5:1)
(Hour 3: The Pre-Historical Period, Chuck Missler)

Adam Seth Enosh Cainan Mahalalel Jared Enoch Methuselah Lamech Noah 1140\3035: Death of Enosh (905) (Gen. 5:11). 1235\2940: Death of Cainan (910) (Gen. 5:14). 1290\2885: Death of Mahalalel (895) (Gen. 5:17). 1422\2753: Death of Jared (962) (Gen. 5:20). 1558\2617: Noah (502) begot Shem (Gen. 5:32; 11:10). 1651\2524: Death of Lamech (777) (Gen. 5:31).

Man (is) Appointed Mortal Sorrow; (but) The Blessed God Shall come down Teaching His death shall bring The Despairing Comfort, Rest

1656\2519: Death of Methuselah (969)the oldest man ever recorded (Gen. 5:27).

Noahic Flood
1656\2519: In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened (Gen. 7:11). 1657\2518: And in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dried (Gen. 8:14). 1658\2517: Arphaxad was begotten by Shem (99) two years after the beginning of the flood (Gen. 11:10). 1693\2482: Arphaxad (35) begot Salah (Gen. 11:12). 1723\2452: Salah (30) begot Eber (Gen. 11:14). 1757\2418: Eber (34) begot Peleg (Gen. 11:16).
(In Pelegs days the earth was divided: this is thought to be the time of confusion at Babel.)

6 Randall 1787\2388: Peleg (30) begot Reu (Gen. 11:18). 1819\2356: Reu (32) begot Serug (Gen. 11:20). 1849\2326: Serug (30) begot Nahor (Gen. 11:22). 1878\2297: Nahor (29) begot Terah (Gen. 11:24). 1996\2179: Death of Peleg (239) (Gen. 11:18, 19). 1997\2178: Death of Nahor (148) (Gen. 11:24, 25). 2006\2169: Death of Noah (950) (Gen. 9:29). 2008\2167: Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram... (Gen. 11:26).
Stephen says that Abraham left Haran after his father died (Acts 7:4). The proximity of Genesis 11:32 and 12:1-4 indicates that Abraham left the same year his father died: this interpretation is accepted by chronologists.

2026\2149: Death of Reu (239) (Gen. 11:20, 21). 2049\2126: Death of Serug (230) (Gen. 11:22, 23). 2083\2092: Death of Terah (205) (Gen. 11:32).

Call of Abraham
2083\2092: Abram was 75-years-old when he departs from Haran (Gen. 12:4). ???? [correct placement?]: The first recorded faminea severe famine. Because of this famine Abram went down to Egypt (Gen. 12:10).
The LORD tells Abram that his descendants will be in bondage for four-hundred years, and that the fourth generation shall return here* (Gen. 15:13, 16). *If referring to the last location mentioned, here is Kings Valley (Gen 14:17), which the Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia says is possibly the Kidron Valley (Kings Dale, Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia).

2094\2081: Ishmael was born to Abram by Hagar when Abram was 86-years-old (Gen. 16:16). 2096\2079: Death of Arphaxad (438) (Gen. 11:12, 13). 2108\2067: Isaac was born when Abraham was 100-years-old (Gen. 21:5; Matt. 1:2). 2126\2049: Death of Salah (433) (Gen. 11:14, 15). 2158\2017: Death of Shem (600) (Gen. 11:10, 11). 2168\2007: Rebekah gave birth to twins, Jacob and Esau, when Isaac is sixty (Gen. 25:26; Matt. 1:2).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70 ???? [correct placement?]: Book of Job

Job lived in the land of Uz (Job 1:1; 1 Chr. 1:17); Eliphaz was a Temanite (Gen. 36:11; Job 2:11); Bildad was a Shuhite (Gen. 25:2; Job 2:11); Elihu was a Buzite (Job 32:2; Gen. 22:21).

2183\1992: Death of Abraham (175) (Gen. 25:7). ????: Another famine besides the first famine that was in the days of Abraham, came to pass during Isaacs lifetime. During this famine, Isaac went to the Philistine city of Gerar because the LORD told Isaac to not go down to Egypt (Gen 26:1, 2, 6). 2187\1988: Death of Eber (434) (Gen. 11:16, 17). 2231\1944: Death of Ishmael (137) (Gen. 25:17). 2245\1930: Jacob (77) receives Esaus blessing from Isaac (137) and flees to Padan Aram (Gen. 27-28:5).
Joseph was 30-years-old when he stood before Pharaoh. Nine years later Israel arrives at age 130, Joseph now 39years-old. Therefore, Jacob was 91 when Joseph was born after he served Laban 14 years. Thus, Jacob stole his brothers birthright at age 77 (Gen. 30:25; 41:46; 45:6; 47:9).

2352<2359\1923<1916* [correct placement?]: Judah was born to Jacob by Leah (Gen. 29:35; Matt. 1:2).
*Judah must have been born sometime after Jacob took Leah as wife and before his fourteenth year serving Laban.

2259\1916: Birth of Joseph. Jacob is 91-years-old (Gen. 41:46; 45:6; 47:9). 2366\1909: Jacob (98) returns to Canaan (Gen. 32-33).
Jacob served Laban a total of 21 years* for Labans two daughters and his flock (Gen. 29:20, 28, 30)(*20 years: Gen. 31:41).

2276?\1899?* [correct placement?]: Perez was begotten by Judah through his daughter-in-law Tamar about the time Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites (Gen. 38:24-29; 1 Chr. 2:4; Matt. 1:3).
*Genesis 38:1 indicates that Perez was born within a year after Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites when he was seventeen (Gen. 37:2). There is no exact year of his birth however.

2288\1887: Death of Isaac (180), both of his sons being 120 years old at the time of his death (Gen. 35:28). 2296-2301\1879-1874: For seven years there was a famine over all the face of the earth. (v. 56) Genesis 41:57, says that all countries came to Joseph in Egypt to buy grain, because the famine was severe in all lands. ???? [correct placement?]: Perez begot Hezron. (Ruth 4:18; 1 Chr. 2:5; Matt. 1:3)
Hezron had to have been born before Israel goes down to Egypt in order for Salmon to be the fourth generation to leave Egypt. As it turns out, Hezron is listed as one of the seventy people of the house of Jacob (Gen. 46:12).

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Israel settles in Egypt

1/15/2298\1877: Israel is 130 years when he entered Egypt (Gen. 45:6; 47:9; Ex. 12:41).
God said to Abram: Know certainly that you descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and will serve them, and they will afflict them four hundred years. But in the fourth generation they shall return here... (Gen. 15:13, 16a). We know from Acts that the Israelites were in Egypt 430 years and served the Egyptians 400 years. And when God speaks of the fourth generation He refers not to the generation that left Egypt (and died in the Wilderness), but the generation that entered the Promised Land. This marks the beginning of 430 years.

2315\1860: Death of Jacob (147) (Gen. 47:28). 2369\1806: Death of Joseph (110) (Gen. 50:22). ???? [correct placement?]: Hezron begot Ram (Ruth 4:19; 1 Chr. 2:9; Matt. 1:3). ???? [correct placement?]: Ram begot Amminadab (Ruth 4:19; 1 Chr. 2:10; Matt. 1:4). 2648\1527: Birth of Moses (Duet. 34:7). <2710\<1465*: Amminadab begot Nahshon, the leader of the children of Judah (Num. 1:7; Ruth 4:20; 1 Chr. 2:10; Matt. 1:4).
*Numbers 1:1 states that a census of men, twenty years old and above, was taken in the Wilderness of Sinai on the first day of the second month in the second year since the Israelites left Egypt. Thus, Nahshon couldnt have been born in or after the year A.M. 2710.

The Exodus
1/15/2728 A.M.\1447 B.C.: From the day they arrived to the day they departed, on that very same day, the Israelites lived in Egypt 430 years (Ex. 12:41). 2/15/2728\1447: Manna started to fall.
And the children of Israel ate manna forty years, until they came to an inhabited land; they ate manna until they came to the border of the Canaan (Ex. 16:1, 35).

2710<\1465<* [correct placement?]: Nahshon begot Salmon (Salmon Ruth 4:20; Matt. 1:4 *Salma, 1 Chr. 2:11).
*Salmon could not have been born more than nineteen years before the first census of Israel (2/1/2730) in order to survive the wilderness and beget Boaz by Rahab, because, all men twenty years old and above counted in the first census died in the wilderness.

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70

Rejection of the Promised Land

2730\1445: On roughly the twelfth day of the fourth month, given thirty-day-months, in the second year after coming out of Egypt, after the spies return, the LORD commanded Moses to leave Kadesh Barnea because the children of Israel rejected His promised land. According to the number of days you spied out the land, forty days, for each day you shall bear your guilt one year, namely forty years, and you shall know My rejection. Early the following morning a failed attempt was made to enter the land (Num. 10:11, 33; 11:18, 32; 12:15; 13:25; 14:1, 34, 40).
The children of Israel spend a total of forty years outside of Egypt; the clock does not start with their rejection two years into the journey. Please also take note that Israel did not wanderthey were led (Deut. 8:2).

2730-2768\1445-1407* [correct placement?]: Death of Nahshon.

*Following the second census (Numbers 26), it is mentioned that there was not a man of those who were numbered by Moses and Aaron the priest when they numbered the children of Israel in the Wilderness of Sinai , therefore Nahshon had to have died in the wilderness (Num. 26:64).

5/1/2768\1407: Death of Aaron (123) (Num. 20:22-29; 33:38, 39). 6/1/2768\1407: The people mourned for 30 days (Num. 20:29).
The children of Israel left Mount Hor and traveled to these towns and cities: Zalmonah, Punon, Oboth, Ije Abarim (which was at the border of Moab), Dibon Gad, Almon Diblathaim , and then the mountains of Abarim (Num. 33:38-47).

2768\1407: Israel arrived at the Valley of Zered 38 years after Kadesh Barnea (Num. 21:12; Deut. 2:14). 2768\1407: Israel arrived in the plains of Moab across from Jericho. They camped by the Jordan, from Beth Jesimoth as far as the Abel Acacia Grove in the plains of Moab (Num. 22:1; 33:49).

2768\1407: Israel remained in Acacia Grove, and the people began to commit harlotry with the women of Moab. 24,000 die from a plague from the LORD (Num. 25:1, 9).
The second census is taken in the plains of Moab after the end of the plague that killed the 24,000 (Num. 26:1). Because Phinehas, Aarons grandson, was zealous for the LORD and slew Zimri and Cozbi, the LORD gave him a covenant of an everlasting priesthood (Num. 25:7-15) (See: Samuel, page 11).

2768\1407: The Israelites took vengeance on the Midianites; Reuben, Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh settle east of the Jordan River (Num. 31, 32). 11/1/2768*\1407: Beginning of the book of Deuteronomy (Deut. 1:3).
*Speaking of Deut. 1:3, Pastor Joe Focht said: "This is a month before Moses goes up to Pisgah and dies."

10 Randall 12/1/2768\1407: Moses (120) died the same year as Aaron. Though the LORD buried Moses, there was a fight between Michael the archangel and the devil over his body (Ex. 7:7; Deut. 34:6, 7; Jude 9). 1/1/2769\1406: The people mourned for 30 days in the plains of Moab (Deut. 34:8). Hypothetically speaking: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1/1/2769: Mourning ends. Spies sent out to Jericho during the night (Josh. 2:1, 2). 1/2/2769: The spies leave Jericho and campout in the mountain. 1/5/2769: The spies return from the mountain (Josh. 2:22, 23). 1/6/2769: The camp sets out from Acacia Grove early in the morning to go to the Jordan (Josh. 3:1). 1/9/2769: Officers sent out throughout the camp (Josh. 3:2). 1/10/2769: Jordan crossing (Josh. 3:5). Hypothetically speaking: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Jordan Crossing
1/10/2769\1406: About forty thousand men passed through the Jordan on dry ground. That night they camped in Gilgal, where the memorial stones were set up (Josh. 3:17; 4:2, 13, 19, 20).
At that time, the second generation was circumcised. All the men stayed in their places in the camp till they were healed (Josh. 5:2, 8). God mandated that no uncircumcised person could eat the Passover (Ex. 12:48); therefore, the circumcision had to have happened before Passover. As recorded in Genesis 34, when Simeon and Levi tricked the men of Hamors city into getting circumcised so tha t they could dwell and intermarry with the children of Israel, on the third day the men of the city were still in pain; it would be likely then that the children of Israel were circumcised very soon after setting up camp in Gilgal in order to enjoy the Passover.

1/14/2769\1406: The children of Israel kept the Passover (Josh. 5:10). 1/15/2769\1406: The children of Israel, on the feast of unleavened bread, ate unleavened bread and parched grain, on the very same day (Josh. 5:11). 1/16/2769\1406: After falling from heaven for forty years, the manna stopped falling the day after they ate of the produce of the land (Josh. 5:12). 2769\1406: Destruction and burning of Jericho; Rahab and her fathers household were saved alone; Achan stole silver, gold and a Babylonian garment; and Joshua pronounced a curse upon the man who will rebuild Jericho (Josh. 6:24-26; 7:21; 1 Kings 16:34).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70 2769-2776\1406-1399*: Seven year conquest of the land.


*Caleb was 40 when he spied out the land (2 years after Egypt), therefore he was 78 when he crossed over the Jordan (40 years after Egypt). When he received his inheritance he was 85 (85 78 = 7 years of conquest) (Josh 14:7, 10).

???? [correct placement?]: Now it came to pass, a long time after the LORD had given rest to Israel from all their enemies round about, that Joshua was old, advanced in age. Joshua died at the age of 110 (Josh. 23:1; 24:29). ???? [correct placement?]: Salmon begot Boaz by Rahab, the harlot who was saved from Jericho (Ruth 4:21; 1 Chr. 2:11; Matt. 1:5).

Period of the Judges

????: The Judges period began when all the elders who outlived Joshua, who had seen all the great works of the LORD died, and ended with Samuel the prophet, about 450 years later (Jud. 2:7; Acts 13:20).

????: Book of Ruth
The fourth famine caused Elimelech and Naomi, and their sons Mahlon and Chilon, to go to Moab, where they met Ruth. Only Naomi and Ruth returned (who had survived their husbands) when they heard that the LORD visited His people and that there was grain in the land (Ruth 1:6). Boaz is thought to be an older man when he took on the role of the kinsman redeemer. Ruth 3:10 sheds some light on this: Blessed are you of the LORD my daughter! said Boaz, For you have shown more kindness at the end than at the beginning, in that you did not go after young men, whether rich or poor.

????: Boaz begot Obed by Ruth the Moabite (Ruth 4:21; 1 Chr. 2:12; Matt. 1:5). ???? [correct placement?]: Obed begot Jesse (Ruth 4:22; 1 Chr. 2:12; Matt. 1:5).

???? [correct placement?]: Hannah gave birth to Samuel (1 Sam. 1:20).
Eli judged Israel for forty years and then Samuel judged, and his sons after him. Sadly, it was because of Samuels unruly sons that Israel demanded a king. And though he judged Israel all the days of his life, Samuel is seen more as a prophet and the end of the judges, though he did in fact judge (1 Sam. 4:18; 7:15; 8:1). Samuel was indeed of the tribe of Levi (of the family of Kohath), but he was not a son of Aaron. Numbers 4 tells us that the only responsibility the sons of Kohath had was to carry the holy things after the sons of Aaron covered them with the prescribed coverings. Because Samuel wasnt a descendan t of Aaron, he technically shouldnt have been a priestand neither should have Eli (See: Solomon Anointed King of Israel, page 13).

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Early in the book of Samuel the Ark of the Covenant was captured by the Philistines when Elis sons were killed. From that point on the ark and the tabernacle remained in separate locations. The ark went on a long journey, stopping at Ashdod, Gath, Ekron, Beth Shemesh (where 50,070 were killed by the LORD for looking into the ark), Abinadabs house on a hill in Kirjath Jearim, Obed-Edoms house (after the incident at Perez Uzzah), Jerusalem (in a tabernacle that David erected), and then it finally rested in the inner sanctuary of the Temple built by Solomon (1 Sam. 5:1, 8, 10; 6:12, 19; 7:1; 2 Sam. 6; 1 Kings 8:3-9). The Tabernacle on the other hand only traveled to a few locations. Being placed at Shiloh when the land of Canaan was divided by lot, it remained there until it was moved to Gibeon. It remained in Gibeon while the ark dwelt in the tabernacle erected by David in Jerusalem until it was moved during Solomons reign when the ark was placed in the Most Holy place of the Temple. The final location of the Tabernacle is not specified (within Jerusalem) (Josh. 18:1; 1 Sam. 1:24; 1 Chr. 16:39; 21:29; 2 Chr. 1:3; 5:5-6:2).

????: Jesse begot Zeruiah, Davids sister (1 Chr. 2:13, 16).

The sons of Zeruiah are Abishai, Joab, and Asahel (1 Sam. 26:6; 2 Sam. 2:18; 1 Chr. 2:17).

Saul Chosen as King

3124-3164\1051-1011: Israel rejected the LORD as their king and demanded to be like the nations around them. Samuel solemnly warned the people about their choice and within a few days he anointed Saul as king. (1 Sam. 8-12) According to Paul, Saul reigned for forty years (Acts 13:21).
After the death of Saul, Judah and Israel fought each other for seven and a half years; Judah recognized David as king, Israel stood behind Ishbosheth and Sauls house.

3134\1041: Jesse begot David, his seventh son (Ruth 4:22; 2 Sam. 5:4; 1 Chr. 2:15; Matt. 1:6).

David Anointed King of Judah

3164\1011: David (30) was anointed king by the tribe of Judah after returning from Ziklag. This was the beginning of Davids seven year and six month reign in Hebron; David reined a total of 40 years: seven in Hebron and thirty-three in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 2:11; 5:4). 3171\1004: David was anointed king by all the tribes of Israel at Hebron after the undesired murder of Ishbosheth, Sauls grandson. David reigned as king over all of Israel in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:1-5). 3184?\991?: David (50?) begot Solomon by Bathsheba, the wife of Urriah, after the death of Davids first son with Bathsheba (2 Sam. 12:24; 1 Chr. 3:5; Matt. 1:6). (See: Solomon Anointed King of Israel, page 13) ????: The fifth famine recorded in the bible happened because of Saul and his bloodthirsty house, because he killed the Gibeonites. The famine lasted for three years (2 Sam. 21:1-14). 3203\972: Solomon (19?) begot Rehoboam by Naamah the Ammonitess (1 Kings 11:43; 1 Chr. 3:10; 2 Chr. 12:13; Matt. 1:7).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


Solomon Anointed King of Israel

3204\971: King Solomon (20?) was anointed and ascended the throne. (1 Kings 1, 2; 6:1).
Child, as used in 1 Kings 3:7, according to Gesenius's Lexicon can refer to a young man of about twenty ("Dictionary and Word Search for na`ar (Strong's 5288)," Blue Letter Bible). An age of twenty is used here for Solomons age when he ascended the throne and therefore makes his birth in the year 3184 A.M.

Before Eli died, a man of God came to him and prophesied against his household. Speaking for the LORD God, he said: Behold, the days are coming that I will cut off your arm and the arm of your fathers house, so that there will not be an old man in your house...Then I will raise up for Myself a faithful priest who shall do according to what is in My heart and My mind. I will build him a sure house, and he shall walk before My anointed forever (1 Sam. 2:31, 35). Elis father, or forefather, is Ithamar, one of the two sons of Aaron who didnt offer profane fire. Therefore, Elis priesthood goes against what the LORD spoke concerning Phinehas in Numbers 25:12, 13, saying, Behold, I give to him My covenant of peace; and it shall be to him and his descendants after him an everlasting priesthood, because he was zealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel. Therefore, it was necessary to remove the house of Ithamar from the priesthood and reestablish (or establish) the house of Phinehas, as Solomon did when he replaced Abiathar with Zadok (1 Kings 2:27, 35). Zadok and Ahimelech (Abiathars father) had been priests under David.
Zadoks descendants are recorded to have served as priests even to the end of the Old Testament and are destined to serve in New Jerusalem (Ezek. 40:46). (See: Appendix III: Table 2, page 40)

Temple Construction Begins

3208 A.M.\967 B.C.: On the second day of the second month (Ziv), in the fourth year of the reign of Solomon, 480 years from the Exodus, construction began on the temple (1 Kings 6:1; 2 Chr. 3:2).(See:
Interim Between The Exodus and Temple Construction, page 36)

3215\960: Solomon finished the temple in the eleventh year of his reign in the eighth month (7 years of construction)(1 Kings 6:38).

Splitting of the Kingdom

3244\931: Solomon ceased to reign as king after forty years and the kingdom was split into the north (Israel) and south (Judah) because of his sin. (1 Kings 11:11) Rehoboam (41) became king over Judah (and Benjamin, 1 Kings 12:21) and reigned for seventeen years; Jeroboam became king over Israel (10 tribes)(1 Kings 11:42; 15:1; 2 Chr. 9:30; 12:13).
The amount of years the kings of Judah reigned, if put end to end, is 393 (Starting with Rehoboam, 17 + 3 + 41 + 25 + 8 + 1 + 6 + 40 + 29 + 52 + 16 + 16 + 29 + 55 + 2 + 31 + 3 months + 11 + 3 months + 11 = 393). According to McGees notes, there were 47 years of co-regencies that can be subtracted from this number: 393 47 = 346. If you took the BC dates: 931 587 (inclusively) = 345* (*See: 3334\841: Death of Ahaziah, page 15; Appendix III: Table 3, page 41; Geisler 138).

14 Randall ????: Rehoboam begot Abijah* (1 Chr. 3:10: Matt. 1:7). (*Abijam, 1 Kings 14:31) 3261\914: Rehoboam died (58); Abijah began to reign for three years (2 Chr. 12:16; 13:1, 2). ????: Abijah begot Asa (2 Chr. 3:10; Matt. 1:7). 3264\911: Abijah died. Asa his son then reigned over Judah for 41 years (2 Chr. 14:1). 3268*\908: Asa begot Jehoshaphat (1 Chr. 3:10; 2 Chr. 20:31; Matt. 1:8).
*A.M. year based upon him coming to the throne at age at the start of his three year co-regency.

3294*\881: Jehoshaphat (27) begot his firstborn, Jehoram* (2 Chr. 21:1, 3, 5). (*Joram, 1 Chr. 3:11; Matt.1:8)
*A.M. year based upon him coming to the throne at age at the start of his one year co-regency.

3302\873*: Jehoshaphats (35) co-regency began. Jehoshaphat reigned for 25 years.

*According to J. Vernon McGees notes, Jehoshaphats twenty -five years included three years as a co-regent under his father.

3305\870: Asa died in the forty-first year of his reign (2 Chr. 16:13; 17:1; 20:31).

3 Year Drought (Elijah)

????: The sixth famine recorded in the bible started when Elijah told Ahab: there shall not be dew nor rain these years, except at my word (1 Kings 17:1). James tells us that Elijah prayed earnestly that it would not rain; and it did not rain on the land for three years and six months (James 5:17). ????: Elisha witnessed Elijah being taken into heaven by a chariot of fire and horses of fireElijah was the second of only two men never to die (2 Kings 2:1-18). 3312\863: Jehoram (18) begot Ahaziah by Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab king of Israel (1 Chr. 3:11; 2 Chr. 22:2). 3326\849*: Jehorams (32) co-regency begins; he reigned eight years (2 Chr. 21:5; 2 Kings 8:16, 17).
*According to J. Vernon McGees notes, Jehorams eight years includes one year as a co -regent under his father.

3327\848: Jehoshaphat (60) died after 25 years as king (2 Chr. 20:31). ???? [correct placement?]: During the time of Elisha, another famine hit the land. As recorded in 2 Kings 4:38-41, Elisha cleansed a pot of stew made from wild gourds. ????: A severe year famine, called by the LORD, hit the land of Israel (2 Kings 8:1-6).
With the exception of the famine in Samaria because it was caused by besiegement (2 Kings 6:35), this is the eighth famine recorded in the bible.

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70 3333\842: Ahaziah (21) begot Joash by Zibiah of Beersheba (2 Kings 11:21; 1 Chr. 3:11; 2 Chr. 24:1). 3334\841: Jehoram (40) died; his youngest son Ahaziah (22) became king (2 Kings 8:26; 2 Chr. 21:20).


There is a discrepancy between 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles as to at what age Ahaziah began to reign. 2 Kings 8:26 records that Ahaziah became king at twenty-two, and 2 Chronicles 22:2 at foury-two: looking at the age of his father at death (40, 2 Kings 8:17) we are assured by the context and the parallel passage that the correct reading is twenty-two years old (Geisler 144).

3334\841*: Death of Ahaziah.

After Ahaziahs one year reign, Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and mother of Ahaziah, killed the royal heirs and reigned over Judah for six years. The daughter of King Jehoram hid Joash, the only surviving heir of the throne of David, from his grandmother in the house of the LORD for six years. Clearly, Athaliahs actions were an attempt to cut off the Messiahs lineage (2 Kings 8:26; 11:1-3; 2 Chr. 22:2, 10-12). *McGees notes do not add a year for Ahaziahs reign, therefore I have done likewise.

3340\835: Joash began his 40 year reign at seven years old (2 Kings 11:21; 12:1; 2 Chr. 24:1). 3354\(McGee, 821): Amaziah was begotten by Joash (22) (2 Kings 14:2; 1 Chr. 3:12; 2 Chr. 24:27). 3367*\(McGee, 808**): Azariah was begotten by Amaziah (13) (2 Kings 14:21; 1 Chr. 3:12)(**Uzziah 2 Chr. 26:1; Matt. 1:8).
*A.M. year based upon him coming to the throne at age at the start of his twenty-five year co-regency.

3379\(McGee, 796): Amaziah (25) began his reign of 29 years after his father Joash (47) died (2 Kings 14:2; 2 Chr. 25:1). 3383\(McGee, 792*): Beginning of Azariahs (16) 25 year co-regency; he reigned 52 years total (2 Kings 14:21; 2 Chr. 26:3).
*According to J. Vernon McGees notes, Azariahs fifty -two years included twenty-five years as a co-regent under his father.

3402*\(McGee, 773): Azariah (35) begot Jotham (2 Kings 15:7; 1 Chr. 3:12; 2 Chr. 26:23; Matt. 1:9).
*A.M. year based upon him coming to the throne at age at the start of his eight year co-regency.

3412\(McGee, 767): Amaziah (54) was killed (2 Chr. 25:27). 3423*\(McGee, 752): Jotham (21) begot Ahaz** (2 Kings 15:38; 2 Chr. 27:9). (**Amon 1 Chr. 3:13; Matt. 1:9)
*A.M. year based upon him coming to the throne at age at the start of his one year co-regency.

16 Randall 3427\(McGee, 748*): Beginning of Jothams (25) 8 year co-regency; he reigned sixteen years (2 Kings 15:32, 33; 2 Chr. 27:1).
*According to J. Vernon McGees notes, Jothams sixteen years included eight years as a co -regent under his father.

3431-3433\744-742: The first mention of a King of Assyria in the Bible is found in 2 Kings 15:19 where King Pul, or Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727 B.C.), is said to have come against the land of Israel when Menahem (752-742) was reigning as kingsecular history backs this up exactly (Langer 27). 3424*\(McGee, 741): Ahaz (11) begot Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:2; 1 Chr. 3:13; Matt. 1:9).
*A.M. year based upon him coming to the throne at age at the start of his one year co-regency.

Isaiah 6
3435\(McGee, 740): In the same year Azariah the leper (68) died, Isaiah saw the LORD high and lifted up (2 Chr. 26:23; Is. 6:1).
In the year King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and the train of His robe filled the temple. Above it stood seraphim; each on had six wings: with two he covered his face, with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. And one cried to a nother and said: Holy, Holy, Holy is the LORD of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory! (Is. 6:1-3).

3443\(McGee, 732*): Beginning of Ahazs (20) 1 year co-regency. Ahaz reigned sixteen years (2 Kings 15:33; 16:2).
*According to J. Vernon McGees notes, Ahazs sixteen years included less than a year a s a co-regent under his father.

Assyria Conquers Syria (Damascus)

3443 A.M.\732 B.C. [correct placement?]: When under besiegement in Jerusalem by Syria and Israel, King Ahaz of Judah sent Tiglath-Pileser III gold and silver to attack Syria. Tiglath-Pileser III attacked Syria and killed King Rezin (2 Kings 16:9). The British Museum sets the fall of Damascus at 732 B.C. 3443\(McGee, 732): Jotham (41) died after reigning sixteen years. ???? [correct placement?]: The first deportation of Israelites to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29).

Deportation of Israel
3453 A.M.\722 B.C.: (Anderson, 721) Assyria takes 27,290 Israelites captive (Langer 31).
Samaria was taken in the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, which was the sixth year of King Hezekiah of Judah. (2 Kings 18:10) Langers Encylopedia agrees with the bible that Shalmaneser V (727 -722) besieged Samaria for three years. (2 Kings 17:5; 18:9, 10; 2 Chr. 18:9) However, Langer says that Sargon II (722-705) was the one who actually took Samaria (Langer 27).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70 3459\(McGee, 716*)(Anderson 726): Beginning of Hezekiahs (25) 1 year co-regency.


*According to J. Vernon McGees notes, Hezekiahs 29 years included less t han a year as a co-regent under his father.

3459\(McGee, 716): After Ahaz (36) died, his son Hezekiah rose to the throne at 25 years of age (2 Kings 16:20; 2 Chr. 28:27). 3466*\(Anderson and McGee, 709): Hezekiah (32) begot Manasseh (2 Kings 20:21; 1 Chr. 3:13; 2 Chr. 32:33; Matt. 1:10).
*A.M. year based upon him coming to the throne at age at the start of his ten year co-regency.

Fourteenth Year of Hezekiah

3474 A.M.\701 B.C.*: In the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, Sennacherib king of Assyria (704-681) attacked the fortified cities of Judah, Lachish being one of them. (2 Kings 18:13) After Hezekiah and Isaiah prayed to the LORD, an angel went out on a certain night and slew 185,000 men. (2 Kings 19:35) Sennacherib never took Jerusalem, as history backs up (Sennacherib, king of Assyria (704-681 BC), British Museum; Langer 27).
*According to Andersons chronology, Hezekiahs fourteenth year is 712 B.C. Anderson does not mention Sennacheribs besiegement of Jerusalem.

3473-3488\(McGee, 702-687): Even the Babylonian king Marduk-apla-iddina II (722-710; 703-702) is in the bible. Under the name Merodach-baladan, he appears in 2 Kings 20:12 and Isaiah 39:1. Because Isaiah told Hezekiah that God will extend his life 15 years, the Babylonian messengers must have come sometime between 702 and 687 B.C. (Ancient Man and His First Civilizations, Real History World Wide; Merodach-Baladan, Jewish Virtual History). 3478\(Anderson and McGee, 697*): Beginning of Manassehs (12) 10 year co-regency.
*According to J. Vernon McGees notes, Manassehs fifty -five years included ten years as a co-regent under his father.

3488\(McGee, 687): After reigning 29 years, Hezekiah (64) died. The kingdom was then handed over to Manasseh, who was twenty-two years old (2 Kings 18:2; 21:1; 2 Chr. 33:1). 3494 A.M.\681 B.C.: Even the death of Sennacherib is parallel with history: compare these two texts from 2 Kings and the British Museum: Now it came to pass, as he was worshiping in the temple of Nisroch his god, that his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer struck him down with the sword; and they escaped into the land of Ararat. Then Esarhaddon his son reigned in his place. (2 Kings 19:37) In 681 BC Sennacherib was assassinated by two of his sons while he prayed in a temple. He was succeeded by another son, Esarhaddon (Sennacherib, king of Assyria (704-681 BC), British Museum).

18 Randall

Assyrian Empire Begins to Crumble

3507\668: According to Langers encyclopedia, after Esarhaddon (680-668) reigned over Assyria Ashurbanipal (668-625) reigned. After that, rapid disintegration of the Assyrian Empire occurred until 605, the year the Assyrian general Ashur-uballit (who until that year had tried to uphold the kingdom) was conquered by the Babylonians (Langer 27-28). 3511\(McGee, 664): Manasseh (45) begot Amon (2 Kings 21:18; 1 Chr. 3:13; 2 Chr. 33:20; Matt. 1:10). 3527\(McGee, 648): Josiah was begotten by Amon (16) (2 Kings 21:24; 1 Chr. 3:14; 2 Chr. 33:25; Matt. 1:10). 3533\(Anderson and McGee, 642): At the end of Manassehs (33) fifty-five year reign his son Amon (22) became king. He reigned two years (2 Kings 21:1; 2 Chr. 33:20). 3535\(Anderson and McGee, 640): Amons (24) reign ended when he was assassinated. The people of Judah executed all of the conspirators and make Amons son, Josiah, king. Josiah was eight years old when he began his 31 year reign (2 Kings 21:23, 24; 22:1; 2 Chr. 33:24, 25; 34:1). 3542\633: Josiah (14) begot Eliakim (Jehoiakim) (1 Chr. 3:15; 2 Chr. 36:4). 3544\631: Josiah (16) begot Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:30; 2 Chr. 36:1). 3557\618: Josiah (23) begot Zedekiah (1 Chr. 4:15; Jer. 37:1). 3560\615: About the time they were carried away to Babylon, Jehoiakim* (18) begot Jehoiachin (*Jeconiah 1 Chr. 3:16; Matt. 1:11).
Because the LORD cursed Jehoiachins bloodline (Jer. 22:30), Jesus has two genealogies branching off from David: a legal line from Solomon, and a blood line from Nathan (See: Appendix III: Table 3, page 41).

Media Conquers Assyria (Ashur)

3561 A.M.\614 B.C.: King Nabopolassar of Babylon arrived in Ashur (the religious capital of Assyria) after the city was taken by Cyaxares, king of Persia, and made a treaty with him ("The fall of Nineveh (1),"; Cuneiform tablet with part of the Babylonian Chronicle (616-609 BC), British Museum; History of Mesopotamia, Encyclopedia Britannica).

Babylon and Media Conquer Assyria (Nineveh)

3563 A.M.\612 B.C.: A joint force of Babylonians and Medes besieged the Assyrian administrative capital, Nineveh, in May of 612 for three months. The besiegement ended in July according to
Though both capitals had been captured, the Assyrians continued to resist their enemies. Ashur-uballi II was crowned the last king in 612 or 611 B.C. and reigned till 609 or 608. He captured Haran in 610, but soon fled (he and the Egyptian army) after hearing that the Medes and Babylonians were coming to Haran. The Mesopotamian Chronicles record that Ashur-uballit crossed the Euphrates when he left Hara; the Medes and Babylonians indeed

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


came to Haran and plunded the city ("Fall of Nineveh Chronicle"; Cuneiform tablet with part of the Babylonian Chronicle (616-609 BC), British Museum; History of Mesopotamia, Encyclopedia Britannica).

Battle of Megiddo
3566 A.M.\(Anderson and McGee, 609 B.C.): Though warned by Pharaoh not to intervene, Josiah met Pharaoh Necho II in the Valley of Megiddo (the valley east of Mt. Carmel) while Pharaoh was on his way to help the last king of Assyria, Ashur-uballi II. Due to his disobedience, Pharaoh Necho killed Josiah (39). Josiah reigned 31 years. Josiahs son Jehoahaz (23) was anointed king by the people of the land; his kingdom ended after only three months. Pharaoh Necho appointed his brother Eliakim (25) and changed his name to Jehoiakim; imposed a tribute of 100 talents of silver and a talent of gold, and took Jehoahaz captive to Egypt where he died. Jehoiakim taxed the people of Judah in order to pay the tribute. Jehoiakim reigned 11 years (2 Kings 23:30-37; 2 Chr. 36:1-4).

Babylon Defeats Assyria

3566 A.M.\609 B.C.: Within a year after leaving Haran, Ashur-uballit, along with an Egyptian army, came back over the Euphrates and failed at recapturing the city of Haran. King Nabopolassar of Babylon (625605) defeated the Assyrians at Haran. This event ended the Assyrian Empire ("Fall of Nineveh Chronicle,"

Battle of Carchemish & First Siege of Jerusalem

3569, 3570\(Anderson and McGee, 606, 605): In the third year of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem and took articles from the house of God as well as captives to Babylon. Among those taken were Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (Dan. 1:1-7).
The first siege (606 B.C.) started the first of two periods of 70 years: the Servitude of the Nations. This seventy year period ended with the Decree of Cyrus to return to Jerusalem.

In Jeohiakims fourth year, Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaoh Necho by the Euphrates at Carchemish (Jer. 46:1, 2).
Again, as stated earlier, events are dated slightly different by authors and scholars; the usual difference being only give or take one year. The battle of Carchemish and the first siege of Jerusalem is no exception. You will find these two events being placed before each other in various chronologies in order to try and merge biblical and secular history: The Babylonian Chronicles date Carchemish at 605 BC and record the death of Nebuchadnezzars father after the battle. Sir Robert Anderson too dates the fourth year of Jehoiakim as 605 BC. Chuck Missler says that Nebuchadnezzars first besiegement of Jerusalem was on his way back from the battle of Carchemish (within the same year, 606) before his coronation. He says that during the siege Nebuchadnezzar finds out that he is king, because of his fathers death, and returns to Babylon after the besiegement (Hour 9: The Book of Daniel, Chuck Missler

20 Randall
2 Kings 24:7 (though a specific time is not ascribed to the event) mentions what couldve been the effects of the Battle of Carchemish after the Jehoiakims capture: And the king of Egypt did not come out of his land anymore, for the king of Babylon had taken all that belonged to the king of Egypt from the Brook of Egypt to the River Euphrates ("Babylonian Empire,"; "Early Years of Nebuchadnezzar (ABC 5),"; Jer. 46:1, 2).

Second Siege of Jerusalem

3577\(Anderson, 598): Jehoiakim (36) was taken to Babylon by King Nebuchadnezzar (605-562). Jehoiakims son Jehoiachin (18) reigned in his place for 3 months* (*and 10 days, 2 Chr. 36:5-8). At the turn of the year, the servants of Nebuchadnezzar started to besiege Jerusalem; Nebuchadnezzar arrived thereafter. Nebuchadnezzar took all of Jerusalem captive (Jehoiachin, his mother, his wives, his servants, his princes, his officers, all the captains and all the mighty men, and all the craftsmen and smiths10,000 captives) along with the treasures of the house of the LORD, and of the kings house in his eighth year. None remained except the poorest people of the land. King Nebuchadnezzar appointed Mattaniah (21) king, and changed his name to Zedekiah. He reigned for 11 years (598-587) (2 Kings 24:6; Jer. 52:1).
According to Chuck Missler, Ezekiel is taken captive during this besiegement (Hour 9: The Book of Daniel, Chuck Missler).

Third Siege of Jerusalem

3586\(Anderson, 589): The third and final siege of Jerusalem by the Babylonians began on the tenth day in the tenth month of the ninth year of Zedekiahs reign. (2 Kings 25:1; Jer. 52:4).
From the third besiegement (Ezek. 24:1) to the second temple (Hag. 4:18) is a period of exactly 70 yearsThe Desolations period (Hour 12: The Minor Prophets, Chuck Missler).

3588\(Anderson, 587): On the ninth day of the fourth month in the eleventh year of Zedekiahs reign, the city was penetrated (Jer. 39:2).

Deportation of Judah
3588 A.M.\(Anderson, 587 B.C.): On the tenth day* of the fifth month of Zedekiah, in the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar (605-562), Nebuzaradan, the captain of the guard of Babylon, arrived in Jerusalem. He burned the houses of the great and the house of the Lord. The remaining population of Jerusalem was taken captive (Jer. 52:12; Langer 31). (*seventh, 2 Kings 25:8, 9)

3588\587: Destruction of Jerusalem 3639\536: Decree of Cyrus 2 Kings states that Seraiah was the chief priest when Nebuchadnezzar took the city in 587 B.C. (2 Kings 25:18). By this we know that from Levi to the fall of Jerusalem was 25 Levitical generations, including Levi himself. (1 Chr. 6:1-15). Though Seraiah and 71 others were killed by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


25:18-21), his son Jehozadak survived. Jehozadaks great-grandson Eliashib was the high priest when Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem. (See: Appendix III: Table 2, page 40)
The British Museums website states that Nebuchadnezzars (605 -562) successor was Amel-Marduk (562-560), whom the museum identifies with the biblical name Evil-Merodach (2 Kings 25:27; Jer. 52:31). But as discussed earlier (See: Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson: Accession of Evil-Merodach, page 37), I have set 561 BC as the death of Nebuchadnezzar and the accession of Evil-Merodach.

The successors to Evil-Merodach were Neriglissar (559-556), Labashi-Marduk (one month) and Nabonidus (555-539), being the last king in the Babylonian Empire. Nabonidus, however, was not present in Babylon when the Persians conquered it without a battleBelshazzar was the one who was slain the night of Babylons fall. Belshazzar, whom the Nabonidus cylinders and Nabonidus Chronicle record as Nabonidus eldest son, was appointed co-regent in 550 BC (The Nabonidus Cylinder from Ur, Cyrus takes Babylon, The Bible (not surprisingly) supports the co-regency of Belshazzar and his father. In Daniel chapter five, Belshazzar says that whoever could interpret the writing on the wall would be the third ruler in the kingdom. Thus, for Daniel to be the third ruler there must have been two already established (Dan. 5:7, 16, 29). The Neo-Babylonian dynasty (626-539) which stretched from Nabopolassar to Belshazzar ended when Persian forces entered Babylon on the very night Daniel interpreted the writing on the wall (The Nabonidus Cylinder from Ur,; Belshazzar, Encyclopedia Britannica; Cylinder of Nabonidus, Cuneiform tablet with part of the Babylonian Chronicle (616-609 BC), British Museum; Daniel 5). ????: After they were brought to Babylon, Jehoiachin begot Shealtiel (1 Chr. 3:17; Matt. 1:12).

Thirty-Seventh Year of Jehoiachins Captivity

3614\561: In the thirty-seventh year of the captivity of Jehoiachin, in the twelfth month, on the twentyseventh day of the month, in the year that King Evil-Merodach of Babylon began to reign, Jehoiachin was released from prison (2 Kings 25:27). ???? [correct placement?]: Shealtiel begot Zerubbabel while captive in Babylon (Ezra 3:2; Matt. 1:12).
Zerrubbabel is the last member of Jesus legal genealogy to have a historical footprint in the Bible. Zerubbabel means Born at Babel (Dictionary and Word Search for Zorobabel (Strong's 2216), Blue Letter Bible).

Persia conquers Babylon

3636\539: (Anderson, 538): The very night God wrote on the wall during Belshazzars feast, Persian forces slipped into the capital and slew Belshazzar. (Dan. 5:30) Belshazzar died after Babylon fell to the Persian general Gobyras without resistance on Oct. 12, 539, and probably before the Persian king Cyrus II entered the city 17 days later (Belshazzar, Encyclopedia Britannica).

22 Randall

Decree of Cyrus (End of the Servitude)

3639\(Anderson 536): (Missler July 23, 537)*(Wycliffe, 538)** (Exact Date Unknown): In the first year after conquering Babylon, Cyrus orders the Jews return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple. He sends with Sheshbazar (the prince of Judah***) the 5,400 articles of silver and goldarticles that were taken from the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar. The whole congregation, including the singers and male and female servants, was forty-nine thousand, eight hundred and ninety-seven. Their livestock consisted of 8,136 horses, mules, camels and donkeys. In addition to the articles given back by Cyrus for the Temple, the Jews gave 61,000 gold drachmas and 5,000 minas of silver (Ezra 1, 2).
*(Zerubbabel, Wycliffe); **(Hour 9: The Book of Daniel, Chuck Missler); ***Sheshbazar is thought to be Zerubbabels Babylonian name because he was the prince of Judah: Compare Ezra 1:8 and 11 with 2:2 (Dictionary and Word Search for Sheshbatstsar (Strong's 8339), Blue Letter Bible).

3639\536?: On the first day of the seventh month, daily sacrifices resume. It is also mentioned that the Jews who returned kept the Feast of Tabernacles, which is on the 21st of Tishri, the seventh month (September-October) (Lev. 23:34; Ezra 3:4, 6).

Laying of the Temple Foundation

3641\534?: In the second month of the second year of their coming to the house of God at Jerusalem, the foundation of the house of the Lord was laid (Ezra 3:8-13).
Interestingly, it is recorded that there were old men present who wept when they saw the laying of the foundation, because, they had seen the first temple (Ezra 3:12). Though the foundation of the temple was laid in second year of their coming, the construction of it was quickly opposed and soon forced to a halt. Ezra 4:1-5 describes the resistance to temple building. All the days of Cyrus until Darius the Great (521-486) the adversaries hired counselors to frustrate the building of the temple. (Ezra 4:5) Ezra 4:24 says that construction of the temple was discontinued until the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia.

3654-3690\521-485: Darius the Great (son of Hystaspes) was crowned king of Persia and reigned twenty-seven years (Langer 40).

Haggai (End of Desolations)

3655\520: In the second year of King Darius, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, Haggai prophesied (Hag. 1:1). On the twenty-fourth of the sixth month of the second year of Darius, construction on the house of God resumed (Hag. 1:14, 15).
On the twenty-first of the seventh month the word of the LORD came to Haggai to encourage the people. The people were discouraged, especially those who saw the former temple, but God said, The glory of this latter temple shall be greater than the former (Hag. 2:1-9).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


3555-3657\520-518: Zechariah was another of the prophets in the post-exile period. He prophesied many things including the Messiah and the Day of the LORD.
There are three dates given in the book as to when the word of the LORD came to Zechariah: the eighth month and the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month of the second year of Darius; and the fourth day of the ninth month of the fourth year of Darius (Zech. 1:1, 7; 7:1).

Decree of Darius
????: When construction on the house of God resumed in the second year of Darius, Tattenai the governor of the region beyond the River wrote a letter to Darius challenging whether or not Cyrus made a decree for the temple of the LORD to be built. Darius responded with a decree that the Jews are to be given whatever they need immediately so that they are not hindered. Additionally, he says that whoever alters this edict, let a timber be pulled from his house and erected, and let him be hanged on it; and let his house be made a refuse heap because of this (Ezra 6:3-12).

Completion of the Second Temple

3660\515: The temple was finished on the third of Adar (twelfth month, February-March), in the sixth year of Darius (Ezra 6:15). 3661\514: Jerusalem residents celebrated Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Ezra 6:19).
In Ezra 6:22, Ezra writes: the LORD made them joyful, and turned the heart of the King of Assyria toward them... Assyria, however, no longer existed, the empire having been conquered since 606 B.C. Though, "in 520 BC both Athura and Mada (Babylonian and Median made Assyrian provinces, respectfully) revolted against Darius to regain their independence, the revolt was a failure," says Dr. Simo Parpola (Parpola, Dr. Simo, "Assyrians after Assyria"). John MacArthur notes in his study bible that, "the title 'King of Assyria' was held by every king who succeeded the great Neo-Assyrian Empire regardless of what country they may have come from" (The MacArthur Study Bible, Ezra 6:22).

3690-3710\485-465: Xerxes I (in Hebrew, Ahasuerus) reigned over Persia for twenty years (Langer 40).
(Ezra 4:6: In the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, they wrote an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem. (See: Period between Ezra and Nehemiah, page 25)

3693\482: King Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) threw a party in his third year for 180 days for his officials and servants. He then made another feast lasting for seven days, for the people in the palace city. Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) removed Vashti from her position shortly after she disobeyed his command on the seventh day of the second feast (Esth. 1).
The book of Esther takes place in between chapters six and seven of the book of Ezra.

24 Randall 3697\478: Esther was made Queen over Persia in the tenth month of the seventh year of Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) (Esth. 2:16).
Esther would have had to have come to the palace at least a year before being crowned queen because of the twelve month beauty preparations (Esth. 2:12).

3702\473: In the twelfth year of the kings reign, on the thirteenth day of the first month (Nisan, MarchApril), Haman the Agagite deceived Ahasurerus (Xerxes I) into decreeing the annihilation of the Jews on the thirteenth of the twelfth month (Adar, February-March) (Esth. 3).
On the twenty-third day of the third month (Sivan, May-June), Mordecai wrote letters in the kings name to the Jews in all 127 provinces of the king to allow them to defend themselves from the annihilation decreed by Haman. By these letters the king permitted the Jews who were in every city to gather together and protect their lives to destroy, kill, and annihilate all forces of any people or province that would assault them, both little children and women, and to plunder their possessions, on one day in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar (Esth. 8:11). On the thirteenth day of the twelfth month the Jews themselves overpowered th ose who hated them (Esther 9:1). Five-hundred men were killed in the citadel along with Hamans ten sons. At the end of the day, Esther asked the king to make a similar decree for the next day, allowing the Jews in the citadel to go on the offense. So, on the fourteenth, 300 men were killed in the citadel and 75,000 in the other provinces (Esth. 9). On both days, although they were granted permission to take possessions as they pleased, the Jews did not lay a hand on the plunder (Esth. 9:10, 15, 16).

3710-3751\465-424: Artaxerxes I Longimanus reigned over Persia for twenty-one years (Langer 40).

Ezra Travels to Jerusalem

3717\458: On the first day of the first month in the seventh year of King Artaxerxes, Ezra left Babylon. He arrived in Jerusalem on the first day of the fifth month of the same year (Ezra 7:7-9). With Ezra came one-thousand, four-hundred and ninety-six males (Ezra 8:1-14). After staying in Jerusalem many days, Ezra was told that the people have intermarried with the pagan people surrounding Israel (Ezra 9:1, 2). On the twentieth day of the ninth month, during heavy rain, Ezra addressed all the men of Judah and Benjamin who had gathered in the open square of the house of God. You have transgressed and have taken pagan wives, adding to the guilt of Israel, said Ezra. Now therefore, make confession to the LORD God of your fathers, and do His will; separate yourselves from the peoples of the land, and from the pagan wives (Ezra 10:9-11). From the first day of the tenth month to the first day of the first month (457 B.C.) Ezra and the heads of the fathers households questioned the men who took foreign wives. (Ezra 10:16-17).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


Period between Ezra and Nehemiah

3718?-3730?\457?-445?: The careful reader will notice that Ezra 4:6-23 is not chronologically accurate in its position. Because Artaxerxes is mentioned as King, (v. 7, 8, 11, 23) I have therefore placed these events sometime between his eighth year (last known date in the book of Ezra) and before his twentieth year (start of the book of Nehemiah).
Repeatedly these verses make mention of resistance to the building of the city and walls of Jerusalem the temple having already been completed in the fifteenth year of Darius: city (v. 12, 13, 16, 19, 21); walls (v. 12, 13, 16). After receiving Artaxerxes reply, the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin made the construction cease by force of arms (Ezra 4:23). Again, using discernment, you will notice that Ezra 4:24 has nothing to do with this period as it mentions the work on the house of God ceasing. Imagine, therefore, that everything from Ezra 4:6 to 4:23 is within parentheses, and that Ezra 4:1-5 and 24 is one uninterrupted passage. Read Ezra 4:1-5, 24 and see for yourself that the text raises neither objection nor any other solution.

3730\445: In the month of Chislev (November-December) Hanani arrived in Shushan with men from Judah. Hanani informs Nehemiah about what is most likely the aftermath of Ezra 4:23:
The survivors who are left from the captivity in the province are there in great distress and reproach. The w all of Jerusalem is also broken down, and its gates are burned with fire (Neh. 1:3).

Decree of Artaxerxes
3730 A.M.\March 14, 445 B.C.: In first month of Artaxerxes Longimanus twentieth year, Nehemiah received permission to rebuild Jerusalem, its gates, and its walls (Neh. 2:1-10). This very day is the epoch of the 70 weeks mentioned in Daniel 9. The sixty-ninth week ended on April 6, A.D. 32. (See: Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson: Holy Week, page 37) Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the command to restore and build Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince, there shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublesome times (Daniel 9:25). 3742\433: Nehemiah left Jerusalem in Artaxerxes thirty-second year (being in Jerusalem for twelve years) and returned to Jerusalem after certain days (Neh. 5:14; 13:6).
There are, however, quite a few verses indicating the passage of time between Nehemiahs departure and return to Jerusalem: The city wall was finished after 52 days, in the sixth month (Neh. 6:15); the Jews celebrated the Feast of Tabernacles from the fifteenth to the twenty-third of the seventh month; on twenty-fourth of the same month, the congregation spent one-fourth of the day reading the Book of the Law and one-fourth of the day confessing and worshiping (Neh. 7:73; 8:17; 9:1).

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The Last Datable Old Testament Verse

3751-3671 A.M.\424-404 B.C.: During the reign of Darius the Persian... (Neh. 12:22). This verse is the final reference in the Old Testament to secular history. There is no other verse that can advance time any further. After Artaxerxes I Longimanus reigned there were two Darius to come to the throne: Darius II Nothus (424-404) and Darius III Codomannus (336-330) (Langer 40). The former though, is more likely to be the Darius spoken of in the book of Nehemiah ("Dictionary and Word Search for Dar`yavesh (Strong's 1867)," Blue Letter Bible).
The end of the book of Nehemiah starts the period known as the silent years400 years silence from God. What happened during these 400 years, however, werent as silent as could be: events in the Middle East were predicted by Daniel the prophet in Daniel chapter 11.

???? [correct placement?]: Zerubbabel begot Abiud (Matt. 1:13).

Its likely that Abiud was born during Zerubbabels reign as governor of Judah and not in captivity or as late as I have placed it here, as his name means my father is majesty in Greek (Dictionary and Word Search for Abioud (Strong's 10), Blue Letter Bible).

???? [correct placement?]: Abiud begot Eliakim (Matt. 1:13).

If Zerubbabel left Babylon about 536 B.C., and the last datable reference is sometime between 424 and 404, it is quite likely that Eliakim was born within the book of Nehemiah, and not during the intertestament period.

????: Eliakim begot Azor (Matt. 1:14). ????: Azor begot Zadok (Matt. 1:14). ????: Zadok begot Achim (Matt. 1:14). ????: Achim begot Eliud (Matt. 1:14). ????: Eliud begot Eleazar (Matt. 1:15).

LXX Translation
????-4043\3rd century 132 B.C.: Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246) funded the LXX project. ????: Eleazar begot Matthan (Matt. 1:15). ????: Matthan begot Jacob. (Matt. 1:15). ????: Jacob begot Joseph (Matt. 1:16).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


End of 400 Years of Silence

4169-4171 A.M.\7-5 B.C.: Gabriel appears before Zacharias the priest as he offers incense on the altar of incense in the temple of the Lord (Luke 1). There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias (Luke 1:5a). Herod, the king of Judea, identified as Herod the Great who ruled as king of Judea from 37 to 4 B.C., and is father of Herod the tetrarch (Langer 32). Therefore, the latest Zachariah could have entered the temple is 4 B.C., save for the fact that John was born before Jesus. Therefore, an earlier date has been chosen. In the sixth month of Elizabeths pregnancy Gabriel visits Mary. Mary, already with child, goes to visit Elizabeth and stays with her about three months (Luke 1:26, 57). It came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus (d. A.D. 14) that all the world should be registered. This census first took place while Quirinius* was governing Syria (Luke 2:1, 2). *John Argubright goes into much detail to prove the existence of Quirinius during the time of the census spoken of by Luke (Argubright 4-6).

Birth of the Christ

4169-4171 A.M.\6-4 B.C.: Immanuels birth occurred between 6 and 4 B.C. (Langer 32). Herod died in April of 4 B.C. And Jacob begot Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus who is called Christ (Matt. 1:16). Because Matthew records that Herod died while Mary, Joseph, and Jesus were in Egypt, Jesus could therefore have NOT been born later than 4 B.C. (Matt 2:19) And because the Magoi ascertained that the Christ was about two years old, Jesus could NOT have been born before 6 B.C. (Matt. 2:16).

Beginning of Jesus Ministry

4203-4204 A.M.\28-29 A.D.: Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, while Annas and Caiaphas were high priests, the word of God came to John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. Very shortly thereafter, Jesus Himself began His ministry at about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph... (Luke 3:1, 2, 23a). (See: Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson: A.D. 28: Beginning of Jesus ministry; A.D. 32: Crucifixion of the Messiah, page 37)

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Arrival of Messiah the Prince (End of 69th Week)

4207 A.M.\Sunday, April 6, A.D. 32: (Nisan 10): The triumphal entry of the King of Israel. Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King is coming to you; He is just and having salvation, lowly and riding on a donkey, a colt, the foal of a donkey (Zech. 9:9). As a fulfillment of Zechariahs prophecy, Jesus rode on a colt while a multitude declared, Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the LORD! Peace in the heaven and glory in the highest! (Luke 19:38) This day, April 6, A.D. 32, is exactly 173,880 days from March 14, 445 B.C. (Nisan 1) and is irrefutably the end of 69 weeks (Dan. 9:25; Anderson 127-129). (See: Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson: Holy Week, page 37)

Last Supper
4207\Thursday, April 10, 32: (Nisan 14): Identification with the Passover Cup. Luke recorded that it was after supper that Jesus took the cup with which He said: This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you. (Luke 22:20) The third cup of wine in the Passover Seder, the first following the supper, was the Cup of Redemption (Rubin 28).

The Messiah Is Cut Off

4207 A.M.\Friday, April 11, A.D. 32: (Nisan 15): (Feast of Unleavened Bread) And after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself; and the people of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary (Dan. 9:26). Immediately in the morning Jesus faced Pilate in the Praetorium (Mark 15:1); soon after that Pilate released Barabbas to the Jews, and had Jesus scourged (John 19:1). The scourging made His visage, or appearance, marred more than any man, and His form more than the sons of men (Is. 52:14). John, who wrote according to Roman time (the day starting at midnight), says that right before Pilate delivers Jesus to be crucified it was about the sixth hoursix in the morning (John 19:14). If John is indeed writing with Roman time in mind, about should be read as after* since Mark (writing in Jewish time, with the day starting at six in the morning) records that Jesus was crucified at nine oclock (Mark 15:25). From noon till three darkness was over the whole land (Mark 16:32); at about three oclock Jesus yielded up His Spirit. Following this, the earth quaked and the veil of the temple was torn from top to bottom (Matt. 27:45-51). So when the centurion and those with him, who were guarding Jesus, saw the earthquake and the things that had happened, they fear greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God! (Matt. 27:54).
The midnight agony of Gethsemane was thus the great antitype of that midnight scene in Egypt when the destroying angel flashed through the land. And His death was the fulfillment of His peoples deliverance, so it took place upon the anniversary of that selfsame day the Lord did bring children of Israel out of th e land of Egypt by their armies (Anderson 118).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


*It should be noted here that some manuscripts have the Greek word for three, making Johns gospel Jewish time. ("Treasury Scripture Knowledge," Blue Letter Bible).

4207\April 12, 32: (Nisan 16): Sabbath Day; setting of the Roman guard. On the next day, which followed the Day of Preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees gathered together to Pilate... (Matt. 27:62). On the Sabbath, the chief priests and Pharisees are granted a Roman guard to stand by Jesus tomb to ensure that no one steals His bodysome of the soldiers were later bribed on Sunday by the chief priests to say that what they were summoned to prevent, happened.

Resurrection Sunday
4207 A.M.\April 13, 32 A.D.: (Nisan 17) Sunday The scripture makes it very clear (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:1, 2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1) that it was on Sunday that Jesus rose from the dead, just as He prophesied (Mark 10:32-34; John 2:19-22).
The seventeenth of Nisan was also the anniversary of the Earth emerging from the waters. (Gen. 8:4) (The seventh month is according to the old calendar. Nisan, being the first month on the new calendar given during the Passover in Egypt, is the seventh month on the old calendar.) And, according to Anderson, it was the very day of the Red Sea crossing (Anderson 118).

Moreover, brethren, I declare to you the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received and in which you stand, by which also you are saved, if you hold fast that word which I preached to youunless you believed in vain. For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures, and that He was seen by Cephas, then by the twelve. After that He was seen by over five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain to the present, but some have fallen asleep. After that He was seen by James, then by all the apostles. Then last of all He was seen by me also, as by one born out of due time (1 Cor. 15:1-8).

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Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


"Ancient Man and His First Civilizations" Real History World Wide. Web, n.a. 19 June 2011. Anderson, Sir Robert. The Coming Prince. 10th ed. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1957. Print. Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria (668-627 BC) The British Museum, n.a. Web 15 June 2011. Ashurnasirpal II, King of Assyria (883-859 BC) The British Museum, n.a. Web 15 June 2011. Argubright, John. Bible Believer's Archaeology Volume 1. USA: 1997. Web. "Babylonian Empire" LIVIUS, n.a. Web. 3 August 2011. "Bardiya." Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Encyclopdia Britannica, 2011. Web. 15 June 2011. "Belshazzar." Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Encyclopdia Britannica, 2011. Web. 14 June 2011. Bible World History, Web. n.a. 21 June 2011. "Cuneiform tablet with part of the Babylonian Chronicle (616-609 BC)" The British Musuem, n.a. Web 3 August 2011. Cylinder of Nabonidus The British Museum, n.a. Web 14 June 2011. Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar II The British Museum, n.a. Web 14 June 2011. Cyrus Cylinder The British Museum, n.a. Web 14 June 2011. Cyrus takes Babylon" LIVIUS, n.a. Web. 29 December 2011. "Dictionary and Word Search for Abioud (Strong's 10)". Blue Letter Bible. n.a. 10 Aug 2011. <> "Dictionary and Word Search for Dar`yavesh (Strong's 1867)". Blue Letter Bible. n.a. 11 August 2011. <> "Dictionary and Word Search for 'elohiym (Strong's 430)". Blue Letter Bible. n.a. 14 August 2011. <> "Dictionary and Word Search for na`ar (Strong's 5288)". Blue Letter Bible. n.a. 14 August 2011. <>

32 Randall "Dictionary and Word Search for Sheshbatstsar (Strong's 8339)". Blue Letter Bible. n.a. 5 August 2011. <> "Dictionary and Word Search for Zorobabel (Strong's 2216)". Blue Letter Bible. n.a. 4 August 2011. <> "Early Years of Nebuchadnezzar (ABC 5)" LIVIUS, n.a. Web. 3 August 2011. Esarhaddon, King of Assyria (680-669 BC) The British Museum, n.a. Web 15 June 2011. "The fall of Nineveh (1)" LIVIUS, n.a. Web. 3 August 2011. "Fall of Nineveh Chronicle" LIVIUS, n.a. Web. 3 August 2011. Geisler, Norman. A Popular Survey of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 2007. Print. "History of Mesopotamia." Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Encyclopdia Britannica, 2011. Web. 03 August 2011. "Hour 3: The Pre-Historical Period" Learn The Bible in 24 Hours. Prod. Chuck Missler. Koinonia House, Inc, 2005. DVD. "Hour 9: The Book of Daniel" Learn The Bible in 24 Hours. Prod. Chuck Missler. Koinonia House, Inc, 2005. DVD. "Hour 11: The Minor Prophets" Learn The Bible in 24 Hours. Prod. Chuck Missler. Koinonia House, Inc, 2005. DVD. Kings Dale" Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia. 1983. Print. Langer, William L. An Encyclopedia of World History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1948. Print. Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judah - Latin dedicatory inscription Israel Museum. n.a. 21 August 2011. Luke 3:1 & Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene Flickr. 1/17/2011. Web. 21 August. 2011. <> The MacArthur Study Bible. Ed. John MacArthur. USA: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2006. Print. "Matthew 1 - The Genealogy and Birth of Jesus Christ" Enduring Word Media, 2008. Web. 18 September 2011. "Merodach-Baladan" Jewish Virtual Library. Web, n.a. 19 June 2011. The Nabonidus Cylinder from Ur LIVIUS, 1/28/07. Web. 14 June 2011.

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


Nebuchadnezzar II, King of Babylon (605-562 BC) The British Museum, n.a. Web 14 June 2011. "Necho II." Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Encyclopdia Britannica, 2011. Web. 03 August 2011. Neo-Babylonian Dynasty The British Museum, n.a. Web 14 June 2011. The New King James Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Inc., 1982. Print. Notes & Outlines: 1 & 2 Kings J. Veron McGee, n.a. Web 2 June 2011. Parpola, Dr. Simo. "Assyrians after Assyria" The State of Assyria. Web. 7 August 2011. Pastor Joe Focht. Deuteronomy 1:1-2:3 (SPM180). Calvary Chapel Philadelphia. 2002. MP3. Rubin, Barry & Steffi. The Messianic Passover Haggadah. Baltimore: Lederer Messianic Publications, 1994. Print. Sargon II, King of Assyria (721-705 BC) The British Museum, n.a. Web 15 June 2011. Sennacherib , king of Assyria (704-681 BC) The British Museum, n.a. Web 15 June 2011. Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria (858-824 BC) The British Museum, n.a. Web 15 June 2011. Tiglath-Pileser III, king of Assyria (744-727 BC) The British Museum, n.a. Web 15 June 2011. "Treasury Scripture Knowledge" Blue Letter Bible, n.a. Web 17 September 2001. <> "The Trial of Jesus: Key Figures" School of Law | University of Missouri-Kansas City, n.a. Web. 21 August 2011. <> "Zerubbabel" Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia. 1983. Print.

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Appendix I: Judahs Co-Regencies

Any attempt to reconcile the reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah strictly by what is said in scripture will lead to a dead end with no success. After diligent work by many who held the scriptures inerrant, it was discovered that some kings reigned as a co-regent before their own reign began. When these coregencies are recognized the kings of Israel and Judah align without conflict. (For more detailed information read, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings by Edwin Thiele). Only the kings of Judah are recorded in this timeline for simplicity and the reigns and coregencies thereof are according to J. Vernon McGees notes on 1 & 2 Kings with the exception of the second and third besiegement of Jerusalem where Sir Robert Andersons dates have been adapted. The date of birth of each king of Judah in this timeline has been calculated from the very year they started to reign, even their co-regency. The reason for this is because Azariah (Uzziah) and Manasseh both became king at an early age, sixteen and twelve respectfully. Both were also a co-regent with their father: Uzziah for 25 years and Manasseh for 10. Obviously, Uzziah could not have been sixteen when he started his solo reign after being a co-regent for 25 years, nor could Manasseh at twoyears-old be a co-regent. Because of the one year difference mentioned in the Introduction, many B.C. dates in this timeline between 931 and 537 have the name of the of the author/doctor/pastor I have chosen to side with and the year he gives (my original calculations being one year off).

Difference Between Chronologies With and Without Co-Regencies

Wishing not to get into a dispute (1 Tim. 1:4), I will state one difference pertaining to the reign of Hezekiah: A non-co-regency chronology satisfies 722 B.C. as being both the deportation of Samaria and the sixth year of Hezekiah, but fails to make 701 Hezekiahs fourteenth year (the year Sennacherib king of Assyria besieged Jerusalem). If a chronology does consider co-regencies, Hezekiah is aligned with 701 as his fourteenth year, but not with 722 as his sixth year.

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson

In his book The Coming Prince, Sir Robert Anderson (1841-1918) beings to light the unwavering accuracy of Daniels 70 Week prophecy, which predicts the coming and death of the Messiah. Below are a few topics from The Coming Prince worth consideration in order to understand the timeline:

360-Day Prophetic Year

It follows therefore that the prophetic year is not the Julian year, b ut the ancient year of 360 days (Anderson 75).

This is easily proven. A week in Daniels prophecy is 7 years. Throughout the bible the seventieth week of Daniel is divided in half, each called a time, times, and a half a time, the dividing of a time, forty two months, and 1,260 days. Taking this information, it is easy to see that 1260 days12 months30 days=3.5 years. A time, times, and a half of a time, refers to 1+2+= 3 years. See Dan. 7:25; Rev: 11:2, 3; 12:6, 14; 13:5.

The Sojourn of the Children of Israel

(Anderson 226, 227) Now the sojourn of the children of Israel who lived in Egypt was four -hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four-hundred and thirty yearson that very same dayit came to pass that all the armies of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt (Ex. 12:40, 41). Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. .. And this I say, that the law, which was four-hundred and thirty years later... (Galatians 3:16, 17a).

In his calculations, Anderson uses the passage in Galatians to set the starting of the sojourning of the children of Israel as the Call of Abraham. This is done in disregard to Stephens history lesson in Acts 7, where he says, The entire period of Israels wanderings was to be four centuries, but when the passage speaks definitely of their sojourn in Egypt it says: In the fourth generation they shall come hither againa word which was accurately fulfilled, for Moses was the fourth in descent from Jacob. Although the fourth [physical] generation doesnt accurately pertain to all twelve tribes, the statement does appear to apply to either the tribe of Levi or the tribe of Judah. Yes, the fourth from Israel via Levi is Aaron and Moses, but the problem with this approach is that neither of them entered the Promised Land, though Moses saw it. When applied to the tribe of Judah however, a different approach is taken. Instead of signifying the fourth from Jacob, the fourth generation refers to that generation which was fourth of the children born after the family of Israel arrived in Egypt. Because Reuben, Simeon, and Levi were sinful (Gen. 34; 35:22), Israel gave Judah the birthright, saying, you are he whom your brothers shall praise...your fathers children shall bow down before you, and, the scepter shall not depart from Judah (Gen. 49:8, 10). The legal line of Jacob, therefore, should be traced through Judahs descendents; furthermore, the fourth generation born to the tribe of Judah after entering Egypt should enter the Promised Land. This interpretation proves true in that Salmon is the great-great-grandson of Hezron.

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The law actually came 645 years after the initial promise to Abraham, but the promise was repeated to Isaac and later to Jacob. The last known reaffirmation of the Abrahamic Covenant to Jacob occurred in Ge[nesis] 46:2-4 just before he went to Egypt430 years before the Mosaic law was given (The MacArthur Study Bible, note on Galatians 3:17).

Moreover, consider the implications of saying that the law came four-hundred-and-thirty years after the Abrahamic Covenant: 1) the Israelites stayed in Egypt for 215 years, and 2) the Israelites multiplied exponentially from 70 persons to six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children (Ex. 12:37) and women within the 215 years. When considering this, it is preposterous considering the bible records men possibly didnt beget their first offspring until they were 60 years or older. This timeline accounts the passage of 430 years from Israels journey to Egypt till the exodus thereof.

Interim Between The Exodus and Temple Construction

(Anderson 81-83) And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD (1 Kings 6:1). Forty years...about four hundred and fifty years...forty years... (Acts 13:18 -22).

Sir Robert Anderson also disregards the statement of 1 Kings 6:1, instead making the interim period 573 years. Paul, in Acts 13:18-22, says that from the Exodus to the end of Davids reign was a period of about 570 years. (40 years in the wilderness + about 450 years of Judges + 40 years of Sauls reign + 40 years of Davids reign = 570 years). Anderson points out that the 480 years mentioned in 1 Kings is the result of the subtraction of the cumulative years the whole nation of Israel served another nation during the book of Judges. (573 years 93 (8+18+20+7+40) = 480 years (Jud. 3:8, 14; 4:3; 6:1; 13:1). He likens this to the fact that God forgets our sins once He forgives them (Heb. 10:17). The error that arises when using a 573 year interval is that Solomons fourth year is not accounted for. Five hundred and seventy years plus four years (the year of Solomons reign in which the temple foundation was laid) equals 574not 573. John MacArthur says, Pauls estimate of about 450 years in Ac[ts] 13:19 is an approximation (The MacArthur Study Bible, Judges: Interpretive Challenges).
The 480 years are to be taken as actual years between the Exodus and the building of the temple, because references to numbers of years in the book of Kings are consistently taken in a literal fashion (The MacArthur Study Bible, 1 Kings 6:1).

This timeline records an interim of four-hundred-and-eighty years between the Exodus and temple construction.

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


Accession of Evil-Merodach
(Anderson 232, 233)

Jehoiachins captivity began in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar (605-562); therefore, including the year of accession, 598 BC is the start of Jehoiachins captivity. Jehoiachin was released after 37 years of captivityright after the death of Nebuchadnezzar in the first year of Evil-Merodach (598-37=561 B.C.). The accession of Evil-Merodach, therefore, is recorded as happening in 561 B.C (2 Kings 25:27).

A.D. 28: Beginning of Jesus ministry; A.D. 32: Crucifixion of the Messiah
(Anderson 91-98)

Luke, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, (Luke 1:3) wrote in the third chapter of his gospel a very detailed statement that sets the beginning of Jesus ministry between Autumn A.D. 28 and Spring A.D. 29 (Anderson 121, 122) at about thirty years of age (Luke 3:23).
(Upon the death of Imperator Caesar Octavianus (Augustus) on August nineteenth A.D. 14, Tiberius was chosen by the Roman senate to be the next emperor (Langer 101, 104). Tiberius fifteenth year therefore started th on August 19 A.D. 28. Pontius Pilate was the fifth Roman procurator of Judea, governing from A.D. 26 to 36. The only archeological evidence of his existence is a dedication stone to Tiberius found in Caesarea in 1961, bearing the name Pontius Pilate (Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judah - Latin dedicatory inscription, The tetrarchs Luke mentions further helps pinpoint the time period which he speaks of: Herod (Antipas) was tetrarch of Galilee from 4 B.C. to A.D. 39 (Langer 32); Philip was tetrarch of Batanaea (in which lie the regions of Iturea and Trachonitis) from 4 B.C. to A.D. 34 (Langer 32). And although I could find no date for the reign of Lysanias, anthropologist Richard Pococke, in his book A Description of the East and Some other Countries, Vol. II, writes of a temple dedication stone which ascribed Lysanias as being the tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1 & Lysanias, Tetrarch of Abilene, Flickr). Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas, was high priest from A.D. 18-36 Annas was high priest from A.D. 6-15)

Holy Week
(Anderson 127-129) Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the command to rebuild Jerusalem until Messi ah the Prince there shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublesome times (Daniel 9:25).

The only command which fits with this description is found in chapter two of the book of Nehemiah. Sir Robert Anderson goes into further detail to deduce the actual date of the decree:
Anderson points out that there are two possible dates for Artaxerxes accession: July 465 and February 464 B.C. The former is the date of Xerxes death: from this date to the second, the usurper Artabanus reigned. If the latter date is to be correct, then his twentieth year began in February 444. This however contradicts Nehemiahs records. Nehemiah puts the Jewish months of Chislev and Nisan in the same year. Therefore, because Artaxerxes Longimanus accession is reckoned immediately after his fathers death, and the command to rebuild Jerusalem was in his twentieth year, the beginning of the sixty-nine weeks is March 14, 445 B.C. Xerxes II was assassinated by his brother Sogdianus (424), who in turn fell at the hands of his brother Ochus or Darius II Nothus (Langer 40) (Anderson 65-66; 251-257).

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Anderson concludes that Jesus was betrayed the evening of the Passover (Thursday) and cut off (Dan. 9:26) on Fridaythe Day of Preparation (Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54), and rose from the dead on the first day of the week.

Four-hundred and eighty-three prophetic years (360 days x 7 years x 69 weeks = 173,880 days) from March 14, 445 B.C. comes to April 6th A.D. 32the very day Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey. At first glance this appears to be a mathematical error: if you subtract April 6, A.D. 32 from March 14, 445 B.C. it comes to 476 Julian years (365 days) and 24 days (173,764 days). But do not forget about leap years. From 445 B.C. to A.D. 32 there are 116 leap years. 173,764 days plus 116 days to account for extra days equals one-hundred seventy-three thousand eight-hundred and eighty days. Although I do not entirely endorsed Andersons conclusions regarding Holy Week because I have of yet have not had the opportunity to do the research and decide upon my own personal opinion, this timeline uses Sir Robert Andersons dates are used for Holy Week.

B.C. Date Conflict with This Timeline

Remember that most B.C. dates are only close estimates: dates vary among authors and scholars. Although more trustworthy, some A.M. dates also arent fixed as setting an A.M. date relies on a B.C. dateand vice versa. The dates ascribed to the events in this timeline are very similar to those determined by Sir Robert Anderson, differing primarily in one issue: Andersons chronology does not have co-regencies. This is deduced from dates, calculated by Henry Fynes Clinton (1781-1852), that Anderson provides in the table, Certain Leading Dates In History, Sacred And Profane (Anderson 247). To understand how co-regencies affect dates, consider this table and note the additional adaptations by Anderson: Table 1: Compare Andersons Chronology Event Creation Flood Abraham Exodus Saul David Solomon Temple Rehoboam My B.C. dates without Judahs Co-Regencies 4222 2566 2139 1494 1098-1058 1058-1018 1018-978 1014 978 Andersons B.C. Date 4141-391-32+2153-924=4222 2485-39-3+215-92=2566 2055-39+215-92=2139 1625-39-92=1494 (1096-1056)+25= (1098-1058) (1056-1016)+2 = (1058-1018) 6 (1016-976)+2 = (1018-978) 10147 976+26=978

1. Intervals Added By Clinton Clinton...conjectures that there was an interval of twenty-seven years between the death of Moses and the first servitude, and an interval of twelve years between Samuel the prophet (1 Sam. vii.) and the election of Saul (Anderson 223).

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70


2. Intervals Added By Anderson Browne supposes that there was a two year interval in between the Flood and the Exodus. Anderson runs with this idea and makes it three years between the Flood and Abraham (Anderson 224). 3. Difference of Anderson's Date for the Exodus As previously explained, Anderson ascribes the epoch of 430 years of sojourning of the children of Abraham to the Call of Abraham instead of Israels migration to Egypt. Therefore, 215 years must be added to recompense for this difference. 4. Difference of Andersons Date for the temple As previously explained, Anderson adopts Pauls account of Israels history from the Exodus to King David (See: Appendix II: Sir Robert Anderson: Interim Between The Exodus and Temple Construction, page 36). Anderson does not use, however, 574 years, but five-hundred and seventy-three. He also adds inclusively, making the Exodus year one instead of zero. Therefore, to recompense the chronological difference, the addition of two years by Anderson to ninety-four requires 92 years to be subtracted. 5. Compensation for Inclusive Counting Because Anderson counted inclusively (see end of note 4, above), two years must be added to compensate this difference. 6. Solomons Reign According to Anderson Although the end of Solomons reign isnt directly affected by the Exodus-temple interval difference, it is indirectly affected because 40 years must commence from Andersons date of Solomons reign. Two years must also be added to the Rehoboam rose to the throne. 7. Point of Reference The temple construction date is not changed as it is the point of reference.

40 Randall

Appendix III: Chronologies and Tables

Table 2: Four Lineages to Visually Compare the Amount of Generations between Contemporaries Samuels lineage Israel Levi Kohath Izar Korah Ebiasaph Assir Tahath Zephaniah Azariah Joel Elkanah Zuph Tohu (Toah, 1 Chr. 6:34) Elihu (Eliel, 1 Chr. 6:34) Jeroham Elkanah Samuel Joel Heman (1 Chronicles 6:33-38; 1 Samuel 1:1) Kingly lineage Israel Judah Perez Hezron Ram Amminadab Nahshon Salmon Boaz Obed Jesse David Solmon Rehoboam Abijah Asa Jehoshaphat Joram Uzziah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jeconiah (Mathew 1:2-9) Priestly lineage Israel Levi Kohath Amram Aaron Eleazar Phinehas Abishua Bukki Uzzi Zerahiah Meraioth Amariah Ahitub Zadok Ahimaaz Azariah Jonathan Azariah Amariah Ahitub Zadok Shallum (*Meshullam, 1 Chr. 9:11) Hilkiah Azariah Seraiah Jehozadak Jeshua Joiakim Eliashib Joiada (1 Chr. 6:1-15; Ezra 3:2; Neh. 3:1; 3:2; 12:10) Elis lineage Israel Levi Kohath Amram Aaron Ithamar ??? ??? Eli Phinehas Abinadab Ahitub (Abiathar, *2 Sam. 8:17) Ahimelech Abiathar Jonathan (1 Sam. 14:3; 22:11, 20; 2 Sam. 15:36; 1 Chr. 24:3)

Notice the difference in generations between Samuel, David and Zadok. Azariah was one of eighty priests who stopped King Uzziah from offering incense in the temple (2 Chr. 26:16-23). Seraiah was priest under King Jeconiah when Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 B.C. Eliashib was high priest when Nehemiah came to Jerusalem. Elaishibs grandfather Jeshua was high priest when Zerubbabel was sent to Jerusalem in 536 B.C.

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70 Table 3: Jesus Lineages Recorded In 1 Chronicles, Matthew, and Luke Compared to the Kings of Judah Blood Line
Solomon Nathan Mattathah Menan Melea Eliakim Jonan Joseph Judah Simeon Levi Matthat Jorim Eliezer Jose Er Elmodam Cosam Addi Melchi Neri Shealtiel Zerubbabel Rhesa Joannas Judah Joseph Semei Mattathiah Maath Naggai Esli Nahum Amos Mattathiah Joseph Janna Melchi Levi Matthat Heli (as was supposed, Joseph) Jesus (Luke 3:23-38)


Legal Line 1. Solomon 2. Rehoboam 3. Abijah 4. Asa 5. Jehoshaphat 6. Joram Missing Missing Missing 7. Uzziah 8. Jotham 9. Ahaz 10. Hezekiah 11. Manasseh 12. Amon 13. Josiah Missing 14. Jeconiah 1. Shealtiel (born in captivity) 2. Zerubbabel 3. Abiud 4. Eliakim 5. Azor 6. Zadok 7. Achim 8. Eliud 9. Eleazar 10. Matthan 11. Jacob 12. Joseph 13. Christ (Matt. 1:7-16)

Kings of Judah Solomon Rehoboam Abijam Asa Jehoshaphat Jehoram Ahaziah Joash Amaziah Azariah (or Uzziah) Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jehoahaz Jehoiakim Jehoiachin Zedekiah (last king)

Legal Line Solomon Rehoboam Abijah Asa Jehoshaphat Joram Ahaziah Joash Amaziah Azariah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jehoiakim Jeconiah Shealtiel (1 Chr. 3:10-17)

"There were not actually 14 generations between the landmarks he indicates, but Matthew edited the list down to make it easy to remember and memorize," says David Guzik, Pastor of Calvary Chapel Santa Barbara, in his commentary. "The practice of skipping generations at times was common in the listing of ancient genealogies. Matthew did nothing unusual by leaving some generations out. (Matthew 1 - The Genealogy and Birth of Jesus Christ,

42 Randall Table 4: Kingdoms of Syria, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, and Roman Procurators of Judea Syria: (Langer 35; 1 Kings 15:18; 2 Kings 8:7-15; 13:24) (c. 916) Tabrimmon (c. 900) Ben-Hadad I (c. ???) Ben-Hadad II (Hadadezer) (842-c. 810) Hazael (c. ???) Mari (Ben-Hadad III) Conquered by Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria in 732 B.C. Assyria: (British Museum, Langer 27; 2 Kings 18:9, 13) (883-859) Ashurnasirpal II (858-824) Shalmaneser III (824-810) Shamshi-Adad (810-806) Semiramis (Widow of Shamshi-Adad) (806-782) Adadnirari III (Son of Semiramis) (782-745) ruled by incompetent rulers (Langer 27) (744-727) Tiglath-Pileser III in 729 became King of Babylon (named Pul) (Langer 27). (727-722) Shalmaneser V (721-705) Sargon II (704-681) Sennacherib (680-669) Esarhaddon (668-625) Ashurbanipal (625-605) Rapid disintegration of the Assyrian Empire (Langer 27). Conquered by Babylon and Media in 614, 612, 609, 608, and 606 B.C. Babylonia: (625-605) Nabopolassar (605-562) Nebuchadnezzar II (562-560) Amel-Merduk (559-556) Neriglissar (One mth.) Labashi-Marduk (555-539) Nabonidus - (550-539) Belshazzar as co-regent Conquered by Persia on Oct. 12 539 B.C. Persia: (559-530) Cyrus the great (530-521) Cambyses II (521-485) Darius (485-465) Xerxes I (Ahasuerus) (465-424) Artaxerxes I Longimanus (424-404) Xerxes II (424-404) Darius II Nothus (404-358) Artaxerxes II Mnemon (358-338) Artaxerxes III Ochus (336-330) Darius III Codomannus

Biblical Timeline Encompassing Eternity to A.D. 70 Greece (337-323) Alexander the Great Ptolemy (Kings of the South Dan. 11) (323-285) Ptolemy I Soter (285-246) Ptolemy II Philadelphus (funded the LXX project) (246-221) Ptolemy III Euergetes (221-204) Ptolemy IV Philopater (204-181) Ptolemy V Epiphanes (181-145) Ptolemy VI Philometer Seleucid (Kings of the North Dan. 11) (312-281) Seleucus I Nicator (281-262) Antiochus I Soter (262-246) Antiochus II Theos (246-227) Seleucus II Callinicus (227-223) Seleucus III Soter (223-187) Antiochus III the Great (187-176) Seleucus IV Philopater (176-163) Antiochus IV Epiphanes (god manifest) (164) Maccabean Revolt Roman Emperors (27 B.C.A.D. 14) Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) (14-37) Tiberius (Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar) (37-41) Caligula (Gaius Claudius Nero Caesar Germanicus) (41-54) Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Drusus) (54-68) Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus Claudius Drusus) (68-69) Galba (Servius Sulpicius Galba) (69) Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho) (69) Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus) (69-79) Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) Roman Procurators of Judea (A.D. 6 or 7-9) Coponius (9-12) Marcus Ambibulus (c. 12-15) Annius Rufus (15-26) Valerius Gratus (26-36) Pontius Pilate (36-37) Marcellus (37-41) Marullus (44-c. 46) Claudius Fadus (46-48) Tiberius Alexander (48-52) Ventidus Alexander (52-60) Felix (60-62) Porcius Festus (62-64) Albinus (64-66) Gessius Florus