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Artificial Intelligence.

Use the following links to help you with the tasks outlined below and use the chapter photocopied from the computer confluence and the two articles as extra reading. You can also use the resources at the following site.
Artificial Intelligence (see notes) Students area Alan Turing said "A machine may be deemed intelligent when it can pass for a human in a blind test." 1. Turing Test How do you define intelligence? How do you define artificial intelligence? 2. Does the Chinese room experiment mean the Turing test is not valid? An annual competition in A.I. and the winner is awarded the loebner prize Define: Parallel Processing
3. Machine Learning

How do games work? If a move pays off the move is likely to be used again, but if it loses it will be avoided (Beekman pg 372). An example of a game is Hex Whereas a human playing chess moves pieces from knowledge of position and ways of improving that position i.e. past experience a computer does it through brute computational power. Is this intelligence? Deep Blue - 'the finest chess playing computer in the world' Check out the timeline for the making of Deep Blue and the processing power used Read about how Deep Blue works All this power just for chess? Read about other applications. Does Deep Blue think? Who cares? 4. Natural Language One goal of AI is to build a system that can speak and understand a human language.

"START is a natural language processing system that analyzes English text and produces a knowledge base which incorporates information found in the text. A user can retrieve the information stored in the knowledge base by querying it in English. The system will then produce an English response (START)". Converse in natural language with Eliza (type in women (or men) are all alike) Or better still try Hal The policeman's beard is half constructed - the first book written by a computer. It was written in compiled BASIC on a Z80 micro with 64K of RAM Try AltaVista Babel Fish A machine to grade essays High tech comes to the classroom Common sense knowledge. 5. Agent Check out the Bot Spot Data Bots using Excel spreadsheets Topia - e-commerce agents More on Science Daily Intelligent agents challenge computer intruders Expert Systems Clixpert 20 questions MYCIN - one of the earliest expert systems (note the fuzzy logic 70%) Creation of an inference engine e.g. if/then rules e.g. My car won't start what is wrong? Intelligent Tutoring Systems American Express - checking for fraud Micro Expert Aaron -an expert system creating visual art - but is it art?

Students must study and evaluate the social and ethical issues involved in the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems. These may include: Responsibility for the performance of an expert system-knowledge engineer, informant, programmer, company which sold it, the buyer/consumer -

Value of the development of artificial intelligence (AI) as a field, e.g. whether it is an appropriate place to put economic resources Ethical issues of various applications of AI, e.g. replacement of human workers, handing decision-making tasks to a computer Social impact of the use of "smart" machines on everyday life Ethical issues related to military applications of AI, e.g. smart weapons, reconnaissance, decision making Implications of creative production by computers using AI, e.g. Aaron, an expert system, creates visual art Access to the knowledge base underlying an inference engine in an expert system, e.g. whether people affected by decisions made using an expert system should have access to the rules by which the decision was made. A machine to grade essays Intelligent tutoring systems American Express - checking for fraud -

Artificial Intelligence Questions. Look at the notes above and answer the questions below. What are the ethical questions concerning AI? What social problems can it cause? What are the benefits? Should we develop AI as it has been portrayed in the film AI? What laws do we need to regulate AI? How do you see AI develop in the future?