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EIectronics & Communicution Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati


Department of Department of
Electronics & Electrical Engineering Electronics & Electrical Engineering
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering

Inlroduclion
y
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
y
Dr. Iraveen Kumar
Assislanl Irofessor
Dearlmenl of IIeclronics & IIeclricaI Ingineering
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Introduction Introduction
The goal of an energy conversion process is to best serve the needs of a customer.,
while supporting highly efficient generation and transport of energy
A few subdisciplines of electrical engineering, with their conversion roles are:
1. Signal Process: The engineers consider conversion between information and
electricity.
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electricity.
2. Antenna: The effort is to develop most efficient and reliable ways to convert the
energy in electromagnetic waves into circuit currents and voltages.
3. Electromechanics: The engineers consider conversion between mechanical and
electrical energy forms.
4. Quantum electronics: The engineers often concern themselves with the
interaction of optical signals with electric circuits.
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
What is Power Electronics What is Power Electronics
Power electronics deals with conversion and control of electrical power with the help
of electronic switching devices.
The magnitude of power may vary widely, ranging from a few watts to several
gigawatts.
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The specific definition of power electronics is:
Power electronics involves study of electronic circuits intended to control flow of
electrical energy. These circuits handle power flow at levels much higher than the
individual device ratings.
In Fig.1, the subject of power electronics represents a median point combining topics
in energy systems, electronics and control.
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Introduction Introduction
Power
Electronics
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Electronics and
Devices
Circuits
Power
Semiconductors
Magnetics
Fig.1: Power Electronics
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Need for Electrical Conversion Need for Electrical Conversion
For many applications electrical energy in various forms is needed. Examples of such
forms are:
1. Voltage Level Conversion: Some systems not only need multiple levels of voltage
but it often requires them to be mutually isolated so that their loads remain
separate.
2. Frequency Conversion: Rectification is an example of frequency conversion.
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2. Frequency Conversion: Rectification is an example of frequency conversion.
Another example is conversion between the 50Hz systems used in about half the
world and the 60Hz system used in the other half.
3. Waveshape Conversion: Sinusoidal waveforms for power minimize interference
with frequency multiplexed communication systems. However, sine waves are not
always best for power conversion for motors. Square or trapezoida; waves are
used in some motors.
4. Polyphase conversion: Phase conversion is frequently required in motor drives
for improving motor efficiency, improving torque ripples, etc.
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Application Areas of Power Application Areas of Power
Electronics (Wind Energy) Electronics (Wind Energy)
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Fig1: A typical wind energy conversion system
(Ref: Blaabjerg F., et.al., Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems,
IEEE 5
th
International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference)
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Application Areas of Power Application Areas of Power
Electronics (HEV) Electronics (HEV)
Tracti
on
Mech.
Trans.
Engine
Fuel tank
Generat
or
AC
DC
DC
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Fig2: A typical HEV configuration
on
motor
Trans.
Engine
Battery
pack
or
DC
DC
DC
3~ AC
AC
DC
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Application Areas of Power Application Areas of Power
Electronics (EV) Electronics (EV)
Electronic
controller
Mechanical
transmission
Wheel
Wheel
Brake
Accelerator
Electric propulsion subsystem
3-phase
AC motor
3-phase
PWM
inverter
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Fig3: A typical EV configuration
Energy
management
unit
Battery
Pack
Auxiliary
Power
Supply
Power
steering
unit
Energy
refueling
unit
Temperature
control
unit
Energy source
subsystem
Auxiliary subsystem
Steering
wheel
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Application Areas of Power Application Areas of Power
Electronics (Railways) Electronics (Railways)
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Fig4: Railway Application
(Ref: Power Electronics Transformers of ABB)
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Application Areas of Power Application Areas of Power
Electronics (Smart Grid) Electronics (Smart Grid)
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Fig5: Smart Grids
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Application Areas of Power Application Areas of Power
Electronics Electronics
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EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Ratings of Power electronics Ratings of Power electronics
Components Components
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EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
A typical power conversion system is shown in Fig.2. The objective of power
conversion system is to achieve a high energy efficiency because of two reasons:
1. The cost of wasted energy and the difficulty in removing the heat generated due to
dissipated energy.
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2. Reduction in size, weight and cost can be achieved if the efficiency is higher.
The above objective in most systems cannot be met by linear electronics where the
semiconductor devices are operated in their linear (active) region and a line frequency
transformer is used for electrical isolation.
An example of a system involving linear electronics principle is shown in Fig.3a. The
goal of this power supply is to deliver a regulated output voltage to a load.
( )
o
V
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
Power
Processor
Load
Power Input
Power Output
i
v
i
i
o
i o
v
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Controller
Control Signals
Measurements
Reference
Fig.3a: Block diagram of a power electronics system
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
Controller
Line frequency
transformer
+
R
+
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Fig.3a: Linear dc power supply
Filter
Capacitor
Rectifier
d
v
-
load
R
-
o
V
, o ref
V
Utility supply
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Fig.3b: Voltage waveform
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
In Fig.3a the utility supply may be at 120 or 240V and the output voltage may be
5V. It is required that the output is electrically isolated from the utility input.
A line frequency transformer is used to provide electrical isolation and for stepping
down the line voltage.
( )
o
V
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The rectifier converts the alternating current output of the transformer low voltage
winding into dc.
The filter capacitor reduces the ripple ,in the dc voltage .The waveform of the
is shown in Fig.3b.
The transformer turns ratio must be so chosen that the minimum of the input voltage
is greater than the desired output voltage
( )
d
V
d
V
d
V
o
V
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
For the range of the input voltage waveforms shown in Fig.3b, the transistor is
controlled to absorb the voltage difference between and , thus providing a
regulated output.
The transistor operates in its active region as an adjustable resistor, resulting in a low
energy efficiency. The line frequency transformer is relatively large and heavy.
d
V
o
V
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energy efficiency. The line frequency transformer is relatively large and heavy.
In power electronics, the regulated voltage is obtained using a circuit shown in
Fig.4a.
In the system shown in Fig.4a, the utility input is rectified into a dc voltage ,
without the line frequency transformer.
By operating the transistor as a switch at some high frequency , the voltage is
converted into an ac voltage at the switching frequency.
o
V
d
V
s
f
d
V
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
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Fig.4a: Switched mode dc power supply
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
The high frequency ac voltage enables use of a high-frequency transformer to be used
for stepping down the voltage and for providing the electrical isolation.
In order to simplify the circuit for analysis, the transformer is dropped . The simplified
circuit is shown inFig.4b.
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The transistor-diode combination can be represented by a hypothetical two position
switch shown in Fig.5a.
The switch is in position a during the interval when the transistor is on and in
position b when the transistor is off during .
The voltage equals and zero during and respectively (Fig.5b).
on
t
off
t
( )
oi
v t
d
V
on
t
off
t
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Fig.4b: Simplified circuit of switched mode dc power supply
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
Mathematically the voltage can be expressed as
(1)
In eq.1, is the average dc value of and the instantaneous ripple voltage
is shown in Fig.5c.
( )
oi
v t
( ) ( )
oi oi ripple
v t V v t = +
oi
V
( )
oi
v t
ripple
v
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is shown in Fig.5c.
The L-C elements form a low pass filter that reduces the ripple in the output voltage
and passes the average of the input voltage, so that
(2)
where
is the average output voltage
o oi
o
V V
V
=
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
From the waveform in Fig.5b it can be seen that
(3)
As the input voltage changes with time, eq.3 shows that it is possible to regulate
0
1
( )
s
T
on
o oi d
s s
t
V v t dt v
T T
= =

o
V
d
v
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at its desired value by controlling the ratio .
The ratio is called the duty ratio D of the transistor switch.
Usually the time interval is kept constant and the on period is varied
on
s
t
T
1
s
s
T
f

=


on
t
on
s
t
T
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Fig.5b: Voltage waveform
Fig.5a: Hypothetical two position switch
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics Electronics
Fig.5c: Ripple Voltage
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Fig.5d: Voltage waveform
Fig.5c: Ripple Voltage
EIectronics & Communicution Engineering
Power Electronics vs. Linear Power Electronics vs. Linear
Electronics (Observations) Electronics (Observations)
From the waveform in Fig.5b it can be seen that the transistor operates as a switch and
hence its power loss is minimized.
At high switching frequencies, the transformer and the filter components are very
small in weight and size compared with line frequency components.
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