ABSORPTION OF Ca, K, Mg AND Na IN CORN ON THE OMBREGENOUS PEAT AS AFFECTED BY VOLCANIC ASH AND FLYING ASH

Eko Hanudin and Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami

Penyerapan ca, k, mg dan na pada jagung di ombregenous gambut sebagai dipengaruhi oleh abu vulkanik dan terbang abu eko hanudin dan sri nuryani hidayah utami
\

English to Indonesian (powered by Sederet v0.00001.n7-s2)
Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Department of Soil Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia E-mail : ekohanudin@ugm.ac.id

ABSTRACT
A pot experiment was conducted to investigate effect of volcanic ash and flying ash application on absorption of Ca, K, Mg and Na by corn hybrid C-1 on the ombrogenous peat (pH± 3.36, Al- exch 0.697 me% and H-exch 52.116 me%) from Pontianak., West Kalimantan. The treatment was arranged in 6 level (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % by weight), in 3 replications. The results indicated that application of the volcanic ash and flying ash increased the corn growth. Shoot and root dry weight increased significantly with increasing amendment rate, but no significant effect of the soil amendment type. Uptake of Ca, K, Mg and Na in leaves, stem, roots and whole plant of maize are increased significantly with increasing amendment rate. The amount of cations which are mostly absorbed, and distributed in leaves was potassium (K), then followed by Mg, Ca and Na, but in the stem, the sequence were Mg > K > Ca > Na, and in the roots, were Na > K > Mg > Ca (for the volcanic ash treatment), and Na > Ca > K > Mg (for flying ash treatment), respectively. Almost all of the coefficient of correlation between Ca, K, Mg and Na absorption in whole plant and the soil amendments rate are significant, except for the relationship between the flying ash treatment and Na absorption. Keyword: Ombrogenous peat, corn, volcanic ash and flying ash

INTRODUCTION
Indonesia is a tropical country which has the widest peat in the world (± 27 millions ha). A large part of peat in Indonesia is oligotropic peat and just a small part of peat is mesotropic and eutropic (Dressen .and Soepraptohardjo, 1974). Generally, the ombrogenous peat of
Proceedings of Bogor Symposium and Workshop on Tropical Peatland Management, Bogor, Indonesia, 14-15 July 2009 “Wise Use of Tropical Peatland”

201

therefore. the effort to overcome this problem with 202 Proceedings of Bogor Symposium and Workshop on Tropical Peatland Management. OH etc. According to Donahue et al.Indonesia has acid reaction (pH-H20 around 3. the management needed is also different. The characteristic of peat is very different from mineral soils. poor in nutrient and cation exchange capacity (CEC) is about 60. such as COOH. Indonesia.4. the management practice for peat is consisted of three important stages. the macro nutrient content is relatively low. 1978). (1977). But. 14-15 July 2009 “Wise Use of Tropical Peatland” . supply of nutrients to increase their fertility.240 me % (Dressen. Nevertheless. namely 1). drainage 2).5 .5). The high CEC value of the ombrogenous peat is the result of the high content of functional group in organic acids. Bogor. liming to increase pH of peat and 3).

and the greater part of aluminum in the soil 3+ form ligand with organic matter.30 cm. 20. H-exch. The aim of this research is to observe how far the volcanic ash and flying ash are able to supply macro nutrients (Ca. and each treatment was made in 3 replications. the exchangeable hydrogen content is higher than the exchangeable AI .16%. The advantage of this condition is that there is no problem with aluminium toxicity. + 2+ Na and Mg content in leaves. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Chemical properties of the peat and soil amendments The chemical properties of the peat are presented in Table 1. The height of the organic matter can be used to store cations in the adsorption complexes. K . K. K . organic matter 2+ + + 2+ contents. more effective and efficient. The characteristics of amendment materials analyzed were pH-H20 2+ + + 2+ and pH. The peat was taken from Pontianak. The Volcanic ash was from Merapi Mountain and Flying ash was from PL TU Suralaya. effective CEC. Basal fertilizers used are Urea. Na and Mg ) content. Na and Mg ). The indicator plant is corn hybrid C-1. Soil sampling was carried out at several points of a certain area and at the depth of 0 . which consisted of 2 factors (Volcanic ash and Flying Ash). Indonesia. The organic matter content in this soil is about 44. and the total cations (Ca . 3+ Therefore. Cations-exch (Ca . 14-15 July 2009 “Wise Use of Tropical Peatland” 203 . The chemical properties of soil measured were pH-H 20 and pH-KCI. MATERIALS AND METHOD This experiment was conducted in a glass house. attempts have been made to find an alternative that is cheaper. AI-exch. The use of natural goods (example: volcanic ash and flying ash) to improve the nutrient poverty is very rarely done. K . Proceedings of Bogor Symposium and Workshop on Tropical Peatland Management. Each factor was made into 6 rates (0.Absorption of Ca. The plant tissue 2+ + 4 analysis was conducted using wet destruction method (HClO 18 %) to see the total Ca . and the chemical properties of Volcanic ash and Flying ash are in Table 2. they were mixed to obtain a soil composite. K. and AI-saturation. stem and roots. the total cations. Mg and Na in Corn on The ombregenous Peat as Affected by Volcanic Ash and Flying Ash liming and fertilizer application is very costly. 10. Mg and Na) for plant growth on peat media. so the exchangeable AI content is low. 40 and 50 %). 30. Bogor. TSP and KCL. After that. and sieved by strainer with diameter of 5 mm. Therefore. This experiment was arranged in completed randomized design. The + exchangeable H comes from organic acids. The acidity of this peat is very high because this soil is predominated by organic acids. The analysis of data was carried out by using MSTAT program for getting ANOVA and DMRT. West Kalimantan.KCI.

shows that the raising of soil amendment rates can cause the plant's height. The Effect of Volcanic Ash and Flying Ash on Corn Growth The growth of Corn can be improved by Volcanic ash and flying ash application.cm-3) pH-H2O pH-KCI Organic matter contents (%) Al-exchangeable (me %) H-exchangeable (me %) Ca-total (%) K-total (%) Na-total (%) Mg-total (%) Ca-exchangeable (me %) Kexchangeable (me %) Naexchangeable (me %) Mgexchangeable (me %) CEC-effective (me %) Saturation AI (%) Sum of base cations (me %) Explanation: These data were calculated based on air dry weight (Moisture content: 118.188 0. this rate does not show the real cations availability.70 52.039 0.45 4.12 0. Thus.19 g. Table 1. These indicate that the amendment can be used to improve the ombrogenous peat. roots dry and total plant dry to increase significantly. the weight of stem dry. The soil amendments used were volcanic ash and flying ash. calcium oxide. Chemical properties of the peat for study Chemical properties Chemical properties Bulk density (g.Eko Hanudin and Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami The bulk density of this soil is very light (0. so that the rate of the exchangeable 2+ + 2+ + cations (Ca .035 0. the plant still needs much more cations to support its growth.36 2.78 1. Mg and Na ) and total cations are high since the results were calculated based on weight.19 3. Nevertheless. Table 3.34 204 Proceedings of Bogor Symposium and Workshop on Tropical Peatland Management. K .079 6.04 4. unless they show a deficient symptoms.64 %) -3 Value 0. 14-15 July 2009 “Wise Use of Tropical Peatland” .cm ).56 44.40 16.70 2. Actually. Bogor. The reaction of the flying ash is more basic than volcanic ash. Indonesia. therefore volcanic ash is counted as intermediate stone. magnesium oxide and sodium oxide are higher in volcanic ash than in flying ash.35 15. potassium oxide.16 0.

253 d 57.187 a 9.090 c 37.847 1.333 a 90.333 b 161.623 d 53.356 d 48. Chemical properties of Volcanic ash and Flying Ash Chemical properties 1.667 cd 221.294 e 58.445 55.725 0.440 b 24.917 b 5.823 e 27.000 d 217. The effect of Volcanic Ash (AV) and Flying Ash (AT) Treatments AVO (0 %) AV1 (10 %) AV2 (20 %) AV3 (30 %) AV4 (40 %) AV5 (50 %) Average ATO (0 %) AT1 (10 %) AT2 (20 %) AT3 (30 %) AT4 ( 40 %) AT5 (50 %) Average High(cm) 51.316 Value 5. Volcanic Ash pH-H20 pH-KCl CaO-total (%) K2O -total (%) MgO-total (%) Na20-total (%) 2. K.810 b 29. Indonesia.333 e 31.465 C Total DW(g/pot) 1.299 b 26.573 a 2. Flying Ash pH-H20 pH-KCl CaO-total (%) K2O -total (%) MgO-total (%) Na2O -total (%) Table 3.139 A StemDW(g/pot) 1.500 d 207.838 B 1.203 a 0.500 cd 199.59 0.303 de 9.394 f 32.390 a 10.91 1.173 c 31.667 d 164.447 0.86 4.720 e 52.370 b 4.240 0. Mg and Na in Corn on The ombregenous Peat as Affected by Volcanic Ash and Flying Ash Table 2.173 e 62.500 d 155.667 c 198.167 c 199.746 D 1.667 b 176.Absorption of Ca. 14-15 July 2009 “Wise Use of Tropical Peatland” 205 .510 d 4.312 B RootsDW(g/pot) 0.377 a 8.300 c 33.585 0.453 e 10.037 f 26.123 0.295 Explanation: number followed by the same letter show that it is nonsignificant at 5% confident level Proceedings of Bogor Symposium and Workshop on Tropical Peatland Management. Bogor.320 d 43.897 c 8.62 9.726 b 23.687 d 8.607 e 49.908 C 0.357 e 5.777 D 9.800 c 8.167 a 2.100 c 41.210 a 6.500 a 138.

but their concentration in leaves is not influenced significantly. State University of Ghent.. 1977. Mg and Ca. K.Concentration and Absorption of Ca. Ca and Na. Natush. J. Sci. The most cations absorbed by stem is Mg. then it is followed by Mg. Mg and Na in the Plant as Affected by Volcanic Ash and Flying Ash Uptake of Ca. their absorption in the stem was Mg > K > Ca > Na. M. A. Mg and Na in leaves. 1982. A. F. K. the order on the flying ash treatment is Na. roots and whole plant also increased significantly with increasing soil amendment rates. S. Mg and Na absorption in the plant and the soil amendments rate were significant. R. D. B. was Na > K > Mg > Ca (for the volcanic ash treatment). CONCLUSIONS Application of volcanic ash and flying ash as soil amendments were able to improve the chemical properties of the ombrogenous peat and the corn growth. Ca.. Environ. Qual. and Na. Mg and Na absorption in the whole plant and the soil amendments rate is presented in Table 8. and then are followed by K. except for relationship between the flying ash treatment and Na absorption. Chemical Analysis of Plant and Soils. then it is followed by K. J. Absorption of Ca.270. Lund. On the other hand. Physical Properties of Fly Ash. C. A. stem. Wallace & C. J. K. L. The amount of cations which most absorbed by leaves is Potassium (K). L. R. Ca and Na. L. 1974. A. Whereas. Kiekens. except the relationship between the flying ash treatment and Na absorption.). K and Mg. 6 and 7). In the roots. REFERENCES Chang. 6 : 267 . the effect of Volcanic ash and flying ash application are different in the sequence of the amount of cations absorption. The same case occurred in stem. Cottenie. Ca. Velghe. G & Camerlynck. roots and the whole plant (Table 5. and Na > Ca >K > Mg (for flying ash treatment). Techno!.. Laboratory of Analytical and Agro chemistry. K. On the Volcanic ash treatment. Verloo. L. Mg and Na that are distributed in leaves increase significantly with the increasing of the rate of the soil amendments applied (Table 4. Page & J. Belgium. Almost all of the r value are significant. while. and in the roots. All of the dry weight of the agronomic components indicated increase significantly with increasing soil amendment rates. Almost all of the correlation coefficient (r) between the Ca. Davison.. E. Evans. the cations concentration in the plant were not increased significantly. Trace Elements in Fly Ash: Dependence of Concentration on Particle Size. The amount of K absorption in the leaves was higher than Mg. Environ. 63 p. The coefficient of correlation between Ca.. the most cations up taken is Na.amended Soils. Warneke. but the sequence of cations up taken by the stem and roots are different. 8 : 1107 . K.

Inst. 1974. Driessen.. Soil Res. P. M. 1 AT A 106. Soepraptohardjo. Bogor.. Soil for Agricultural Expansion in Indonesia.1113. & M. 63 p. Bull. .

Page. Elseewi & I. R. A. Prawiradisastra. 1992. Hollyday. Chern. 1966. Improvement of The P Nutrient Status of Tropical Ombrogenous Peat Soils from Pontianak. Proceedings of The Indonesian Association of Geologist XXI Annual Scientific Meeting.D. The Agronomic Properties of Pulverized Fuel Ash. Indonesia. Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Science. . Stroughan. 17: 83 . Setiadi. Ind. A. A. Residue Rev. 1994. West Kalimantan. Yogyakarta.Hodgson. Ghent University.790. Suryanto. Thesis Ph. 1979. Menuju Konsep Pemanfaatan Abu Vulkanis Sebagai Pupuk Alam Kasus Abu Gunung Merapi Untuk Pupuk Lahan Gambut. & R.120. Belgium. S & S. 785 .. L. Physical and Chemical Properties of Flay Ash from Coal-fired Power Plant with Reference to Environmental Impacts. H. pp.