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— Model of the Human Brain [Auzouxj

ELEMENTS OF HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY
BY

HOWARD

C.

WARREN

STUART PROFESSOR OF P8TCHOU)GT, PRINCETON UNIVEBSITT

AUTHOR OP HUMAN PSTCHOLOQT

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
BOSTON

NEW YORK

CHICAGO

SAN FRANCISCO

COPYRIGHT,
BY HOWARD

1922

C WARREN

ALL SIGHTS RESERVES)

CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

229. 114. 248. Volition Conation. 281 Xm. Cutaneous Senses. 109. Intelligence Conditioned Reflexes. 274. Personality and Control 360 383 391 Review Questions Suggestions in Using the Book Glossary and Index 395 . 272. 117 VI. PAGK 1 . Sentiment. . Human Character Attitude. 234 XI. 203. Muscle Sense. Perception 121 143 VUI. Taste. Organic Senses. 98. Language and Thought 284 XIV. Hearing. Emotion. Conscious Life VII. Memory and Imagination IX. V. 209. 103. Smell. Instinctive Behavior. The Senses: Sight . 332. 85. 113. Ideals. 345 XVI. Fain. Character. 39 rV.CONTENTS CHAPTER I. Feeling and Emotion Feeling. Intelligent Behavior. 57 85 The Senses: Hearing and Other Senses . Volition. 19 III. 250 Xn. 218 178 203 224 247 271 X. Mental Succession 306 331 XV. Instinct Reflex Behavior. 105. Static Sense. SUKVEY OF THE FlELD Structure of the Nervous System Operation of the Nervous System II.

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Kinds of Cells The Neuron and its Parts Various Types of Neurons Various Types of SjTiapses II " " " " " " 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 Brain and Cord in Position Central Portion of Nervous System Cross-Section of Cord facmg . 9. Color Spindle and Color Belt Color-Shades and Tints 32. Different 4. Series of 83. Cortex 13. 10. Seeing and Acting I S. 20. Refraction of 30. 7. " " Centers in the Cortex " " " " 15. Cortex from Left Side 14. 16. 5. 17. CHAPTER of the PAGE 4 20 21 Model Human Brain Frontispiece 2.ILLUSTRATIONS nGURE 1. Layers of the Retina 23. Contrast Color " " " 72 74 78 . Eyeball and Eye Muscles 26. 68 69 71 31. 6. Course of the Optic Nerve 28. 18. Focusing Objects on the Retina 27. 24. 8. " 12. Base of Brain Middle Cross-Section of Brain from Above " " . Perimeter S4. Map of Blind Spot How to Find the Blind 62 63 64 65 " " " " " " " 66 68 Long and Short Light Waves Light Color Mixer 29. Autonomic Nervous System Nervous Arc in Spinal Reflex Collection of Nerve Impulses Distribution of a Nerve Impulse Muscle with Nerve Endings Diagram of Muscular Contraction 32 35 41 HI " " 47 " " 47 50 50 21. . . Spot 25. 19. 11. Cross-Section of Eye IV " " " 59 61 22.

42. 61. 62.vi FIGURE ELEMENTS OF HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER Zones of the Retina PAGE 81 85 87 88 89 93 94 35.. Ear Labyrinth of the Ear through Cochlea of Corti V " " " " " " " " " facing 38. 40. . Olfactory Cells 44. Section 39. Vineland 69. Cross-Section of 37. Illusion of the Crosses VI VII " " " " " 54. Color IV 36. Space Perception Convergence of the Eyes 156 158 58. IX 208 231 X " Mazes for Investigating 74.. 41. Changes of Path in Curve of Learning Habit Formation Habit Formation . and Temperature Spots Cutaneous Receptors Canals and Sacs 50. Visual 57. Olfactometer 46. Jastrow Cylinders 52. Curve of Weber's Law in 148 Space Perception Touch 150 151 56. Who The The The is This? 60. Pressure 49. Odor Prism Tongue. Distributed Reflex 73. Organ Musical Intervals How Overtones are Made Nasal Cavity and Olfactory Region 98 99 101 43. Filled-in Perception 53. 102 103 " " " " " 47. Semicircular 51. 64. Stereoscope 59. Poggendorff Illusion 68. Intensity of Feeling 71. Form-Board " " " " " " " " " " " 164 169 169 169 169 170 170 171 172 175 Curve of Forgetting VIII 190 70. Zollner Illusion 67. 103 107 108 117 137 144 145 48. Showing Papillae Taste Bulbs and Taste Cells 45. Bering Illusion 66. 75. 55. Simple Reflex 72. XI " " 232 252 254 259 . Double Interpretation Illusory Cubes Reversible Cube Reversible Staircase Muller-Lyer Illusion 65. 63.

77. vii CHAPTER PAGE 290 293 Reading Mirror Script Language Centers in the Cortex Mental Levels Hipp Chronoscope Handwriting with Different Muscles XIII " " 303 309 XIV XVI 368 . 78. 79.ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 76. 80.

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P. McComas and Carl C. thanks are due to A. G. S. Saunders Co. E. which recognizes both the introspective and behavioristic methods. Fact and Fable in Psychology (Houghton Mifflin Co. Green & Co.PREFACE This book was written to meet numerous requests for an introductory text-book of psychology based on the functions of the nervous system.). Introduction to Neurology (W.). Judd) E. Most of the theoretical discussions are omitted and the practical applications of psychology are emphasized. . I am especially indebted to my colleagues. C. The Nervous System (Longmans. is used as a class text. Material has been freely drawn from the earlier work. M. for reading the manuscript critically. . Henry C. B. Weiss. M. E. Besides the assistance acknowledged in Human Psychology. Cantrall and his students. . J. D. and to my oflGice assistants for painstaking aid in preparing the manuscript and proof. Text-hook of Physiology (Macmillan Co. . the instructor is reSuggestions on page 391.) Knight Dunlap. Weyer. Langfeld. Thorndike. but the arrangement of topics is different and the treatment has been simphfied.) Joseph Jastrow. E. Laboratory Equipment for Psychological Experiments (C. L. Brigham. H. Elements of Psychology (A. Seller) J. and Alvin Bruch for many valuable criticisms and to numerous others for helpful sugges- Human Where the book ferred to the C tions. . A. Lickley. H. publishers for permission to Acknowledgments are due to the following authors and make use of illustrations from the works mentioned: C. H. Schaefer. Herrick. Outline of Psychohiology (Johns Hopkins Press). The standpoint is the same as that of Psychology. J. Judd.

Pbinceton. Journal of Animal Behavior (Henry Holt Journal (W. The Farm Howard New Jebsft C.) . article in Psychological Bulletin (Psychological M. in Harvard Psychological Studies (Har- vard Psychological Laboratory).X Co. Hubbert. Atkinson Co. 1922 . Helen B. PREFACE Review in Swift. & Co. Yerkes. R.).). Warren May.

and (3) try to explain how they come to pass. — try. This is what is meant by scientific investigation. Psychology does not mean human nature. any more than tossing a ball is studying physics. but an attempt to discover why we act and feel and think as we do Thinking and doing things is not studying psychology. In most cases the speaker or writer is referring to human nature. Human p sychology is the systematic study of man's daily experiences. (2) classify them. but the study itself involves a great number of accurate observations. . but it does mean something very * * nearly equivalent to the study of human nature. and these observations must be put together in an orderly before way we can discover their causes and relations. ^pMHroughts. feelings. . chemisobtained in this way make up the science words. or mixing a SeidIn either case the action litz powder is studying chemistry. The results physics. may be the starting-point for systematic study. or psychology. In other when we make a serious business of studying any class of events in nature we (1) collect a large body of facts. as the case may be. It is not merely a description of our doings. he thinks the mysterious term psychology sounds more dignified and imposing. just as stilted writers speak of the celestial luminary when they really mean the sun.ELEMENTS OF HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER * I SURVEY OF THE FIELD is The word psychology Meaning of the Term Psychology/ conversation and in newspapers or popular often used in — magazines without a very clear idea of its meaning.

the position of things in the outer world is altered. are what when he reacts.ft THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology is [ch. reacts in quite definite ways to certain ob- jects outside of itself which affect it. one of the very lowest known species of animal. . of smell. Dogs see. your visual environment is different. The events which we study in psychology are of a different sort from these. i concerned with the scientific investigation of and other events of life. The ant is found to possess a keen sense feelings. Many of these occurrences are by no means confined to man. It is not the study of bodily growth. nor of digestion or the other processes which maintain the body. In other cases the change in the environment is not so evident. such as absorbing food-stuff. and quence he reacts upon his surroundings. They have to do with the interaction between the living creature and the world in which he lives. Some of these changes are very obvious when you open a door. It includes the study not only of human beings. Every living creature is continually being acted ' upon by in conse- the surrounding world (his environment '). thoughts. . The field of psychology embraces all these occurrences. But even when you merely turn your head you see things differently. and all t he other ^events that occur while the reaction is proceeding. we haYfiJ:Q-st"diY h ' r''y''^"lt^g' ' Some chemical and physical reactions between the body and its surroundings. but only with certain definite sorts of events in life. ment thoughts. Our feelings. These n ^rj^nal experiences. and act. and volitions arise in connection with this interplay between our bodily organization and our environment. Even the amoeba. hear. but of all species of animals. There is always some change in a creature's environment affects the creature. the action of oxygen on the lungs. First the environ- then the creature produces some change in the environment. actions. Psychology is not concerned with life in general. or when your dog paws a hole in the ground.

along which certain impulses travel. See ch. which enable the creature to move in various ways. It takes place in a very Men and animals have a number of special definite way. ii. thoughts.CH. we must study what takes place in these organs when one feels and thinks and acts. are part of the processes of bodily growth and maintenance and do not belong to psychological study. distributed throughout the body. 2. The brain is the connecting link. somewhat exchange. * There are also short-cut connections below the brain. nerves. called muscles. i] MEANING OF THE TERM 8 surroundings This special kind of interplay between the creature and his is called mental life. The mental interplay between man and his environment is always by means of receptor organs. taken together.] FifTst. they extend from the receptors up to the brain and from the brain down to the motor organs. cial manner of the central switchboard in a telephone The incoming and outgoing nerves and the brain. In studying psychology we have to investigate not merely feelings. [Fig. which gather in the impressions from outside. which is the speafter the organ of mental life. actions. his eyes receive the visual impres- etc. (2) There are motor organ s. and the like.^ It consists of a mass of nerve cells and fibers which join the various incoming nerves together and connect them with the various outgoing nerves. such as the eye and ear. and motor organs. called receptors. make up the nervous system. but the nervous system with its receptor and motor connections. The operation of the nervous system in human life may be illustrated as follows: Suppose a baseball fielder sees a ball coming toward him through the air and raises his hands to catch it. and of these the nerves (particularly the brain) are the most mportant part. . (3) The receptor organs are connected with the motor organs by means of a vast network of permanent pathways called nerves. (1) receiving organs. The nerves do not connect the receptors directly with the muscles.

— — Seeing and Acting ball. the impression finally end in some motor Various defpsychology are organ. the eyes. the in is muscles are contracted c* -. which means the study of feehng. is often defined science of conscious R= M phenomena. and the like. producing the action.St: *. as a result of these motor impulses. But each tells only a part of the story — ferent parts at that. 2. running from eyes to brain. and muscles. I Then the nerves from the eyes convey an From the brain a motor impulse is conveyed through other nerves to the muscles of his arm and impulse to his brain. = Psychology as the given in different text-books. such a way that his hand raised to intercept the ball. ©---. light waves from the St. nerves. E = effectors or motor organs. Both of these definitions are correct so far as they and very difgo. The actions of animals are due to a similar system of receptor organs. S = sensory nerves. Definitions. Some of the newer books define psychology as the science of behavior. receptors.. stimulus. perhaps better to call psychology is the science of mental but this definition not altogether . [CH. initions of Fio. It is life. thinking. hand. muscles of arm and hand. the brain. running from brain to arm. nervous system.^ Finally.THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY sion of the ball. C = center of = motor nerves. a trail A dog follows A bird because the scent affects his nostrils. flies away because the sound of the hunter's footsteps af- In every case is conveyed from some receptor organ by means of nerves which fects its ears. which means the study of how human beings and other creatures act.

and we can study many other mental events more closely in ourselves than we can in lower animals. psychology in the general problems of animal is not especially interested and plant life which biology studies. — Problems of Psychology. physics and chemistry. stomach.' In the second place. 5 satisfactory. The organs which perform these processes are the mouth. they are called: Human psychology is the science which deals with the interaction between man and his environment by means of the nervous system and its terminal organs^ together with the mental events which accompany this interplay. In is this which what is meant by book we shall adopt the following defireached by putting together the results of which deals with the facts and events our previous discussion: Psychology is the science arising out of the interaction between a creature and its environ- ment by means of receptors. This is particularly true o{ feeling. nervous system. because it does not explain mental nition. perceiving and even emotion. i] DEFINITIONS life. experiences. It is evident that mathematics and astronomy.^ This book is concerned especially with the mental life of man. Biological life depends upon assimilating food and throwing off the waste products. In human psychology it is important to emphasize these mental facts. and effectors. are not directly concerned with interactions between creatures and their surroundings by means of the ' nervous system. and in human beings certain phases of mental life are far more developed than in other creatures. Thinking and willing are distinctly human affairs. .y CH. It is not diflScult to distinguish between biological Ufe and mental life. * The terminal organs of the nervous system include both the receptors and effectors. rather ' than the nervous system. Biology studies such Effectors are muscles and other organs (such as glands) by which the creature produces an effect. and intestines. fields of — These definitions indicate at the outset the study that are not included in psychology.

business. (3) How they repair injuries. He plants He has worked out an crops. All this has been accomplished by means of the nervous system.6 THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY [ch. Biology is interested in finding out. raises herds. Human tions: psychology. sports. (4) How social man communicate and work with one anand his surroundings Interactions between the creature take place continually. then. i and growth and reproduction. He builds houses. (2) How they move and get this information. on their surroundings. Man has devised ways of protecting himself against the dangers and He makes clothing and dresses his environment. himself. Psychology is interested in studying. our with the environment is involved in all our pursuits — studies. elaborate system of distributing these food products and other useful material. They are quite different from the events of menial life which psychology studies. In human life they are much more Interplay important concerns than feeding and growing. deals with the following quesdo we get from the outside world and from What sorts of information our own body? How is this information jmt together into perceptions. These most part chemical and other changes within the body itself. desires. and catches fish. thoughts. by means of which they talk and work together? . (3) act How they use it so as to creatures like other. countless rigors of and home life. (2) How they grow from the egg to processes as nutrition processes are for the maturity. and other mental experiences? How do we remember things and how do we learn to do things in the right way? How do human beings develop a social life. emotions. Psychology is concerned with discovering how all such actions are performed. (1) What sorts of impressions living creatures get from the world around them. (4) How they produce offspring like themselves. (1) How plants and animals keep alive.

In psychology we are especially apt to use the guesswork plan. dropped two balls. For a long time no one tried it out. first rule in and possibly more. — — senses — with perhaps a man has ' mysterious sixth ' called intuition. Each science has its own special methods of observing . because this seems the most Ukely way for them to act. men used to think that a heavy body falls faster than a light one. a heavy and a light one. The notion which every one had taken for granted time. FiHe nally. proved to be wrong. body who has not studied psychology thinks he has just five nature this is nature works. For instance. to observe carefully. which receives this information about the world and puts it together and uses it? master How These are the main problems of human psychology. from the Leaning and both reached the ground at the same Tower of Pisa. they several other senses which had been over- We know now is that there are at least eleven senses. i] PROBLEMS it 7 do men come to get such control of their environment that they and use it for their own ends? What is man's personality.CH. But we shall find that there are certain general rules or laws which apply science is to all kinds of learning. For instance. Galileo thought it safer to observe than to guess. study of nature) The psychology (as in every its to observe carefully. In all the sciences that study done by observing carefully the ways in which There is always a temptation to guess at things to imagine that things work in a certain way. But when psychologists began found that looked. but each of them includes many lesser ones. Collecting the Facts. and still different is learning how to manage a business or how to bring up a family. — The first step in any to gather a great mass of facts. learning to play golf is a very different thing from learning to control your temper. because the facts are so much a part of our e very-day Everylife that we think we can see them without looking.

so that you can check up on your own observations. because even the highest animals do not observe their experiences carefully. a faint life. (1) Self-observation. You may be remembering something that happened to you yesterday. this enables you to get at certain mental facts which do not come into your own life. (1) THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY observing ourselves.8 facts. which is also called introspection. i Psychology uses three different kinds of observation*. means examining your own experiences carefully. or are drumming on the table with your fingers. You are thinking perhaps about psychology or perhaps about your dinner. These are different attention-attitudes. At the present moment you see this book and other things around you. A third scratches his head and twirls his mustache. In animal psychology this method cannot be used either directly or indirectly. Notice a group of men listening to a lecture. By strict attention you often observe experiences that would otherwise escape notice. Notice what the fielders . the throbbing of the heart. Another wrinkles his forehead and screws up his mouth. One man turns his right ear slightly toward the speaker. the tingle in one finger. (3) (2) [ch. (2) Observation of Behavior is the study of the way in which human beings and animals act. means the study of our own individual experiences. — noise in the distance. Your friends you their experiences. tell It is the most important method in human can also be used indirectly. its and observing the nervous system and terminals. observing the behavior of others. the touch of your clothes against the skin. mental These and other experiences are events in your own by paying close attention to them you gather Self-observation material for the study of psychology. or are angry. When you observe them carefully you are using the behavior method of studying psychology.' nor can they report them to the * psychologist. Maybe you have a toothache. Self-observation psychology.

The results of this animal work are applied to human psychology is in so far as the brains correspond. Where certain parts of the brain are destroyed by disease. i] COLLECTING THE FACTS game when the batter is 9 hit. If one region of the brain is affected the man loses the sense of touch. is the result of some impression through the receptor lecturer's The words or the flying ball start the activity. It is difficult fielding a certain amount of training. It means examining the brain to find out how the various nerves run into it and out from it and how they are connected together. of certain regions in the opposite side of the brain. Another way of observing the nervous system is by making experiments on single nerves and nerve fibers. destruction of another region Paralysis of one side of the body is means loss due to injury of speech. to observe one's own behavior. (3) Observation of the Nervous System and its Terminals is used to supplement the two other methods. to study with precision Behavior study is even more important in animal than in human psychology. This method is carried further in animal study by cutting out definite regions of the brain and noticing the effect on the animal's behavior. do in a baseball makes a Their All actions are different. exceedingly complicated. If you are a ball you scarcely have time to observe the way you are doing it. behavior organs. after the behavior of others.CH. animal ex- periments do not help us in studying the higher mental proc- which occur only in man. This is done by stimulating some nerve with an electric current and noting what sensation or movement . we find disturbances of the mental life. in order to discover the nature of the nerve current and the laws of nerve activity. but each act a form of behavior. On the other hand it is easy. they are called stimuli. your attention-attitudes during a lecture usually escape your own observation. The attitudes and actions which follow are called responses. But the human brain esses.

Examination of the receptor organs also gives some facts which bear on psychology. We tell him to practice an hour a day. We have used the word observation in speaking of these three methods. But in each — case the psychologist is often able to make use of experiment. Little we observe only part of the effects that occur in is known as yet about the real nature of the For these reasons the nerve current in the living body. One of the experiments on color bits of sensations consists in giving a person a great many wool of different hues and shades and asking him to match them. and notice his how he improves. i back K electrodes be placed on your forehead and the your neck. because . then we have an experimental measure of his daily improvement. Observation and Experiment. because in such experiments real life. If mistakes and our observation becomes an experiment. THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY of [ch. and at the end of each day we time him for a single page. Observation of the nervous system has not given as much useful information as one would expect. while in experiment we arrange the beforehand. Other electric stimulation causes twitching of the fingers. we watch some one learning to typewrite. and a weak alternating current be passed circuit.10 occurs. through the you will see flashes of violet light. method of nerve-observation is useful only for checking up some of the results obtained by the two other methods. we are getting at the facts by observation. Experiment is more satisfactory than observation. But if we give him a page to copy and measure the time it takes him to do it and count the number of errors. A study of their structure helps us to understand some of the peculiarities of sight and hearing. The results will show how many colors he can discriminate and whether or not he is color blind. The eye and the ear are very intricate organs. The distinction between observation in observation we watch the way in and experiment is this: which things happen by conditions themselves.

It may take a long time to discover that a certain person is color blind if we merely observe his actions. In studying anger in yourself. and then the shutter is released by the experimenter. An electric circuit is arranged which starts a clock (called the chronoscope) the instant the clock the instant the observer presses a key. the person tested arranges the wools in groups or series instead of describing what he sees. When we we generally find that own exwe cannot arrange the contry to study our ditions beforehand without spoiling the effect. it is For instance.CH. while an experi- ment in sorting out colored wools will usually settle the ques- tion at once. observation and experiment are used about equally. The person experimented upon sees the . On the other hand it is not always practicable to use experimentation. almost impossible to make yourself angry deUberately. and then observe it if you are enough of a psychologist to do so. It would be diflScult for any one to determine by mere observation just how long it takes —a work in the human psychological laboratory is him to think or to recognize a word. Most of the experimental kind of experiment in which human behavior plays a very important part. but this is measured quite accurately in the laboratory behavior. blindness is an experiment which uses the behavior method. periences. shutter a and stops Behind the word is placed. by experiments on human a shutter falls. The study of the human nervous system is almost entirely a matter of observation. In the study own experiences. it i] OBSERVATION AND EXPERIMENT II enables us to get at important facts much more quickly. experiment can almost always be used. you must wait till something unexpected happens which arouses your anger. because we know of no way to take — nerves out from the of a living of our human body or to investigate the brain man without injuring him seriously. and its results are much more satisfactory The wool-sorting test for color than mere observation. In applying the behavior method.

guished from the study of the human child. it records time in thousandths of a second. adult human being. taking care to avoid any errors that We find. We have already noticed the between human and animal psychology. answer the question. or (a) by observation of events as they that is. even though it is not what we had expected. But this is not dealIf we doubt the correctness of the ing fairly with nature. This enables the experimenter to measure the time required to recognize the word. we must watch the events carefully and Tnust not interfere with the way they work themselves out. is usually appUed to the This is distinstudy of the normal. 79. This transmission time must be taken into account. S09. and (3) Nerve study. the name Human Psychology. p. and about how fast the nerve impulse from the eye to the brain and from the brain to the finger. The clock is running from the instant the word comes in sight to the instant the key is pressed. An experiment means It is for nature to putting a definite question to nature. We are not free to arrange results to suit ourselves. by arranging by experiment — the conditions so as to bring out certain facts. the only proper course is to repeat the experiment^ first may have occurred the time in arranging the conditions or making the measurements. that psychology uses three methods to col- lect the facts: (1) Self-study. In the first place. and we are bound to accept the answer given. (2) Behavior study. distinction fast light travels. or General Psychology. may then. . The chronoscope is shown * — We know how travels in Fig.* After we have arranged the conditions of an experiment. Divisions of Psychology.12 THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY [ch. and it in connection with each of these methods proceed either (6) occur in nature. and as soon as he recognizes it he presses the key. There are a number of other branches of the science which cover special fields of study. results. i word. There is often a great temptation to amend the results so as to bring them out as we think they ought to be.

Another branch of the subject This investigates. 252. is same problem of mental growth on a larger In animal psychology we study the evolution of menscale. tal life from the lowest species to the highest. following the course of biological evolution from lower to higher species. he gradually makes fewer mistakes and reaches the food in a shorter time.c« i] BRANCHES OF THE SUBJECT object of Child Psychology is IS The to discover how each and deFor in- different sort of experience originates in childhood velops to the precise form found in adult beings. is little. If The crayfish can learn a we place a crayfish in a simple maze with food ' at the other end. interested in this Animal Psychology. p. tying bow-knots. which come from Some show themselves in mental depression are various causes. or child's expression of habits from their very start. . after repeated practice he will learn the proper path to the food. It is found that the amoeba not capable of learning by practice. disorders. child psychology seeks to trace the growth of these and trace gradual improvement. other cases are marked by strange delusions. hearing. also called Comparative Psychology. we may study its the beginnings of speech in the child we may study the anger and other emotions. the first attempts are awkward failures. lacing shoes. are learned by degrees. and observe how they become suppressed and altered in later life. life is Abnormal Psychology. among other things. or wild excite- ment. such as buttoning clothes. stance. 73. Ani- mals higher up in the scale of evolution learn more quickly. It is important to distinguish between disordered minds and 1 See Fig. and other senses. Simple habits. the changes in mental due to diseases of the brain or other There many types of insanity. Animal psychology also studies the growth of sight. others by inability to speak (aphasia). It is found that the white rat is very intelligent and can learn the solution of rather compUcated mazes.

We separate them for special study because they involve the use of delicate instruments and require special training on the part of the student. respects may be normal.' like insanity and mental retardation. . minds are ways of thinking and acting. their [ch.' Physiological Psychology makes a special examination of merely undeveloped. and life. though their bodily growth in other The study of mental retardation.14 THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY The and weak-minded are not insane. imbeciles. i undeveloped minds. investigates the relation of nervous activity to mental Its findings are used by psychology to throw light on mental processes and behavior. It is especially concerned with measuring the events instead of merely describing them. Experimental Psychology is the name given to the experimental study of human mental hfe in the laboratory. experimental jpsychology tries to discover just how many colors can be distinguished. For instance. how long it takes to memorize a poem. and other peculiarities which depend on defective receptors. is a division of abnormal psychology quite distinct from insanity. They are like children in their the nervous system. Many of their results are included in text- books on human psychology. It studies the different parts of the brain. traces the course of nerves to and from the brain. de- termines the special activity of nerves and receptor organs. the rate at which we improve in learning new habits. might be included under abnormal psychology. so they are generally studied in connection with normal psychology. But these defects do not make the individual 'pathological. how quickly one idea suggests another idea. Physiological and experimental psychology are really parts of the general branch called human psychology. or backwardness. as shown by our speed in performing the act or by the decrease in the number of our mistakes. and what sorts of associations are most jrequent between two ideas. and how rrvuch we forget in a day or a week. deafness. class of individuals called idiots. ^ The study of blindness.

the second influences the first — Teaching means that one it may be quite unconsciously. the psychology of play investigates the origin.CH. Social psychology should not be con- Sociology studies social and industrial is relationships of every sort. not a division of psychology like art of using in practical it means the ways the results obtained from psychology. we may devise tests for picking out the most promising persons from are seeking the position. Our moral acts depend on our recognition that other human beings have feelings Uke our own. is Applied Psychology those just discussed. among the candidates who Mental tests are used to discover . Social Psychology studies the events which occur when one of individuals act being acts upon another. For instance. certain tests may be arranged by which we can size up any individual mind. or imitation means that one person together. In a crowd and in a community there is always a tendency for individuals to think along the less as same lines and to act more or a unit. they are generally directed toward some one else. and varieties of play in man or in different species of animals. After we have discovered how the human mind works. fused with sociology. while social psychology con- cerned only with actions and behavior which are accomplished by means of the nervous system. individual tries to arouse certain thoughts in another. i] BRANCHES OF THE SUBJECT 15 In the same way we may pick out any topic for special study and regard it as a division of psychology. fsychofhysics is an experimental study of the relation be- tween stimuli and sensations. if we know what sort of mental processes are needed in a certain occupation. Speaking and writing are social events. All these are examples of the kinds of events which social psychology studies. The 'psychology oj religion is a special study of religious experiences. development. an individual acts differently in a crowd than is when he alone. when a group copies the actions of another. For instance.

These laws depend on a knowledge of human nature. psychology gets its faxits by observation and experiment. which showed that in addition to idiocy and imbecility there is a third. some advertisements unintentionally repel the average man. or should be placed in a higher or lower class. The important divisions of psychology. observing the behavior of others.16 THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY [ch. * A moron is less deficient mentally than an imbecile.' Another use of appUed psychology is in connection with advertising. studies the interaction Psychology is the science that between human beings and their en- — vironment which occurs by means of the nervous system. and observing the workings of the nervous system. There are three methods of observing psychological facts: observing our own experiences. The degree of mental retardation in morons and imbeciles is determined in a similar way. then. are as follows: — or general psychology (study of the normal adult^ Child psychology Animal or comparative psychology Abnormal psychology (insanity and mental retardation) Physiologi(^'psychology studies l!<xpenmental psychology ) Social psychology Applied |>sychology (practical applications) Human L^^ii^ Summary and Outline. The word was coined as the result of mental tests. In general. It is the task of applied psychology to find out what sorts of advertisements appeal to the average human being to lay down laws about what to do and what to avoid in advertising. . appUed psychology is the appUcation of psychological principles to practical problems of Ufe. One advertisement will attract more notice than another. they are applications of principles which have been discovered by the study of psychology. Other kinds of tests are used to indicate whether a child belongs in the same school-class as those of his own age. i whether a given person has the mental quaUfications to make a good salesman or a good telephone operator. Like every other science. superior grade of mental retardation.

all ii) and our thinking and acting de- pend on nerve connections.CH. The next step is to study the different kinds of experiences that . and each particular experience is a union of many separate sensations. there are several psychological investigation. If we wish to understand mental life and human nature we must start at unless first you enter into its the bottom and work up. When we study these problems we must begin at the foundation. how human character and personality are formed. v). since the nervous system (ch. such as animal. After we have made a survey of the senses. You will not understand the meaning of personality examine the various kinds of experiences that make-up. The objection to most attempts at psychology by untr^ned writers is that they generally begin at the wrong end. human psychology is the attempt to discover fluenced — systematically — how what men are in- by their surroundings. vi). treat mind as a simple unit instead of a composition or product. In this book we are to study human psychology. How shall we go about it? By our definition. new thought. and the sensations which we get through their operation This furnishes the foundation for the science. and social psychology. Then we examine the receptors. we are in a posi(chs. sorts of experiences occur in human life. how men react upon the world around them. They commence with the universe instead of the atom. Most of the popular articles on metaphysical psychology. life is made up of experiences. and the like. Speech and voluntary action cannot be explained without some knowledge of the nervous system and how it works. Man's conscious tion to examine their relation to conscious Ufe (ch. mental concentration. iii). Applied psychology is the application of psychological laws and principles to practical problems in Ufe. iv. i] SUMMARY AND OUTLINE human psychology fields of 17 Besides the study of other child. The first step is to study how it works (ch.

ch. This is a systematic order of studying the subject. descriptions. i But mental life inSo in studying certain kinds of human experience we have to examine the various forms of behavior. Describe how your actions and feelings have been influenced. compare it with that of an adult and point out any evidence of mental immaturity which the comparison brings out. and explain the reason so is far as possible. Principles of Psychology. 4. to the environment. It avoids the popular error of as- suming that such complex things as mind. Describe the whole chain of events as far as you can observe them. 3 ogy. and intelli- Practical ExERasEs: 1. Observe a young child's speech or handwriting. Say the word "Man" out loud. 5 is on social psychol- [Exercise 1 on the different sorts of experience. personality is built up out of these successive experiences and how he gradually gains control over his actions and becomes master of himself and his sm-roundings (chs. (4) some action you have Bring out as far as possible the diflFerence between just performed. 4 is on child psychology. gence are simple and fundamental. 1. B. 391 for Suggestions in performing the exercises. Thus far our study is confined to single. 2. Take two recent instances in which the environment has affected you and then you have acted on the environment. xiv).] Rbfebences: On definitions of psychology: Wm. 1. 6. is on our relation on the distinction between self-observation and behavior-observation. ch. definite experiences and actions. J. vii-xiii). we may trace the process by which man's (ch. xvi). xv. (2) some memory you have recently recalled. Report some instance where you have been carried away by the influence of a crowd. such as instinct and intelligence (chs. James.18 THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY life (chs. enter into man's daily cludes actions as well as experiences. [ch. these four experiences. We now go further and examine the succession of experiences which change from moment to moment Finally. Compare the two (2) As another person would observe you doing it. Watson. 2 is See p. (3) some thought. . 3. x. Now describe this occurrence (your speaking) in two diflFerent ways: (1) As you observe yourself talking. will. Psychology. One step leads to the next. Report briefly (1) some feeling you have had lately. xi).

it divides by a complicated process into two cells. and other characteristics. is composed of a vast number of units called These cells are formed of substances which are chemically very much alike. The stomach. The nervous system and the with are formed in the cells of terminal organs connected Tiie nerves are com- same way. just as a living being dies. The special receptors (such as the eye and ear) are composed of several different kinds of cells. The muscles are formed of muscle cells joined together into long bands or strips: when a nerve impulse affects them each strip contracts and the whole muscle is shortened. and a new cell (formed by the division of some living cell of the same kind) takes its place. Our blood contains a mass of floating corpuscles. In course of time a cell may die. degree of rigidity. There are many kinds of cells which differ in shape. It is then disposed of as waste matter. each of which is like the parent ' cell. so that the name cell seems a misnomer.] Each of our bones is made up of a number of bone cells united firmly together. Our skin is a network of epithelial cells which are not so firmly compressed together as the bone cells. II STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM — The human body cells. and other internal organs are made up of cells. a very unusual kind: they are very long and thin. heart. When a man reaches maturity the death of old cells just about balances the production (rf posed of * . When a cell reaches a certain size. and allow stretching and other changes in shape. like threads. 3. each organ being built up of some it special sort of cell.CHAPTER Cells. each a separate cell. and every living cell contains a nucleus. Our body grows by the enlargement and splitting up of its cells. which is essential to its life. [Fig.

The . — Different Kinds op Cells make up the body. [cH. when it is fertilized by union with Germ Cell Bone.20 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM life. called a germ. and to knit together bones that have been injured. late in to restore sections of skin But man and is still able. so that he ceases to grow. other varieties of cells. 8. Celb Nerve Cell Receptor Cell (Retinal Cone) -\ Mu3cle Cells J Blood Cell epithelial Cells Fig. contains Some of the principal cells which human body many greatly enlarged in the drawing.n new. which. until flesh. Every living creature starts as a single cell of cell. a special sort.

The separate cells which make up the nervous system are called neurons. As the division of cells continues the its body gradually takes shape. called dendrites. begins to grow and The not all alike. which a long fiber. n] CELLS cell of 21 another germ subdivide. terminating in very Fig. there are over nine billion nerve brain alone. which ITS Pabts branch out like a tree. The cells rapidly in the embryo. the opposite sex. 4. In the neuron the main body of the cell. otherwise . skin. of fibrils. and various parts begin to be formed. nerves. astonishingly great. The axon usually colTalodandriON provided with branches. There are several other varieties of neuron [Fig. 4 and 5 the thickness of the fibers is exaggerated. called the axon.CH.' cell-body there — ^ In both Figs. is or endbrush. called the telodendrion. cells first inner organs. shows one sort of neuron. cells in the outer layer (cortex) of the The Neuron. ColUUral The important feature a long thread-Uke fiber which projects out from the cell-body. and other components of the body. which contains the nucleus. in some of which the fibers extend in both directions from the cell-body. At the other end is of the a larger network The NExmoN and Fig. called laterals. is — Oandriltti C«ll Bod very small strucis compared with the rest of the ture. and usually has several branches. composing the human nervous system develop and practically all of them are formed Their number is before birth. 5]. 4 in fine fibrils. extends from the cell-body in one direction. formed in this growth process are they are the starting-point for the bones.

extending all the way from the toes to the spinal cord.ii The Some axons are very short. so as to show the nucleus. 5. [From Thomdike. In the drawing the thickness of axon and collaterab is exaggerated. [ch. they belong to neurons which link together two neighboring neurons in the spinal cord within the back- FiQ. in Fig. travel. — Vabiotts Types of Neuhons Six di£Ferent sorts of neurons. 4 the size of the cell-body is drawn too large compared with the projections. Notice the small size of the cell-body and great length of the axon.22 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM length of the axon varies considerably. and the finer fibrils do not show. . they could not be seen in the picture.] There are other neurons whose axon fibers are more than two feet in length. bone. The point to remember especially about t he neuron is that it is a line of conduction or p athway aloi^ g whichnierve impulses.

(From Thomdike. like the branches of two bushes close together in a clump.CH. after Van Gehuchten. ^ The side connections by means of the collaterals should not be They correspond to the branching of an electric lighting system. every receptor is the starting-point of a nerve circuit. At these intermeshing points the nerve impulse passes across from one neuron to the next. peculiar not fullyund er stood ing fibrils The minute branchat the far end of one neuron are meshed in with the fibrils at the near end of the next neuron. connectiop. system each neuron c onnects up end to end with_ajiotber neuron.] forgotten. another wire piece S= synaptic when the is regions. T hese circ ui ts are c alled nervous arcs. . It js j. — which terminates in some effector. . 6. where two neurons mesh together. The connection sort of of successive neurons in the nervous arc is not a complete soldering of the ends together. and from the brain to some muscle or gland. just as in a copper wire of many Pig. n] THE SYNAPSE 28 In the general arrangement of the nervous The Synapse. 6.^ A series of neurons jomed together in this way form^ a chain or circu it which extends from the eye or ear or some other receptor to the brain.] strands of the two are meshed together of two successive neurons called a synapse. strands the electric current passes over to of — Various Types of Stnapses The junction point [Fig.

TH I to L I to L V =• lumbar. their beginnings shown projecting down toward the right in the drawing. n does not transmit nerve impulses as readily as it oflFers more or less resistance to the passage. of collateral General Plan of the Nervous The neurons are not scatSystem. thoracic. They form great masses in — the head. tered through the body promiscuously. or (2) it passes into lateral its no furcol- some and through the synapse at circuit. ity to learn Our abil- new actions depends on the shunting of nerve impulses into new paths by means synapses. cases the pathway blocked. impulse all is unable to pass over at In such is into the next neuron. elsewhere in the body a of number neurons run close together in Fig. The peripheral nerves branch are off from the cord at intervals .«4 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM The synapse [ch. constituting the brain. . S I to S V COC coccygeal. — Brain and Cord in Position is In the head and beneath it the brain. I = cervical nerves. Sometimes the resistance at a synapse is so great that the the nerve fiber. and either (1) the impulse goes ther. 7. end into a neuron belonging to a different The synapses and the resistance which they offer to the transmission of nerve impulses are very important factors in determining what pathway a given nerve impulse will take. The spinal cord is the long white line extending down from the medulla. C I to C = VIII TH XII = = sacral. consisting of the cerebrum the cerebellum (CBL) and medulla (MED).

Viewed from the — Central Portion of Nervous System [From Herrick. spending ganglia to right of cord are not shown. II GENERAL PLAN I cE&ncAi mars KOJUCIC MSSVB OAHeujLTa cou -luauiaan coccrosAL fitvs mVM TUMMxtS Pig. Rauber. after Allen The brain extends down to 'I cervical nerve'.) Thompson and .CH. (very black) are shown the sympathetic ganglia of the autonomic system: the corre* To left front. 8. below this is the spinal cord with beginnings of the peripheral nerves as they leave the cord (numbered at right).

Fig. The main nervous system' and peripheral nerves. which contain both sensory and motor neurons. They carry nerve m impulses out from som e ce nter to some ^ffectoy sory and motor nerves which connect with parts below the head pass into the cord on their brain. Peripheral Nerves. * . The nerve impulse does not jump across from one neuron to those beside it. but passes along the same fiber to the synapse at the end. which are visible to the naked eye individual are bundles of neurons lying side by side. without passing through the cord. and other internal organs. these are called cranial nerves. but running side by side. consists of the brain. otor nerves connect the cord or brain with the muscles and ot^er effector organs throughout the body. 8. The spinal cord runs up the back from the Spinal Cord.^ Tfie sen- of the body way to or from the There are also sensory head which enter the brain directly. and over into another neuron which is the extension of the same path. they are called spinal nerves. They are of two sorts: The sensory nerves connect the receptors with the cord or with the brain. — The peripheral nerves are the pathin the brain or spinal cord [Fig. the olfactory nerve is a sensory cranial nerve leading from the smell receptors in the nostrils to the There are also motor nerves center for smell in the brain. grouped into separate bundles. cf. There are also mixed peripheral nerves. they c arry nerve impulses The i nward from some receiving orga n to som e ceuteg. heart. . [Figs.26 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM [cH. The neurons in any such bundle or nerve are insulated from one another. leading from the brain to the face muscles which are used in smiling.n The nerves bundles.] ways which connect the centers with the receptors or effectors. they do not pass through the spinal cord. spinal cord. and motor nerves in the — ^ Called the cerebrospinal system. which controls our digestion. 15.] There is also a somewhat independent system of nerves called the sympathetic or autonomic system. 7. sensory and motor. For instance. 8.

9. the roots of the corresponding right-side nerve join the cord at the farther [Modified from Testut.] nerves go out. while the motor nerves pass out in the ventral direction — that is. finger.-TH. is surrounded by white matter (W). If we cut through the cord horizontally. seen as a mass . 9] and run as a single nerve to the region of the body where they terminate. Near the junction of the two roots is the spinal ganglion (SG) consisting of sensory cell-bodies. 7. it is Roughly speaking and the cord hollow tube. [Fig. The nerve shown in the figure is on the left side of the body. (vertebrae) which make up the backbone are hollow. n] SPINAL CORD it 27 enters the lower extremity of the trunk to the head. 8. toward the front of the it is body. [Fig. lies within this nerves The enter or leave the cord in the space between each pair of vertebrae. the ventral or front horn (VH) of gray matter emerges the motor root (MR) of a spinal nerve (SP). where brain. Both of the sensory nerves (right and left) enter the cord from the dorsal direction — that is. which is more pointed than the ventral. The and Fig.] pair of boms. at the back. The sensory and motor nerves on the left side join together just outside the cord [Fig. and motor nerves on the right side proceed in a similar way. the sensory root (SR) of the same nerve enters the dorsal or back horn (DH). — Cross-Section of Cord is The From central gray matter (G) shaped like corresponding sensory an H. there the nerve breaks up and each neuron proceeds separately to its final destination.] vertebral juncture At each two sen- sory nerves enter the cord — one from the the left — one from and two motor right. about as thick as your little The separate segments It lies inside the backbone.

and the sensory fibers (with gray cell-bodies). crossing over left from right to the cross-bar. The white matter of the cord is made up of these conducting fibers which connect the brain with the peripheral sensory and motor neurons.28 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM like the letter [cH.] The gray matter largely of cell-bodies with the fibers leading into cell-bodies. It make The thickness of the cord varies. These indirect connections are used in voluntary movements. reducing the size of the cord as ^ This is because a pair of nerves pass out at each of the vertebral openings. so that a nerve impulse may come into the cord and pass out immediately. (2) There are also secondary sensory neurons connected with the ends of each sensory neuron in the gray matter of the cord which lead up to the brain. . H. This direct connection is what causes the knee-jerk and other spinal reflexes. At their terminus in the cord they connect with two distinct paths: (1) There are reflex connecting neurons in the gray matter which join the ends of the sensory neurons directly with the ends of the motor neurons in the cord. [Fig. without going up to the brain. 9. we proceed downward. The white matter is composed of axon fibers with no The difference in coloring is due to the grayish tinge of the cell-bodies. is thickest near the head and tapers down at the lower end. before they pass up toward the brain.n of whitish substance. matter in the cord is The H shape ^ of the gray connections: (1) The direct reflex connections due to these between the sensory and motor fibers form the two uprights of the (2) H. see the The Turn Fig. The peripheral sensory and motor nerves from all over the body below the head pass into the gray matter of the cord and terminate there. 9 left side up and you H clearly. surrounding a grayish mass which looks is somewhat composed them. and corresponding secondary motor neurons which descend from the brain and connect with the peripheral motor neurons in the cord.

medulla. Small folds of the lobes.) . looking upwards. Beginning of •pinal cord (medulla spinalis) is shown below. and cerebellum are supposed to be nearer you than the cerebrum. Front of head is at top of the drawing.Fig. In the drawing the pons. Cranial nerves are named (right) and numbered (left). [From Strilmpell asd Jakob. 10. are named (right side). Lobes of cerebrum (lobus) are underscored. called convolutions (gyrus). — Base of Brain Brain viewed from below. Basal ganglia lie in center of picture. back of head is at bottom.

.

The sensory nerves which enter the cord from the right side connect with neurons that cross over and pass up on the left side. and The motor so that the vice versa. some motor. some are sensory. there are two distinct bulges: one where the great nerves of the arms leave the cord. and vice versa. and in the skin of the face. pons Varoliit and cerebrum or great brain. and with receptors for the sense of touch in the lining of the mouth and nose. examined. — The human brain left side of a very intricate affair.^ It consists of the medulla oblongata. But in every case the sensory and motor nerves which serve the right side of the body connect with the left side of the brain. the side. Sensory nerves or branches connect with the eye. in every case the sensory paths in the cord are on the opposite side from that on which they enter. 10. There are in all thirty-one [Fig. ear. is is con- nected with the The Brain. . motor paths in the cord are on the same side as the peripheral motor nerves with which they connect. Ill SPINAL CORD 29 decrease is not uniform.CH. The spinal nerves are serve. which connect with receptors and effectors in the head. fibers generally cross at the upper end of the cord. ' See Frontispiece. If possible a brain model or specimen should be the brain except the cerebel- * The term brain-slem is used to designate all lum and the cortex with its connecting tracts. named according to the region of the body which they and within each region they are numbered from the top downward. In other words. the cerebrum is divided into the basal ganglia and the cortex or covering. the second where the nerves pass out to the legs. while left side of the brain receives impulses from the right side of the body and controls move- ments on that the right side of the brain the body. 8. and organs of taste and smell. cerebellum.] pairs of spinal nerves. [Fig. and some contain both sensory and motor branches.] Of the twelve cranial nerves.^ In addition there are twelve pairs of cranial nerves.

iv. Its interior consists of a number of odd-shaped masses of nervous matter called the basal ganglia. . which serve various purposes in the reception and treatment Some of these masses connect with the of nerve impulses. it is really It is a continuation of the spinal cord. and throat which are used in eating and speaking. but the region where the motor fibers cross.^ right and This name was adopted because the thalami were found to lie at the end Later they were found to be the terminals of other sensory nerves also. cranial nerves. It movemgpts. It is situated some- what above the cerebellum. v). Immediately above the parts just mentioned is the cerebrum or great brain.so It is STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM [ch. including the eye muscles and hearing. and the other special senses. The lies cerebellum is a spherical mass of nervous matter which and somewhat above it. those of the lips. For our purpose the most important basal ganglia are the two optic thalami. and also the assembling point for fibers connecting the cord with the various parts of the brain beyond. is The medulla is much thicker. others are intermediate stations between the cord and cortex. It would require an undue amount of time to describe their relative position and uses. as well as touch sensations from the skin of the head. and this can only be done satisfactorily in connection with an examination of a brain model or actual dissection. The cranial nerves and receptors will be examined in more detail in connection with sensation (chs. Motor nerves lead to the various muscles in the head. The pons is a broad band of nerve fibers lying in front of it the medulla and crossing horizontally. jaws. by means of its activity we are able to maintain our equilibrium and to make other simple motor adjustments without special atat the back of the medulla contains centers for coordinating our tention. tongue. the olfactory nerve is apparently not connected with ^ of the optic nerves.ii through these nerves that we get sensations of sight.

separated by the medial FL = frontal lobe. Front of head is at top of Rolandic (or anterior central convolution. 12. tal lobe. — Cortex from Above Bssure. OL = occipi- . PCC = posterior central convolution.Fig. PL = parietal lobe. the drawing. Showing the hemispheres. ACC = RF= central) fissure.

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where the gray matter lies inside the white.^ This means that the cortex is made up largely of cell-bodies.] and left hemispheres.] the appearance of being wrinkled or folded. ii] THE BRAIN centers for stimuli 31 which contain the 'primary Cortex. and occipital. the English equivalent is obvious in every case. left. of Sylvius They are called the fissure [Fig. goal of the sensory fibers is The thin cortex is the final the starting-point of and incoming nerve impulses and it the most highly organized motor im- pulses. parietal. from all the receptors. which give [Fig. covering a mass of white matter beneath . separate receiving centers and many separate motor In the illustrations of the brain the Latin names are used.CH. In each hemisphere there are four lobes. 13. The surface of the cortex it is covered with rounded creases. 11. 12. called the right corpus callosum.' The cortex and underlying portion of the cerebrum is divided by a deep medial fissure cortex is lies The — The [Fig. the regions marked off by these and the medial fissure are called lobes and are given separate names. The cortex is the great central control station of the nervous system. which are connected beneath by a mass of white fibers called the into two parts. ' Note that this arrangement is the reverse of the cord. almost completely surrounding them. On the contrary. Two deep creases on each side divide the cortex into readily distinguishable parts. while the part beneath consists of fibers leading to or from the cortex. The surface of the cortex is gray. . where incoming impulses gather and from which all motor im- pulses are generated. the frontal. temporal.] and central fissure or fissure of Rolando. all There is no single dominating center in the cortex. ^ The name cortex means bark or rind. a thin sheet of gray nervous matter which above and around the basal ganglia. For convenience in reference. the cortex contains many thalatni. though their functions are not always distinct.

and relation of language (speech) centers to centers for sight (vision).] [ch. leg. (vision) The higher or control centers for sight or primary centers for and hearing Ue in widely separated regions of the cortex. They connect with the lower these senses. writing. Near the cortical hearing center is a special center for audi- Fig. then for the foot. and are arranged in much the same order as the parts of the body which they serve: first.82 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM [Fig. at the top. The arrangement of the cortical centers for touch and for moving various parts of the body is rather striking. lips. thigh.] They lie along the fissure of Rolando. is lowest part of the body — the toes — are highest up in the lie inverted: the center^ for the very The motor centers in this group on the front wall . after Starr. Notice that the order cortex. jaws. 14. hearing. which are situated in the optic thalami beneath. — that spoken words. [From Uerrick. for hearing and understanding There are also special cortical centers for speaking. Diagram showing the touch and motor tory language is. and lips. and reading.) 13. 14. [Fig. ii centers. the centers for the toes. — Centers in the Cortex centers from toes to lips. tongue. and so on to the centers for cheek. Same view a« Fig. 14.

and each motor function In general there are corresponding centers for each sensory in the two hemispheres. In reading aloud the association fibers joining the word-seeing and — word-uttering centers are used to connect the cortical proc- understanding words with the cortical process of The cortical centers in one hemisphere are connected with the corresponding centers in the other by commissure fibers passing through the callosum. or posterior wall. A person gets visual impressions and if able to avoid obstacles in walking the optic nerves leading from eyes to the thalami are intact. but he cannot recognize objects without the cortical center for sight. sight. Besides the projection areas. The regions in which they are located are called association areas. They are concerned not so much with the recepn tion of sensory impulses as with combining and elaborating is is them. lies In Fig. To take one example: the primary center for sight in the thalami. the corresponding sensory (touch) center. and he cannot read if the word-seeing center is destroyed. the cortex contains masses of connecting neurons. sensory and motor functions which 'projectior j. When you touch and see and smell a flower. The corti- . so that these three impressions combine into the perception of a single object the flower. ii] THE CORTEX and just opposite each one. all at the same time. and smell are brought into play. r^ynft^fff^ |->pngiigf> the impulses are projected up from the primary sensory centers down to the primary motor centers) in the basal ganglia beneath.CH. though he can see the letters in the cortex on the page as black marks. 14 the center for touch sensations from the toes just to the right of the center for The cortical centers for we have described are called (and moving the toes. on the lies 38 rear of the Rolandic fissure. The association areas are filled with bundles of nerve which form connections between the various projection areas. even though the visual center is destroyed. ess of speaking. the association fibers fibers connecting the cortical centers for touch. and so on.

heart. regulated of the main (or cerebrospinal) This is called the autonomic [Fig. of — The operation of organs. there is no language disturbance. . there vided the injury is in the left a language disturbance. Fig. and reading) are found in only one hemisphere in both. by a system system. Autonomic System. and other internal organs nerves which do not form part system. the left from the left half of both eyes run to and those from the right half to the right thalamus. left. digestion. There are also smaller ganglia the body. cf.34 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM and vice versa. portant nerve groups (called plexuses) belonging to this system in various parts of the body at the base of the heart. and in the lumbar region. ii cal centers for the right half of the sphere. 15. If certain areas of is the cortex are destroyed or injured. one on each side of nects with the next higher Each of these ganglia conand lower ganglia. in : the upper abdominal cavity.] in the head. proved by cases of brain disease. [Fig. showing that there no language area the digestive is on this side. called a ganglion. versed on the retina. the right half of each eye sees objects situated to your holds. each of which has a small There are imcentral mass of its own. They and reproductive organs. hearing words.] It consists of a number of more or less independent groups of nerves. Two series of ganglia are situated near the spinal cord. and with the neighboring spinal nerve. lungs. is the corresponding is region in the right hemisphere destroyed. control the circulation. [ch. so that even here the law The four language centers (for speaking. proif hemisphere. all — not In right-handed persons the language centers are This is in the left hemisphere of the brain. The visual centers body are in the left hemiform an apparent exception. half of each optic nerve crossing over at a place But since the visual picture is recalled the optic chiasm. and vice versa. fibers The thalamus. 15. writing. 8.

15. I Compare Fig. etc. C I = first cervical. 8. II ] AUTONOMIC SYSTEM cervical sytnpathellc 35 Superior of ganglion ' PharyngeeJ plexus ganglion Middle cervical o^ sympathetic ganglion sympathati? Inferior cervical of yThoracic plexuses Abdominal plexuses Pelvic plexuses Fig. T °> first thoracic. [From Lickley. numbering of autonomic gang- L corresponds to that of neighboring spinal nerves.CH. after Schwalbe. — Autonomic Nervous System in Sympathetic ganglia and plexuses are shown lia heavy black. .] I = first lumbar.

The distinctive features of the neuron are its long white axon fiber projecting from the gray cell-body. By means of this connection. end to end. and peripheral nerves. It connects with the main system. which stimulate the organic autonomic system. its collateral branches. The autonomic sys- tem concerned chiefly with the bodily life processes digestion. although breathing ordinarily goes on independent of brain supervision.36 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM life [ch. cere- The nervous system brospinal) is divided into the main (or and the autonomic system. In this case the autonomic system acts indirectly upon the cerebrospinal system the digestive trouble causes toxic chemical products. and the minute fibrils in which all these terminate. chronic affect : senses and give rise to unpleasant sensations. circulation. On the indigestion often affects our temper or makes us depressed. we are able to regulate our breathing. cerebrospinal nervous system consists of the brain. by the intermeshing of this fibrillar network. so that our mental and bodily processes influ- ence each other. etc. The sensory peripheral nerves lead inward from the receptors. its dendrites. Summary. so that usually these operate ganic or biological without conscious control. Neurons connect together. is life — however. The sensory nerves always carry never in the impulses in from a receptor toward a center The motor nerves always carry impulses other direction. for instance. our digestion. the connection is called a synapse. — The nervous system is composed of many millions of special cells called neurons. But the connection between the autonomic gangUa and the main nervous system makes possible an interplay between our organic and higher mental processes. The cord. by means of the In the same way our worries sometimes through motor impulses from the brain the autonomic digestive nerves. the motor nerves lead outward to glands or muscles. — . ii The activity of the autonomic system governs the orprocesses. which pass over into other hand.

Describe any brightening of your outlook on the world due to improvement of your bodily condition. 8. In it are the projection centers for incoming and outgoing impulses.CH. divided into two hemispheres. The basal ganglia contain the lower control centers for receiving impulses from the receptors. Some peripheral nerves connect the end organs with the cord and lead to the brain through pathways within the cord. The brain comprises all higher nerve centers. Our highest intelligent activities. and voluntary movements. Above this Ues the cerebrum. depend on the intricate connections of neurons in the cortex. The cerebellum lies at the base of the brain. n] SUMMARY 87 out from the center toward the effector. and sensory with motor nerves. it consists of masses of sensory fibers which continue the sensory paths on toward the brain. The cortex contains many million neurons. Report any instances of indigestion or other bodily disturbance due to 7. or depression caused by bodily ailment. Test the involuntary eye-wink of some friend by an unexpected loud . anxiety or disappointment. The knee-jerk is a spinal The white matter of the cord surrounds the gray reflex. Practical Exercises: 6. such as perception. and motor fibers connecting the brain with the peripheral motor nerves. where sensory nerves connect with other sensory nerves. The gray matter within the cord consists of cells which serve as centers for the immediate connection of incoming and outgoing nerves. The cord contains both conducting nerves and centers. and association areas for connecting these together. motor with other in the motor nerves. unconscious movements called reflexes. which acts as the highest controlling station of the system. consisting of basal ganglia and cortex. matter. thought. Surrounding the basal ganglia is the cortex. the cranial nerves head connect directly with the brain without passing through the cord. and contains a system of centers for regulating our equilibrium and general posture. or great brain. These spinal centers cause quick. language.

Dunlap. note the voluntary resistance repeated several times. chs.38 STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM noise or quick [ch. On the cortex and its centers: Ladd and Wood worth. including his description of the experience. n eye. D. 8 is on the reflex nerve paths. Part I. B. Describe (or name) the different sorts of muscular movement which you can observe in your face and head. Wilson. Neurology. C. Make a sketch of the cortex of the left hemisphere. 10 is on the topography of the brain. 9. 9. Test the iris reflex with a flash-light in a dark-room. The Introduction to Nervous System. J. The Cell.] References: On cells in general: E. 10. to the movement past the is wink when the experiment [Exercises 6 and 7 are on the relation between the cerebrospinal and automatic systems. . Lickley. Herrick. Outline of Psychobiohgy. 10. Elements of Physiological Psychology. On the nervous system: J. Report the experiment. indicating the various centers. 9 is on the motornerve terminals. K.

or order. The combined with other impressions received at the same time and with the player's memories. 2. p. then a nerve impulse goes to the brain centers for arm and hand movement.CHAPTER How the is m — Despite the complexmanner is OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous System Works. (4) The motor nerves thereupon carry nerve impulses down from the brain through the cord and out to the muscles of the arm and hand. secretion results. In the brain the impressions from it is parts of the ball and the background around resulting picture are put together. 4. (3) Impulses which reach the sensory centers at the same time are collected and combined with the traces left by previous impulses and proceed to a motor center. This entire circuit is called a nervous arc. and always in the same occurs. (4) A motor impulse goes out from the motor center along some motor nerve to a muscle or gland. The ball is caught if the motor impulses are well coordinated. If the brain coordina1 See Fig.' The light it. . waves from the (2) ball reach the player's eye and stimulate all The optic nerve carries the effect to the visual center in (3) his brain. Nerve energy always passes through a nervous arc. and this impulse travels along a sensory path to a center in the cord or brain. (5) When the impulse reaches these muscles it causes them to contract. The stimulus starts a nerve impulse in the sensory neuron connected with this receptor. (5) The muscle contracts and a bodily movement if a gland is affected. ity of the nervous system. its general of operation (2) simple: (1) Some one of the receptors stimulated. A concrete example tries to is the way the nervous system (1) operates when a man catch a baseball.

Suppose you are going to answer a letter. [Fig. there is a period in which nerve impulses are traveling from center to center in all. whether simple or complicated. Winking is a cranial reflex. and passes out along the motor nerve to the muscle in your arm. (3) adjustment of impulses at the center or centers.] When something unexpectedly touches the skin of yom* hand. There are other simple arcs which do not enter the head at they are called spinal reflexes. (2) condiiction of nerve impulses toward a the brain. arousing center. No time is lost in collecting or distributing: the im- pulse passes directly over to the center for lowering the eyelid. and you jerk your hand away. that is. Many human actions are very complicated and involve an intricate nervous arc. 16. When an object passes close to your eye. the nervous activity consists of a succession of five steps: (1) Stimulation of a receptor. . and you wink. memory pictures and thoughts. the muscles do not contract just right and the player misses or fumbles the ball. m tion poor. When they reach the brain you do not start to write at once. but you think it over. In some cases the process is simpler and in others much more complicated than this. There it passes over from the dorsal to the ventral part of the gray matter (on the same side of the body). the muscle contracts. These very simplest nervous activities are called reflexes. its arc Kes within the head. A large number of stimuli affect you as you read the message. the motor impulse goes out to the eyelid muscle at once. The sensory nerve impulse in the optic nerve goes only to the lower visual center. a sensory impulse is carried by the sensory nerve to the cord.40 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM is [ch. the eye is stimulated very suddenly. After a time your thoughts are satisfactorily marshaled. In every case. and it is then that the motor impulses from the writing center begin to flow out to the muscles of your fingers and wrist. Winking is the result of a very simple nervous operation.

thence a motor impulse goes out through the ventral root to muscle in the arm. [Prom Herrick.CH. and (5) by the effector. We may combine the two conduction processes and discuss response or activity conduction of motor impulses to the questions in the following order. producing muscular contraction. A sensory impulse traveL« in direction of arrow to the cord.] ment) or within our body. the impulse crosses immediately to front of gray matter. the surface of the object presses scattered about in and quickly produces a change lie receptors called touch corpuscles. (4) Ill] THE NERVOUS ARC 41 an effector. — Stimulation receptor is the effect produced on a by some object or force in our siuroundings (environ- Husc Fig. and what are the other characteristics of the nerve impulse? What is response? What hapj)ens at the nerve centers? Stimulation. that is. Each of these steps must be examined before we can understand the process as a whole. entering at the back (dorsal root). the pressure on the skin stimulates these . What is stimulation? What is nervous conduction. which the skin. 16. apple before picking against your skin it When you touch a book or an in certain up. Showing path — Nervous Akc in Spinal Reflex of reflex nerve impulse when the skin of hand is stimulated. after Van Gehuchten.

They always depend on some stimulus which works upon a receptor organ. tension and this starts the nerve impulse which gives . There is one partial exception to this rule. communicated to the endings sensory neurons which corpuscles. Here the The stimulus may body.42 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM and the effect is lie [ch. they do not originate in the neurons. smell. The stimulus acts in a mechanical way on the receptor in touch and taste. hearing. in the case of sight the stimulus is a force. The nerves which give us pain sensations have no receptor organs. in close connection with the touch When light your eye the lus is effect is waves from an object stimulate communicated to the neurons of your In the case of touch the stimih optic nerve in a similar way. Nerve impulses do not start themselves. This means merely that in the case of pain there is not a double process of stimulation. and touch the stimulus is outside the body. In all other cases the stimulus affects the receptor and then the receptor affects the sensory nerve. Hunger is is stimulus inside the body. in the surrounding world. in certain other senses. such as the eye or touch corpuscles. such as sight the stimulus produces a chemical change in the receptor. of corpuscles. act either from inside or outside the caused by stimulation of the receptors in the hning of the stomach and alimentary canal. When you bend your arm the by the change muscle- sense receptors are stimulated in muscular you a In the case of sight. The muscle-sense stimulus is also inside the body. and hearing. The nature of the impulse in the sensory nerve is detersensation of movement. and acts upon receptors situated at or near the surface of the body. a material body. Pain is caused by wear and tear of the tissues of the body. this effect is transmitted immediately to the sensory neurons whose endings are in close connection with these receptors. the destruction of tissue is a stimulus which works directly on the sensory nerves for pain. m.

the impulses set up in any sensory nerve are determined not merely by the stimulus. The is the eye. The dififerent light waves which strike the eye produce differences in the nerve impulse. but by the make-up of the receptor. properly speaking. veloped eye intensity so that man is able to detect much finer gradations of light than the starfish. In point of fact. The quality of the stimulus also determines the impulse in certain cases.CH. and these differences are transmitted to the brain. A human being can tell more readily than a starfish that it is getting lighter or darker. be placed one above the other beneath the tip of the tongue. which enable us to distinguish colors. the more intense the resulting impulse in the optic nerve. receptori The sensory impulse depends also on the nature of the and how it is affected by the stimulus. A well-de- is capable of distinguishing more differences of and more colors than an eye of the primitive type found in very low animals. its reactions to Ught are more finely graded. Neither There is no taste stimulus coin separately can be tasted. the receptor has more to do with determining the form of the nerve impulse than the stimulus. determined by the intensity or brighter the light which strikes force of the stimulus. and this sets the impulse is specific to the receptor stimulated: the taste . ra] STIMULATION in the first instance 43 mined The intensity of the impulse is by the nature of the stimulus. the greater the pressure of an object on the skin. a cent and a nickel. In other woj*ds. The electrolysis stimu- lates the taste receptors up a nerve impulse in the taste nerve. This is because the human eye is more perfect. the more intense is the resulting impulse in the nerve for touch. Whatever the stimulus. but chemical action (electrolysis) is set up by their connection with the tongue. we get a pecuhar metalhc taste sensation. If two coins. so that they touch the tongue and each other. Consequently the human eye passes on to the optic nerve a greater variety of different effects.

not yet known. or it of the two. but it is is know that nerve conduction always accompanied by an electric cur- uncertain whether this electric current is the There is certainly some chemical action in during the passage of the nerve impulse. as a result of stimula- activity Every other neuron in the arc is excited or aroused to by impulses from some other neuron which connects with it at a synapse. We not a flow of material. Conduction means that a neuron. characteristics or properties. Conduction The impulse always protakes place only in one direction. which covers three possi- Properties of Neurons : Excitation and Conduction. nerve substance. — if they give any sensation at The Nerve Impulse. ceeds towards the center in sensory nerves and away from the center in motor neurons. the nerve impulse may be chemical.44 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM [ch. A peripheral sensory neuron tion. its — The substance which composes the neurons has a number of are excitation and conduction. In other words. is because the neurons are very small and their activity cannot readily be observed. pulse is — The exact nature of the nerve imThis is all. electrical. excited by the receptor. We also know that the nerve impulse rent. the eye always gives us sensations of light. transmits the impulse along its main fiber and branches to the synapses at its farther end. This is the synapses. or it may be a combination Until physiologists have settled the question may be definitely. ron is capable of two fundamental properties means that a neubeing aroused into activity by some force Excitation acting upon is its fine branching ends. hi receptors always give us tastes. psychologists must be content event. when once it has been excited at one end. They are so made due to the construction of that the impulse can pass . and the neuron possibly the nerve impulse is really a chemical change in the nerve impulse. to call the nerve all impulse a chemico-eledric bilities. like the passage of water or gas through a pipe.

such as is readily observed in the case motor swimming or bicycle riding. similar impulses along this neuron are more likely to pass out through this particular synapse than through means that every nerve impulse leaves a which has an effect on future impulses passing along the same neurons. make it possible for us in future to recall our to get a mental former experience of reading these words * ' * ' — image of the same words and sentences long afterwards. that synapse thereby becomes a less resistant or more permeable pathway. after the impulse has passed on. The synapses of the collaterals follow the same principle. This permanent set or mold is the basis of memory. in future. The path which a along the arc is not always the same. They transmit impulses in one direction only. the neurons retain a trace or permanent impress. The retention traces or set left in certain central neurons by the letters and words we have read. The result of this law of conduction is that all impulses tend to proceed from receptor to center and from center to There is no back-wash in the reverse direction. effector. it If you once acquire one of these habits. neurons. one of the most important facts in mental life. without consulting the book. Retention means that if an impulse in a certain neuron has once passed over a given synapse. trace of It also some sort in the nerve substance. There are two properties of the nerve substance which determine and alter the course of the impulse: retention and fatigue. m] PROPERTIES OF NEURONS 45 like the entrance to a through them in one direction only mouse-trap. can be revived after a . that is. For instance. which influences any subsequent impulses passing through these same neurons.CH. The course of the nerve impulse Retention and Fatigue. when we look at a printed page the black and white of the printed background stimulate a great many separate another. given impulse takes depends upon physiological conditions ' ' — — in the neurons and synapses. The of persistence of retention habits.

A fatigued synapse offers more resistance to the passage of imthe resistance is pass through that synapse at very great the impulse is unable to all and is shunted over another This accounts in part for the the synaptic connections grew If synapse into another path. If the stimuli are varied. which impedes the nerve impulse.46 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM If [ch. variety of our actions. Fatigue little practice. rest. a great number of same subject for — . . continually more and more fixed.] When we look at any object. with no let-up. changing our mental work to something quite different. if we use the same nervous arcs constantly. Collection is the teristics or properties of the nerve impulse. These are two other characCollection and Distribution. the opposite of retention. synapses have a chance to ally restored. gathering together of several impulses into a single neuron. This explains why we become fatigued after studying the By a long time without intermission. This from the retention effect. over and over again. It an eflFect which is Through constant use of the same neurons and synapses there comes about a wear and tear of loss of eflSciency. the eye is fatigued if you carry a heavy suitcase. which persists in is spite of the lapse of time. we rest the brain and can accomplish more. The same is true you memorize a poem by repeating it you will find that you can recall it after it a long period during which is has apparently been forgotten. the muscles of the arm are fatigued. The fatigue effect occurs only the same neurons are used steadily. Just so the synapses in the nervous system if become fatigued pulses. [Fig. hi long lapse of time with very of mental habits. If you look steadily at a bright object. This effect is similar to the fatigue that occurs in the receptors and muscles. the is the nerve substance graduquite different and the fatigue finally wears off. The efficiency of the eye or the muscle is tempo- rarily impaired. means a substance. 17. we would when in time have only a lot of stereotyped habits.

Distribution may also occur in the sensory nerves. so brain. Pig.] Whenever you perform a different motor paths. The nerve impulse neuron A di- vides and passes out through the synapses Si and S2 into two separate neuron paths Bi and Bg.. Fig. 18. into as many [Fig. Importance of these Properties.. compUcated movement. When you grasp a stick. passing through synapses Sti Si. This complicated movement is brought about by the distribution of the nerve impulse from a motor center into a number of motor neurons leading to different muscles. B. all your fingers work at the same time. — The six characteristics . the rest of the impulse passes up to the higher auditory center and enables the reflex * you to hear the noise. At. involving several muscles. g. that we see the object as a single thing. B. part goes directly into the motor nerves and causes movement of jumping or starting '.^ S. the nerve impulse When is you are startled by a sudden dis- tributed. distribution of the motor impulse takes place.CH. enter the same neuron B and proceed onward as a single complex nerve impulse. A. ' g: S. noise. Often they pass out of a neuron by several synapses at once. If you watch the movement carefully. ^ ' A. 18. you will see that the several joints of each finger bend at once. Nerve impulses Distribution is the opposite of collection. there may be a wrist movement also. All our perceptions of objects and events are due to the collection of many separ rate impulses. m] PROPERTIES OF NEURONS 47 nerve impulses are started along the various fibers of the optic nerve and proceed separately to the visual center of the Here the separate impulses are gathered together. 17. do not always proceed along a single pathway. CoLLEcnoN of Nebve Impxjlseb — — Distribution of a Nkrve Impulse in Nerve impulses in two separate neulons Ai.

perception. (6) An impulse may be distributed into several different motor neurons. (5) Impulses from several neurons are collected or gathered together into a single neuron.^ These properties belong not only to the individual neurons. upon the stimulation of yoiu* eyes. pressure and so on. producing complex nerve impulses and unified experiences. When several im- pulses combine they * may undergo changes of quality. The stimuli and receptors furnish certain material for the use of the nervous system: light waves strike the eye. properties. and so on through the entire nervous arc to the effector. vL . which makes possible a shunting of the impulse into other paths. receptors. If you examine your own everyday experiences. and in fact to the nervous system as a whole. How does the nervous system use this material? It is able to make use of the stimuli in the following ways: (1) The neurons are excited in various ways. They what difiFerent operations the nervous system can perform. which makes possible the performance of coordinated movements.48 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM indicate just [ch.^ * Another property. stimulus is (2) The impulse caused by the conducted along the peripheral sensory neuron to the next neuron. can be described in terms of these fundamental important. through the trace or set which leaves in the The route of an impulse in the nervous determined by the traces left by former imarc is in part pulses. partly mental fife. less is tnodification. you will find that they all depend partly nerve substance. ears. and other upon the properties of the nervous system Memory. sound waves affect the ear. but to the groups of neurons called nerves. (4) Synapses become fatigued through constant use. according to the quality. skin. m just described are properties of neurons and nerve substance. (3) The effect of an impulse it is retained for future use. in fact every event of just described. intensity. stimulates the touch corpuscles. giving variety to our experience and actions. and duration of the stimiJus. This will be brought out more fully in ch.

it is brought about by nerve impulses from the centers to the muscles of all the joints of the fingers and thumb. When a man goes out from his home town to set up in business or engage in a profession elsewhere. own nervous system.CH. * ' Our actions are called responses because they are our we are placed. together with the bodily movements and changes brought about by muscular —A and glandular activity. Most of our common acts are very complex responses. If we stumble over a wire the falling movement is not a response. Take the act of reading aloud. leading The term individual's response as used in psychology applies only to of the movements or changes brought about by the action and fall. often for a number of years. and which are from the environment affecting our receptor organs. it involves Grasping with the hand is more complex. All movements which are produced through the activity of our nervous system are due directly answers to situations in which made known to us by stimuli or indirectly to stimuli. Even our voluntary actions are responses to situations in the outer world. and the final result is a succession of vocal utterances due to contraction of the muscles of your throat. impulses upon the muscles and glands. every nerve impulse originates in some stimulus which works upon our receptors and sensory nerves. by sensory nerves. Winking is an example of a simple response. Ill] RESPONSE 49 response is the effect produced by nerve Response. only the muscle of the eye-lid. A very intricate series of nerve impulses is set up when you look at the letters. cheeks. The stimuli are the printed words on the page. but the wild . and thorax. and arouse perceptions and thought. lips. No nerve impulse is started inside the nervous system. these situations are reported to the brain finally to volition. his going is a response to a tremendous number of stimuU that have acted on him. Many human responses are even more complicated than this.

psychologically speaking.] which terminate in the Nerve impulses cause the they become shorter. [Fig. [Fig. — Muscle with Nerve Endings The dark vertical lines are fibers Pig. is When a convict is taken to prison.] to a bone which plays in a socket. Going to prison is certainly a a psychological response. Muscular responses are due to contraction of the muscles. but neither of these is system.50 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM we make in [ch. — A. strands to contract [After Dunlap. Strands of an uncontracted muscle. Diagram of Muscular Contraction — The muscle long horizontal strips are strands of fibers. though each of the may be a separate response. B. 20. 19. Psychology is concerned only with actions which are brought to pass through the workings of the nervous may be a social response. which — Fia. in gestures trying to save ourselves are responsive in character. 20. Same muscle when contracted. so that when the muscle gether. The strands are shorter. . Responses are of two sorts muscular and glandular. 19. and falling down physical response. motor nerve several strands.] When a motor nerve impulse reaches the muscle it causes a chemical change in the muscle fibers. the muscle is thicker in the nuddle. shortens them lengthwise. his going there steps he takes not a response. contracts the bone turns like a hinge. the ends are brought nearer toThe muscle is thickened in the middle at the same One end of the muscle is often fastened time.

These muscle sensations enable you to regulate the response. the extensor straightens called antagonistic muscles. The glands are more concerned in growth and in maintaining the body than in responses to the environment. of resistance Glandular resjponses are not so important in mental life as muscular responses. even without looking. It has been found also that certain emotions operate on the — . the mouth waters.CH. In addition to the motor nerve endings there are receptors and sensory nerves in the muscles. ing. A quick bending of the finger is brought about by an intense motor impulse. When the glands take part in our responses it is generally in a subsidiary way. two antagonists usually work together one contracts the other relaxes. for the The name is Such a pair are somewhat misleadsplendidly. arm at the elbow. a very slow movement occurs if the impulse is weak but continues to operate for some time. 61 the Muscles usually go in The flexor muscle bends it. These differences depend on the intensity of the nerve impulse. The sight of a luscious peach produces activity of the salivary gland. These report to us how the contraction is progressing. A muscle may be contracted at various rates of speed. so that the arm or finger or other member bends at a regular rate and is held securely in position all When the time by the pair. Thereupon a more intense motor impulse is sent down to the muscle and the movement is speeded up. in] RESPONSE pairs. In extreme emotion we weep a response by the tear glands. Anxiety sometimes affects the sweat glands. The muscular contraction is the same whatever the kind of impulse. Differences in quality of the nerve impulse have not the same importance in motor nerves as in sensory nerves. K you start to lift a box and it is heavier than you thought. When you are bending your finger you know all the time how the finger is moving and how much it has moved. the sensory nerves in your arm muscles report to you the amount and the fact that the movement is slow.

the separate impulses are put together in such a way that their relations closely resemble the relations along the stimuli. toward the cord and brain. some cars going to one destination. are part of our bodily hfe-processes and are of no special concern to psychology.52 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM [ch. wires. and many complicated motor impulses are being sent out. the secretion of saliva. Fear brings about the production of chemical substances (such as adrenalin) in the body. i. utmost importance. where freight trains come in and are broken up. Both The collection of nerve impulses in the brain is called It is integration. But the main point in the two analogies is correct: the brain is a great receiving. Both of these analogies are imperfect. Also. all at the same moment. where wires come in from every direction and are connected up with a vast number of other It may also be likened to a great switching-yard. in ductless glands inside the body. while along the motor nerves they only travel out from the brain and other centers. The brain centers and the lower centers in the cord are the regions where the nerve impulses from the receptors are ors. and distributing center with many thousand times more connections than exist in any Central Adjustment. switched over to the motor nerves and sent out to the effectIn addition the brain centers collect many sensory im- pulses and distribute impulses to of these processes are of the many motor neurons. the brain was likened a telephone exchange. sweat. in general. more than a mere addition process. for nerve impulses travel along any given nerve only in one direction: in the sensory nerves the impulses always proceed inward.. many impulses are always coming in from all directions at once. etc. urine. switching. some to another. which affect our general bodily condition. — In chapter to — telephone central or railroad freight-yard. though these glands are and growth. . chiefly concerned with nutrition The ordinary operations of the glands are not part of the response. tears.

but they are almost shut out from the general assembly of your impressions at the time. partridge not to shoot up the landscape generally. is due to the integration of separate impulses from a of nerve fibers in the visual center. wrist. The same true of hearing. This means that the nerve impulses are not collected uniformly. the great idea is to hit the sponses. and other sense impressions. in] CENTRAL ADJUSTMENT 58 When we look at a landscape the integrated affect of the visual impulses in the brain is like the landscape outside of us which stimulates our eyes and optic nerves at the moment. number We things for the most part as they actually are. elbow. This is accomplished by others are scarcely noticed. In looking at a landscape you will notice that some objects stand out and attract our attention. field are of different When you are reading an interesting story you do not hear the conversation going on around you. and quite another thing to wing him. Some are reinforced and others are weakened. The other important feature of the brain's work is the proper distribution of motor impulses. the various muscles of your shoulder. — the integration of sensory impulses in your brain. and finger joints must . Integration all is Here again some of the impressions are featured at the expense of others. The impulses coming through the ear reach the brain. ordination. It is This is called co- one thing to see your bird. You must pick out the bird from all other details of the scene before you can respond properly. In the integrating process some elements are focused and This selective character of integration is an important factor in the regulation of reIf you are gunning. touch. the systematic assembling and marshaling of the impulses which reach the brain at a given moment. so are featured — they that the various parts of the visual vividness — they receive different emphasis.CH. When you raise the gun. resulting picture or perception of the landscape it The way This large appears to us — — the see is is like the real landscape in form.

At once the nervous to motor centers activity in the hunter's brain passes over arm and fingers. not a muscular process. you miss your shot. The adjustment and out through various motor nerves to his so that he lifts the gun and pulls the trigger. One fact actions as being performed movements and voluntary As a matter of the muscles are merely our agents. and each impulse must be regulated to the proper intensity volves all this. The two together. The systematic combination of integration and coordination is called adjustment. If you continue the motor impulse to any of these muscles too long or press the trigger too soon. and must continue just so long. Coordination is a brain process. gration of all the stimuli and coordination of all our motor activities. involve them both. The hunter shooting at the bird is Until he sees the bird there is a case of adjustment. the brain must start a number of impulses along different motor paths at the same time. For a time he sees all sorts of other objects in the landscape. no impulse to pull the trigger. We must This means intelearn to fit the response to the situation. It is a question of sending the right motor impulses out from the brain to the right muscles at the right by our brain time. Coordination inIt is more than mere distribution it means — systematic distribution.54 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM [ch. processes of integration and coordination work All our responses to stimuli. In order to perlorm any complex response correctly. process here includes the integrated percep- . the perception is due to an integration of many stimuli from the retina of the hunter's eye. They are controlled generally thinks of his by his muscles. We are continually ad- justing oxu" actions to constantly changing situations. except in the very simplest cases. Suddenly he spies the bird. Most of our actions depend on a great number of changing stimuli and are accomplished by a series of complicated movements. ra be contracted just so much and no more. centers.

The activity of the nervous system proceeds through a circuit or arc from receptor to effector. retention. conduction. Mental life is not the fact that we see. and different kinds of behavior. but the fact that our actions are adjusted to what we see. tions (the elementary impressions experiences of various sorts. chapters. over and above the stamp which it receives from the stimulus. ess is The significant part of the proc- the central adjustment of the response to the stimidus. where coordinated motor impulses are set up in the motor nerves. the activity of these effectors constitutes a response. fatigue. It is and the coordinated motor imyndse. in] tion CENTRAL ADJUSTMENT 55 place in the brain.CH. These separate facts are simply fragments of our mental life. This produces an impulse in the sensory neurons which travels along the sensory paths to sensory centers in the cord and brain. In the sensory centers impulses are integrated and pass over to motor centers. or that we act. These properties are excitation. Mental life as a whole is a continuous succession of stimulations leading to responses. The nerve activity starts with stimulation of a receptor. the adjust- serves as a network of pathways over which nerve impulses pass from the receptor organs through the centers to the muscles and glands. Summary. The nervous system — . Th e motor impulse travels along motor paths to the appropriate muscles or glands. collection. and discharges its energy into them. these two characteristics being determined in the first place by the nature of the stimuU and receptors. both of which take Adjustment is the most important feature important to keep this in mind in reading the following we shall take up a great many special topics: sensaderived from stimuli). and distribution. The nerve impulse varies in intensity and quality. Each arc is composed ment takes place in the brain. of mental hfe. There are also certain properties of the nerve substance which determine what the impulse shall be.

all. Notice the adjustments of your own movements to the different angles of the falling ball. How old were you when it occurred? Can you tell why the recollection has persisted? 12. 13 on adjustment. Integrative Action of the Nervous System. and describe the experience. 14. 15. 14 Refehences: On On the nerve impulse: K. when you are fresh and wide awake. Compare them and determine if possible why they cooperate or interfere.] on fatigue. S. 12 and 15 on coordination. Try to memorize a definition rizing when sleepy. Study several cases in which you can readily perform two independent actions at once. [ch. Compare this with memo- 13. Adjustment is the most significant fact of mental life. a^ and response. central. and other cases where one action interferes with another. ra of three sections: sensory. Describe one of your earliest definite recollections of childhood. . Integration and coordination work together and tend to make our responses appropriate to the total situation at any given time. justment. Practice keeping a ball tossing in the air with a tennis racquet. Sherrington. is [Exercise 11 is on retention. Lucas. the operation of the nervous arc: C.66 OPERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM and motor. The adjustment process is the most important of It includes integration of sensory impulses. Observe a child trying to use knife and fork or fold a napkin. Conduction of the Nervous Impulse. Corresponding to these there are three phases of activity: stimulation. and coordination of motor impulses. Describe any lack of coordination that you notice. PaAcncAL Exercises: 11.

receptors are commonly known as sense organs or supposed to have only five senses that is. thoughts. (2) the internal or systemic senses. and which by the activity of the receptors and sensory These mental atoms which combine into experiences are called sensations. The external senses fall into two subgroups: (a) distant senses. which are affected by stimuli usually originating in objects situated some distance away from our body. hearing. and (6) con- . is composed.l The senses into three groups: (1) the external senses. memories. and depend on both the outer world and oiu* own body. with the possibility that some of these may be subdivided Scientific investigation has still further. shown that there are At present we can distinguish eleven senses. All our experiences and actions may be traced to some stimulation of these organs by objects or forces outside our body or by conditions within the body. [Table fall I. Popular psychology and poetry — Formerly man was stiU recognize only the senses of sight. which are stimulated by objects outside the body. The senses. we must examine the simple elements of which every experience are aroused nerves. several more. which are stimulated by our movements and bodily position. smell. taste.CHAPTER THE Ufe depends IV SENSES: SIGHT We have seen that mental The Receptors and Sensation. which are stimulated by conditions within the body. and (3) the motor senses. upon nerve impulses which are started by activity — in the receptor organs. and other sorts of experience. each giving a different sort of sensation. Before taking up the study of perceptions. and touch. five distinct sense organs.

Sight (Vision) The Eye. sex. etc. One who is both blind and deaf has a very limited environment compared with the normal extremely important. Systemic 3. Motor In nostrils In tongue In skin J Touch Warmth In skin I L Cold In skin In internal organs 5 Organic Free nerve endings ( Pain ( Kinesthetic In muscles "s (muscle sense) t Static Tones and noises Odors Tastes Contact and pressure Warmth Cold Hunger. IV which are stimulated only by objects in immediate contact with the body. together with the muscles attached to it. 1. The receptor for sight is the eyeball. 21. rotation. THE SENSES [CH. strain.] Its outer — . In every case the stimulus must reach the receptor before it can start a nerve impulse and cause a sensation. fatigue. and hear. [Fig. Semicircular canals.58 tigtious senses. — Classification of the Receptor Senses Sense Sight Kinds of SenscUion Colors and grays External (o) Distant Eye Ear 5 Hearing Smell r Taste (6) Contiguous 2. ^ Table Class 1. for : at a considerable distance from the body. But in the case of the distant away. and smell. we hold the book several inches from the eye. human being. I. senses we gain information about things it This is widens our field of experience tremendously our environment is extended as far as we can see. Pain Efifort. etc. which enable it to move. The sounds that we hear and the odors that we smell are from sources some distance off. I Sight far is a distant sense. senses the stimulus is which does not itself By means that lie of these a wave or emanation from some object come into contact with our body at all. sacs Position. etc. The eye is a nearly spherical body. The things that we see are often In reading.

In left eye the optic nerve pierces the retina at the right of the fovea. 59 which covers the sphere except the extreme front surface. Light passes readily through the cornea. 21.CH. Looking at the eye from the front. The lens is convex on both surfaces. — Cross-Section of Eye Horizontal section through right eye. we observe back of the cornea a transparent oval body called the lens. like a camera lens. and focuses the light waves on the rear inner surface of the eyeball. it squeezes the lens so that it bulges out. When this accommodation muscle contracts. The lens is held in place by a ring-shaped muscle at its edge. The space between the lens and . IV] coating all is STRUCTURE OF THE EYE a tough substance called the sclerotic. which serves also to change its shape. is baU light. The sclerotic Pupil Iris Accomtnodatiorv muscle Limit retina Sclerotic Choroid Retina 'Fovea Optic nery/e Fig. this changes the focus. just as it does through a almost impervious to is window-pane. viewed from above. The front surface of the eyecovered by a transparent coat called the cornea.

more light is admitted into the eye and we see more clearly.' Behind the lens. * A millimeter is about one twenty-fifth of an inch. * Between the (outer) sclerotic coat and (inner) retina is a third coat called the choroid. from 0. and look inside the remainder. in diThey are exceedingly small ameter. which permits the bulging of the lens. the most important of which is the layer of rods and cones (marked 9 in the figure). cat's A eye is extremely sensitive to . It consists of ten layers.002 to 0. so that the opening becomes smaller.* Each rod and each cone is connected with a neuron of the optic nerve. This hole is called the pupil.^ [Fig. gether all over the inner lining except in front. is which prevents the lens from slipping backward. Bright light causes the iris to contract. line in bright daylight. The iris is a flat muscle situated just in front of the lens. It resembles a disk or circular curtain with a large hole in the middle. The iris is opaque. IV is filled with a transparent liquid called the aqueous humor. and the opening becomes very large. 22. jelly-like substance called the vitreous body. is a tough. what we see corresponds to the area in the eye covered by rods and cones. and less light When we go into a dark room the iris relaxes is admitted. transparent. No light can reach the lens except through the central hole of the iris. If we take a tennis ball.] is a thin woven and tissues of various sorts. of the vitreous. like the diaphragm of a camera. four regions should light. They are crowded to- The retina coat composed of a network of cells — . Looking at the surface ^ be tracts to a thin. The cones are shorter and thicker than the rods the two can be easily distinguished in the figure. filling most of the interior of the eye. forming the inner surface of the eyethe retina. The rods and cones are the real receptors for visual stimuli.006 mm.60 cornea SIGHT [CH. Back ball. of the retina. cut away about a third of it. in the dark Notice that the pupil conit becomes very large. and serves to regulate the light entering the eye. This is why a cat can see quite well when there is very little light.

(5) inner nuclear layer. %atreou» Exterior of eyeball. (Based on PiersoLl inside the sclerotic: (1) inner limiting showing membrane. 22.CH. choroid coat Fig. thick). (9) layer of rods (long. (2) layer of nerve fibers. (4) inner molecular layer. — Layers of the Retina its ten layers from the vitreous to the choroid coat just to vitreous. (6) outer molecular layer. SecUon through the retina. attached to choroid. (8) outer limiting membrane. narrow) and cones (7) (short. IV] STRUCTURE OF THE EYE 61 noticed: the center. and the periphery. outer nuclear layer. (3) layer of nerve cells. (1) ' Center of Retina: The ' center of the retina lies at the opposite pole of the eyeball from the center of the pupil. covering the entire back inner surface of the eye. the blind spot. next . There are many thousands of rods and cones. the diagram shows only a few. (10) pigment ceU layer. Interior of eyeball. the intermediate field.

It is The result of this crowding that we can discriminate fine lines and points most sharply at the fovea. 24. (yellow spot). slightly and Blind spot of the author's right eye. F = fisationpoint. it is somewhat circular but irregular in over the inner surface. Blind Spot: The optic nerve does not distribute its on the outer surface of the eyeball in man and other vertebrates.] You cannot see an object whose picture X F falls of on this part your eye. The whole nerve passes in bodily. When we wish to examine any object closely the picture of this object (2) we turn the eye so that fibers falls on the fovea. Drawn from two pearly identical records made a year apart.SIGHT CH. This region ie^5Zm3 spot. a figure somewhat to the right of the fixaThe blind tion point will not be seen at all. and dmersln different individuals. and distributes In the place where the nerye^ breaks thro ugh the eyeball there are no rods or cones. IV A line joining the center of center of the eyeball. cen — Map op Blind Spot ter in each eye. Here the cones are crowded together more is closely than elsewhere. 23. through the its fibers outer coating at the back of the eye. the region of clearest vision. [Fig. below the level of the center. the pupil with the center of the retina passes through the center of the lens and through the macula Ivtea The region about the center of the retina has a yellowish tinge and is called the It contains only cones is — no rods. 23. Near the center of the macula there a depression in the retina called the fovea centralis. The blind spot lies some distance to the nasal side of the Fig. [Fig. shape. ily If you look steadmark on a white surface with the right eye.] 9pots of the right and left eyes are in different parts of the at a small . the left being closed.

There are and cannot distinguish colors. grayish. — How to Find the Blind Spot O eye. one above and the other beneath it. they are called the internal rectus and external rectus muscles.] One pair produce movements from side to side. [Fig. Repeat with right eye closed and the left-hand spot will vanish.CH. Eye Muscles. and the accommodation muscle focuses the picture clearly on the retina. It contains no cones. 24. about in the socket and keep it in These are arranged in three pairs. The iris regulates the amount of light admitted to the eye. tinctly In this region we see things rather indis- all objects appear a photograph. . and. Move (3) Intermediate Field _The region of the retJTia ^rr>vTirl_ the macula (except the blind SDot) ^yntAins hnth toAs. taking care to keep the eye fixed steadily straight ahead. toward the front of the eyeball. iv] STRUCTURE OF THE EYE with both eyes open 63 notice retina. (4) Periphery: The outer rim of the retina. they it which serve to move position. The iris and accommodation muscles inside the eyeball have already been described. O Close the left eye. Sight is assisted greatly by muscular adjustments. This effect may be observed by closing one eye and bringing a small bit of colored paper slowly into the field of the other eye from behind your back. they are called the superior rectus and inferior rectus muscles. as in — also six muscles attached to the outer surface of the eyeball. Hold the book about 6 inches off and look at the star fixedly with right the book slowly to and from the eye till the right-hand spot disappears. is called the periphery. 25.) A second pair cause the eyes to turn up and down. so that we do not any break in the field. ' Fig. The third pair pass obliquely across the eyeball. only rods. : The rods are more numerous than the cones and cones^ Surround them. (The internal is on the nasal side. horizontally.

The external rectus muscle is in central foreground. 26. but only those the rays of light spread out in the retina. The oblique muscles assist in up and down movements. and the point is blurred.AB0U f H*n.M. in front of the eye and above the center. — From every point of a lighted surface all directions: it from twisting circularly like the movements and prehands of a clock. they Opening for *<• OCW. [From Smith and Elder. Upper edge of optic nerve is seen just above external rectus.nAto dUAK TKioen Fig. the internal rectus slightly below and behind it. then through the pupil into the lens.64 SIGHT [CH. below A.OMOrOI|. — Eyeball and Eye Muscles Right eye viewed from right side. Eye-glassra are . the rays are bent together before they pass into the vitreous. 25. focus on the * If the lens is too rounded (near-sightedness) or too flat (far-sightedness) the rays do not focus on the retina.] A bunch of rays from A pass through the cornea and aqueous. The four other muscles are shown above and beneath the eyeball. On account of the curved shape of the lens. IV are called the superior oblique and inferior oblique muscles. that strike the open pupil can pass into the eye and stimulate Take for example the point A. [Fig.] also hold the eyeball in place during its vent How the Eye Acts.^ come together at a point (or focus) on the retina The rays from a point B. so that they at A'.

This is corrected by eyeglasses which are more curved in the horizontal direction than in the vertical. By means of the focusing process each point of the object be- fore us stimulates a single rod or cone on the retina. 26. -pia. dlVldUally is excited in. . left of ACTION OF THE EYE A'.•_• 1 the reSUitmg impulses are con. ^ In astigmatism the accommodation muscles contract irregularly. but by changing the curve of the lens. Each nerve .. Rays f^om points between a and B focus in the ^""^ "^y.] The separate optic nerve. — concave lenses for near-sight. and v _ !!. the picture on the retina must be focused accurately.en. In order to see an object clearly. 27. The stimulation is some sort of chemical action. . the picture of any object is completely inverted on the retina. which passes come together and form the out of the eyeball through the blind spot. so that the lens does not focus for both axes at once. fibers ^ in the . [Fig. Rays from B (broken lines) are focused at B'.^tic^chiasm.. where the nerve fibers from the nasal half of each eye cross over. while those from the outer half continue along on the same side. when we look at things farther off the muscle relaxes and the lens becomes flatter. and that for the left in the left side. Consequently the center for the right half of each retina is in the right side of the brain. iv] retina at B'. used to correct these two faults far-sight.. Ray* fro™ all directions.8'ving a dear but inverted image on the retina.. veyed to the visual center brain. fiber termi- Focusing Objects on the Retina — nating in the retina Py a rod or cone. Uke the image in a camera.' The change takes place automatically. Points to the right of A focus to the In other words.. 05 above A'. This focusing is not done (as in a camera) by moving the sensitive plate back and forth. the accommodation muscle squeezes the rim of the lens and makes it more rounded. convex for or vice versa. When we look at objects near by. a (dotted lines) spread in but are bent in by the lens and meet at a' on retina.. etc. The optic nerves from the right and left eyes come together at ihe_o.

N5. [Modified after The optic nerves (ON) from the two Lickley. V cranial nerves. IV Fig. The lower visual center is in parts of the thalamus called the pulvinar (P) and external geniculate body (EG). IV. — Course of the Optic Nerve eyeballs (E) run back into the head and meet at the optic chiasm (OC).] ^ . projection fibers proceed to the higher visual center in the occipital lobe of the cortex (C). Fibers from the nasal half of each retina cross (broken lines CF). Center for touch sensations from eyeliall is in the upper quadrigeminal body (UQ). connecting the lower visual centers on the two sides of the brain. those from the outer half (unbroken lines UF) curve out again and proceed on same side of head through the optic tract (OT) to visual centers in the brain. for eye movement.66 SIGHT [CH. From the thalamus. GC = commissure of Gudden. 27. N4. N3. = nuclei of III.

rays from a bright or noticeable object fall on any part of the retina except the center. All light waves. ^e visible hght waves are only 760 millionths of a millimeter length. always some adjustment of all the other muscles when the eye * Pronounced mew-mew. the object is we follow its course with the eye. whatever their length. When ' There moves. light is due to the suflficiently.000 kilometers or 200. whether voluntary or involuntary.' Eye movement. since vertical pair at the is the center of the retina tion. An inherited system of nerve connections controls their operation. This or is called involuntary fixation.000 miles per second. 28. if the region of sharpest discriminafixate it We see it an object best when we in motion. keeping on the fovea. Jlie light rays which stimulate the eye not mate rial oartifIpSt htit ^^ ves in the ether. the appropriate eye muscles are contracted so as to turn the center of the pupil directly toward this object. We also turn the eyes voluntarily. so that the pupil eflFect dazzling of a sudden glare of becomes smaller. helps us to see more clearly. which contains waves of is all lengths. by contracting one of the horizontal pair and one of the same time. iv] ACTION OP THE EYE iris e7 Bright light The The muscle also works automatically. fact that the iris has not had time to contract The muscles and for eye movement work both when the automatically voluntarily. They are exceedingly minute and travel very rapidly^ The largest Stimuli for Sight. short waves have a relatively large of vibrations. by contracting one of the four rectus muscles. on the fovea.] relatively small number is of vibrations per second. long number waves a [Fig. f if/'\ 5 > .— CH. In other words. sunUght. travel through the atmosphere at the same speed about 300. iris causes the to contract. This means that a greater number of short waves reach any given point every Ou/i)^ in — second. the smallest waves that affect the eye are about 390 nn.

senses one of the first — In studying each of the is. the entire series of colors obtained refraction is is by called the^^gednm. The longer the wave length. striking the eye every — pulse reaches the visual center. 29. They spread out on a reflecting surface and form a specthrough of colors. caused by a certain definite wave4en(]ih of — or by a certain uniform number second. are deflected from their course more than the long. visual sensations. the fewer waves per second.] If Fig. twice as long as the Since they travel at the same speed from A to B. questions it What are the different sorts of impressions that gives us? So in examining the sense of sight we have to determine the various qualities of all. IV is direction changed. longest waves (red end. only half as many of the long waves will reach B in a given period of time. so that the different waves spread out Uke a fan. 29.R) least. — Refraction Light op Fig. The upper wave lower. Intense (or bright) light acts more powerfully upon the rods and cones of the retina and produces a sensation of greater intensity when the resulting nerve im- waves way. we can express it either In addition to their differences in wave-length. Long and Short Light Waves is — A of all ray of sunlight. trum refracted light is thrown on a white surface each wave length gives a different color. The shortest waves (violet end of color series. because they are short. Qualities of Visual Sensations. containing waves lengths. light waves vary in intensity^ Bright light is caused by more violent vibrations the waves swing farther from side to side as they move along. V) are bent most. This bend- ing is called rejractioiu The short waves.' of light Each distinguishable color light. [Fig.SIGHT passed through a prism its [CH. First of we find two distinct groups of sensationS?vCQJorg ^ and gra ys. 28. is The spectrum seen in the rainbow. . coming from S passes the prism and is refracted.

ly^vf^. the colors (or grays) blend together and give an intermediate sensation.If the waves that strike the retina are about 400 nn in length we see violet. whi ch no single wave prednmina^^^j.CH. The studied relations of visual sensations to one another may be spin the by means of colored disks which are fitted together [Fig. which combine in various ways the They are produced by a color effect with the gray effect. are produced by stimuli which consist of uniform l^ff^*. If we . 30. or hues. around a projection to the axis of B and screwed fast. the extremes of which waves are called white and hlack.] and placed on a color mixer. By the series of belts connecting the three wheels with B the speed of rotation is greatly increased. — Color Mixer colored disks (A) are slit from circumference to center so they can be The disks are fitted fitted together. The piu^ gray sensations form a series of their own. The interiocked disks around very rapidly. ro of is a third class impure sensations. 80. IV] VISUAL SENSATIONS Pure color sensations.*'Tigq^i^"o in The series of colors lies oi**^ p'-^diif^'^H h v stimuli of mixed light. The mixer b rotated by turning a handle C. with s segment of each disk showing. In addition to these two pure groups there visual sensations are of this sort. between the limits 390 and 760 fi/i. if they are 650 or more we see red. When we Fio. Qffiy <. Most of our mixture of color stimuli with gray stimuli.

which look then several sorts of yellow.] figure represents only Bear in mind that the spindle-shaped the relations of the colors and grays as seen by the eye retina. but are due to mixing red and violet light in various proportions. yellow. 31 B. The central cross-sec- with the belt of pure colors. In the same way we can observe the just noticeable changes by mixing a white disk with a segment of black or vice versa. olive. — not the relations of the physical light waves which stimulate the The various visual sensations are represented on the relations of the pure colors spindle as follows (1) Hue or Color Tone: The The are represented in the form of an irregular belt. even in the pure colors seen in the spectrum we can distinguish several sorts of red. in order to produce a noticeable And so for the changes change in senfrom yellow to green. orange. green. etc. is relations of these sensa- tions to one another may be shown by [Fig. When we have made all possible combinations of colors and grays on the color mixer we shall have found all the diflFerent in a gray series qualities of visual sensations. These hues make up the purple sector of the belt. a diagram which takes the form of a spindle. They are just as real hues and just as simple ^ It is also called a color cone or color pyramid. The impure sensations are obtained by combining each of the pure color disks with a black or a white or a gray disk on the mixer. Fig. enlarged in Fig.^ tion. for instance. . The 31 A.: 70 start with a pure red disk SIGHT and little [CH. prominent hues applies to a — sectors in this diagram mark off shown in the more peacock really red. orange which look more and more hke and so on to the extreme violet. more and more like orange. and violet. IV by little add a segment yellow must be of yellow. 31 B. we can determine just how much added to red sation. There are also a number of hues which are not produced by single light waves. (or blue-green). blue. Each of these names number of distinguishable hues.

CH. tint (radii from central axis). — Color Spindle and Color Belt A. Violet. (Notice the great preponderance of shade-units over others. Peacock (» blue-gieen). . not due to simple waves. The relative proportion of shades. Purple. Yellow. If we start with red and keep changing the hue we pass through let. and hues is indicated relative number of units assigned to each. Green. relative saturation of the various pure hues is indicated by distances of the belt from central gray axis. tints. Colors represented by the sectors: Red. One end of the Fio. Blue. IV] VKi^ VISUAL SENSATIONS sensations as n though they are any others. 81 A. arranged according to shade (vertical direction). The gray series is represented by the central vertical axis. Orange. This explains why we represent the hues by a continuous belt instead of by a line. all the spectral colors to vio- and then through purple to the red we All told there are about started with. Color belt.) B. showing relative number of distinguishable hues of each spectral color and of purple. enlarged. (2) Shade or Brightness: The pure gray sensations are represented by the cen- tral axis in Fig. Color spindle: showing schematically the various distinguishable visual sensations. The purest hues (most saturated color tones) lie on the circumference of the color belt. and hue (angles about axis). by the Btadc. Olive. 31. j^ distinguishable pure colors. including the piuple hues.

Color-shade color-mixer. unsaturated red ending in colorless gray at the center. if they are of the same shade there is still is no flicker at all. If one is brighter than the Fig. If we take a red disk. Figure 32 A shows how a series of red color-shades may be obtained on a single disk. the other the blackest black. If we put a red disk and a black disk together. the mixture is bright red. by mixing Artists use the term value instead of shade or brightness. ter. for instance. same amount of brightness (shade) everywhere. and interlock it with a white disk. . with a gray-shade by interlocking a disk of each and rotating them slowly on the color mixer. the mixture is a dark red. B. namely. — Sektes of Color-Shades and Tints red. If disk B be rotated. end represents There are about 700 distinguishable gray shades^ between these two extremes. These are different color-shades. rv axis represents the whitest white. Tint or saturation series. (3) Tint or Saturation: There * a third way of varying the quality of visual sensations. If disk — The mottled surface represents A be rotated on a we get a same amount of series grading from bright red at the circumference to dark red at the cencolor (saturation) everywhere. The color-shades are represented on the spindle by vertical Unes parallel to the gray axis.n - SIGHT [cH. — other they will flicker. Mottled surface represents red. we get a series of tints grading from pure. A. Such a series may be found for each A color-shade may be compared distinguishable color hue. series. saturated red at the circumference to pale. 32. A color may be made brighter or darker by mixing it with white or black.

colorless gray. there are more steps of difference in passing from violet to gray of the same shade. When any two hues are mixed is less saturated than either of them taken Consequently the purple hues. Every visual sensation has a certain assignable position on the spindle figm-e. * A vivid tint means that the color is very pure or saturated. iv] VISUAL SENSATIONS 78 If together a pure color and a gray in various proportions. less * ' . and tint. Yellow. 32 B is different. the center is a pure. is^alled saiura^ mLU^SL chrQma»^or tint^ A pure color is said to be completely saturated its saturation decreases as more and more gray is added to the mixture.^ CH. This change. A pale tint means that the object is mainly gray. are represented on the belt by a straight line. colors observed by rotating axis Fig. we might say that its saturation is zero. Gray is 'completely unsaturated. Our diagram also brings out the fact that very bright the resulting color separately. This means that some pure colors in the spectrum are found to be noticed that less saturated than others. which are obtained only from mixtures. All purples are relatively unsaturated. it may be either dark or bright — that is a question of shade. these mixtures will all be of the same shade. they have fewer tints than the spectral colors. 32 B form a The differences of tint are represented in our spindle diaradii gram by from the toward the circumference. passing toward the center we observe a graded and less series in which the color be- comes pronounced. shade. when the disk is rotated on a color mixer we observe a pure red at the circumference. Every color has a certain hue. is decidedly less saturated than violet.' The partly saturated series of tints. It will some of the radii are shorter than others. which is neither a change of hue nor a change of shade. Gray has only shade. . for instance. The be farther from the axis. the color and the gray are of the same brightness. reproduced in red. than in passing from yellow to gray. yet they will be quite If the mottled portion of the disk in Fig. the greater the saturation. with very little color.

that these three plate E (which rotates with D) is fastened a chart. This has — known red. and indeed every separate hue in the spectrum.74 SIGHT [CH.000 visual quaUties can be distinguished by the normal human eye. IV and very dark colors are quite unsaturated. colors. which is so adjusted that one eye is directly over semicircular top of rod B. [From Judd. as well as psycholo- are interested in the ques- tion of what list colors are primary. or four. and a small b!t of . A smnll hole through the axis at C serves Color stimulus is as fixation point. — It is also a fact that orange. D. hues are primary or fundamental In a way this is true. near the white and black poles there are relatively few steps between pure color and gray. so that all parts of the visual On outer side of field can be explored. which is hidden from observer by E. Are there three primary colors. — arm is a scale of degrees. that green. violet. of away from center. moved on a carriage along the semicirperimeter toward or cular arm. ruled radially and circularly to represent degrees of 'latitude' and ' longitude ' from center of vision. Newton was misled by the analogy of the musical scale and thought there must be seven tones in the color scale also. vails popularly. On the back of the by taking three hues and and blue combining them together on a color mixer in various ways any hue can be obtained. Primary Colors. If A curious fact suggests the answer to this eye be fiixed the on a point straight ahead. Newton's of seven colors is it famiUar to every one. 33. after Meyrowiti-l But on the other hand psychologists find that yellow is quite as distinctive a color as the three just mentioned. — Perimeter no special significance. The arm D led to the idea. the other eye being closed. It has long been Observer's chin is placed on a rounded chin-rest at A. all told. about 30. gists. which still pre- rotates. but has Pro. or a hundred? question. is a simple color the result of a simple stimulus. It is estimated that. Experimenter records the readings on the chart. — Artists and physicists.

0 656.19 Gi 455-390 Violet 396. as do Vary — all colors. 4. I.) F H Purkinje Phenomenon and Adaptation. yellow. IV] PRIMARY COLORS 75 colored paper be moved slowly from the fixatioii-p>omt out toward the periphery.82 492-455 Blue Primal Blue 477 629 432. colors It sHghtly and the changes which occur in other hues near the periphery may be observed by means of the perimeter. A red becomes yellowish. Vol. of Vibrations Trillion per second 391. Part I.1 Lines and Color Range Color Wave-Length No. p. Curiously is enough. Exper. Most of our due to the reflection of light from painted surfaces. primal red purplish. Psychol. But there are four definite hues which do not alter in this respect.14 616.62 Visible Range: 760-390 MM. Table II shows the wave-lengths [Fig. they are & * ' certain definite blue. and so on. p.06 456. and red.41 Hue Range MM A Primal Red B C D2 Primal Yellow E Primal Green 687. it is found that most colors change noticeably in hue as they get farther from the center.91 509.58 693. Limits of Color Change: 655-430 IM^. green. 399.] of the primal colors and the wave-lengths of the groups of hues to which popular names are given.87 trillion. The paint pigments absorb all rays except one color sensations are ^ — At the periphery they become gray. is not a spectral hue.96 501 417.28 589.84 755.' These four invariable hues are called primal colors^ and may be regarded as the most primitive and representative hues of all. Table U. Treatise on Light. Spectral Line The primal — Spectral MM 766.55-768..CH. Primal colors from Titchener. . 473. 33. but the htu does not it only fades out. (Wave-lengths from Houstoun.01 521 569 03 599 Red Orange Yellow Green 760-647 647-588 588-550 550-492 486.0 577 526.

After a time the eyes become adapted to brightness. and Contrast. but the brightness of different colors changes When the general illumination is very at different rates. first appears green. For a given yellow. so as to give a surface half yellow — If a be disk of yellow cardboard and a disk of blue be fitted together and half blue. Complementaries. This peculiar variation in the relative brightness of colors is called theJ ^Purkinje phenomenon. will appear darker when the light is turned very low. except that red objects appear gray. |X~red book-cover which appears much brighter than a blue cover in a well-lighted room. the two will tend to neu- a certain hue of each and mix some point we get a mixture in which no color effect whatever is observed: the disk appears as a plain gray surface. If we select them in various proportions. There is also adaptation If tinged with some color. is and our outlook apparently normal. the reflected light is of the hue corresponding to the non-absorbed wave-length. In a darkened room all colors appear darker.76 SIGHT [cH. The brightness of pigment colors varies with the intensity . IV wave-length. due to changes in the condition of the rods and cones. After-sensations. and this rotated rapidly on a color mixer. a certain blue tralize each other. "* The Pur kinje phenomenon tion to intense is part of the process of adapta- and feeble illumination which takes place in the retina itself. from the man who first reportedJtJ of the general illumination. If the room be made very dark they appear darker than blue or green. when the general field of vision is we put on green glasses the whole After a time this tinge dis- landscape at appears. This is especially noticeable if we compare red with blue. at . In the same way the eyes adapt themselves to a darkened room. When we go suddenly from darkness to bright daylight the eyes are dazzled. yellow and red become relatively brighter than other colors. bright. is The process of adaptation greatly assisted by the iris reflex.

34. After practice one can get an after-sensation more readily and hold it longer. . ' also called an after-image. of the retina.g. [Fig. It lasts only the negative.. 77 can be found which yields color This yellow and this For every hue in the series. after the eye wall there appears first of all is turned toward the white a sensation of the same color as the object you were looking ^J^n. blue). surrounded which is partly black and by a uniform color (e. we see on the wall a patch of the complementary color (bluish green.ffects may be tain conditions without moving the brought about under cerIf we place on a eye. White gives rise to a black after-sensation. and this again into a second negative. If we look steadily for about a minute at a very bright colored object (a red blotter. including the purples.CH. when the disk rotates the black and white ring it not seen as gray. This is a posHiveaJ^&r-sensaa very short time and then changes into The positive aftosensation is due to inertia some time changes Often a strong negative after-sensation after persisting into a second positive. at. If you reach this stage you Will observe of the portion of the retina stimulated another effect also. one and only one complementary hue exists. These effects are obtained only after great practice and under very favorable conditions. For this reason white and black are regarded as complements. but is tinged with the complement (yellow) of the surrounding color. all except the first positive are due to fatigue and recuperation of the retina. CONTRAST this eflFect. for instance) and then turn the eye quickly to a white wall.^ '^ -"-^ by the bright color. IV] AFTER-SENSATIONS.] A similar effect is obtained by placing a ^ The It is latter is a term recently suggested by Christine Ladd-Franklin. Complementary v. in this case).Sfte2^i^?H^^^^ ^^^ ^^ fatigue blue are called complementaries or complements. This afteiv effect is called suieggjj^ . and conversely. color mixer a disk containing a ring partly white.

— he cannot the difference between red and green. but their sons are color blind. Rotating the disk. Just what this is no one has yet been able to discover. such as red and green. 34. seems rather to be the sur- vival of a primitive. and his daughters inherit only the latent possibility. fectly is just as likely Ask a colorhand you the red to hand you a green is You good think he is joking. Color Blindness. the ring takes on a greenish tinge. the black and white ring is tinged with yellow. This defect is called color blindness. The sons of such a color-blind person do not inherit the peculiarity. Theappearan pe of a xomplementary eSect _withoitt ev£ movemeni. for cerIt tain types of color blindness are inherited. js^JS^^Qd^sinmltaneous contrast^ The complementary color which appears around the borders of a colored figure on a white background when the eyes wander is a negative after-sensation. They fail — Contrast Color Mottled surface represents blue. — A considershow to distinguish able proportion of persons striking pecuHarities of color sensation. blind person to book on the table and he book. between certain hues which lie far apart in the spectrum. if instead of blue tne mottled surface is red. It is called successive contrast. this form of color bUndness is transmitted from . It is not a diseased condition of the eye. In other words. Color blindness is due to something in the makeup of the retina.78 bit of SIGHT [CH. less developed type of eye which may have been universal in mankind before color vision became perfected. Fig. The most common form of color blindness is inherited in a pecuhar way. like the color of the hair or shape of the fingers. They are not color blind themselves. IV gray paper on a colored blotter and covering the whole with white tissue paper. but really he tell acting in per- faith. It is found chiefly in males.

But the two forms are distinct. which are popularly called red. Many tests have been devised to determine color blindness. But. as it happens. Color-blind persons can distinguish difiFerences of shade very accurately. Red and green blindness are the most common forms. TO also forms of color a man There are blindness which appear in women as well as men. This form is quite rare. This is demonstrated if we ask the person to tell us how the spectrum looks to him. The green-blind person sees something throughout the spectrum. without any color whatever. Color blindness raises certain very practical issues. In this form the person is unable to distinguish between blue and yellow. . the world appears to him in black and white and shades of gray. If only a few standard cards are used in the test. Such persons are able to compare the sensations of their two eyes and to translate the abnormal eye into terms of the normal. but he confuses red and green with yellow. A totally color- blind person sees everything like a photograph. On the railroads and at sea the two colors red and green are commonly used as signals. Blue blindness is rare and is possibly due to some diseased condition of the retina. There are three distinct varieties of partial color blindness. How do we know just what the colors look like to a partially color-blind man? Our description would seem to be mere guesswork. iv] COLOR BLINDNESS to his daughter's sons. Some of these are open to serious objection.CH. In each there is confusion between red and green. green. and blue blindness. one may learn to distinguish these particular cards by their shade and so pass the test. A colorblind engineer may make a fatal mistake. Color blindness is either total or partial. It is sometimes a matter of life and death to distinguish them clearly and immediately. A red-blind individual sees nothing at all at the red end of the spectrum. cases have been found in which one eye is color blind and the other eye normal.

is White always very intense: black is of faint intensity. be treated to- gether after we have finished our study of the separate senses. Visual Intensity.^ 1 See Fig. so that a normal person will see immediately and clearly the number 37 (or whatever it is) in the pattern. at about 90 degrees in any direction from the point on which the eye is fixed. It is practically impossible to fool this test. or brightness? What change of stimulus gives rise to the lea^t observable change in brightness? These same questions crop up in every The least observable changes in sensations will one of the senses. p. The green various sizes spots are arranged in the form of numerals. — In sight. changes in intensity or bright- ness are closely related to the gray series of qualities.80 SIGHT many round [CH. IV It consists A test devised by Stilling meets this objection. region. A color-blind person looking at the card can see only the differences of shade: he cannot pick out the number. is Some colors disappear before others. The which we can see any color is called the zone for that perimeter. of a set of cards with a great colored spots of and shades scattered about promiscuously. with a few of the other color (green) interspersed. limited to a region in color. — At the periphery of the eye color qualities /'disappear even in normal persons. S3. Experimental psychology visual intensity: (1) is interested in two problems of What stimulus produces the (2) least ob- servable visual intensity. much smaller region than blue or red. Green. this We are all color blind in Unless the stimuli are exceptionally bright everything looks gray. like a photograph. 74.' These color zones are determined by means of the A map of the color zones in a typical eye is shown in Fig. 146-149. red). but will trace some entirely different pattern. for instance. Most of the spots on each card are of one color (say. . The Purkinje phenomenon and adaptation may be treated as intensity relations. /Color Zones. » See p. 35.

IV] VISUAL mTENSITY least observable visual brightness : 81 The may be determined as follows The observer is placed in a darkroom with black- FiG.CH. Right eye. So that this experiment really measures the brightness of the objective stimulation which is just observably different from the eye's own retinal light. ened walls. According to Langley the energy of . however. On a dull black surface before him a pencil till is A light of standard brightness is moved slowly the subject just barely toward the pencil from a distance. even when no stimulus is present. observes the shadow cast by the pencil. Certain visual processes occur in the retina. The faint light bordering on the shadow is called the least observable brightness. — Color Zones of the Retina limita at which four colors disappear in passing from center of eye toward periphery. we often see dust clouds or spots of light when our eyes are closed in the dark. determined for radii 30 degrees apart. 35. fixed upright.

is not found in it the spectrum? is Why yellow a distinctive color.8« SIGHT is [CH. This substance occurs in the retina in the form of particles called color molecules. the processes in the retina are very complicated.000. look somewhat How is it that purple. The color molecules in the rods are not differentiated: they give gray only. and the wide prevalence is of color blindness in the human race? Why of all is the periphery of the retina color blind even in the normal eye? Most puzzUng the sensation of black. It supposes that there exists in the rods and cones a certain substance. yet all. The explanations suggested are only partly satisfactory. In the course of evolution the color molecules in the cones became differentiated into two components. These extraordinary facts indicate beyond question that Even to-day they are not understood. which when stimulated by light arouses sensations of gray and white. which was devised by Christine seems tofit the facts best. though to get a distinct black sensation some nearby region must be stimulated by light. IV the light which produces the least observable visual sensation under most favorable conditions of sight are peculiar Explanation of Visual Qualities.000. In the primitive eye only gray and white were distinguished. This explanation starts with the notion that color vision has evolved gradually from a more primitive type of eye which could see only shades of gray. a simple color. red and alike? violet. . Black It is is as much a sensation as white or any of the color hues. facts in the sense and diflBcult to explain : Why is do the two extremes of the spectrum.03 ergs.^ one of which * Ladd-Franklin. The penetio th f "^Y "^ sjpht. — Many 0. they do not cover all the facts. it is not due to stimulation by light waves at aroused when no Ught stimulates that particular portion of the retina. though not among the three that are sufficient to produce every hue by mixture? How can we account for the various sorts of color bUndness.

which has come to fit our needs most admirably. yellow. recognizit ing that does not is tell the whole truth. while the other yields sensations of yellow. room ^ There are two other important color theories. : So in the fully developed eye there are four primal colors red. human Describe the after-sensations of color obtained by looking across the at a window-sash on a bright day. Later on in history the yellow component became diflFerentiated in turn into two compo- nents. and blue. 17. and the periphery is capable of giving only sensations of gray because this region has no cones. is yellow three. 76).CH. the other green. life. We can see very fine We can distinguish very fine of sight. The Ladd-Franklin theory seems to cover all the perplexing phenomena of sight except the sensation of black. distance from our We can observe objects at a very great body by means Of all the senses. green. Yoxmg and . one yielding red. The best plan is to accept this view as a partial explanation. distinctions of color and shade. one devised by Helmholtz. Note especially the Purkinje phenomenon (p. Describe your experience of visual adaptation on going suddenly from a very light to a very dark room and vice versa. It furnishes us with a vast number of elementary sensations which give an incalculable variety to our experiences. or turning them to a dull gray surface.^ One conclusion forced upon us more and more as we study the sense of sight: this sense has by a long process of evolution developed an exceedingly complicated organ. and then closing the eyes. sight has the greatest practical importance in Practical Exercises: 16. But since red and green are derived from yellow. not essential to color combinations like the other This theory explains why red and green color blind- ness are comparatively common. the other by Hering. iv] THEORY OF VISUAL QUALITIES 83 when stimulated yields sensations of blue. and why the normal eye does not distinguish colors peripherally: in color-blind persons the color molecules are only partly developed. Unes and points.

Introduction to the Study of Color Vision.) References: On On the eye: Ladd and Woodworth. Make a map of some one's blind spot. and blue. Make a pointer of white cardboard. and compare the two performances. and in pencil each spot move it slowly across the paper. The assistant brings the color gradually in from right or left till the color is recognized. With eyes closed place the blocks in the form-board (p. op. E. 175). (much gray). marking a cross in the middle for fixation point. medium shade. dark. slight tinge of color (very pale). Greenwood. Describe their saturation tint (saturation) in three grades: very pure color. Schaefer. SIGHT [cH. Repeat with eyes open. Place a sheet of white paper on the wall. color blindness. This requires assistance. with the other eye bandaged. visual sensations. in Mind.S. M.: J. Notice the length of time required and the errors made. 1893. etc. the other exercises are self-explanatory. Physiological Psychology. green. A.. Physiology of the Special Senses. 2. 21 is on the relative importance and touch. Examine various colored objects in your room. medium 21. Parsons. pp. 20. Bandage one eye and fix his head by a head-rest fifteen inches from the wall. Mark where the black tip disappears or reappears. bright. cit. Cut out small bits of each color and place one at a time on a black or white strip of cardboard. Describe their shade in five grades: very bright. Text-book of Physiology. chairs. H. 473-489. On visual theories: C. including surface of and floor. op.84 18. 182-196. yellow. N. Test the limits of your color zones for red. The test should be made in a room with white walls. very dark. Ladd-Franklin. 10-20. chs. [Exercise 20 of sight is on visual qualities. cii. Parsons. with the tip (one-eighth inch square) blackened. walls. article on 'Vision'. . Test one eye at a time. IV 19. tables. Greenwood.

The real ear Ues inside the head. about an inch long. — Ceoss-Section op Eab Vertical lecUon ai right ear through meatus and Eustachian tube. The Ear. which leads into the head through an open^ . together with a tube. is — It only an insignificant part of the apparatus for hearmerely collects the stimuli and directs them into the proper channel. is The middle receptor for hearing ear. 36. [Fig. of the gfeg/f. The pecuUar-shaped shell to which the name ear is popularly applied ing. viewed from front of bead. Hearing (Audition) The human ear is a very complicated organ.CHAPTER V THE SENSES: HEARING AND OTHER SENSES 2. called the meatus. (concha). divided into the outer ear. and inner ear.] The outer ear consists Levator < rnuftcl» Fig. 36.

The middle ear lies beyond the drum. the hammer being pivoted in the center. called the (yvQ. and the anvil attaches to the arch of the stirrup bone.] The portion toward the back of the head contains the semicircular . The crucial process of hearing takes place in the inner ear. and this sets the membrane of the oval window vibrating in exact measure with the original sound waves. 37. its head beats on the anvil. [Fig. we may remedy the trouble by swallowing. opposite the drum. In the bony wall of the middle-ear cavity.l tmj^QwjkU^. which jars the stirrup. cavity is The middle-ear the end of a passage (the Eustachian^ tvM) which opens into the back of the mouth. The three small bones of the middle ear form a chain. and at the middle is held in place by a tendon. containing three small bones is a small cavity which take up and transmit the vibrations from the drum. The inner ear or labyrinth is only part of which is a very complicated cavity. v ing in the skull and ends in a vibrating called the ear-drum (tympanic membrane). The sound waves gathered by the shell of the ear pass through the meatus and set the drum in vibration. round vdndow. But this is not all. called the amril. just as the glass in a window-pane admits light waves. whose base is attached to the membrane of the oval window. but each is fitted with a vibratmg membrane. concerned with hearing. The hammer bone (so called because it is shaped like a rude. The head hammer into the second bone.86 HEARING membrane It [ch. This vibration affects the handle of the hammer. which permits the sound waves to pass through. If the drum is pressed back too far into the middle-ear cavity by a tremendous sound. primitive hammer) of the is attached to the center of the fits drum at the handle end. in the head. They are not open. which forces air into the Eustachian tube and pushes the drum forward into place. are two apertures.

] Fig. except at the top. 37. at the apex of the cochlea they go over into the scala tympani and pass down. called the OTgana[_Corjli. 117. 1 (The round window serves See p. and are the real receptors for hearing. 36. — Labyrinth of the Ear side. The cochlea into inside of the is divided two spiral tubes. [Fig. cochlea at right. in nearly the same plane as Semicircular canals at left. [From Smith Enlarged view of labyrinth which run from the base to the tip of the cochlea. We traced the course of the stimulus through the chain of bones as far as the oval window. V] canals. where Between these two tubes (called the scala tymvestibuli) is pani and sccda a smaller tube called the cochlear In a small canal within the co chlear duct is a system of minute rods and ha^celjs. contains The front part of the labyrinth a spiral v yy \ ^*^ ^/f^^'^SSt /^:^»»«. which starts at the oval window. which contains the real receptor for Between the canals and the hearing. finally reaching the round window at the base.) They are separated they unite.] These which is separated from them by membranes. cochlea is a cavity called the vestibule. structure resembling the shell of a snail.CH. The vibrations of the membrane in this window set up waves in the liquid that fills the cochlea. between them the two windows and vestibule. THE EAR which are receptors for the static sense. by a membrane. These waves pass up the scala vestibuli. and Elder. rods and hair cells connect with the iSbers of the auditory nerve. duct. ^ 87 they have_ nothing to do with hearing. called the cochlea . 38. lying side by Fig. 39. . . [Fig.

A rudimentary muscle exists for lifting the ear.] The and lates this stimu- fiber a certain of the auditory nerve. cochlear duct (not shown) lies between the two scalee away from the core.88 HEARING [CH. Section shows three The sets in vibration the appropriate rod or hair cell of Corti. noLF^Iep. windings of scala tympani (right) and scala vestibuli (left). it is bounded by two membranes which form a continuation of the spiral lamina (Lam. picks and each up certain corre- « mimmiLas^m. ossea). which carries a nerve impulse up is to the auditory center in the brain. There human ear. spiral. it cochlea cut open from apex to base near the central core (modiolus) at right angles to plane of Figs. — The stimuli for hearing consist of These waves are very much more sizable than light waves and diflFer from them in many other respects. V During the passage of a shock-absorber. 38. They are of different lengths. When wave length Fig. Stimuli for Hearing. The apex or tip of cochlea is at left of the drawing.'^^ \^^ ^^ "'^ifcCTff?^iB Bsll^ . 36 and 37. [From Smith and Elder. just as the strings of a piano rever- berate to sounds of their own a length. no muscular apparatus for focusing sounds in the such as we have in the eye.) the waves through the cochlea the cells of Corti are set into sympathetic merely as vibration.•. Sound waves travel through the air at the vibrations called sound waves. of a given passes — Section through Cochlea through the cochlea.' x'fli/iii iiiHf waves of J^IUm^ sponding length. but it is rarely used and in most persons is not under control of the will. . We can focus sounds slightly by turning the head so as to make the effect clearer and more distinct.

CH. which sets the air into vibration at different rates according to the length of the tube. after Retzius. whether the vibration is of air particles or strings. Like waves they differ from one another in length. the lower limit is man can hear is about 30. or by tapping a tuning fork or the membrane of a drum.000 per about 12 or 16. the fewer waves strike the ear-drum light outer h&ir cells membrana tectoria '•^'^SLs^ inner rod ^** 'P'""*'* cells ef Deitera outer rod basilar ntrve fibres membrane Fig. V] STIMULI FOR HEARING uniform rate of 332. (2) They may be started by blowing into a tube.' apex of cochlea. 39. It is customary to measure sound of waves in terms of the number per second instead wave length. * (3) A third way of Because the number of waves per second is the same for any given sound. — Organ of Cohti 'inner rod. The rate of vibra- tion determines the quality of sensation. Rods of Corti are designated The rods and hair cells become longer in successive sections toward [From Lickley.' The greatest frequency (rate of vibration) of sound waves that the average second. The longer the sound wave.] in a given period of time. Section perpendicular to direction of windings of the seals. Sound waves may be started in three different ways: (1) by twanging a tightly stretched violin string. which being elastic vibrates to and fro.' 'outer rod.4 meters (about 1000 feet) a second. the wave length would vary with the density of the medium. .

middle C on the piano) may be faint or loud. such as a xylophone. not on its elasticity. there are different quahties of auditory sensation for the various and there are also sensations due to mixed uniform sound vibration gives a tone sensation. flat Tones and Pitch. and noises do not form an independent series like the grays every noise is more or less like some tone whose vibration rate predominates in the mixture. A long fork vibrates at a slow rate times per second.g. In every case the sound waves are eventually communicated to the air and so to the ear-drum. A shorter fork vibrates at a more rapid rate and the resulting tone is more — . Qualities of Auditory Sensation. The only exception is on the where a vibrating fork is pressed against our head. The parallel between sight and hearing is not complete. few but a tone. v waves is by tapping a rigid body. the air particles — not in a different quality of tone. but they swing more violently back and forth with each vibration. depending on the force of the disturbance in the air. somewhat like dull. A — notice that the resulting noises are tones. If you pluck a violin string vigor- do not move any faster. A noise is not pleasant like gray light.90 starting sound bell or HEARING [ch. The same sound (e. Sound waves differ not only in frequency (vibration rate) but also in intensity. — If we snap a tuning fork. nor vibrate more times per second.. here the rate of the sound waves depends size and material of the body. the prongs vibrate to and fro uniformly. and the resulting sensation is not a noise that is. rates. it gives a deep tone. This vibration causes uniform sound waves in the air. — Just as in sight. This results in a louder sound ously. the sound waves are then transmitted directly through the bones of the skull to the drum. mixed vibrations give a noise. at a rate which depends on the length of the fork. Strike a table in different places and you will rates of vibration.

Tones and pitch correspond to colors and hue in the sense o* sight. Take the tone produced by 256 vibrations.^ Most persons are quite unable to identify it. This lack of individuality in tones is probably the reason why they have never received distinctive uninspiring names like the colors.000 distinguishable tones. he is unable to tell which is C. if you strike several notes on the piano. The relations of tones to one another is quite diflferent from the relations of colors.' AUDITORY SENSATIONS The about 11. C. This ability is called recognition of absolute pitch. is 91 vibration rates between 12 and 30. He tried the man's violin and immediately noticed that it was tuned a quarter tone above his own. etc.CH. " What is the pitch of that tone. ^ This is the standard in scientific work. names A. he is likely to give something quite different. . Color recognition is much more developed. In the first place tones have not so much individuality. If you ask a man to hum C.000 give a series of The difference in quality between tones called difference in pitch. Deep and When we sing or hum or it is whistle a tune the tones are sounded in a certain order. went with his father to the house of a musician. Even among musicians the ability to recognize absolute pitch is A rare. and the whole series of audible tones is called the auditory scale. ' tones are often called low and high respectively. But these terms suggest diflFerences in intensity faint (or low) and loud. in which middle C is 261. B. few persons are able to recognize tones as accm*ately as They can tell whether a piano is tuned slightly above or below the usual standard. On the other hand most persons recognize quite accurately the relation between pairs of tones. v] shrill. when quite young. called international pitch. They are called by the colors. No one who is not color bUnd finds any diflficulty in picking out a green from a red or a yellow. which he had left at home.?* " just as wc " What is the hue of that color? " ask. Musicians generally use another shrill — standard. We ask. It is said that Mozart. which is called middle C on the piano and is used as a standard.

" But if you compare them in pairs. C the octave. the relation of all C to F' C is 3: 4. you will observe that they become continually " more shrill. ear: C* has 256 and G^ 384 vibrations per second. If you examine Fig. C F. v the relation of the successive tones that makes the tune. and so on.. give the principal relations or intervals used in tunes and in musical compositions generally. * . On a key. C E. not on absolute pitch. [Fig. or relative pitch. 15:16 is the least simple ratio. 40. though they are far apart. C the eighth^ piano there are seven white keys starting with C\ begins a new series. Suppose we take the tones and C^ and all tones lying between them. They are chosen because the numerical proportion of their vibrations appeals especially to the to G' human is. abiUty to The depends on your recognition of pitch relations. that is the relation of 2:3.' whence the word 'octave. etc. 40 you the octave are relations will see that the musical intervals within — the represented ratio by rather simple numerical numbers are small. Notice especially and C^. C D. but only a few are used in music.92 HEARING hum a tune or to recognize it [ch. in which any tone lies immediately above (or below) its octave in the next twist : : : C of the spiral. The eight tones included within . The vibration rate of C* is just twice that of C^ This 1:2 relation is called an octave.' The black keys on the piano are used when we take some other tone besides C as standard. serial relation of tones is also quite different from that of the color series. the simpler the numerical ratio of In Latin 'eighth' is 'octavus.] They sound very much alike. we need extra tones to fill in the larger intervals. K you strike middle C on the piano and then the next key to the right. A great many tones can be distinguished within these limits. you will find that some of these pairs are more closely related than others. taken in pairs. for the tune is the same whether you start with C — or D or any other The tone. and so on. It suggests that tones might be represented by a diagram shaped like a spiral or corkscrew.2 ^ In general.

'• ^ 3 a « a . V] AUDITORY SENSATIONS 98 'Id Sh"«'• rOlc • °< OIK) 10|C\J a -•o' o\c 0^1^ g I'ti "•o '^ 2 3 '<Ji o|in CVJIK}|eO (O ^ ^ ^ x> ^ »* a^lco «• -hi Q|a> 10|K) cOllO 0)|cO »0|CVJ m 3 i B "c< -I s J P *» .CH.2 -5 9i -be Ss ~u «M '0^ .2 J *-' vO|iO ^|K) 'h > »' 'O' "05 Ql(5) 10 1^ «5 ?3s ^ C0|IO ^1 ^T3 TJ OK) olo < -H 22 Q I .5 » .

but in half-lengths plucked one-quarter from the end.) The solid line is a violin string fastened at it end (at arrow) and These lesser tones fuse with the main or fundamental tone.94 HEARING tones. which the interval between this interval. The part-length vibration is the overtone or harmonic. there are fainter vibrations corresponding to the half-length. Fluck it 1/6 from the vibrates in thirds. They are called overtones. But whose ratio It musically the least close relation of all. ' v two closer ' or ' more harmonious is the relation. it When we pluck a \4olin string if it is vibrates not only as a whole. the sound waves are not simple. or minor second. Besides the vibrations depending on the length of the string — or tube. and in other part-lengths according to the place where it is plucked. whether the tones are sounded successively or together. This closeness of relation is something quite different from nearness of pitch.] *^^MiruEmma:-*aijjiriEi]Iimi^ Fig. but the full explanation is stiU The effect is uncertain. — How Overtones are Made A and B. the * [ch. 41. and give it a richer effect. When we strike a key on the piano or blow a cornet. However. is not easy to explain as they do. Overtones and Timbre. The smallest pitch difference in music is is the semitone. E and is F and 15 16. because its they overlay the fundamental tone. 41. The fundamental with overtones make a single sound. called a simple clang. it is fainter than the fundamentaL ( The amount of ' waver ' is exaggerated in the figure. : between is B and C. etc. Overtones are responsible for our abiUty to distinguish . [Fig. when we observe the effects of two or more tones sounded at the same time. we shall see why intervals bearing a simple ratio are pleasanter than those expressed in larger numbers. hair-cells why these tone intervals affect us probably due in some way to the and rods of Corti. third-length. besides vibrating as a whole.

This individual effect of each instrument is called its The human voice has a great variety of overtones. one of 256. Tonal fusion is due to a different kind of collection of nerve impulses from that which occurs in sight. hear They give us a variety of additional sensations If we take into account these timbre differences.000. the number of different sounds that we is many times greater than 11.CH. They arise in this way: Suppose you start with two tones almost alike say. gives the nearest any instrument. once every second the two sound waves will reinforce each other and make a louder sound. When two you will tones (such as C and E) are sounded together. the other of 257 vibrations. the othes pushing them backward so that the result will be a softer — — — — . it A well-made tuning fork has practically no overtones. v] OVERTONES AND TBIBRE 05 between different musical instruments. called the difference tone. Difference tones are produced by the combination of the two sound waves not by a third stimulus. and once every second the two forces will be working against each other one pushing the particles forward. In tonal fusion the tones do not merge together completely. partly lost. with practice either of the components can be picked out from the total impression. be able after practice to distinguish along with them a third tone. in others another set. timbre. This is why we can readily distinguish a wind instrument from a stringed instrument. Difference Tones. over and above the pure tones. even if they play the same tune. In some instruments one set of overtones are more prominent. — When two tones are heard at the same time they combine in such a way that their identity is is This combination effect called fusion. Then. Differences in timbre correspond roughly to the series of tints in colors. of its and each human voice has a timbre to a pure tone of own. When different colors stimulate neighboring parts of the retina the sensations are distinct tion that occurs in the combination is and the only modifica- the contrast effect.

and the is always equal to the difference between the vibration rates of the two tones. and so on. till at length they become so rapid as to be indistinguishable. and these again if will make beats with the priis maries. and when three three primary tones are sounded together we may hear six tones and the difference tone of each pair. which is one-quarter of 256. v number This loud-and-soft effect constitutes a beat. In other words. A noise may be regarded as the limiting case of a compound clang. with forks of 256 and 266 there will be ten beats every second. whenever two tones differing by more than 16 vibrations are sounded together it is possible to hear three tones two primary and one difference tone. instead of hearing beats difference tone. The primary tones and difference tones fuse together into one complex impression. the ratio between the two not simple the result vibrations — be a conglomerate mass of jarring an unpleasant noise. — Differences in due to in- tensity or loudness of sound sensations are differences . These complex sensations are called compound clangs. The rate of a difference tone — — Difference tones help to explain the fact that simple ratios more pleasing than ratios expressed in For if the ratio of two tones is simple. But if the two tones are not in simple ratio the difference tone large numbers. instead of a clear-cut comwill pound clang. we hear a deep tone. HEARING of beats [ch. As the difference between the two tones is increased the beats increase in number. which is is the always equal to the difference of rate between the two tones which are sounded together. Intensity and Other Characteristics. So then. When a tuning fork of 256 and one of 258 vibrations are sounded together there will be two beats every second. will in tone inter vak are make beats or secondary difference tones with each tone of the pair. and so on. the difference tone will be proportional to the primaries: the difference tone of 256 and 320 is 64.99 sound.

) In spite of the great is * number about 15 thousandths of a grain avoirdupois. of shades. definitely located.. Sounds in the middle range of pitch can usually be rather The two ears assist considerably in this Sounds on our right give a louder effect in the right ear than in the left. The tone series in hearing corresponds to the series of pure hues in sight. — ' One milligram (mg. A voice. those within the com- human easier to locate.'' On the other hand. the ear being 91 mm. determination. A sound in the medial plane of the body is most difficult to locate correctly. so that altogether we receive a greater variety of simple sensations in hearing than in sight. and in the end produce actual injury to the ear-drum. corresponding to the objects which stimulate the eye.000 pure tones. The faintest audible sound produced by dropping a cork weighing 1 milHgram ^ from a height of 1 mm.CH. while auditory sensations give one single composite effect at any given instant. it is difficult thin and unex- tended. distant. loud sounds tend to become more and more Very deep and very shrill ' painful. The upper hmit of intensity has not been determined. v] in the force of the is SOUND INTENSITY 97 sound waves. such as the chirp of a cricket. are put together into all sorts of patterns. and the timbre series to the series of tints. as compared with only about 160 pure hues. There are about 11. so that the eye furnishes more detailed information of the world about us than the ear. shrill A Middle-range sounds are also deep organ tone seems to fill the air. which increases the variety of our visual sensations. and there are far more grades of timbre than grades of tint. Often a noise that seems at first to come from in front is afterwards found to be behind us. sounds are usually not so loud as those in the pass of the ' middle range — that is. . to determine the source unless we see it. Importance of Hearing. visual sensaThey tions from different points of the retina do not fuse. is tone.

The organ for smell is than either the eye or the ear. •^ far simpler 3. Because of this advantage. and listening to music than from looking at landscapes and pictures. viewed from front. readier means of communication among human beings than gesture or written language. Smell (Olfaction) Receptor and Stimulus for Smell. — Nasal Cavity and Olfactory Region Vertical section of head. In fact none of — the other sense receptors begin to compare in complexity Fig. which stimulate the eye. The olfactory region lies mainly at the upper end of the long narrow passages at each side of the cen[From Wenzel. the evolution of hearing has been a powerful factor in promoting communication and social life in the human race and in developing the higher mental processes (ch. The average human being gets more happiness from singing. V The sense of hearing is chiefly important in two ways: (1) Music adds much to the pleasure of life. passing through the rear part of eyebalb. humming. xiii). . 42.J tral vertical membrane (septum) of the nose. It is a (2) Spoken language is received through the ear.SMELL [CH.

except the receptor for the static sense (p. Section of mucous membrane within the nose. showing olfactory cells (OC) and nerve fibers (N) which connect with them. qualities — Olfactory sensations are is called odors. in the brain. a great number of different can be distinguished. 43. it is part of the organ for breathing. and their total number has not yet been estimated. The stimulus for smell consists of very minute odorous particles which em(especially anate from various objects organic matter) and permeate the surrounding air. a chemical action.CH. they pass through the nostrils some strike the olfactory particles and stimulate them. [Figs. The olfactory receptors consist of a number of spindle- which are embedded in the lining of the nostrils.] Each olfactory spindle is connected with a fiber of the olfactory shaped cells. They travel sometimes great distances. The stimuli include many varieties of which excite different kinds of nerve impulses in the olfactory nerve. 117). SC = sup(>orting [Based on Piersol. — Olfactort Cells cell. 43. New qualities are often discovered when ^ The nose b not a receptor.' They lie far back in the nasal passages.) from afar. like the eye or ear. The As cells odor emanations are drawn into the nose in breathing. No complete list has ever been made. 42. nerve. V RECEPTOR AND STIMULUS 09 with the eye or the ear. Although of odors the receptor for smell simple. . In blossom-time we can scent the fragrance of a peach orchard Fig. The process of stimulation is apparently The neurons of the olfactory nerve start- ing at the spindles carry the impulses to the olfactory center Odors.

44]. Zsch. f. III. 240-257. heliotropine. 73. Heliotropine. the odor of geranium being about midway between. There is also a graded series from fragrant to /omZ. Table Class 1. like The odors do not form a simple the color hues or auditory tones. and between the aromatic and . For example. and so for other pairs. turpentine Tar. ethereal.. and these are mutually related through intermediate odors.] The prism relations of odors are represented in the [Fig. 6. . The prism diagram means that if you take samples of every different odor and ^ The prism is hollow — there are no odors represented by points in the inside. — Classes of Odors Examples Fragrant or flowery Ethereal or fruity Foul or putrid Aromatic or spicy Balsamic or resinous Empyreumatic or smoky [After Henning. pepper Camphor. V we come pound. and from fragrant to aromatic. 1915. pp.100 SMELL across a [CH. and is empyreumatic. Recent investigation shows that there are six distinct types of odors: Fragrant. form of a because the six types can be arranged as cross-series corner points of three surfaces. balsamic. aromatic. with cross-series between the diagonal corners of each. 8. the odor midway between fragrant and empyreumatic. 6.' An interesting case is the odor at the inter- section of diagonals. new fruit or some new chemical comseries. foul. oil of bergamot Rancid cheese. 4. Lemon. and it is also midway between foul and aromatic. They fall into several groups or series. [Table III. carbon bisulphide Anise. pyridine Psychol. Tonka bean 2.] A typical fragrant odor is From pure fragrance there a series of odors becoming more and more ethereal. and similarly for the diagonals of the other two surfaces of parsley is of the prism. foul There are between the fragrant and empyreumatic.

CH. V]

ODORS

101

arrange them in this way, there will be gradual changes of odor as you sniff the samples in regular order in no case

will there

be an abrupt change.

Intensity differences in smell depend not so
force with
spindles,

much upon the
3. Foul

stimuli

which individual particles as on the density of the that is, on the number

strike the olfactory

of particles
trils

at a time.

drawn into the nosWith a uniform
greater according to

rate of breathing the intensity of

the odor

is

of the emanation from the odorous substance. Differences in intensity may be tested by means of a series of bottles containing some odorous

the density

4.Aromdtie

5.

Balsamic

substance in different degrees of
Fig. 44.

dilution.
.

The more concentrated
,

— Odob Pbism
(Modified after

Showing

relation of the sis types of

the solution, the more particles •, m •11 11
Will

odora to one another.

emanate from

it,

and hence

Henning and Titchener.l

the greater will be the intensity of the sensation. Intensity tests are also made with the olfactometer.
45.]

[Fig.

This apparatus consists of two parallel tubes, curved at one end for insertion in the nostrils. Tubes lined with substances containing odorous particles are drawn over the
straight

end

of the olfactometer; the intensity of the odor

varies with the

substance

— that

amount
is,

of exposed surface of odor-bearing with the length of the projecting part

of the odor-tube.

Either of these apparatus

may be
The

used to determine the

lower limit of intensity.

least observable intensity

mercaptan about 0.000,000,043 mg. in a liter of air. This is one of the lowest values in other words, the smell receptor is more sensitive to mercaptan than to almost any other substance.
varies widely according to the substance used; for
it is
:

102

SMELL
The
life.

[CH.

V

Importance of Smell.
wardness
is

— Much remains to round out our
reason for this back-

systematic knowledge of smell.

that smell plays a relatively small part in

human

Pleasant odors are

sources of esthetic enjoy-

ment,

and

unpleasant

odors sometimes serve to

warn us
is

of danger in the

environment.

But smell
hearing,

not

especially impor-

tant, like sight,

or touch, in extending our

knowledge of the outer
world.

Man

has not the
field.

capacity for fine discrimi-

nation in this

In

the dog, the deer, the ant,
Fig. 45.
Tubes

— Olfactometer
inserted in the nostrils.

and more

certain other species
is

the sense of smell
highly

much

The bent tubes at left are

lined with some odorous substance are drawn Amount of over straight part of tubes at right. exposed surface is indicated on the scale. The upright screen conceals position of odor-tubes from

developed.

observer.

Odors are the dog's chief cluC in foUoWlUg a trail, , xi where men rely on the
i

sight of footprints, broken twigs,

and other

visual clues.

a luxury or an ornament, not an essential part of his life equipment. Historically this sense arose in connection with the feeding process. It is an offshoot of a primitive food sense, which at
smell
is

With man,

some point in evolution divided into the two senses of smell and taste. Like other senses, smell came in the course of
time to acquire new uses. The deer, for example, detects the presence of enemies by their odors. The three distant senses sight, hearing, smell fill somewhat the same place in the mental life of animals. So it happens frequently that where one of these three senses be-

>

,.^r^.
.•>'

»-^^^^^Bi^HI^BBH

^^^ m ^^t" 9^^l
te

^K} 'mm ^H.^sssxr
"

^^^W ^^ H^^I^'H) KiH^i^ ^^Wm ^^^^

^ i^B
f»-fl^

m^H Bi w n1Ur.
^1w
^m S^m ^H ^^
ii^i ^^^^m

^

fi"V|

|H|H| PPH H^^^Si
^sKm

Fig. 46.

— Tongue, showing Papilla

Taste bulbs are located in the circumvnilate (C) and fungiform (Fu) papillse. [From Wenzel.j are found in the filiform (Fi) or foliate (Fd).

None

CH. \]

BIPORTANCE OF SMELL

103

comes highly developed in a given species, one of the others degenerates. This is the case with smell in the human speSight and hearing overshadow it so completely that cies. we scarcely ever rely upon it for help in the important affairs
of
life.

4.

Taste (Gustation)

Receptor and Stimulus for Taste.
senses which are stimulated only
in actual contact with in
it.

— We come now to the
The
it

body or These are called contiguous senses, Taste is the most distinction from the distant senses.
objects near our
all

by

stay-at-home of
stimulus.

the external senses.

tastable sub-

stance has to get inside the

mouth

before

can become a

The
and

receptors for taste are certain bodies shaped like bulbs

or flasks, which are inserted in the mucous lining of the tongue
palate.

[Fi^. 46, 47.]
re-

These bulbs have a small openEC TB

ing or pore at the

neck end, which
the taste
bulbs.
cells

ceives the stimulus;

he in

the walls of the taste

The

stimuli

are always in liq-

uid form; soUd substances
are

tasted
Fig. 47.

only when dissolved

— Taste Bulbs and Taste Cells

by

action of the sa-

liva.

Fibers from

three of the cranial parts of the tongue

Section of lining of papills of tongue, showing taste bulbs (TB). with pore (P) at neck anH taste cells (TO forming part of the bulb; EC = epithelial cells. [Based on Piersol.1

nerves connect with the

cells in

the taste bulbs at various

and convey the impulses furnished by

the stimuli to a taste center in the brain.

We

Taste Sensations. Tastes and odors are often confused. imagine that certain substances have very pronounced

104
tastes,

TASTE
of the food

[CH.

V

much

which in reality have no taste at all. This is because which we take into the mouth consists of

odorous substances.

We breathe while we
Naturally

are chewing,

and

the odor-particles are carried out with our exhaled breath

through the

nostrils.

we

associate the resulting

sensations with the food in the mouth,
sensations of taste.

and regard them as

The

real nature of these sensations

may

be determined by holding the nose while chewing, so that no odorous particle can stimulate the receptor for smell. Such a test will cause many surprises. It will be found that an onion and a potato do not differ in taste at all; their tremendous difference in odor has led us to imagine that there is a
difference in their taste quality also.

Usually the sense-

impression which
sensations

we

derive from food

is

chiefly smell

and

taste,

a mixture of various partly also touch and
is

temperature.
food.
It is

This mixed sensation

called the flavor of

by no means easy

to pick out its various com-

ponents.

The confusion between taste and smell sensations is responsible for

the prevalent belief that taste affords a great number

of different qualities.

The most

careful examination indi-

cates only four qualities in taste:
Sweet Sour (or add)
1

Saline

j*

Bitter

Some

observers notice

two other

qualities, metallic

and

combinations of taste qualities. The four simple qualities do not form a series. They bear no special relation to one another except that sweetness contrasts to a certain extent with the other three. Intensity differences in taste may be tested by means of
alkaline; these are probably

bottles containing solutions of

some tastable substance in varying degrees of concentration. The solutions are applied successively to the tongue by means of a brush. It is rather

CH. v]
diflScult to

TASTE SENSATIONS

lOff

tend to persist;
ful

compare two taste intensities, because the stimuli it requires some ingenuity to remove a tastesubstance from the tongue quickly enough to compare it

accurately with the next stimulus.

The

least observable in-

tensity of taste differs widely for the four qualities.

[Table FV.]

Table IV.
Quality
Bitter

— Least Obsebvable Intensity
Substance

for Taste

Dilution in Water

Quinine
Salt

1:390,000
1:

Saline

2,240

Sulphuric acid 1: 2,080 Sour Sugar 1: 199 Sweet [From Sanford, Exp. Psychol., p. 48, after Bailey and Nichols.]

Pleasant tastes or flavors add conenjoyment of food, and unpleasant flavors often enable us to reject what is unpalatable. On the other hand, certain nutritious dishes may acquire an unpleasant association through taste. If you were fed up with prunes as
Significance of Taste.

siderably to the

will be disagreeable to you in later have a distaste of this sort, often a loathing, for certain articles of food which are by no means harmful which in fact may be very beneficial. It is also true that pleasant tastes or flavors are sometimes obtained from unwholesome foodstuffs. Savages and civilized men alike are prone to overeat of delicious substances which injure the

a child, the taste of prunes

Ufe.

Most

of us

digestive organs.

gives us

The information about the outer world which this sense is of some value in life. Yet we cannot but imagine

that the taste sense would have been more useful if pleasant and unpleasant tastes corresponded more closely to the nutritious and harmful. On the whole, taste is probably the
least valuable of all the senses.

5—7.

Cutaneous Senses: Touch, Warmth, Cold

Cutaneous Receptors and Stimuli.
the

— The outer surface of
which

body

is

susceptible to several kinds of stimulation

106

TOUCH, WARMTH, COLD
In reality there are

[ch.

v
of

are grouped together in popular language under the
'

name

touch.'

diflferent receptors for

the

various stimuli, so that

we

are

bound

to treat the skin sensa-

tions as forming several distinct senses.

In addition to the touch sense, there are senses of warmth cold. These two are not merely different qualities but separate senses, as is shown by a simple experiment. Mark off an area 20 mm. square on some one's arm. Take a knitting needle which has been chilled in ice-cold water, and

and

explore this area systematically, marking in ink each spot

which the observer reports as feeling cold.' When a complete map of the cold spots has been made, explore the same
*

area with a needle
cold and

warmed
is

in hot water,

spots with a different-colored ink.

and mark the warm The arrangement of the
different.

warm

spots

found to be very
is

Every spot on the skin

stimulated by contact and gives a

touch sensation. But we find that certain spots give also a pressure sensation distinct from contact. The arrangement of
pressure spots does not correspond to either the cold spots.
[Fig. 48.]

warm

or the

This indicates that the three are

different senses.
If

we examine

the structure of the skin with a microscope,

we

find several different kinds of corpuscles

embedded

in

it

and connected with nerve endings.
these in

The most

noticeable of

man

are the corpuscles of Vater-Pacini, Meissner,
[Fig. 49.]

Krause, and Merkel.
the surface; others
senses.
lie

Some

of these types

lie

near

deeper in the skin.

It is believed that

these several types are receptors for different cutaneous

The

receptors for touch, warmth,

over the entire outer surface of the body.
in the eyeball, tongue,

and cold are distributed There are touch

corpuscles at the roots of the body-hairs; they are found also

and other

special organs.

Some of the

inner organs are sensitive to contact

and pressure but not to

temperature stimuli.

48.CH. We The itching Pressure and Temperature Spots left — Map of palm of band. [From Schaefer. Same area is represented in all three cases. acts 107 The stimulus for touch is the contact of The stimulus mechanically cor- (not chemically) puscles. V] RECEPTORS AND STIMULI any substance with the skin. warmth (B). called warmth and cold respectively. under special conditions of stimulation touch gives rise to certain Fig. sensations of tingling and pressure (A). than the lie The cold receptors nearer the surface than the warmth receptors and are more readily stimulated. When — the warmth and cold receptors are is stimulated together the result sensation a known as heat sensation. contact and jyressure. in order to affect these receptors the temperature of the stimulus must be somewhat higher than the temperature of the skin. The by cold receptors are af- fected stimuli that are colder skin. and cold (C).l . In B and C the areas appear to be touch qualities. less sensitive in lighter shading. In A the regions marked black are relatively imemitive to pressure. of the Cutaneous Sensations. smoothness. after Goldscheider. Each two temperature senses has one characteristic quality. on the touch The warmth stimuli are heat waves that penetrate the skin and act on the receptors for the warmth sense. relative distribution of sensitivity to moisture. etc. showing distinguish between sensations of roughness. other quality effects. moving contact. and stickiness. but they are caused by stimuli within most tentitite (to warmth and cold respectively) are marked in black. The sense of touch has two elementary qualities.

warmth. a very faint stimulus produces a very intense tickle sensation is probably due to a definite Fia. Transverse section of same. in that sensation. E. Differences of intensity may be examined in touch. Vater-Pacini corpuscle. The other special touch qualities are due to spatial and temporal variations of the stimulus. COLD The [CH. Merkel cells in interpapillary epithelium. V the body and are possibly organic sensations. — Cutaneous Receptobs I ' A. sensation peculiar known The as tickle differs strikingly from most sensa- tions. B. similar to those used in the higher The least observable intensity in touch is stated . C. nerve fibers. WARMTH. to be and cold by methods senses. Krause end-bulbs from human conjunctiva. Meissner corpuscle. 49. D. touch stimulus applied to a very small area. Free nerve endings in epidermis of rabbit.108 TOUCH. N= F.

sensations furnish no great variety of quahty. and in doing so improperly identified with touch. ' five senses recognized by popular tradition. bine with these. the fact that their receptors are spread over the entire body gives them great importance in life. There are also two senses which inform us of conditions within the body and of what is taking place there: (1) The organic senses report the general condition and workings of our organs of digestion and other internal organs. vii). that 8. just as taste together. v] CUTANEOUS SENSATIONS 109 the contact of a cork weight of 2 mg.CH. and in perceiving motion and other space rela- — tions (ch. It is interesting to notice warmth (and to a lesser degree cold) is in a rudimentary way a distant sense. on the tip of the finger. They give us information concerning situations and occurrences outside our own body. For the temperature senses the least observable sensation is produced by a stimulus about one-eighth degree warmer or colder than the temperature of the skin. All these seven senses are stimulated by external objects and forces. these senses are undoubtedly more important for life than taste. (2) The . us considerably in acquiring knowledge of the shape and size of objects. While the cutaneous Importance of the Skin Senses. Touch sensations inform us of the They help location of things which press against the skin. and usually comand smell sensations combine the temperature senses The information which it give is useful so far as goes. Organic Senses (Ccenesthesia. They rarely occur apart from touch sensations. Visceral Senses) * — We have examined the we have discovered two more — warmth and cold — which were The Systemic Senses. Warmth and cold are far less significant than touch. We feel the warmth of a glowing stove at some distance. and we can sense the cold of ice before the hand quite touches it.

The organic and pain senses do not deserve to be ignored as they used to be. because they report events that occur in our bodily system. but it is uncertain how many of them have different kinds of receptors and are really separate senses. The student of psychology who insists on recognizing only the traditional five senses ought to be inflicted with a jmnping toothache till he admits at least a sense of pain. (2) vascular and respiratory (4) feeling tone. taken together. general discomfort due to starvation and depletion of the tissues. and The first three are connected with the operation of the great systems of life functions after ing or hedonic tone is which they are named.110 ORGANIC SENSES [ch. Organic Sensations. due to muscular contractions in the stomach. Among our digestive sensations the most easily distinguished are hunger and thirst. are called systemic senses. because their receptors buried so deep within the body that they are generally inaccessible to examination. v pain sense reports injuries which happen to our body and which may be due to either internal or external causes. especially the destruc- tion and restoration of tissue. Not only is it difficult to determine exactly the number of different sensation-quahties that they furnish. diflficult — The organic senses are extremely lie to investigate. hunger pangs. which sometimes occurs even when the stomach is filled. Our knowledge of them is very imperfect. Information about our bodily processes is quite as important a factor in life as knowledge of the outer world. There are at least four important sorts of organic sensa- tions: (1) digestive sensations. . appetite or craving for food. The two. (3) generative sensations. Under careful examination the sensaIt includes tion of hunger proves to be a complex affair. A distinct sensation quahty ^ Metabolism includes various chemical changes. Feel- apparently due to metabolic ^ conditions within the body. sensations.

pleasand unpleasantness. The circulation of the blood is accompanied at times by distinctive sensations such as flushing. heart quavers. which has a throat. anxiety. The vascular and respiratory sensations are less varied and much more obscure. local- and Associated with the digestive sensations ized in the abdominal region.' Sensations from circula- and respiration are present in states of trepidation. The reproductive organs furnish a number of distinctive generative sensations. though the various sensations just described are all associated with the digestive processes. sexual excitement. which is a sensation etc. Less definite sensations accompany the later digestive processes in the intestines. they are due to distinct stimuH and in some cases probably involve different kinds of recej>tors. by an unnamed sensation of expanstuffiness. These include the sensations of sexual craving. throbbing. antness . due to drying of the mucous membrane in the mouth and Another digestive sensation is nausea. The generative system also contributes to the general feehng tone of the body. very pronounced quahty. bladder. anger. also sensations connected with urination There are defecation. but is due to certain characteristics common to all the stimuli which act upon the organic receptors. Feeling tone is a vague sensation which often accompanies It includes two opposite qualities. v] VARIETY OF ORGANIC SENSATIONS 111 Thirst is probably accompanies the satisfaction of hunger. and tingling of the blood.' or its opposite.CH. ing is Breath* often accompanied * sion. There is also a special sensation in the digestive tracts due to distension of the stomach and other cavities. other sensations. etc. is stimulated under Al- emotional conditions of fright. and sexual satisfaction. But for the most part the autonomic bodily processes go on without any sensations except a tion feeling tone. orgasmic sensations. affection. It probably has no special receptor of its own. and panic.

whatever else they may be. their own special qualities are subordinate. besides having its own quality (hunger. It gives sensations of well-being. In each case the feeling tone is diflFeiv ent from the special quality of the sensation. This general feeling varies from time to time. catabolism. and sometimes he is quite ready to murder an also. (metabolic) changes which take place in the sorts two opposite — constructive and destrucup and the wastage called anabolism. discomfort. repletion. deep breaths and you will notice a growing feeling of pleasantness in the region of the lungs. fatigue. this process Cells are destroyed or impaired by use. we experience a. A man ear-racking organ-grinder. buoy- ancy. throb. even though they and the . The dyspeptic and the athlete live in two very different worlds. or general feeling tone. weakness.112 ORGANIC SENSES of [ch. vigor. is has also feeling tone. pleasant if the stimulation anabolic and unpleasant if it is catabolic. Besides the feeling tone connected with various senses. Many or disagreeable. so that any organic which is sensation. The organic sense receptors are affected life is. are either anabolic or catabolic. and the a like). drowsiness. these two kinds of special stimuli. processes as well as by their by own That organic stimuli. Notice the gradual onset of unpleasantness which accompanies nausea. On the other hand. But in the external senses the special quality of the sensation is so pronounced that the feeling factor is usually of secondary importance. The tone external sensations have a certain degree of feeling sounds and tastes are noticeably agreeable will almost sell his soul for a luscious peach. Our general feeling tone at any time is a highly important factor in our mental life. v The chemical body are tive processes. New cells are built is of cells is restored. heart a. giving the opposite process. Draw series of slow. craving. in the body as a whole. like. feeling of general sensihiliiy. most of our digestive and other organic sensations are observed chiefly as a feeling tone of pleasantness or unpleasantness.

erally. sense. in midst Our actions are not merely responses to the which we are placed. shall notice this especially when we examine emotion and emotional attitudes (chs. bruises and muscular soreness (muscle sense). stings. bums (temperature). But there are many sorts of pain. nausea. We 9. except the overflow of very intense stimuU which are too powerful for their proper receptors to manage. pricks. But and it is an independ- ent sense. . but it There are no stray stimuli in the body. the resulting nerve impulses travel up to special pain centers in the brain. Certain eye pains are tactile. intestinal pains (organic). Pain sensations have a distinctive quaUty of their own. they reflect our own organic condition as well. xv). the surplus energy spreads destruction through the neighboring tissues.. each of which bears the mark of its origin.] One might say that they keep open house for any stray stimuU that are called free nerve endings. Very bright light. — The it like the organic senses in that gives us information concerning the state tissues own bodily its and organs. others are due to strain of the eye muscles (muscle sense). receptors are different it gives a quaUty of sensation very different from the organic or any other The pain tors. ix. occasionally eye pain is tinguish between scratches. We dispain and sores (touch) stomach pains. very intense heat. CH. This is true in a way. give more energy than the receptor for sight or warmth can absorb. Pain (Algesthesia) pain sense is Pain of our Sensations. v] VARIETY OF ORGANIC SENSATIONS ' 113 room ' together. The free endings of the pain nerves take up these vagabond stimuU and needs qualification. is pain. 49 F. whatever its source. in that nerves form an exception to sensory nerves genthey are not provided with any special recep- Their endings in the skin are unattached and are [See Fig. wandering about in the body.

the itself is useful. 10. always a marked feeling tone of unpleasantness in the pain sensation. Kinesthetic Sense) The Motor Senses. — We have examined the two great groups of senses: those which give information concerning . " This sensation is not a pain. Far from making the responses of dogs and other animals less suitable to the general situation. It requires considerable practice in observing our sensations carefully before unpleasant. is V due to intense certain Toothache originate due to stimulation ot the teeth. Muscle Sense (Kinesthesia. The discrimination between pain sensation and unpleasant feeling is not so easy. but it is we can say. nerves which in Shooting neuralgic pains are apparently due to internal stimuli which affect the nerves at some point in their course. The connection between ness quality is the pain quality and the unpleasant- so universal that It is we find difficulty in dis- tinguishing them. The fact that pain stimuli are destructive There is to the bodily tissues (catabolic) would account for this. both outside and inside the body. tastes much like the confusion between and odors. It is an important factor in adjusting our behavior to unfavorable conditions in the environment. It is a mistaken psychological attitude to regard pain as an evil or mental error. pain sensations usually help the creature to do the best thing in the circumstances. In the course of animal evolution an elaborate system for receiving pain impressions has been built up. Pain is part of our equipment for meeting the situations that confront us in life. The same is true of man. In the higher species the pain sense is an important factor in life.114 PAIN light. warn us of dangers. except that in the latter case we can readily bring out the distinction by holding the nostrils closed. [CH. often enables us to avoid or remedy harmful situations." However sense disagreeable the pain sensations It serves to it may be.

eyeball. unable to feel in other cases the opposite * This establishes the existence of kinesthesia as a separate sense or senses. We now come to a third group the senses which give information regarding our bodily movements and which indicate the position of our body in space and the relative position of its various members. this For want of a better term group is called the mot&r senses. and then . THE MOTOR SENSES and those which report 115 conditions vnthin our : own body. but has distinct sensations of movement. eyelid. obtained through sensory nerves which start in the muscles. v] external objects. the two resulting sensations taken together indicate the relative amount of muscular contraction and hence the position of the member. tendons. but of the position of our members in space. elbow. of how they are bent. Kinesthetic or muscle sensations are Muscle Sensations. is The term muscle sense commonly applied to the whole group of kinesthetic sensa- tions. tongue. etc. or how movement feels. It has not been determined whether the tendons and joints yield different true.CH. or touch? it. This may be observed if you close your eyes and hold your bare arm in ^ If touch it. although they indicate position as well as movement. each of the antagonistic muscles is subject to a certain amount of contraction. In certain diseases the patient is pressure. These nerves are provided with special receptors which are stimulated by contractions of the volun- — tary (striate) muscles. When a member is held rigid in any position. The motor senses include (1) known as the muscle and (2) the static or equilibrium sense. the kinesthetic sense or senses. try to move Is it the muscle sense that is benumbed. you wake up at night with your arm numb. knee. and joints. and noticing is The muscle the sensations may be ob- served by moving the finger.^ ' kinds of sensations from the muscles. usually sense. the sensation of contact or quite different in quality from the sensation is pressure. These sensations give information not merely of bodily movements.

is A slight movement of movements of our arm readily observed. v some position where it does not touch the body. the limbs are regulated very accurately by means of these indica- be easily tested by observing how many different positions of one of your fingers you can discriminate when your eyes are closed. the motion of the whole field of objects across the retina brings about a general change of visual sensations. the intensity of the muscle sensation is greater than when we merely raise the arm. Muscle sensations are usually reinforced by touch sensations. When the eyes are turned from side to side. they may be termed secondin the ary motor sensations. finely discriminated. These auxiliary motor indications from the external senses (touch. suitcase or If we start to lift a heavy push a piano. When the muscles have been active for a long time there arises a sensation of muscular /a^tgrwe. The intensity differences of muscle sensations are very pro- nounced and are the finger or tions. in walking we have a visual picture of the moving scene. but it also gives information regardThis may ing the weight of external objects. but they assist materially in the perception of our posture and movements. this is possibly a form of feeling tone. such as the scraping of the clothes against the skin. and by indications from other external senses. . is resisting a sensation of These sensa- tions are assigned to the tendons. or if you twist your neck to the right or left and keep it in this position.116 MUSCLE SENSE [ch. The least observable difference of position for the middle finger is found to be 1°. the muscle sensations tell you what its position is. There are few differences of quality muscle sense. hearing) are not really kinesthetic sensations. the resistance which it offers checks the speed of our muscular contraction. effort. sight. we obtain a sensation called external pressure there is when a member strain. The muscle sense not only serves to inform us of our various postures and movements. When we are actively pushing or lifting a heavy object.

D. 87 for right ear. = ampullse of = saccule.J above and to the rear of the cochlea. The static receptor is a complicated structure ear. — Semicihculak Canals aot) Sacs H resemble a horseshoe. three canab. Each canal cells endolymph. It has nothing to do with the muscles and is enStatic tirely distinct — from muscle sense. (Compare Fig. F. Vl STATIC RECEPTOR 11. G = utricle. 3 = beginning of scala vestibuli. in three planes. though the two the work together. L = scala tympani. They shape are substance. another source of information concerning the position and movements of our body. Receptor is filled with a liquid called with long projecting hairs line . A = superior canal. 37. the sacs in middle. The ca- nals are situated in the labyrinth of the ear. in the inner of consisting the semicircular canals and sacs. The are canals are three in number. 36. cf. ending in round window beneath. [From Wenzel. B = posterior canal. C = horizontal canal. beginning of cochlea below.] Figs. lying slightly Section through vestibule of left eur.CH. I = oval window. bony and in in Fig. 50. 50. K = cochlear duct. 117 y Static Sense (Equilibrium Sense) The sialic sense is Receptor and Sensations. gles to and placed at right an- one another different [Fig.) Canals are shown above. E.

The canals were formerly supposed to be connected with the sense of hearing. it is Tracing back the evolution of the two found that the static organ may seem. curious though it an outgrowth or offshoot of the static sense. But it is is canals are removed the bird found that when a pigeon's imable to maintain his balance organs in the animal arose before there was scale. hearing is any sense of hearing. but it is probable that the canals and rotation. at the base they enlarge and form the ampullce. are rounded protuberances situated in the vestibule near the canals. They contain minute The crystals called otoliths. when we turn the head is to the left the direction of circulation reversed. In man and other high species hearing has developed much The further than the static sense and has far outstripped it in importance. The two sacs. the pressure at both ends of some canal or diminished.118 STATIC SENSE (en. v the walls of the canals. any angular change whatsoever in the position of the head involves rotation of at least one canal. backward. the nerve impulses — are carried to the static center of the brain. inertia causes the liquid in the horizontal canal to circulate toward the left. static sense gives sensations of position and sensations . or to one side. or regulate his flight. increased These changes in the endolymph stimulate the sensitive projecting hairs and this excites the neurons of one branch of the eighth cranial nerve the same nerve whose main branch is used for hearing. while the sacs head in relation to gravity. Since the canals lie in three different planes. the viricle and saccule. saccule lies just below the utricle. The otoliths in the sacs are also affected by changes in the endolymph. The canals open into the utricle. K the whole head is moved forward. The relation between the canals and the sacs is not clear. The stimuli for static sensations are the flow or pressure of the endolymph inside the canals. due to changes in the position of the head. as in is walking. When the head is turned horizongive us information of motion indicate the position of the tally to the right.

Of the five traditional senses.CH. and the perception of and other external senses combine to give us information of our bodily postures and movements. at least. due to eye movement. v] of motion. systemic. sight movements through — — essentially different relations to mental life. it is difficult own particular qual- The sensation of motion apparently differs in quality position. RECEPTOR AND SENSATIONS In both cases the static sensation to distinguish its is lift so closely bound up with muscle sensations and other motor information that ity. It is especially useful to keep in mind the three great groups of senses external. differ may sUghtly in quality also. is The least is observable motion a rate of about 2° per second. from the sensation of three canals The sensations from the Nausea is an organic sensation due to some connection between the Dizziness is. Significance of Sensation in Mental Life. . muscle sensations. 58. 1 and thinking. and motor} These three types of sensation bear Static sensations. the sensation gradually dies away. See Table p. taste and smell are far less important in life than the two motor senses and pain. not its velocity. while the table is turned at various rates of speed. The differences of intensity in static sensations may be observed by lying flat upon a rotation table. then if we twist the head in any direction the sensation im- mediately starts up again. This mass of motor information is the basis of our motor adjustments and plays an important part in the formation of our motor habits. It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the student of psychology that all eleven senses must be reckoned with. The the acceleration of motion. the sensations from 1. with eyes closed. (1) The external senses furnish information which leads to perception. remembering. we are rotated on the table at a uniform rate. in part digestive organs and the static nerves. They are the basis of three different sorts of mental activity. starting stimulus for static sensation If from a standstill.

The separate sensations are not experiences. and when it goes round a curve. general bodily fatigue. v or — the make up our cognitive experiences. 23. (a) in bending the elbow and fingers. A. taken together. Look in a mirror on a moving train. they are the basis of our active experiences — our ivill. Any conscious experience scape.' 'Sense of Smell'. The systemic senses furnish information concerning our internal organic processes and bodily condition. Textbook of Physiology. the sense of making a sweeping — arm-movement sations is composed of a number of separate senwhich are combined together by the collecting of sep- — arate nerve impulses in the brain centers. References: On the receptors: Ladd and Wood worth. or forward. Make a map Compare 26. Part I. they are the elementary bits of information which combine to make up our perceiving a land' experiences. of warmth and cold spots as described on page 109. periences. 25. (3) The motor senses furnish information as to the position of the various parts rate of our and members of our body in space. chs. the feeling of happiness. ch. Observe the sensations of taste from various common foods while holding the nose. toothache. Physiology of the Special Senses. On sensations: E. Compare these with the accompanying touch and pressure sensations. articles 'Cutaneous Sensations. and the direction and movements.' 'Sense of Taste. 22. a weight. M.g. 2-9. left. make up our conscious mental Practical Exercises: and overtones on the piano (or some other musical instjjument) and describe the experience. Spin on your heel (a) with head erect. . observe especially your sensations when the train starts or stops. e. 8. Physiological Psychology. observe the resulting sensations.. Schaeffer. Test your static sensations on a rotation table or in a swivel chair. Report the results of these observations. (b) with head inclined to right.' 'Muscular Sense. three different sorts of systemic sensations.' 'The Ear.120 these seven senses intellect THE SENSES [ch. shutting out direct sight of the landscape. hunger. Greenwood. Listen for difference tones 24. (2) knowledge side of our mental Hfe. and compare with the usual sensations. they are the source of our affective experiences — our feelings. Observe your muscle sensations and (6) in lifting 27. Our various exlife.

memories. parts of the process are called stimidaiion (or reception) ^ ad- The The first stage. (3) We send out These three nerve impulses to the muscles and glands. If you examine any one of the pictures of a galloping horse which enter into a motion picture scene.CHAPTER Review. flowing events in a piecemeal way. which thereupon perform the proper movements or reactions. VI CONSCIOUS LIFE a good place to stop and glance back over We started with the notion of psychology as the science which investigates the responses of living creatures to the stimuli that affect them. because it attempts to describe moving. which are only indirectly due to the senses. lation are carried out Any single episode in our mental life may be divided into We receive piecemeal impressions from the outer world or from our own body. pressure. and the (sensations). These processes by means of the nervous system and the receptors and effectors which Ue at either end of the nervous arc. means by which all our impressions are originally obtained. and other physical forces. The whole series of events make up our mental life.)^ The sense organs or receptors are stimulated by light waves. senses are the ^ This sounds somewhat mechanical and artificial. (There are also some secondary impressions. sound waves. and response. (2) We put these three successive stages: (1) detached pieces of information together and prepare to re- spond in an orderly and appropriate way. — .^ justment (or integration). the horse's position appears ridiculous is each momentary attitud« very different from your total impression of galloping. receiving the separate bits of material was examined in the two preceding chapters. It includes is — This the ground so far covered. the study of the entire chain of events beginning with stimu- and ending with responsive activity.

Something in the make-up of the work of art gives it the quality of beauty. to This is the second stage of In the next few chapters we shall see Perceptions. Sensations would be detached. Add a line. not something poured into the mind. and yet are not easy to explain. is treated in chs. but you cannot describe precisely what beauty is. thoughts.^ memo- ries. One cannot inject beauty into a thing with a syringe. change a line in a drawing. piecemeal experiences.122 CONSCIOUS LIFE [ch. them were not collected and the mental process. it is a characteristic of mental life. You know that a certain statue or painting or symphony is beautiful. consciousness is a quality or characteristic of things Consciousness is it is not itself a concrete thing. how the make separate elementary sensations are put together so as actual conscious experiences. Given the proper conditions and there is consciousness. if the sensory impulses which cause integrated in the brain centers. the process of acting The and responding. Like beauty. and yet beauty is not a line or a group of lines. take out a line. due to the orderly combination of separate and to various changes which take place in con- nection with the combining process. Consciousness is Consciousness and Subconsciousness. ti center sensory nerves conduct the resulting nerve impulse to a in most cases to a brain center. they are sensations. different sorts of experience in turn. We shall examine these to understand sciousness if we explain first of But they will be easier all what is meant by conrelated to the working and how our conscious life is of our brain. x-xii . Alter the conditions and there is no conscious* ' — — ness ' — just as in the case of beauty. In this way we — receive sensations. emotions. It is like the idea of beauty in this respect. third stage. and its beauty is gone. and other experiences are such inte- grations. one of those notions that are perfectly plain to everyone.

The lower brain called subconscious. vi] NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS^-^/ 188 Nothing has given more trouble to ^tb BlignanSr in psychology than the notion of consciousn^s. of psychology. impressions and putting thoughts. are Our subconscious mental life is quite as important for psychology as consciousness. we do not notice the objects about us.CH. of beauty. consciousness is merely a shorthand term used to express the fact that perceptions. up with our general train of When we are walking with a friend and are busy talking. Experiences which form part of our Ufe of stimulation and response. To be conscious. you are not conIn other words. yet do not enter into our personal mental life. stimuli excite nerve impulses which do not reach the cortex. sort of experiences. yet the impressions are not joined conscious experiences. means simply to have sensations and any into perceptions. We are conscious only when stimuh start nerve impulses and these impulses reach the brain. though the stimuli produce important reflex results and consequently belong to the realm The reflex eye-wink is an example of this. In many cases the sensory nerve impulses are integrated in the brain centers and cause coordinated responses. The word itself is mysterious and forbidding.^ It is well to recognize this diflficulty at the start and try to get better acquainted with the term. in such cases we are not conscious. You are conscious when you are receiving them together like. thoughts. and the less sleep When you are in a swoon or a dream- and are getting no impressions. It like trying to study art The result is a rather and ignoring the notion . There are cases where scious. yet we step up and down and avoid obstacles quite as well as if we were fully aware of our surroundings. centers are constantly receiving sensory impressions ^ and of Some psychologists get around the difficulty by dropping the notion consciousness altogether and studying is behavior. fragmentary science. and the Uke are part of one's personal mental life.

mind is in the brain. are brought about by temporary changes in the condition of the brain. lem is — The really difficult probit is not what consciousness is. we see. All the activities of the nerve centers. When an impulse in the optic nerve reaches the visual center. The Brain and Consciousness. But just how the brain activity produces sensations. When an impulse in the auditory nerve reaches the auditory center. There are several theories which attempt to explain the is The older view that the A newer theory is observed in two different ways. but how related to In discussing each of the senses we traced the course of the nerve impulse from the receptor to the center. . of measuring brain processes as We have no means * we can measure hght relation. our conscious hfe. Our thoughts never an instant proceed without brain activity. swooning. In other words. If the brain is in any way impaired. thinking or memory or perception or some other mental process is disturbed.' This much seems certain: Every single perception and brain activity. they are all factors in determining our responses. we hear. must be reckoned with in psychology. sleep. that thought and brain activity are really the same event. the psychologist can study his thoughts and memories. But the facts just mentioned point to the conclusion that whenever we think or perfor our brain is acting in certain corresponding ways. Lapses of memory. vi sending out motor impulses that are never associated with Many of our thoughts and decisions are determined in large measure by previous subconscious experiences. in place of the cenceive. every step in our thinking means some definite nervous activity. And so for each of the other nine senses. tral nerve processes which accompany them. and other experiences is not known. his perceptions and emotions. whether conscious or subconscious. Psychology need not be tied to any special theory of how brain and consciousness are related. memories. Insanity is caused by some injury to the brain. and that mind and brain interact.124 CONSCIOt^ LIFE fcH.

ences is scientific wink his eyes to observe afterCasual or haphazard noticing of our own experiSelf-observation. means careful and often minute attention it to the flow of conscious experiences. — One is of the most important things in studying psychology states of mind. method.CH. VI] BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS The 125 waves or muscular contraction. fire. so self-evident that for a long time and water. and faithfully or to report our observations accu- The old error about the five senses persisted through It was kept alive because men did not They reported not examine their experiences carefully. At first glance experiences. Some of the most absurd mistakes in psychology examinations occur in answering questions for which the student has the material right with him: for instance. These notions seemed no one took the trouble them to actual test. In psychology the material is so very accessible that the student is slow to realize that training is needed before he can observe it properly. air. and heard. Yet when we try it it We out we find that it is not easy to attend to our experiences carefully rately. only direct seems simple enough to observe our own have them with us constantly and need our attention toward them. Self-observation. to examine your own experiences. investigation of our own experiences supplies this lack. means also giving . what they observed for themselves but what they had read many generations. In physics men persisted in beUeving that heavy bodies fall faster than light ones. as a not scientific psychology. he has only to sensations. Just as bad mistakes have been made in other sciences and have retarded their development. in chemistry they stuck to the idea that there are only four elements to put — earth. or introspection. is and reporting what they observed. or The basal facts of psychology were discov- ered by men observing their own thoughts and perceptions. This method of study called self-observation.

Their composition more on nervous processes than on the stimuli.' are the principal agencies in forming our experiences. These elementary bits of sensation are combined at once into vivid perceptions of the various objects in the shop. The quality and intensity of the separate sensations depend on the nature of the objects which stimulate the receptor organs. see pp. How — When we enter a shop our eyes are stimulated by many objects which give us a great mass of color sensations. and on the nature of the receptor organs themselves. the perceptions start a train of thoughts and memories which continue until we decide which way to turn and what things to examine and purchase. they are combined and altered in many ways before the motor nerve impulses are ready to start a coordinated movement. Certain visual sensations are red because red-giving light waves strike the eye and because the retina is capable of distinguishing these rays from others. But when we examine the experiences built up out of these ' * * ' sensation elements the opposite dep)ends far is true. far more than on the nervous system and its activity. Certain sensations are loud because intense sound waves strike the ear and make the ear-drum vibrate vigorously. way Conscious Experiences are Formed. vi exact reports of our observations. 44-48. restoration of this substance : * These were described in ch. The nervous operations which result from the various properties of nerve substance. he will already have advanced a considerable in the art of self-observation. carefully performed the practical exercises in the previous chapters. Sensations are merely the bits of material out of which our experiences are constructed. iii. When sensory nerve impulses reach the brain centers.126 CONSCIOUS LIFE If [ch. conscious attention varies with nervous fatigue fatigue of the nerve substance in the brain means inattention. Both demand considerable the student has training before the results are accurate. For instance. This is true of all sensations. .

You remember a cer- . VI] FORMATION OF EXPERIENCES attention. The impression is due to nerve impulses from the eye which excite the visual center in your brain. There are import iii). the form of the earlier impulse is reproduced because of the trace which it leaves behind. a form of mental association: one thought The thought of peaches suggests to me the island of Corfu. Mental Processes: Impression and Suggestion. — Impression corresponds to nervous excitation and suggestion corresponds to nervous conduction. You see this book pression of it. The two most prominent mental processes are that we are impressed by objects and events. Memory images are the conscious experiences which arise as a result of this revival. corresponding to each of the principal properties of nerve substance (ch. Anger is an experience that arises when nerve impulses from your bodily organs and motor organs excite some of your brain — centers. The set or trace left it by previous nerve impulses in the brain centers makes for these centers to be aroused later in the possible same way. tant conscious operations. the thought of peaches passes over into the thought of Corfu. And is similarly for other experiences. — the nervous process of retention. of ideas depends Association on nervous conduction. In terms of nervous activity what happens is that the nerve impulses pass from one center to another. Revival and attention are two other mental processes. that is. where I tasted specially delicious peaches. The peach thought and the Corfu thought are associated together. Revival or memory corresponds to Suggestion passes over into another. you get a visual imnerve impulses. or mental processes. Revival and Attention. where they assume a difiFerent form.CH. they are reproductions of earlier impressions. and that one experience suggests another. 127 means Memory or revival of old experiences varies with the nervous operation of retention. Impression means that a sensation or some other experience It occurs when the central neurons are excited by is aroused.

The rubbing of your clothes and other incidental stimuli are generally unnoticed.128 CONSCIOUS LIFE [ch. The greater impressions. as impression slight may be brought voluntarily to the focus of his opponents. the rest of the page is scarcely noticed. they — . Composition and Discrimination. the stimuli may be quite intense. the football player sees distinctly certain movements on the part which give a clue to the play. When you are reading. on the other hand a faint of the stimulus. A very loud sound will force itself upon us and drive all else out of the focus. The different degrees of vividness or focusing that characterize the several portions of our total experience at any given moment depend on variations in the chemical conditions of the several neurons concerned. Attention fatigue. In other words. renewing the experience to a certain extent. Attention is partly involuntary and partly under our own control. Sounds that occur at the same time are not attended to. is related (inversely) to the nervous process of Some parts of an experience are more vivid than others. In reading you attend to only a few words at a time. but the experiences are not vivid. the vividness of an experience depends not so much on the strength on the condition of our brain. the fatigue. the theater the degree of inattention. vi tain birthday party because the brain centers which retain traces of that group of experiences have been excited again. the others are blocked by resistance due in part to fatigue or exhaustion of certain synapses — — they are not attended is to. of Attention means the focusing certain Other impressions that occur at the same time are out of focus. if it is of special interest. they are said to be in the margin or fringe of consciousness. only a few send impulses straight through to your brain centers without hindrance. the printed words are vivid. The third pair of mental processes are composition and discrimination. All this means that out of the many stimuli which occur at any moment.

representing some definite scene. together. The fusion is so strong that the visual and muscle-sense elements stick together even when you look at it without lifting it. compound which the three tones are so fused together that only a practiced musician can pick out any one of them from the harmony. due to the same object. odorous. sorts of mental composition: In fusion the elementary sensations it is difficult are so merged together that to pick them apart. . warm. as in fusion. It is the opposite of composition. is When they are struck clang. fuse together. It occurs notably in sight. Touch impressions generally unite by colligation. The experience is a total consolidated eflFect. Fried mushrooms are round and brown.' A crowbar always looks heavy to you if you have once tried to lift one. The mental process is a separation of two or more elements in a smell * given experience. it is not easy to separate any one of these sensations from the total effect of a luscious food. There are two fusion and colligation. Discrimination occurs when a nerve impulse in the central region is distributed into two or more different paths. VI] MENTAL PROCESSES 129 correspond to the collection and distribution of nerve impulses. In colligation it is easy to distinguish the different parts. A painting does not appear to be a patchwork of separate colors on a canvas. In looking at a person's face we first see it as a single object. but appear side by side. in which the individual components keep their identity. the resulting sensation single.CH. Sensations from different senses. as a pattern or picture. we see it as a single picture. taste and by fusion. and soft. occurs The composition of sensations into larger experiences when the impulses from several distinct nerve paths difiFerent are collected together in a single center. The a stimuli for the chord C-E-G in are three separate tones. A typical case all of fusion occurs in musical chords. they do not merge. Colligation is another sort of composition. sweet.

Perceptions. with the corresponding nervous ' ' processes.* [ch. When we look around room we get a distinct visual impression of the table and chairs and floor and walls and various objects about us. and conations are three fundamental sorts of experience. This composite experience is known as a perception. — Fundamental Conscious Operations Nervous Operation Excitation Conscious 0-peraiion Impression (sensibility) Suggestion (successive association) Revival (memory) Attention (vividness. When we are ill at ease or in pain. we perceive the world as presented to us by the visual receptors^ and nerves.Psychologists call it ^ Besides these six mental processes there is another called transformation or mental chemistry.130 CONSCIOUS LIFE the process of discrimination features. mouth. When several impressions combine together the result is often quite unlike any of the components. just as the properties of water are unlike those of the oxygen and hydrogen which compose it. All the external senses yield perceptions. feelings. focusing) Composition (simultaneous association) Discrimination Transformation (mental chemistry) Conduction Retention Fatigue Collection Distribution Modification Kinds of Experience. and other All our experiences are made up of elementary sensations which have been whipped into shape by these mental In examining the various sorts of experience we processes. because it is popularly con- f a conation. . feeling. Table V. In each case the state of mind is made fused with volition. shall have to refer constantly to these operations. the experience is of a very different sort it is called a. * Sounds are perceived through the auditory receptors. They are brought together in Table V. Mental transformation depends on the modification of nerve impulses. this type of : experience has no familiar name. Our motor senses tell us how we move and how our body is placed. is — Any definite state of mind or conthe sciousness called an experience. vi By we pick out the eyes. nose.

viiL . When we are very angry we have very intense organic sensations and very intense muscle sensations.. and the elements of which they are composed. They are not remember the experience present is directly due to present stimuli. conations. but you do not at this moment sej the table and cooked turkey and mince which gave you the original experience. — Classes of Experiences Dominating Component External Sensations External Ideas Systemic Sensations Motor Sensations Fundamental Perception Imagery Feeling Conation Secondary Ex'perienee Dominating Components Systemic and Motor Sensations Ideas and Systemic Sensations (Social) . of systemic sensations. Perceptions are composed chiefly of external sen- sations. an emotion is composed of sensations coming from both the systemic and motor senses. Memories are revivals of past sensations. The memory aroused by some sensory stimulus. of motor sensations. feelings. Systemic and Motor Sensations Memory is discussed in ch.. When you is scene at your last Thanksgiving dinner. For instance. the not a visual impression. are shown pie Table Ex'perienee VI. VI] VARIETIES OF EXPERIENCES 131 up largely of sensations from one of the three great groups of senses. mental and secondary experiences which occur in our mental life..CH. Ideas Emotion Sentiment Volition Thought and Language Ideals * Ideas and Motor Sensations and Motor Sensations Ideas. which is made up largely of memories and other ideas. The experience of anger is a The various fundacombination of these two elements. There is another fundamental kind of experi- ence called imagery.' Besides these four fundamental types there are several important secondary kinds of experiences which are composed of elements from two or more different sources.

Yet these subconscious processes may be essential factors in our responses. and so of other experiences. the razor- blade looks painfully sharp.132 CONSCIOUS LIFE [ch. Then all of a sudden. They a constant succession of motor impulses to the muscles of the arms and hands. in We shall take them up one by one in the next One thing should be constantly borne in mind when we examine our experiences our state of mind at any moment is rarely a pure experience of a single sort. When we look at the objects around us. Many nerve impulses do not reach the higher centers in the brain and do not give conscious experiences. Subconscious Experience. How you learn to make these adjustive movements need not be ring all start discussed here. without any apparent reason. our perceptions are always tinged with : memory or feeling. When you are riding a bicycle you are not aware of the static sensations from the semicircular canals. A perception is an experience whose prominent elements are external sensations. the solution of the problem flashes before us when we are thinking of ^ See ch. . After puzzling over it for a long time we drop it and go about some other business. these movements keep you balanced and prevent the machine from falling over. they are its dominant components. Our feelings are usually ac- companied by some external impressions. and so on. In every case certain prominent ingredients fix the character of the experience state. vi Table VI. xi. but these sensations of balance are occur- — the time in the center for the static sense. But every experience is composed largely of a certain type of sensation (or ideas) or else largely of two types. which produce slight movements of the handle-bar to right or left. few chapters. the paper-weight looks heavy.' The point is that you do out being conscious of the action. make them with- Sometimes we are confronted with a difficult mathematical problem which we cannot solve.

Often attitudes or processes are valuable first adjuncts to our conscious processes. Sometimes immediately after waking in the morning I can think of nothing but annoying blunders made by members of the family or others perhaps months ago. as in the given. This faultfinding attitude is due to subconscious systemic sensations — of indigestion. A clock strikes it. Instances of subconscious factors in mental multiplied indefinitely. — a perfect stranger — dislike to in some gatherexplain and at once take a of him. whose personFinally ality is distasteful to you. and we succeed so far as our personal consciousness traces may persist in the subconscious being. minds you strongly you realize that he resome one you know.CH. you believe this to be the reason for your choice. This is particularly true of unpleasant experiences or thoughts which we are ashamed of and wish to ignore. memory. . the interesting scenery That is. You meet a man ing. You return disappointed. and unwittingly control my thoughts. and suddenly become aware that you subconsciously expected to encounter a certain attractive damsel on the way. motor all subconscious proceed at times subconsciously. They crop out in But their framework of our imexpected and annoying ways. On waking. vi] SUBCONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE 133 something entirely different. You go out for a walk and take a certain path because of it offers. not to first anything in the external situation. is concerned. The problem seems to have been worked out subconsciously. life might be coordination these — Reasoning. the digestive conditions overweigh the objective facts. notice A when you are reading and you do not minute or two later you recall that it struck four times. till I realize the reason and see the absurdity of this attitude. emotion. example In other cases they interfere with the normal opera- tion of our mental life. We try to forget them. You cannot this dislike for a long time.

ries. without repression or guidance. a train of thought started. It has been used with good by physicians to enable patients to conquer unreasonand obsessions. We must be cautious. This method of bringing the subconscious into the foreground is called psychoanalysis. frequently you will bring into the field of consciousness some subconscious memories or tendencies of whose existence you were not aware. A certain contact of fur. There is danger of carrying our conclusions too far. beginning with the He is led through quite a succession of memo- and finally recalls an incident of early childhood. It is also a fact that when we discover the real origin of a baseless fear we can often over- come it. peatedly. who forces us to repress certain thoughts and desires. Under is to the expert handling.134 CONSCIOUS LIFE slips of [ch. idea of fur. As a matter of fact. for our mental depends largely on subconscious memory traces and on the attitudes which they have developed. in interpreting the results obtained by this method. man has an unconquerable repugnance He is unable to explain it. the tongue. disquiet- ing dreams. the subconscious part of our personality They convey is being * . however. — Attention ^ this subconscious phase of mental Sigmund Freud and investigation. long forgotten. vi sometimes they are betrayed by Psychoanalysis. Freudians speak as if there were a subconscious person (the censor ') inside us. of being attacked by a shaggy dog. as the followers of Freud have done re- Three great faults are found in the books which treat of subconscious (1) life from this standpoint: the idea that the subconscious part of our a very highly organized personality. has recently been called to life by the investigations of others who have followed his method of These observers find that if you let yom* thoughts proceed naturally. Psychoanalysis is based on sound life effect ing fears psychological principles. or inexplicable actions.

and the result is to magsignificance to the — nify their importance in our silent thinking. (3) Writers on the subconscious assign too much sexual hidden motives of action. the desire to meet a certain attractive girl is an entirely separate tendency. A number symbolism has been worked out which is as fantastic as that of the fortune-tellers. VI] is PSYCHOANALYSIS 135 It is rather not nearly so well organized as the conscious. A lady says to her physician.' Immediately it is assumed that she was is There — ' thinking subconsciously of his high charges. The fear of fur one such tendency. lot of independent. But there are life. Each of- these sub- conscious motives works independently. Civilized man has been taught to repress his sexual feelings. In interpreting dreams they say that the sim stands symboUcally for the dreamer's father.' danger also of forcing the interpretation. a woman dreamed of is symbolic of his mother or wife. The generative far processes undoubtedly play a large part in human life more than we usually recognize. not through a general ' subconscious self. partly organized attitudes ' a is and tenden' cies. The nutritive function dates back to the very dawn of life long before there were two sexes. We must be especially careful not to attach importance to the symbolic interpretation which psychoanalysts assign to dreams and trains of thought. (2) Some writers become so fascinated with the notion of subconsciousness that they use it to explain everything. They are usually far-fetched or fanciful. Had she said ' pig or ' pig bills ' the purely vocal nature of the blunder would have been obvious.CH. " Please do not give me big bills " meaning big pills. Avoidance of pain and the urge toward general activity are — . likely that the letter * b ' in ' big ' It is more was carried over to the next word and happened to pills ' make sense. other important factors in our subconscious is Nutrition a powerful motive. which enter separately into our life.

The method itself perfectly correct. These cautions are needed to-day because the method of psychoanalysis has recently received considerable attention and has been exaggerated and is distorted. tions are observed there analysis. Or two stimuli may differ so slightly that we do not consciously discriminate between them. In studying mental should not be prudish and ignore the sex factor. 51. say 150 and 153 grams. which are so faint that the limit of consciousness. result falls is A laboratory experiment illustrates this. The Jastrow [Fig.W6 we CONSCIOUS LIFE [ch. the interpreter declares she was subconsciously thinking of a certain man named Stephen. there below the threshold or no conscious impression at all. cylinders are hollow cylinders of hard rubber with removable ends. vi life also important motives of conduct.' One character dreams of a hen stepping about. Subliminal Experienc es: These are due to stimuli life. . they seem about the same weight. interpreting the results unscientifically.] In this experiment we take two of them and put weights inside so that one is slightly heavier than the other. experiences in mental — The term subconscious may be applied to several different sorts of events sciousness (1) These fall into two classes: Subliminal conand subordinate consciousness.^ is little If the above caudanger of misusing psycho- Varieties of Subconsciousness. * An amusing satire on the method is contained in one of the Provincetown Plays called 'Suppressed Desires. By its use we can often arrive at a knowledge of many factors in our subconscious life which without it remain hidden: motives become clear which are The danger lies merely in otherwise incomprehensible. which can be readily grasped and lifted. on the other hand we must not be carried away by the zeal of uniform interpretation so far as to attribute every subconscious motive to this one source. If you lift first one. then the other.

by lifting or o small t*° the subject wiU give decidedly ]>y pressure on the skin. But ^^°. sort of elements occur in the ' Somewhat the same attentively at margilook portions of our ordinary experiences. shot is pouted into each cylinder _.^^*"' ^^f ability to discriminate it is found that in the long run ^. the slight difiFerence between the two stimuli.. even though it is so small as not to be consciously noticed.^-. Similar experiments may are nearly equal.CH. In such cases the second stimulus is not necessarily very but the nerve impulses which it starts do not penetrate to the higher centers except in a faint degree.f differences in weight. When the ends are screwed on. vi] TYPES OF SUBCONSCIOUSNESS lift 137 Now let the subject close his eyes and let the experimenter give let is him one cyUnder after the other to him judge (or guess) which Repeat this and compare. If the subject were merely guessing. or with other pairs of slightly different stimuli.. Or again. even t-l. • till ences. conscious centers are marginal inattention. which * is equivalent to Consequently the resulting sensations in the higher. giving him the two cylinders now in large one order. the heavier. a number of times. In other words. the desired weight » I more than fifty per cent of right U obUined. faint. answers. the conversation and other noises about you are marginal. ^. half of his answers would J^sthow Cylinders be right and half wrong.-^'U U-^ may though he beUeve he is only guessing. now in the other.^-^ r^-^^-^^-^^ . It influences our judgments to the extent which the be made with pairs of lines that percentage indicates. They may not be quite subliminal. The results indicate the presence of subliminal ele- ments nal ' in our experiences. Their passage is hindered by fatigue of the synapses. if you are reading. When you any object the things at the far end of the visual field are hazy and almost unnoticed. yet they do not enter into the general picture as conscious factors.' . the cylinders look and feel alike. has a real effect on our experi- " .

In other cases the experience never gets to oiu* personal and we are inclined to doubt whether the effect is not purely physiological and unconscious. This view enables us to bring all experiences and all mental Ufe into one general notion. Did window consciously or not? such dissociated experiences as sub-conthey are of the same sort as our conscious experiences. Some morning when I am in my laboratory it begins to rain. ' In many physiological activity . It is helpful to regard even pure reflexes. This view is admissible. On returning to the house I find the it. — Hyper esthesia and Anesthesia. When we are in a high-strung nervous state we can hear faint sounds which ordinarily would not be detected. scious that is. as shown by the you recalled it afterwards. for Hard else as I try. they are experiences of our lower centers not of the cortically organized self. the sense of hearing is hyperesthetic' Visual hyperesthesia ' — occurs frequently.188 (2) CONSCIOUS LIFE [ch. such as winking.* * We may treat all '. A hypnotized person is able to distinguish between blank sheets of paper. but it limits the field of psychology unduly. This is called hyperesthesia. Stimuli sometimes have a more mtensive effect than usual. Its effects are inhibited at the lower The case of the clock striking without your noticing it illustrates this. which look alike to the orditext-books the reflexes and instincts are treated as purely and are not regarded as mental acts. as subconscious. * ' the house. the original experience did not form part of your personal field of consciousness. except that they are not part of our personal conscious life. I cannot recall closing it. sensory impulse does not connect up with our present personal experience at center. vi Subordinate Levels of Experience: Here the all. but it did belong to a fact that subordinate field of consciousness. window closed. I did close I close the no one has been in the room. I wonder whether I closed my bedroom window before leaving consciousness.

CH. is The thesia. We have practical demonstrations of this in the The limiting case of undersensitivity there is dentist's chair. opposite of this condition undersensitivity or hypes- It occurs especially in fatigue. In the same way the nerves may be temporarily impaired by it and at length may appear very faint indeed. a third of Z. When we the air is laden with perfume in the blossom season notice at less first the overpowering odor. it The numbness of the arm when we lie on in bed is not a sensa- tion but the absence of usual sensations. VI] DEGREES OF SENSITIVITY 139 nary eye. When we are more sensitive to touch or cold in some special locality of the skin than elsewhere. Tell him that one sheet is a photograph of X. and he will pick them out correctly after they have been shuflBed. Certain persons can distinguish odors much better than others. instances of temporary undersensitivity of the receptor. where no sensation whatever. general hyperesthesia. Cocaine appUed to the skin deadens the pain sense temporarily. another a picture of Y. Anesthesia may also be brought about by the action of certain drugs on the receptors. A high-strung person is apt to have hyperesthesia of all the senses that — is. is anesthesia. These are less noticeable. rectly. This abnormal discrimination is due to hyperesthesia: the hypnotic subject is unusually sensitive to differences of texture in the blank sheets. Both local and general hyperes- thesia may be induced by stimulants. which act upon the nerves di- eral anesthesia. gradually the odor becomes vivid In eating a sweet dessert we find that the sweet taste becomes gradually The same is true of other senses. anesthesia. . it is local tactile Narcotic drugs. This condition is local anesthesia. it is called local hyperesthesia. This occurs when a sensory nerve is cut or a receptor destroyed. fatigue of the synapses. They are hyperesthetic in the sense of smell as compared with the average man. produce general undersensitivity and sometimes genThere is general anesthesia in dreamless sleep.

vi Hyperesthesia. That is. If you hear the knocking plainly. your ear and auditory nerve must be in normal condition. Our degree of consciousness and the tone health. of our experiences general condition depend very largely on the and chemical changes of our body. normal sensitivity. If the If you are inattentive.140 CONSCIOUS LIFE [ch. the experience is marginal. If the sound is . The difference in sensitivity of the receptors is the basis of the series from anesthesia to hyperesthesia. you are conscious. You may be deaf or hard of hearing. the effect may be subliminal. your experience of the knocking depends not only on your This is the receptors but on the condition of your brain. so unhealthy chemical products in the tissues. undersensitivity. Suppose some one knocks on your door. and the conditions of the brain itself. Now Or you may be drowsy or asleep. impure unfa- vorable physiological conditions of the bodily organs and ful influences affect the tivities. These harmnervous system and impair its acthat the entire aspect of the world may appear changed. — The intensity and vividness of our experiences esses in the brain centers. or you may have an unusually keen ear or be keyed up. In order to hear the sound as the average person hears it. knocking is loud and you do not hear it at the time. suppose your sense of hearing is normal and the auditory impression reaches the center. The way you hear the sound depends on the condition of the ear and sensory nerves. Ordinarily you hear the sound and say " Come in. Illair. its effect is subconscious — it is an experience of your lower centers." But you may be busy reading and not notice the sound. Relation of Sensitivity to Consciousness. very faint. and anesthesia really form a continuous series containing all the various grades of sensitivity. depend on the nervous procThese brain processes are deter- mined by two separate factors: the activity of the receptors and sensory nerves. drugs. result in bad nourishment.

tion. These are called subconscious experiences. . Consciousness means that the man is alive to his surroundings. They are either (1) that is. In the two preceding chapters we examined Summary. and discrimina- As a result of this working over we have a number of different sorts of experience — perception. the process of receiving information (sensation) and the nature of the sensations in man. Still more important is the fact that the sensations do not remain detached and unrelated. or (2) subordinate. suggestion. attention. or entire absence of sensation. subliminal. In addition to our conscious or personal experiences there are certain brain effects of which we are not aware.CH. they occur on a lower brain level and not in the cortex. that is. the man in whose brain the nerve impulses are going on is conscious and has sensations and various experiences. marginal and subconsciousness. composition. Our conscious experiences are also subject to changes due to the condition of our receptors: hyperes- of vividness thesia means a high degree of consciousness. They are put together into The piecemeal sensations are worked definite experiences. undersensitivity (hypesthesia) means a faint degree of experience. too faint to be noticed. etc. That is. the limit being anesthesia. This method of studying mental facts is called self-observation or introspection. vi] SENSITIVITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS 141 basis of the difference between vivid consciousness. This chapter takes up consciousness. — the question: " What happens when " the sensory material reaches the brain centers? One important result is that we receive the information. With practice we can learn to observe our own experiences and note their characteristics. into shape by a number of mental processes: impression. — which will be discussed in the following chapters. revival. memory.

Describe any notable experience of anesthesia or hyperesthesia in your recent life. 32. (1) conscious. taking a customary walk) what factors seem to be . eating with table implements. diffusion of attention. . On subconsciousness: M. dressing. Describe some recent experience in which you have worked out a problem subconsciously or performed some rather complex act subconsciously. Describe the changes of attention from one group of impressions to the other. 29. and the marginal elements of the experience. Examine your experience in trying to read when an interesting conversation is going on in the room. Examine one of your well-formed habits (e. On psychoana^sis: S.g. Prince. (3) absolutely unconscious? References: On attention: W. Report your experiences in trying to listen to a lecture when you are very sleepy. The Unconscious. snatches of anesthesia. Psychopathology qf Everyday Life. Pillsbury. (2) subconscious. vi Practical Exercises: 28. Attention. 30.142 CONSCIOUS LIFE [ch. B. 81. Freud.. Note especially any fluctuations of attention.

the shape and markings of the perceived book are very similar to the shape and markings of the real book which lies beyond your eyes ' An 'external sensation' senses. If your eyesight is good. we feel what takes place within the body. In the center the separate impulses are brought together by the nervous process of collection. It is all right in perceiving a pain ' or oflfhand conversation to speak of perceiving the truth. is Perception tion of this the grouping together of various external sensations^ into a single. Each letter on the page stimulates your retina at some point and starts a nerve impulse along some of the optic nerve fibers toward your brain. and the complex impulse printed page. 58). This is slightly direct impressions from the external senses. Hundreds of these impulses reach the visual center at the same time and give separate sensations. united experience. the experience is a perception. narrower than the ordinary use of the term. it is important to call different sorts of experiences by different names: We 'perceive what is outside the body. . is The expression external sensation short for externally stimulated sensation. p.' is a sensation coming from one of the 'exteraal such as sight (see Table I.CHAPTER Vn PERCEPTION Perceptions are experiences due to Nature of Perception. Our perceptions correspond very closely to the objects which cause them. and we * * — believe the truth of propositions. which ensues arouses a complex experience of the whole The combining process is called perception. Your percep- book involves putting together a large number of sensations obtained through your eye and optic nerve.' But when we study mental states systematically. The stimulus is outside our body.

when we processes consider the chain involved — light The waves. we see hues where all. though the sensations taken by themselves would make the page look diamond-shaped. The exactness with which our experiences correspond to is reality evidence of the high precision of our receptors and nervous system. 52. 151. always perfect. missing lines are supplied in perception. Some In Fig. write out the message in pencil. retinal activity. that is. central collection. if we tilt a book at an angle (like the book shown in Fig. — fectly clearly the entire outline of the letters. We perceive the roughness of sandpaper or of a gravel walk. 52 we see perof these illusions are very striking. The reason why the comers look rectangular is that our perceptions include not merely sensations but memories of other books we have seen ip. It is really surprising that more mistakes do not occur in perception. You it off.144 PERCEPTION [cH. nerve impulses. The correspondence between perception and reality is not We often have illusions in perception. sensations which Often our perceptions are more like the real object than the compose the experience would lead us to expect. 56 ^ the four corners still appear as rectangles. vn and furnishes the visual stimuli. It is like transmitting a telegram. For instance. things do not always appear as they really are. there are no lines at The lack of complete harmony Fig. . This is true also of perception by touch. — Filled-in between the perception and the thing perceived is not remarkable of Perception Hold the book at a distance and the outline of the letters appears complete. and other operations. Our experiences resemble the situation in the world outside our body. the telegrapher clicks the receiving operator hears a succession of dots and dashes and typewrites the words in Roman letters.

going on inside our the tissues. vn] NATURE OF PERCEPTION in the past. 53 the rectangular cross-lines look tilted. and if Ordinarily we see nothing own body. in There are certain receptors. the oblique cross-lines look rectangular. So far as we can perceive. tilted and the errors Unes look rectangular. and since all books are square comers the resulting perThis ception takes that form. but which man cannot hear. you are nearat a distance FlO. The dog's perception of his master by smell is incomprehensible to the human nose. everything looks some- what are distorted. There are sounds in the world about us which perhaps an insect can perceive plainly. objects — IlXTTSION OF THE Crosses blurred. we inter- pret our sensations truly. We are Umited to material that our receptors can take in. You faulty. The perception But there are also errors in perception which one does not appreciate. 145 and handled These memory elements combine with the present sensations. 53. except for certain iUusions based on . sighted. If perception due to defects of the you are if astig- matic. It follows that our perceptions of the world about us are not exactly Uke the real world. made with tendency to interpret accordijog^ to ^ast experience is so strong that in Fig. are colored with ultrarviolet or infra-red these colors because the retina does not we cannot see receive such rays.CH. Certain objects light. we human body almost as readily as through a glass window. we generally perceive things in their real relations . but the X-ray of what is penetrates could see through a our eyes were sensitive to the X-ray. We do not perceive the earth's magnetic current directly at all. are quite aware in such cases that is your rectangular crosa-lines either look oblique or seem to swing into the paper .

so that you point to the heavier. and this difference starts a motor impulse in the proper channel. mean that A very small difference between two tions may lead to subconscious discrimination. — Discrimination of two we consciously perceive sensa- things does not always their difference.^ Our automatic balancing movements when we ride a bicycle are based on subconscious discrimination. We shall discuss them in the following order: Discrimmation Perception Perception Perception Perception a. and the central impulse tributed on the basis of this difference." or respond in some other discriminative way. attention. is dislift Suppose you two cylinders which are noticeably different in weight. p. " the first is heavier. T>^syriB]i"fltinn of surfaces of depth of objects of time and events | Wfiher*R Law. though they seem mere guesses. is PERCEPTION [ch. . (ch. Conscious discrimination occurs difference of quality or intensity when the nerve impulses reach the higher brain centers in the cortex. vi). You vi. and because ^ See ch. When we compare two lifted cylinders that are nearly equal in weight there is some discrimination. or say. vn The piecing together and interpretation of sensations due to the mental processes of composition. We perceive a between two sensations when the two sensory impulses are brought together in a perception center of the brain. The two sensations are different. It takes place ajter the nerve impulses have There are quite a number of different reached the brain centers. ways of working over the sensory material in perception. react discriminatively be- cause you have arranged to do so beforehand. as shown by the fact that considerably more than half our judgments are correct. etc.146 habit. 187.

since it determines the number of different impressions we are capable of order that experiencing. it must be increased by l/lOO of itself to appear brighter. starting with the two alike. This law of discrimination was first * The muscle sense belongs among the eternal senses in this respect. Considerable work has been done in the psychological laboratory on the perception of very small differences. we gradually vary the intensity of one till it is just observably different from the other. But whether you will point to the first or to the second cylinder is deter- mined by the difference between the two sensations and by the central process of discrimination. There is no special problem in distinguishing large differences: when a thick cloud passes over the sun. we notice the darkening effect at once. This can readily be done with any of the external senses. vn] WEBER'S LAW 147 the motor paths from the brain centers are prepared to send the impulses down to the motor organs. Or. we can compare the brightness of two lights. In the laboratory this is investigated by taking two stimuli of the same sort and varying the inten- one (the other remaining constant) till we no longer difference between the two. the heaviness of pressure or lifting. How much difference must there be between two things in we may be able to consciously distinguish them? This is an important problem in psychology. a hfted weight must be l/40 heavier in order to be noticeably heavier. . the intensity of sity of observe any tastes and odors.^ Experimental investigations show that the intensity of a stimulus must be increased by a certain proportion of itself in order to give a just observably different sensation. whatever the intensity of a light. the loudness of noises. pressure on the skin (without lifting) must be increased by l/20 to be distinguished. For example. it often happens that But if we are reading in the late afternoon we do not notice the growing dusk till suddenly the strain of reading brings us to a reaUzation that the light has greatly diminished.cm.

VII formulated by E. with daylight increased by sound. It is always the relative difference — The fraction of least observable difference is called the Weber Constant. Weber's Law may be stated in a simple form: Sensations increase in arithmetical progression as the stimuli increase in geometrical progression. Here the fraction of increase is 1/3. Compare it the difference of H it f »r 5a it in Su Sn brightness in a darkroom lighted first Ro. Sj. then with two. principle can easily be verified. so that and other fac- J " 11 S> Si a large number of experiments are needed to determine the fraction of increase But the fundamental exactly. while the difference between 4 lb. is imperceptible. Form of 1 oz. Just one candle.14d PERCEPTION [CH. is very noticeable. H. not the absoliUe difference — that we distinguish. 64. intensity of now compare daylight. is much flatter. and is called Weber's Law. dis- tracting stimuli. Corresponding values of stimuli are represented by pears very great. Weber's Law as applied to sound intensity is represented by the curve shown in Fig. and 4 oz. etc. 54. tors. For presThe differsure the Weber fraction is 1/20. Weber in 1834. The constant for various senses is shown . on the basis of his own experiments. the curve it is not noticeable. but it is much flatter: each step requires less increase in these senses than in hearing. When two stimuli are nearly alike our discrimination is often influenced S by inattention. In the darkroom observable increases of sensation are indicated by equal distances along the X comparison the difference apn axis at points Si. ence between 3 oz. the Weber fraction is 1/3. etc. S3. — Curve of Weber's Law tbe curve for with one candle. in the daylight the lines Si — R]. and 4 lb. Sj — Rj. For pressure and brightness the curve is of the same form.

05 to 0. and the things which touch our skin stimulate many different touch receptors. When the separate visual (or tactile) impressions from all parts of the object are combined together in the brain centers we get a perception of something spread out before us.05 0.25 Auditory (noise) " (tones) Olfactory Gustatory Tactile Warmth Cold Kinesthetic 0.P.33 0.25 0. stimulate a great number of rods and cones the retina. such as and auditory VII. not hold for least observable differences in qualities. 55]: . tones. Take.25 0. The question is. Perception of Surfaces.33 0.125 to 0. the other is depth per- Surface perception is much the simpler process.CH.D.01 0.033 0.20 0. VII ] in WEBER'S LAW Weber's 149 Table VII. is called surface perception.005 0.33i 0.036 0. Objects in which we see.15 0. for instance.013 Each fraction denotes the proporHon of the original stimulus which must be added order that the sensation may be just noticeably greater.25 to 0.10 to 0. former ception. Law holds to some extent for disIt does crimination of duration color hues and size as well as intensity. — The perception of space rela- One is perception of the size and shape of objects that we see or touch. The other The is the perception of distance of objects from our body. Table — Values of the Webeb Constant Individual range Sensation L.036 0. touch to perceive the various parts of relations to perception [Fig. IrUensity Visual (light) 0. This really involves three distinct problems.025 to 0. to it in b.015 to 0. how we come any object in the same one another that they really bear. tions includes two very different processes.

or the skin or eye moved over . (1) First as to discrimin^wxLJi^. Each rod and cone in the retina. 65. (2) The second question is how we come to perceive correctly the size of objects and their distance apart. This is due tosTighl diller^IlW!y Inthe receptors themselves. When objects move is over the body or stationary before the eye. We * one can think of them as the personal receptor touch ' which each gives to its stimuli. just as the timbre of each man's voice has its own that is individuality. indicate which •timulus moves over the skin. each touch corpuscle is in the skin. —Space Pehception IN Touch direction in Arrows what he is saying. vn (1) How do we distinguish two points A and B on the skin at all? Why do they not fuse. perceive their dis- tance apart. and appreciate direction? Sight and touch are the two chief sources of surface perception. indications of locality) which enable us to distinguish point from another.djfferent points. slightly different from every slight other and gives slightly differ- ent sensations. like sounds? (2) How do we p)erceive that a given point A on the skin is farther distant from C than from B? are in different directions from A? (3) How do we perceive that C and X How The same do we three questions come up in visual perception: distinguish different points.) (See dis- Two fac- tors assist us in getting our clue (i) to surface distances. These differences are local signs (that is. cussion in text.150 PERCEPTION [cH. which enables us to recognize is who it talking regardless of FiQ..

. never in random C. 56) stimulates the rods and cones of the retina in some regular order. ABC. When the eye moves counter-clockwise (in direction of lower arrow). or else some other We never get the sensations in a series A W X Y Z L. such as A B C D. If the move- . sight. 55] are stimulated in succession. AKBL The eye moves regularly. the letter P in Fig. order.CH. jumbly order. C.) show paths of light random. Direction gf Eye movemerit Fig.. vii] objects. K L [Fig. series ABCKorABCD occurs over and over B and C are and this enables us to appreciate that nearer A than are any of the points which are stimulated sense aids greatly in building afterwards. SURFACE PERCEPTION On the skin the points 151 any given point on the object stimulates a number of receptors in regular order. (ii) The muscle size. D. the movement quick. This means that any given point on on the skin or the retina. Dotted lines — Visual Space Pebception first waves from a point P on the book-cover toward the eye. up our j)er- ception of When we move If the hand or the eye is we get muscle sensations. the muscle sensations are more intense. which is situated far from the starting-point A. spreading out. the picture of P on the retina moves clockwise (left-hand arrow) from A to B. (See discussion in text. but only after a number of other points have been stimulated. 56. The same is true in any given point (say. the unusual muscular exertion informs us that the starting and stopping points are farther distant than the mere time would indicate. then brought together by the lens and focused at A on the retina. K D The same again. is not stimulated by a given object immediately after A.

to the touch we get these clues in addition and visual sensations. 55 the points C and X are equally distant from A. we perceive the direction according to the proportion of sensation from each muscle. information regarding the direction of lines and their curvature. is a line or the size of : an due to these two factors (i) the orderly suc- on the skin or retina. so that the muscle sensations when we move from A to C are different from the muscle sensations which accompany a movement from A to X. (2) and parts of objects signs by means of heal apart by means of the We perceive orderly succession of local and by the varying intensity of the accompanying muscle sensations. of the length of distance Om* perception object. hand. They give us information . In sight this factor is even more evident. (3) Finally the question arises. the muscle sensations are faint and the perceived to be small. then. movements For diagonal movements one horizontal and one vertical muscle come into play. when we turn them toward the right it is one of cession of points ing local signs. When we turn the eyes upward the superior muscles do most of the contracting. vii ment very slow. surface perception includes three independent (1) mental acts: their distance We distinguish between different points signs. the horizontal muscles of each eye. how we come to appreciate Muscle sensations furnish the chief difference in direction. But the hand moves differently in the two cases. (3) We appreciate differences of direction by means of the different muscle sensations which accompany movements of the eye. In Fig. When we look at things or touch them. with their distinguishand (ii) the intensity of the muscle sensations which accompany the movements of our limbs or eyes. which is an important element in surface perception. or other members. and this difference of sensation enables us to distinguish the direction of the two readily. To sum up. in the The muscle sensations two cases are different.15« PERCEPTION is is fcH.

CH. some distance off. we get them as readily when one eye is closed. distance straight away from the eye toward the signs. just is due to the combination of local signs and muscle sensations with the sensations of sight. and smell a rose. but the rose remains out there on the stalk. and two binocular as surface perception factors. In such cases we pei> ceive the object " where it is " the rose does not seem to be see When we — in contact with our eyes or inside our nostrils. spective distance of objects from the eye. vn] SURFACE PERCEPTION 153 which enables us to perceive objects as spread out in space before us. There are six uniocular. How is it that we see the rose projected out at a distance from the eye. but the objects themselves do not. although our sensations are due to stimuli on the retina? Perception of depth (that horizon) is. for the stimuli not due to local from all distances in the same line from the eye strike the same point on the retina and bear the same local sign. and flattens when . Other clues are due to the two eyes working together. stimuli from the rose aflFect our visual and olfactory receptors. What factors in the sensation enable us to project our visual perceptions in this way? Depth perception in sight is due to a combination of certain non-visual information with the visual sensations. ' — that We are able to distinguish very accurately the We see a statue in per' is. c. — The dis- tant senses give us information about things that are more or less distant from the body. Some of the clues for perceiving depth accompany the visual sensations from each eye separately. The stimuli come in contact with the receptors. The same is true of hearing and smell. Sight is far more developed in its space relations than the is other senses. the perception rounds out toward us in curves like the real statue. (1) bulges out Accommodation Sensations: The lens of the eye when we look at objects close by. Visual Depth (Projection and Perspective).

There is also a near-by limit. right. For perception of greater distances other factors are needed. These accommodation sensations are an important clue for perception of depth or distance away from the eye. These mistakes of perception are called illusions. if their outlines are sfiarp and their marked off. vn we Muscle sensations accompany these changes of the accommodation muscle. the nose casts ^ Stand close to some one. at hia side. but leading information. etc. Distinctness is an objects at a distance are not so distinct as those near by. the mouth is in shadow. we cannot squeeze the lens suflSciently to get a clear picture of nearer objects. . (3) Shading When : light strikes the human face from the a shadow on the left cheek. Shading is a clue to the different distance of This factor various parts of an object from the observer. Within these limits the changes of accommodation sensations furnish clues which enable us to perceive rather exactly the depth of objects. Accommodation sensations assist us only in determining a limited range of depth distances. they appear farther off as the and details grow more vague. the sensations vary with the amount of muscular contraction.' [ch. normally about 10 cm. (4 inches). and observe the changes as he looks near by and far away. On a misty day objects look larger and farther away than they really are. Objects seem close to us details are clearly outlines important clue for depth perception. When we focus the eye for a given distance we get a certain muscle sensation which tells us how far off we are focusing. In Colorado mountains thirty or forty miles away seem only a halfhour walk. (2) Distinctness: Owing to the dust in the atmosphere. it often gives mis- We misinterpret distances when the atmosphere is unusually clear or unusually dense.154 PERCEPTION look at distant objects. The lens of the normal human eye is completely relaxed when we focus for about 6 to 10 meters (20 to 33 feet).

The illusion is irresistible if the curtain is seen through a glass window. called superlooks farther away than the tree. the house This effect. So powerful is its influence that we tend to interpret the flat surface of a painting Some objects in the picor photograph in terms of depth. The illusion of perspective in photographs and paintings depends largely on this factor. (5) Size and Shape of Familiar Objects: Many of the and objects around us are of a standard Grown-up human beings size. is of great use in perceiving the relative distance of different objects from us. When we see a man. Superposition : If two objects lie in the same straight the nearer one will hide part of the farther one. the glass makes the imperfections of the painted gives the finest of objects in perspective curtain less apparent.near by. when we see a book lying before us whose cover has two acute and two obtuse angles we project one of the acute comers farther . A miniature house on the stage is perceived as a full-sized house in the distance. It enables us to see and in relief. if large he looks. When we a house broken by a tree.' with only sUght variations. Houses considerably in of size. we appreciate the distance a house by means of This factor this factor. And so of any familiar thing. but the windows and the height of the stories are fairly uniform. though we know perfectly well that it is really painted on a stage curtain. vii] DEPTH AND PROJECTION all 155 depth distinctions. may give rise to illusions. the size of the impression on our retina is a clue to familiar creatures ' his distance. its The shape of a familiar object also gives us a clue to position. see the outline of position. ture stand out and others recede back from the canvas or In the theater. (4) line. If it the retinal picture is is small the man looks differ far away. ground at least two or three miles away. Book covers are usually rectangular. we perceive a cottage in the backpaper.CH. vary in height only a few inches from the average.

When N movements. as shown in the upper figure. vii away from us than the (6) pictures the perspective effect Relative Motion: When In paintings and enhanced by this factor. as in ordinary - N f Fig. 57. both eyes turn in toward the nose (converge more). ments in convergence are different Since the eye movefrom ordinary eye move- . — Convergence of the Eyes the eyes are fixed on a distant point F both pupils are shgbtly converged toward the nose. move the head to right and left the same thing happens. objects near at hand pass by much more If we are standing still and rapidly than distant objects. as shown in the lower figure. When we look first at an object off some distance direction.] is [ch. For one-eyed persons this is the most important factor in of giving perspective to the landscape. we look out of the window a moving train. 57. [Fig.] turns slightly inward (toward the nose). 56.156 PERCEPTION other. In either case we get a clue of the distance of various objects from their relative rate of motion across the field of vision. or else both turn — they converge. (7) point is Convergence: Focusing the two eyes upon a single called convergence. inward Either one eye remains fixed and the other [Fig. When we look from F to a point near by in the same direction. the eyes and then at a nearer object in the same do not turn both together.

but we see only a single picture. (8) Binocular Differences: If you hold a piece of cardboard between the two eyes with one edge toward you. your two visual fields are different. 58. several inches pictures. so that the object stands out in relief. They give us a clue as to the distance from us of the point upon which the eyes are converged. By means of prism lenses the two pictures are brought together in the middle of the field of vision. One is seen by the right eye and the other by the left. These two different pictures do not clash as one would think. beyond this there is practically no change in the angle of convergence. but its value is limited to distances of not more than one hundred feet. vii] merits. left In the holder of the from the eyes. but not quite. If you hold a ball near the eyes. is placed a card with The pictures are neariy alike. only one (binocular differ- . stereoscope. The combination of binocular pictures may be studied by ' means two the of the stereoscope. Any rounded object which is near your body presents a slightly different picture to the two eyes. This factor supplements the various uniocular indications described above. just as we would see a similar scene with t^ two cy^jx^^ [ow xnS^Clues dre useoT Of tlie various sorts of clues — that enable us to see at a distance.] is way a solid object or scene would look were some distance off the right is the scene as it would appear to the right eye.' It looks rounded out and solid. Examine a pair of stereoscopic photographs without the picture the to the left eye if it — instrument and notice how different some of the details are. the DEPTH AND PROJECTION accompanying muscle sensations are 157 different. [Fig. the right eye sees a little farther around it to the right than the left eye. Yet when the two are combined in a stereoscope they give one distinct picture.CH. the left eye sees only one side of the cardboard while the right eye sees the other. they combine into a single definite perception.

The size Fig. right eye looks through B at right-hand picture. would be wrong to say that we see things flat and . a stereoscope. a card with pair of stereoscopic pictures. It The first scene is projected. C bring the two pictures together into a single view in the middle of tlie visual field. Looking at the card through the stereoscope we see a single picture of a pyramid. 58. E = rod for sliding the holder to and from the eyes. and some are not even sensations. Some of the clues are muscle sensations that occur at the same time as the visual sensations and combine with them. Left eye looks through A at left-hand picture of card G in card -holder F.158 ence) PERCEPTION [cH. The memory and muscle-sense clues are combined with the visual sensations derived from the objects and the total effect is a perception of things at a distance. — they are memories of past sensations. — Stereoscope Above. the experience involves previous ceptions of books in clues many tilted positions. Below. Prisms C. When we a memory of many former perceptions perceive a tilted book as having per->- right-angled corners. (The two pictures in the^upper card G also combine into a solid-looking picture. vn is really a visual sensation. D = handle to hold stereoscope.) of familiar objects is of these objects.

those from the outer half do not. fibers At the optic chiasm 27 ^] the from the inner (nasal) half of each retina cross to the opposite side of the brain. of fusion. Our projection of visual experiences means only that we project most of these visual pictures beyond the visual 'picture of our oum body. Projection in Other Senses. by the course of the optic nerve. The projective process is it is not an inference. vii] DEPTH AND PROJECTION 159 then correct this impression.' CH. factors would not occur in instantaneous exposures. immediate We perceive the size and depth of things at once. is soimd oflf also puzzling to understand how we see objects " when the perception process actually takes place in the brain. A projected out quality is added to the various sensations that enter into our experience of distant objects. these P. Depth perception and projection occur to a considerable extent in smell and hearing. and not two. Odors are perceived not in our nostrils but in the rose or experience ' at a distance " is * ' — ^ Accommodation and convergence require time. so that two similar stimuli from corresponding points in the two retinas arrive at neighboring points in the visual center fibers from the of the brain. This much can be said about it: Projection is one of many ways in which the raw material of worked over and transformed. The left half of each retina go to the left side from the right half go to the right side. Just how is these pairs of cor- responding central points are connected not known. identical It is a case It and is similar to the fusion of impressions from the two ears. This is proved by experitilt and ments with instantaneous or very short exposures.' It is difficult to understand how we come to have one single perception. which forms part of our visual world. just as a spread-out quality is added to the experience of visual surface. ^ . This is partly explained [Fig. 66. when each of the eyes has a retinal — picture of the entire field. those of the brain at the same time.

and measure the distance jection of sounds is we see The proIf assisted by training. there is only slight projection. often at a considerable The actual distance of odorous objects or sounds If is not perceived so precisely as in sight. cold. When we write with a pen we feel the point of the pen touchWhen we cut with scissors the touch sensation is projected to the place where the cutting occurs. and in using a cane we feel the tip of the cane where it touches the pavement. Ordinarily our eyes are open and there visual projection also.' All this indicates that we have a general tendency in pei^ sensa- ception to project a sensation as far out from the body toward the source as the data warrant. when we dig with a spade strikes we feel the impact of the spade underground when it a stone. Cold is similarly pro- when we hold our hand near a cake is of ice. In touch. touch) furnish a few If independent indications of depth and projection. which is well developed for surface perception. outside the jected we hold our hands near a hot stove we locate the sensation of warmth body toward the stove. Sounds are localized outside the head.160 PERCEPTION is [ch. Even our systemic means to 'have a tions are projected from the brain centers to their source in ^ In these illustrations the word 'feel' perception. Projection in touch usually occurs when a rigid object con- nects the source of stimulation with our touch receptors. we walk we feel the soles of our shoes pressing on the ground. The cutaneous senses (warmth. we localize them far or near by. Certain sounds off are ordinarily limited to a certain range of intensity.* . the real source of the stimulus. they are softer or louder than usual. of sight we possess the sense we usually project odors into the objects that of the source visually. But even with closed eyes some temperature projection takes place. When ing the paper. Most singular of all. vii other outside object which distance.

enter into the perception more clearly and comprising certain a elements that are especially clear. Perception of Objects. It is we do But if you close your eyes and examine objects by touch. while others are indistinct or quite unnoticed. you can appreciate the blind man's kind of perception somewhat better. mean nothing to him. some of the resulting sensations vividly than others. the other hand. except that they do not discriminate nearly so finely. muscle sensations of effort are often projected into objects. we Blind persons perceive lines and surdo. To hidden and does not enter into the perception except through memory images or touch. how anyone remote objects all at once. And so of objects generally. — When a whole group ' of stimuli affect our receptors at once. other parts of the percep- Usually there is * focus of attention tion are fairly vivid. not. can get perceptions of near and Accommodation. once — the back as blind But (1) they perceive all sides of a solid at well as the front. a blind person has no idea On To the blind. and (2) they do not perceive objects in perspective. vn] DEPTH AND PROJECTION 161 the receptors within the body. by putting his every part of the us. A side man perceives the shape of a ball his perception includes hands around is it. because our space perception is so largely visual. which takes time. d. the farther spherical surface with equal vividness. ordi- not easy for us to picture what this means. convergence. shading. The space faces just as perception of the blind is quite different from that of normal men. perception is largely an exploring process. so that usually we perceive only half the ball at a time. This unevenness in the perception is partly due to .CH. when you handle a book or a ball you get as clear an impression of the far side as of the side nearest you. so that we are apt to endow inanimate things (such as the wind) with muscular power and strength. the blind perceive them narily all around at the same time.

A bright-colored pattern stands out prominent. We see. In looking at an orange we get an impression of its taste and heaviness. and taste the orange.' All our perceptions of objects in adult are tinged . vii differences in the intensity of the stimuli. When we look at a human face we do not observe each individual feature distinctly. while the dimmer background is scarcely observed at all. to the focusare due to attention and inattention ing of certain nerve impulses and inhibition of others at the brain centers. There are also differences of vividness in our perceptions which do not depend on the intensity of stimulation. heft. tables. one single perception — a perception This is object The various sensations combine into of the orange with its many characteristics. Usually the eyes. The pressions from other senses. number of objects each one of tions. and mouth are most prominent. etc. where sensations are combined into percep- — The focusing process enables us to perceive objects The human face is seen as a face. and the taste receptors. the muscles. smell. the skin. an aluminium dish life ' looks light. visual perception of objects is strengthened by imUsually objects about us stimuAn orange may affect the eyes. In looking about the room you perceive a chairs.' not as a mass of separate features. Even when some of the characteristic sensations are lackwe supply them through memory elements. perception in its most developed form. the ears and chin and the arrangement of hair are noticed somewhat. as units. the nostrils. nose. A loud sound usually occupies the focus of attention. at the same time. These differences that is. while the curves and shading of the cheeks may escape notice altogether. all touch (or ' palp '). ing An iron crowbar * looks heavy '. late several senses at once. with its individual fea- more or less merged in the total perception. * — — which tures is focused as a distinct thing. books. while very faint sounds which accompany it pass unnoticed.162 PERCEPTION [ch.

«P. The way in which habit influences our perception of things brought out if we look at the landscape with the head upside down. not the total number of details noticed at one time (which may be are indefinitely great). * his object perception is incomplete: the muscular sensation of resistance is absent. The horizon seems much farther off the sky coloring is . almost impossible to decipher unless This is because words are always written in a left-to-right direction — never from right to left. the patient does not feel the resistance of objects that he lifts cases the patient declares that the things he sees real. The script in Fig. In a wrong-side printing of a photograph the right-and-left reversal of buildings or animals does not look strange because we are accustomed to see buildings and animals turned either way. they look very strange.] A special problem in connection with object perception is the number of objects that can be perceived distinctly at once. . It is increased by voluntary In perceiving Fig.' Nothing seems to have weight. but the number of vivid groups which This is called the span of Experimental investigations indicate that the span off as separate objects. [Fig. (especially handwriting) are reversed. 52 (p. In certain abnormal mental conditions the muscle sensations are cut off. marked attention.^ due to many past experi- The practical importance of the non-visual elements in perception is greater than we are apt to realize. 163 with such ences.CH. In such do not look The whole world about him seems an illusion. But if printed letters near the horizon is more vivid. The reversal of white ception — and black also plays havoc with per- it makes a famiUar face quite unrecognizable. depends upon several ^ factors. We only appreciate this when some of these elements are missing. vii] OBJECT PERCEPTION memory elements. 144) certain visual memories are added. 59. because or pushes. 76 it ^ is you look at in a mirror. 290.

see it. Then look away quickly to a white surface.164 attention ditions PERCEPTION [cH. and there should be no difficulty in recognizing the portrait [From The Farm Joumd. tallies with our sensation of muscular pull. Our consists of Fix the white dot in the center steadily for 60 seconds. The of the and warmth the steak This? we are in — Who is localized field chewing are all mouth. 59. you look at your hand through a reversing lens you feel the fingers in a different place from where you see them. vn and diminished by fatigue. strikingly This If is brought out rela- when the normal tionship of the senses is disturbed. oldest recorded contribution to experimental psycholAristotle noted is The that if ogy. the object is appears double. In using a microscope you push the slide in one direction to move the visual field in the opposite direction. Aristotle's experiment. touch. illustrates this. The may — ~^^^' #!^B ^9Bp^ f^^m m^'^ I^^m QM^ U^^B ^^^m ^^ y^^^f Pig. not of separate spaces for sight.] of perception only one space. the middle fingers are crossed and a stick or marble placed between them This (the eyes being closed). space" relations of our several senses coincide. Under ordinary confrom six to eight objects are clearly distinguished simultaneously. a negative after-sensation will appear. to Objects and Space. Our integration of the clues from various senses into a * ' perception of one general space is the result of habit. One . and other sensations. touch. This can readily be verified. We we feel (palp) our hand in the same place as that in which taste. far sides of these because in ordinary experience the two fingers lie some distance apart and are never touched by the same object. The number be increased with practice about fifteen. When we become accustomed to using the microscope the direction of the slide's motion as we see it.

The perceptual present. as 1 it is called. In other words. tended to remain in relations was confused and vacillating. successive perceptions dovetail together. like the picture on a camera plate. e. There is usually a certain period during which the old perception is fading away and the new perception is beginning.' .CH. which had not been its seen during the experiment. The now of perception is not the same as the physicist's its localization — old — * ' idea of * the present. and body in the same place and in the same relations as their visual pictures.' may cover as much as It is also called the 'specious preseot. Perception of Time and Events. Most stimuli persist for some time.' It is not a thin knife-edge separating the past from the future. vii] DEPTH AND PROJECTION near-sight glasses has 1«5 touching who wears he first no diflSculty in objects in the exact place where he sees them. Stratton wore a large reversing lens continuously for seven days. but a fair-sized period of time. the lintel of a door was where the threshold ought to be. feet. removing the apparatus only at night. though when wore glasses everything appeared slightly displaced. Seen through this lens the whole field of vision was turned completely around. is proved by Stratton's experiment. we perceive at one and the same instant both the incoming and the outgoing events. When you are looking at an object and it moves or disappears or changes. and the sensations which they produce persist too. his feet were above his head. That we can learn to combine properly our various space perceptions even under most exceptional conditions. At the end of the week he found that the space relations were almost completely reintegrated to meet the new conditions. when his eyes were kept bandaged. the nerve impulses in the brain centers do not immediately cease or alter all at once. Only the position of the head. With respect to touch and muscle sense his left hand was seen at the right side. He reached for things where he saw them and manipulated implements properly. He felt his hands.

it. We do not have to make an effort sound successions to get the effect. each consisting usually of 3 or 4 successive tones. PERCEPTION This is [ch. fall of a leaf. Many activities of inanimate nature are per- ceived as events rather than as a succession of situations.166 six seconds. though every one of the instantaneous poses looks unreal and ridiculous.' In the sense of hearing. the flapping and the waving of a tree in the wind are perceived as happenings. These successive sensations are all embraced in one perceptual moment. or the effect Rhythm there is occurs in poetry as well as in music. the absurd positions are not noticed. We weave a rhythm pattern into the ticking of a clock and into the clicks of the wheels on a moving train. successive sounds tend to combine A tune is composed of a series of groups. When you see a man running you get a series of visual sensations of his various positions. This grouping of sounds by accentuation is called rhythm. it what makes possible for to perceive changes mon actions. A musical time is perceived as an event. Your perception of walking is an integration of the whole series. just as visual acts . and some look absurd. it is diflBcult not to get it. some way the accented tone may be : louder than the others. You have a very definite visual perception of the act as an event. vn All impressions within this period of time may be you and events as well as stationary objects. The pictures of a man jumping or of a horse galloping show this even more strikingly. No one of them is specially characteristic. Even when to perceive nothing in the stimuli to cause in we tend a rhythmic way. the of a * sail. particularly in music. Examine the instantaneous photographs of a man walking. One tone in each group is accentuated in into definite groups. The same is true of other compresent to you at once. the lashing of surf on the beach. may be due to an accompanying pattern (dum-da-da-dum-da-da) in the bass. and they combine into a perception of running. or it may be slightly prolonged.

Perception depends largely on habit. — Our perception of the quahties and It tallies life. and the rest from any given — — object into one and the same set of space relations. The fact that the visual receptors are located in place. than would be expected from a study of the objects is remarkably exact. The army bugle calls.CH. that a human being would see things in one place. the taste bulbs in one a third. like the familiar visual objects of every-day Illusions. if he had no senses of his own. it is certainly not remarkable that our perceptions are sometimes inexact that they do not always show us the true relations of objects in the environment. The fact that sepxarate nerve paths lead from each rod and cone in the eye and from each touch corpuscle in the skin to the brain. and so on. reveille. would confirm this supposition. and other calls acquire individuality. might lead one to suppose. A perception which does not correspond to the actual situar tion in the environment is called an illusion. and that the various sense centers are some distance apart in the cortex. — senses. and the development of tune-perception may be observed in the When you first hear them.After a time the tattoo. an ' untrue ' perception arises. taps. auditory. We tend to group our sensations into relations just like those of the objects which arouse them. of the grouping. hear them in another. one call seems scarcely different from another. indeed. We perceive it as one objecL Considering the intricacy of the perception process and the factors involved. relations of very closely with the qualities and relations of the objects themselves far more closely. and when our number of — present sensations conflict with some firmly established habit of recei\nng experiences. the auditory receptors in another. The rhythmic pattern is the basis tone differences complete the effect. . vuj TIME PERCEPTION 167 are perceived as events. Yet the opposite is true. and we project all our various sensations visual. they appear as mere tone-successions.

When we look down from a tall building the people below seem very small. ground. and this counterbalances the factor of known and size. The bits of memory and imagination that enter first into our perceptions are often powerful factors in producing illusions. color on a background of the other. Such mistakes occur Fig. Mistakes in printing are due to this principle. because the convergence sensations are like those that we ordinarily get in looking at distant objects. 60 is a whimsical case of double interpretation. Then it changes about. Fig. relative This is because ordinarily we get the motion of objects only when we move. of The by printer's perception words in the copy is influenced his memory pictures. even where they are actually missing.? Does the picture represent a rabbit or a Often this. If we look at a train. it is not to get the impression that we ourselves are rushing forward. read systematic instead of systemic^ sensations? You imagined you saw the more familiar word.168 PERCEPTION illusions that [ch. reversible perspective.sort of illusion results in. Another class of illusions occur in pictures that can be perceived in two different ways. these have already been described. because the superposition of nearer objects to which we are accustomed their large is lacking. duck. . cloth patterns in This double interpretation Take the common oilAt times you see a figure of one two colors. The objects seen in the stereoscope appear distant. printed books. vii The occur in connection with space per- ception are especially interesting to psychologists. or accidental errors in composition are overlooked proof-reader. It is by the most carefully 52 is another variety of the same illusion. How many readers on looking over chapter v of this book. the second color becomes the pattern and the first is the backoften occurs in geometrical patterns. Some of which we notice constantly in motion picture taken from the front of a moving diflScult There are many others daily life. in the almost impossible not to see the outlines of the letter COME.

' CH. We are more accustomed to see the upper surface of stairs than . At Reversible — The Reversible Staircase Cube midpoint nearer you. 63] is not so easy to shift. — The Fig. With practice one can make the cube shift back and forth Fia. after Harper's. first this By at will. The cube in Fig. in the other six. 63. — The Illusory Cubes see either the lower or the upper How many cubes do you — 6 or 7? [From Jastrow. — Double Interpretation duck? Is this a rabbit or a [From Jastrow. 61. 62. 61 you can perceive the black faces either as under surfaces or as upper surfaces of the cubes. in one case see seven cubes. focusing on the upper jagged line (and pulling it toward you) the staircase turns over and looks like cellar stairs seen from underneath. 60. vn] ILLUSIONS you 169 In Fig. 62 app>ears Pig.] central point looks nearer. The staircase [Fig. or the upper? Is the lower looks like an ordinary flight of stairs.] readily in two positions — FiQ.

vn If we lived in cellars the reversal would their under side. be easier. which may be greater or less than the distances they are supposed to cover. In the Hering illusion [Fig. Certain illusions are due to eye Tnovements that are not The muscle properly taken into account JjQ perception. By recalling how cellar stairs look from underneath we are greatly aided in reversing the perspective. 65. but most observers report that the upper-side eJBFect lasts much longer than the other. — Hebino Illusion They are paralleL The horizontal lines appear to bend apart in the middle. 64] the distance from the point to the middle point looks considerably longer than that from the middle to the right. left In the Miiller-Lyer illusion [Fig. ingly. sensations report to us the actual their tendencies to movement).^^\\^^:^ Fig. and our perceptions overestimate or underestimate the distances accord- '-^^^:$:$^\IIM^^^>:>^ jn^^^^^^^ :::<. even after practice. The two distances are equal. Muller-Lyeb Illusion The <> movements of the eyes (or distance between apex of left and apex of central figure appears longer than that between central and right. the two distances are really equal.170 PERCEPTION [cH. 65] the two hori- .

as the case may be. (The eyes may not make the actual movements.] When we travel look at the Miiller-Lyer figure. The horizontal lines appear to be slightly tilted the upper one slanting next slanting up. The other illusions depend on similar muscle-sense factors. and then to a point inside the third.' though they are really parallel. left distance appear longer. but there is always a tendency to the move- ment and this is accompanied by muscle sensations. Perception works this sensation material into shape. 66. with greater muscle sensations. focusing . etc. 66 and 67. which determine our appreciation of the distance. inside the first angle to a corresponding point inside the This makes the second.CH. Relation of the Brain to Perception. Perception is a higher mental process than sensation. the eye does not from apex to apex as we suppose. [Figs. They are all parallel. but from some point Fig. vn] ' ILLUSIONS 171 zontal lines look bow-legged. Sensation is merely — the reception in the brain centers of nerve impulses from the sense organs. — Zollner Illusion — ^ down to the right. so that the horizontal Unes seem to tilt upward or downward.) In the Zollner figure the cross-lines divert the eye slightly from the hori- zontal path. because the eye travels farther. It includes composition of sensations. The Zollner and Poggendorff patterns are illusions of the same sort.

such as the impression of a cold. This material is put together and modified by tivities. the optic nerve connect together in the visual The upper appears which occur simultaneously tend to unite into a single experience.17£ PERCEPTION memory elements. vn dis- (attention to parts). Sensory neurons which he near together in the brain and readily Fig. reinforced by muscle sensations and memory elements. The sight of a red disk. The natural grouping of impressions due to inherited nervous pathways is supplemented by the retention of past . fibers For instance. central nervous ac- so that the perception cor- responds more nearly to the general situation in the outer world than the separate stimuli do. heavy. or the sound of a complex chord. The way in which the elementary sensations combine into perceptions depends largely upon the inherited structure of our central nervous system. — Poggendorff Illusion cross-line connect with a single higher pathway. Perceptions which bring various senses together. revival of crimination. to be the continuation of the line starting at B. [cH. involve the use of association fibers which gather the sensory material from several primary centers into a higher center. so that all visual sensations results in perception of objects. tend to furnish group impressions. The same is true of auditory impressions and other types. glittering cake of ice. and The elements which make up our perceptual experiences are chiefly sensations from the external senses. this simple grouping of sensations probably takes place in the primary centers. 67. It is really the con- centers. belongs to the simplest type of perception. This tinuation of A.

We see a house as a single object. The front path is the means of reaching the house. the door is for entering the house. Our percepand common events involves something more than present sensations. ' tance of meaning is The imporbrought out strikingly in our experiThe countryman tries to pull it. vn] efiPects SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BRAIN 173 and previous connections in the brain. Training of Perception. with sUght variations. proceeds in crimination. Perception enables us to grasp objects and Common experiences are soon consolidated in this way. The more frequently we observe the same object or occurrence. then. ences with unfamiliar objects. Each of these perceptions is associated with events as a whole. The upon the presence highest development of perception. the steps are for climbing. (2) The second direction in which perception develops is in giving emphasis to certain features at the expense of others. or twist the door-bell button instead of pushing He does meaning. . the fuller and richer does our perception of familiar objects tion of it become. due to memory. — The development perception two opposite directions — composition and of dis(1) and the retention of such effects. depends (1) of a mass of inherited association fibers connecting the various sensory centers in the brain. face when we see it in full front. It is something to live in. The artist perceives at a glance some techits not perceive nical blunder in a painting which most of us never notice. includes a vague impression of his profile and the back of his head. some idea ideas of possible action on our part. and (2) upon the formation of definite nerve connections and paths by means of these fibers. These associated make up ' the meaning of the perception. The absence of these memory elements interferes with perception. it includes the memory Our perception of a friend's of similar past experiences. as in the case of reversed hand- writing. We pick out this or that detail which relates to our own general experience.CH.

under ordinary conditions. The Montessori system of primary education has been especially successful here. The child should be taught to discriminate fields. Some of us are naturally slovenly . when they interests. even without special training. and to build up object-perceptions in these The special accomplish this without boring the child — to problem train is to him through play activities which keep his interest aroused. compare a child's performances on the form-board [Fig. vii The ornithologist sees the nest in a high fork of a tree. every one in later Systematic training of perception would benefit almost life. the adult and you will find that he makes the very same errors that the child makes with eyes open. you will find that the child takes Blindfold much longer to fit the pieces into the right holes. muscle sense. 68] cially in the with that of a grown person. We on our own and to pick out details which have special signifius. hearing. This is the underlying principle of all kindergarten methods. The expert proof-reader's eye sometimes catches an error on the printed page before he has read a single word. and takes as long a time.174 PERCEPTION [ch. If you it needs less cultivation than any of the other senses. and other senses. cance for The guide in the wilderness sees trail signs which the ordinary traveler cannot detect even are pointed out to him. The need for training is The child at the rather in lines outside our own outset needs to be trained espe- phases of perception which do not develop readily Sight is the dominant sense. This means that the average man's touch perception has not been properly trained. The touch perception of the adult remains immature. An important task in primary education should be to train perception in touch. while his visual perception has developed far beyond the child's. As our field of experience enlarges. our perceptions develop in both these directions learn naturally to see the things which bear interests.

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e. or writing. ing of this sort would be useful to most persons. Observe the motions of your hand when seen only in a mirror. the [ch. time.g. compare these 85. It the things about us direction. Test the 'staircase illusion*. If PERCEPTION we realize this fault. A noted conjuror how he and his brother made a Train- practice of running past a show window. Close each eye separately and observe the different effects. note the eye movement. Perceptions are composed of a great number objects of external sensations. and then trying to It fosters describe as many as possible of the things displayed. in shaving. Make it a point to note the color of every one's eyes for a while. report the nature of your difficulties. . — and too great minuteness But most tells is impossible to observe every detail in of observaof us err in the other a waste of attention. in changing from one perspective to the other. hair-brushing. this is not important. Study a pair of stereoscopic pictures with and without the instrument. vn an very realization is Perhaps we do not notice the color of people's eyes. Examine how far your depth perception depends upon each of the eight factors mentioned in the text. Report the stereoscopic experience and its relation to the two separate pictiu:«s. 87.. and whether you can 'feel' your hand where you see it. etc. — kinds of experiences. and certain striking illusions. put together so as to show us and events in the world around us. use of volition. any other tion is detail. this gives rise to Phactical Exercises: 33..' tant process in perception projection). but it is often useful for identification. to get the spatial relations of things to one another (surface) and to our * Perceptions are usually true to but we sometimes misinterpret the evidence. 86. is The most imporbody (depth or life.176 observers. And so of incentive to train ourselves in careful observation. with the effect when both eyes are open. once the habit is formed it will be kept up automatically. 34. habits of more precise observation and better retention. In this chapter we begin the study of diflFerent Summary. Place several upright rods at various distances from your eyes.

19. M. E. W. Stratton. Write down what objects you perceived. J. Principles of Psychology. On On Stratton's experiment: G. ch. Analysis of the Sensations.CH. 4. in Psychological Review. References: On space perception and illusions: W.463-481. E. 20. 1897. chs. Mach. Glance for one second at a shop window as you walk by. Optical Illusions of Reversible Perspective. vn] SUMMARY 177 88. Sanford. C.341-360. 7. . Course in Experimental Psychology. James. Wallin. illusions: E. Repeat for several shops and note the number of perceptions obtained for each.

you imagine things that never happened to you before. A memory reproduces more or less exactly some former experience. — Human experiences consist largely of percepn tions of the things around us and reproductions of these perOur perceptions may be reproduced in the form of There are taro. As children my chums and I imagined a weird. ideas.CHAPTER Vin MEMORY AND IMAGINATION Imagery. ziii). fantastic vehicle called a Gobblestraw. But imagination images are not composed of new material: every part of the experience is the reproduction of some earher sensation. the originality consists merely in working new way. . in which we fancied ourselves riding. memories are also imaginations. Mankind is capable of several kinds of imagery: Memory images Imagination images Anticipation images Composite images General images Memory and are' imagination occur the most frequently and very important in human life. especially among civilized peoples. instead of what we have already perceived. We may remember something we have already imagined. Images stages in the growth of ideas: imagery and thought. You remember what actually happened to you. ceptions. To-day I can remwnber these bits together in a Some of our ^ Thought is a higher type and will be treated later (ch. while an imagination is unlike any previous perception.^ appear earlier in evolution than thoughts and bear a closer resemblance to the original perceptions. when the external objects are absent.

in psycholused in a broader way. At times we have experiences of this sort. from the very nature of the it is a perception of something outside our body. or merely a mental reproduction. we cannot see or hear things unless the objects are experience. The chief distinction between images and perceptions. is a differgiice in intensity. ence An jmage is n ot necessarily a visual experience it may belongto any of the senses or to several. because the vehicle never existed. but they do not count for much. or compare your memory of how your room looks with the actual perception. the experiis a memory image of an imagination image.CH. We remember tunes and odors. So it comes about that systemic and muscular memories and images do not often develop into important experiences. When you imagine yourself getting angry you assume a certain bodily attitude which arouses actual sensations of anger. when we compare them as actual experiences. so that we do not need to imagine or remember them. We usually know at fainter. whether . The feeble intensity of the image in each case is striking. Memories are like far as qualities are concerned — but the original perceptions so they are ordinarily Compare your memory of a thunder-clap with the real thing. much once and without question. If you remember making a certain movement your muscles tend to contract slightly and you get muscle sensations instead of muscular memories. This is because we can usually arouse systemic and motor sensations. to include reproduced sensory experiences^of-iaigyj/ eoi4 is jisually — image it is . Images of systemic and motor sensations may occur as well as images of external things. vni] this IMAGERY 179 imaginary coach as well as any real carriage. In popular language the word ogy applied to something visualized. External stimuli cannot be so easily controlled as our own bodily processes and muscular movements. We can imagine hearing a friend say things which he never actually said.

a fork and small plate to the a knife. in which there are deep traces left by your breakfast prunes. or at (1) to traces left in least every actual recollection. a napkin in front. You picture is other definite details of the meal. (2) to some new nerve impulse which enters the region where these traces have been left. No such stimuli strike your eyes or mouth at the present moment. opment — of the dining-room with the table spread for the meal.j 180 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION of imagery.^ The popular notion of meniOTy^is that the image itself is stored away in the mind or brain. The two essential iactors-in memory (and in imagination as well) are retention and revival. ally breakfasting. but they are not perceptions. experience this morning. you go out of the room. The nerve impulse which brought up this word in your center for hearing finds a path open into another center in your brain. Objects in the world about you continue to exist even when you do not perceive them. and . so that . What causes the memory experience? It is started by the question that was asked you. Every memory. and a tumbler to the right. and causes activity of the same sort as before. and when you return you see the table again. At each seat left. handle. it is merely attributing to memory what actually occurs in perception. though one can readily see how the notion arose. Because of these traces the nerve when it passes into that center. you at once get a mental picture there to stimulate our senses. takes a form similar to that during the previous experience. including the taste of the and the uncomfortable warmth of the coffee-pot All these items are part of your present experience. due the brain substance by past experiences. This is not true. You see the breakfast table. vra This lack is met by the develwhich supplements our perceptions. If some one asks you what you had for breakfast this morning. [ch. when you were actuyou have memory images like the is perceptions which occurred at breakfast time. Nature of Memory. spoons. impulse. You heard the word breakfast.

recall that Often you have seen this person before without any clear idea of where or when it happened. just like objects. In the case of the breakfast memory. (1) retention and (2) revival. memory image Hoes not What is not a 'picture of the object or event. remains within the brain Besides factors in familiarity. where the traces are not at all like the words or music which they represent. j )ut only the traces in the nerve substance. and These belong to memory alone. town (spatial and is projected back to this morning (temporal The recollection of cated in a certain certain year. It is analogous to a phonograph record. but a record. viii] it is NATURE OF MEMORY 181 there all the time. New Jersey my first trousers is definitely lovillage and in May or June of a is The projection of memories neither so definite nor so instantaneous as the projection of perceptions. Location means that a memory is always given a more or less definite setting in time and space. Men naturally assumed that mental images continue to exist when we are not observing them. The truth of the matter is that the TCrsist. nor is it like the original sensation. The memory image is not produced by a needle or anything like a needle.CH. and distinguish it from imagination and other sorts of imagery. This lasting record does not resemble the object. In projecting a memory image we fill in the intervening space and time between ourselves here now and the original occurrence ' * ' you there then by means of clues. just as we use clues in depth perception. but are capable of bringing about a repetition of the words or music under proper treatment. The truth is that the present nerve impulse is shaped by the traces into the same form as the previous nerve impulse. there are two other (4) memory: (3) location in time and space. your image is projected out from this room into the dining-room of a certain building in this setting) setting). but memory projection is not so vivid nor so * ' — — ' . Like all analogies this is not quite exact.

months. time location of memory is also determined by The a num- ber of clues. the window. and years. These are verbal associa- If we recall coloring may a town with picturesquely colored houses. When you look back at a certain convereation with your best friend the time and space projection may be uncertain it may have two or more possible locations.189 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION tall tree [cm. the at once locate the scene in Italy. I can easily fix the time by the calendar date. If I recall the conference of psychologists when America entered the World War. 1917. Often we have a succession of memories connected together. and accompanying details. verbal associations. Central Park is well convincing as perceptual projection. the prior localization enables him at once to project the event into that place. itself may include some name which identifies The word 'home' and the name Woolworth ' Building ' are clues that enable us at once to project certain occmrences into definite locations. its Among civilized races verbal associations are usually the most important indication. The memory the localization. They occur in a certain order and the series appears in a tim^ . because you have already built up a set of memories in which your childhood experiences are located in this place. vm When you look out of you see is unmistakably just across the street. He has assimilated it to a lot of memory images. such as prior location. sea-weedy odors will place the scene on the sea coast. The memory of salt. tions. The calendar. with system of days. the — known to the New Yorker. When you recall some incident of childhood you locate the experience in your home town. locate the Any such accompanying detail may serve to memory image in space. assists us to project a memory back to the proper time. April 6. If the houses have curved roofs we project the memory to Japan or China. So when he recalls some event in a Central Park setting. The space location of memories is determined by several clues.

though it seems much more Windsor Hotel in recent. the principal addresses. This feeHng can be readily observed in any memory a lecture you heard last week. Even where there is no chain of memories. vin] perspective tions. My memory of a visit to the jumps back at once to a time before that hotel burned down. the We way — the discussion recall the progress of a Presidential campaign in nomina- tions. When if a nerve impulse enters the brain centers it encounters less resistance if it there are definite traces in these path. memory of a conversation with some one who has died. centers than has to make a new is This ease of feeling of passage through the synapses familiarity. and finally the election.CH. an incident of your childhood. the memory of his piping voice or his knickerbockers fixes the incident in boyhood days. New York A sense of familiarity is the mark that distinguishes memory from other kinds of imagery. this NATURE OF MEMORY which is 183 not unlike the space perspective of percepn of possible candidates. It is due to the traces retained in the brain clearly ' most ' of realness — — substance. the change of Your conditions in the worid is frequently a decisive clue. feelings of familiarity associated with our perceptions: they occxu" when the same thing is seen or heard On returning to a town after an absence the . In picturing the breakfast incident there is a feeling that it reaUy happened that the situation actually existed in the physical world and is not imaginary. The natural sequence of these events enables us to arrange the memories in perspective. The feeling of familiarity may be explained in terms of nerve activity. a street scene some time ago. what gives us the There are also repeatedly. is projected back to a time earlier than the date of his death. There is a sense about a memory which is lacking in a mere thought or imagination. When you recall some childish question of an old friend.

not study these nervous conditions in the brain directly. This study has led to the formulation of certain fundamental principles which are called the laws of associaiion. because the most impor- . — Memory images are aroused by nerve impulses passing into some brain center and taking the form which have been left in that center. Certain tunes are familiar because stranger one we due to the traces of similar past experiences which unite The perception process is with the present impression. fatigue. recognize our friends because we are familiar with their features. recall definitely any incident connected with them. In all such cases the feeling of familiarity is we have heard them over and over may Recollection. Recognition depends on ease In recognizing persons we may not q[_nsrw2is^cgndiiction. We can notice what sorts of memories are aroused by various sorts of perceptions and other memories. Even a look familiar to us because he resembles some know. rather than some other of the traces is that part of the city? The real explanation is that the nerve impulse which arouses the recollection passes into one center rather than another because the resistance is less in that direction. and other nervous conditions. we remember or recall the past experience. again. the familiarity feeling in perception is merely a vague memory element added to the sensations which make up the perception.184 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION We [ch. vra place looks familiar. Why was that particular scene recalled. easier because of these traces. but we can observe their results by examining our own experiences. why we recall one incident rather than another. and the degree of resistance is determined by the amount of We canretention. The result we have an experience resembling a former perception. A little while ago some one spoke of Paris. The question remains. and I immediately remembered standing on the corner of the Rue de la Paix last summer looking at the Vendome Column.

Contrast. because the Column was part of — my former experiences of Paris. or is in striking contrast with it. A giant does not suggest a dwarf unless we have seen a giant and a dwarf together. Contiguity and similarity are not independent principles: they work together. The stranger resembles your friend. Similarity and Contiguity. any color may suggest any other through general similarity because they are all colors. When you hear the name of Abraham Lincoln and think of the Emancipation Proclamation it is because the two ideas have been closely connected together before. yoiu" memory picture includes some features in which he is unlike the stranger. or was formerly near it in time or space. that is Similarity. Since Aristotle's time it has become evident that contrast is not a real principle of association.CH. The two remaining principles. then. These are recalled by contiguity. Black does not suggest white much more readily than it does blue. When you see a stranger and are reminded of some one you know. and this is a case of contiguity. have been confirmed as fundamental laws of association. the human sciences. and thoughts are aroused either (1) through their resemblance to what we are perceiving or thinking about at the time. a perception or idea calls and Conup an idea of something which either resembles it. to say. The thought of Paris led me immediately to remember the Vendome Column. it is because the stranger looks like your friend or acts like him similarity. or (2) through having been previously — a part of some similar experience or closely connected with it. to regard the . but when you recall your friend. Aristotle. It is more exact. Memories. vm] RECOLLECTION is 185 tant thing in recollection gestion. successive association or sug- The earliest discovery of the laws of association was one of the father of the accomplishments of psychology. took up the problem nearly 2300 years ago and concluded that association proceeds : according to three principles tiguity. imaginations.

Law of Similarity and Contiguity: An experience tends it to recall another experience which resembles in part. and recency. The law may be explained in terms of nerve activity: Repetition improves the synaptic connections between neurons.186 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION [ch. which are called quantitative laws of association. We have still outset are this — why not answered fully the question raised at the this particular memory or thought is aroused rather than one of a dozen others. It must be supplemented by certain other principles. the dissimilar elements being such as were closely connected with that other experience in space and time. vin law of similarity and contiguity as a single principle. that particular one tends was more intense or vivid when it occurred originally as a perception or thought. We recall the name or looks of a friend much than we recall more readily a stranger. (2) Law of Original Vividness: Among alternative ideas. of which might be recalled. The same law holds for verbal to recall far more readily phrases we have memorized than those we have heard only a few times. and this facilitates thereafter the passage of nerve impulses along memory. though usually one of the two factors is more prominent than the other. more or less like the stranger — why do you of Many persons you know recall just one of your friends? connected with Lincoln. to be suggested which any one . You have heard many things do you recall the Proclamation? The law of similarity and contiguity does not explain the facts completely. (1) Why Law of Frequency: An experience which has been repeated many times tends to be recalled as a memory or thought more readily than an experience which has occurred in the past only once or a few times. vividvess. we tend the same path. There are three important quantitative laws which determine the selection of ideas: frequency.

and recency often con- A vivid experience which occurred many years ago may recent experience of lesser be recalled more readily than a vividness. fail often they are drummed into us. The factors of frequency. vividness. Frequent repetition experience. you suddenly find you are unable to recollect his name. may strengthen a remote On the other hand an experience which has which lacks vividness may not never been attended to be recalled even though it has been repeated many times. In the case of proper names there is often a vain struggle to slightest idea . The explanation is that an intense nerve impulse tends to leave a deeper trace in the neurons through which it passes. We all know how hard it is to remember a set of instructions on a subject which is entirely outside our interests. You make a dinner engagement two days ahead: when the time comes you forget it. rences dating back a year or ten years. no matter — — how — Why do we to remember certain things — especially proper names — though we try our best to Forgetting. recall them? Often when you start to speak about some one whom you know perfectly well. Connections in the central nervous system tend to become resistant through disuse.CH. and now you have not the where you put it. viii] RECOLLECTION 187 tend to recall more readily an important or thrilling we did not attend to. vivid thoughts and clean-cut phrases are most apt to be recalled. (3) We Law of Recency: A recent experience is more apt to be an experience which occurred some time ago. recalled than We recall many more events of the past week than occurThis is because a nervous path which has recently been used is more passable than paths which have not been used for a long period of time. You cannot recall whether you locked the door or turned off the light downstairs. and this makes these neurons more fit to receive future experience than one which impulses. You put a paper away very carefully for future use. more flict.

recognizing at once that it is not the it lacks the feeling of familiarity. and reject each in turn. The attempt to recall a man's name by picturing how he looks is generally futile. whom I have seen more recently. (2) Faintness: If an experience was not originally attended to. unless the original impression was vivid. In a city we pass many people daily on the street. and perhaps strike the right word as a matter of chance. I cannot lar to the The of my Latin professor. I meet an old acquaintance after several years and am at a loss for his name. or is not recent. I can not because the name sounds like only think of Lamson recall the name name of Dr. If we dismiss the subject completely it often happens that the desired name suddenly jumps up in consciousness it may be in a minute or within an hour. We think of several names one after the other.188 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION [ch. — looks like Lamson. Dr. if we chance to pass one of them a second time we fail to recognize him unless there is something striking about his appearance that is. You forget where the paper was laid away. vin remember. Sometimes we go down the alphabet systematically. it is You do not remember whether you have difficult to recall it. This accounts for most cases of inability to recall names. right one. But the following principles have been noticed they apply not merely to names but — * ' — : to memory (1) lapses of all sorts. Patton has come up first and holds the field. is present. simione we are trying to recall. Conflicting Associations: If another thought. you did not pay attention to it. Packard. locked the door because the action was quite automatic. it tends to fix the attention and exclude the desired thought. preventing the other association. trying out each letter in turn. because the occurrence took place some time ago. or perhaps only after several days. or has not been repeated. Lamson but because the man — . The subject of forgetfulness has not been studied so thoroughly as memory and recollection.

and less and less thereafter. the recollection tends to be inhibited. The getting influence of frequency may be studied experimentally and recency on the rate of forby committing to Meaningless memory syllables several series of nonsense syllables. If you repeat several nonsense series the same number of times and try to recall one after one day. Instances are cited of events in early life which are recalled after an interval of many years. you can determine how much you forget as time goes on. take two different nonsense series. another after two days. In two cases recently reported. do not differ in vividness like words. This is shown in Fig. you find that very much more of the former is retained. whether any experience is really forgottraces in the brain substance persist indefinitely. men of ninety repeated orations which It is often asked ten — whether all . VIII ] FORGETTING 189 This law of faintness is simply the negative side of our three laws of recall. In this way of. The curves (which represent the amount retained) drop decidedly at first. In other words. so that one If you series makes the same impression on you as another.CH. or if some wear away completely in the course of time. really not a repression The process is but a weakening or inhibition of associations. the amount of loss is greatest at first. 69. (3) Inhibition: If an experience is painful or is accompanied by some unpleasant emotion. and so on. If you have done something you are ashamed every time you recall it you dismiss it from thought by passing as quickly as possible to something else. till at last the association may * Some writers describe this as a be entirely inhibrepression of un' pleasant ideas into the subconscious field. and there is less additional loss as time goes on. the tendency to recall this particular thing is continually weakened ited. and repeat one a great many times and the other only two or three times.

69. [After Starch. A and B memorized nonsense syllables. who was accustomed to walk up and down reading aloud in these Ianrecollection was not the revival James cites the case of — . It was found that during her childhood she lived in the family of an old clergyman. who during a fever uttered sentences languages with which she in Latin. and Hebrew was wholly unfamiliar. — Cubve of Forgetting the results of experiments on learning and forgetting by three different investigators.190 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION [ch. viii they had learned in boyhood and had apparently not recalled In both these cases the lines were originally meanwhile. fixed in memory by repetition (and interest). so that the Fig. The curves show time intervak. C used The curves show the percentage recalled after various series of jumbled letters. Greek.] of an isolated experience. a very young woman who could neither read nor write.

The memory for faces is a good example of this. one of the brain centers is destroyed by disease or accident. — The practical value of a memory Can you means is too obvious to need discussion. Near-sighted and astigmatic persons do not see faces clearly. Or it may be that the traces wear away. (2) the learning process. the distinguishing marks. vra] FORGETTING 191 guages. (3) verbal association. Too little is known at safe to say that far present about the nature of memory traces to answer the question definitely. One of the good most is: frequent questions put to the psychologist by outsiders help me to improve my memory? A good memory it. Training the Memory.CH. The one has been accustomed from childhood to perceive faces accurately. they cannot recall them because they have never registered cally. Another sort is the memory and incidents. tially Perception: Certain sorts of memory depend essenon accurate perception. Whether any memory is utterly lost is uncertain. It may be that in the normal brain every trace persists indefinitely. Passages repeated by the woman were found in books from his Ubrary. The carefully. Contrast the man who recognizes at a glance a person whom he has not seen for years. the traces and with them the possibility of certain recollections.' It is more is retained than we ever actually recall. with the man who is always in doubt as to the identity of the people he meets. recollection takes place automati- other has never trained himself to observe faces Often the deficiency is due to defective eyesight. or are gradually effaced by other traces. ability to recall what we want when we want This depends on several different factors: (1) (1) perception. and the obvious way to improve them is to train our perceptions. . Such persons for scenes may recognize a man instantly by the tone of his voice. often wish to describe scenes or events to friends ^ — some- We If in that center are gone. The impressions had been retained many years without either repetition or original vividness.

The names of common objects are learned early in life. testimony depends on accurate perception. his hands behind recall reading a newspaper. We meet the same difficulty in learning a foreign language unless the words are similar to our own. distrust yoiu" (3) many slips own ability you feel sure you are avoided which would occur if you here. (2) Leabning Process: Memorizing poetry and speeches so that we can repeat them accurately depends on the learnxi). The French word jromage is difficult to associate with cheese. the retention traces in the brain centers. but of repeating the words over and over so as to strengthen ing process (ch. The normal man finds no difficulty here. It is not a matter of accurate perception. the inherited nervous system of they readily retain long series of some persons is such that impressions and reproduce inherited capacity them in the right order.192 times MEMORY AND IMAGINATION we are asked to testify about [ch. Henry Brown may have light hair or black hair the association of the word brown with the man Brown is arbitrary. The discrepancies between the testimony of witnesses is often due to the disturbances of perception shots wrought by the excitement of the moment. it is no reflection on their sincerity or mental ability. that to say. If to repeat a speech. It is the memory for proper names that troubles him. But our may be Self- strengthened by training and impaired by disuse. importance to which of two In thrilhng moments accurate perception is diflScult. Accurate his back. told of a The witness who man " pacing to and fro. — . Nevertheless a careful training of perception will prevent many errors. The ability to is memorize quickly is largely a matter of inheritance. through constant repetition the word table becomes an integral part of our perception and thought of a table." must have observed rather carelessly. vm them in court. confidence is an important factor will succeed. It may be of life-and-death was fired first. ability to recall Verbal Association: The names depends largely on verbal associations.

" How far to insist on such knowledge is a serious problem. it follows much the same principles. g=4. The act of associating words with perceptions images) is different In old age it is the first to deteriorate. r. r=9. d = 2. g. There are certain facts that " every educated man ought to know.CH. ^ See ch. then the number 1492 is represented by b. Teachers are inclined to attach undue importance to this kind of memory. Encyand it seems useless to burden the child's memory unnecessarily. but it is a more specialized process. Let b=l. He should of course be taught the addition and multiplication tables. d. Statistical data belong in the same class. the population of Chicago. and other fundamental statistical matters. the rate at which sound travels through the of air. (or with mental from ordinary association. We invent the phrase. witness the struggles of elderly persons to recall the names of their best friends and even of their own children. are arbitrary associations numbers with events or objects. " Columbus made a big raid on America. bet (consonants). Much of our scientific knowledge is of this sort. xiiL . The date of the discovery of America. viii] TRAINING THE MEMORY involves 19S Language imageiyT'' is_a hi gher mentaLprocess than The understanding of words perception and brain centers at a higher nervous level than the perception centers. and a catch-phrase Many persons find such a system useful. weights and measures. and thus remember the date. others find they get on quite as well without it. clopedias and reference books are generally available." memory. Certain devices have been invented to assist this sort of The figures are associated with letters of the alphais made up which brings together the number and the fact. Verbal memory may be improved to some extent by training. But in the higher education it seems more important to teach the student where to look for information than to take up his time in memorizing arbitrary number associar tions.

The scenes in a novel or history. This image is a combination of two unless it happens to be the memory separate perceptions of some picture or statue we have seen. as we mentally picture them. but are unlike anything the inventor has actually perceived. to be no sharp distinction in early lif#" . The plans of an inventor in the earlier stages are imagination images. The practical working of imagination will be better understood if we study its manifestations in children. An imaginaiion image or fancy is Imagination (Fancy). and construct scenes which may be quite different from anything we have ever witnessed. which combines the head and arms of a man with the body and legs of a horse. he sees inani- mate things acting tinctly as like living creatures — as dis- though the experiences were actually remembered. in fact. We piece together bits from familiar experiences There — — suggested by the narrative. On the other hand it does not follow that every fancy represents some reality or possible reality. image composed of elements from two or more separate an experiences. before it has been overlaid with higher processes of thought and molded into definite lines ally imaginative. An imagination image is novel in just the same finished product is way that an invention is novel. The new. The elements composing the image much transformed from the original. There seems. If we think that Columbus made a bad raid. vm danger of course that the phrase may be twisted. not the case. are imagination images. but not the materials. Some This often is of our fancies are so fantastic that we are apt to regard them as absolutely different from our perceptions. they are pictures based on real experiences. but they are are always derived from former sensations of some sort. by our interests in life. The child is naturof He pictures the fairies and monsters all this his story books vividly. A typical example is our mental picture of a centaur. He hears animals talk.194 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION is * [ch.' the discovery of America would be shifted to 1292.

scientific. individual. These facts indicate that in early childhood imagination is as fundamental as memory. such as pictorial. . As the child's mind develops. viii] NATURE OF IMAGINATION 195 between memory and imagination. creative. The outer world becomes to him more and more an independent reality. based on the special Esthetic. his memories represent that real world. of the and social or ethical imagination are broad general types. In this way various types of life interests imagination arise. the distinction between memory and imagination grows more definite. and his fancies do not. while imagination is the revival of separate traces which are grouped together into new experiences. so that the revival is not accompanied by a strong familiarity feeling. This is probably because memory traces are not yet deeply fixed. As we pass out j)f^ childhood the imagination tends to become more restricted. and graphic imagination. musical. artistic creation. another pro- poses to reorganize society.CH. Both depend on retention and revival. in In one person it tends toward another toward invention. The distinction is fostered socially by the punishment or disapproval which follows when the child tells as fact what really belongs to the realm of imagination. one man seeks to explain the mysteries of nature. Memory is revival of definite groups of retention — traces. Many of the child's lies have no ethical significance whatsoever. The child tells of imaginary adventures with the same sense of reality that he feels in describing real occurrences. Memory images are recognized as such by the accompanying familiarity feeling and by their setting in space and time. though their psychological significance may be most important. under them we find many subordinate types. as indicating the nature of his mental processes. It appears that imagination is really not distinguished from memory in early childhood. Instead of being free and desultory it falls into certain definite grooves.

Both voluntary and involuntary acts may be preceded by anticipation images. vin Other Kinds of Imagery. My mental picture of a ball game scheduled for this afternoon leads me to walk down to the field. more than imagination in bringing about suitable responses. and this after all is the vital point in mental life. life. Image experiences seem to have arisen in the first place as a method of reaching into the future. case. he has probably a faint anticipation of getting his master appears in hunting costume would seem to have a rather vivid anticipation of what is going to happen.' A fancy may suddenly blossom into ' an anticipation — when the painter starts to paint or the inventor begins to build his machine. The dog who jumps about when It is a more perfect than an imagination. because it is intimately conis nected with our active efficient Anticipation. Anticipation images are similar to fancies except for their prospective reference. which is different in each of substantially the same experience. it. The effect of this repetition is to weaken the general setting. an anticipation image withers into mere fancy distinct sort of image. A composite image ^ is built up through frequent repetitions cries for milk. Second. not as a means of bringWhen a baby ing back the past or of picturing novelties. — Besides memory and fancy Anticipations are there are several other sorts of images. The nerve impulses concerned in this image are part of the set of operations in the nervous system which start the appropriate movements. images which pictm'e our future actions and lead to some appropriate activity on our part. the anticipation image arose earlier in animal evolution and appears earlier in the human child than fancy. but it reproduction of past experiences is less definite than a memory. when our plans fail. . or purpose. The image represents 1 some object we have actually Also called a free imoffe. There are two reasons for emphasizing anticipation as a First.196 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION [ch.

In other words. It arises from the perception of a number of objects which are partly similar and partly unlike. while the characteristics common to all horses are emphasized. The composite image of your friend's face usually includes both profile and full front views. derived from our experiences of other horses. is not stocky nor sHm. but tion in time it shows the object without any definite locaand space and with no fixed surroundings or background. The prominent elements in the general image are those details in which all — . long-tailed and bobtail. though based upon some particular animal. Our general image of horse in adult life is probably based it may be an old bay mare on memories of a certain horse we knew in childhood. In the same way the child forms a general image of a horse and of various other sorts of creatures and objects. Attached to this memory are a variety of different characteristics. the details in which men differ appear only indistinctly in the margin of the conscious field. These points of difference between horses are only faintly pictured in the general image. no special trim of the tail. vin] OTHER KINDS OF IMAGERY 197 perceived.CH. and make up the focus of the image. but with certain differences. many of the features and outlines are vague. A general image is due to the fusion of many similar images into a single experience. and the composite image of a house may include both inside and out. he begins to form a mental image which embraces their common These common points are vivid. is the same. feeling of familiarity. our general image of the horse. stocky and sUm. it has no distinctive color. accompanying and usually adds something to the image itself. When the child has seen a number of men whose general repetition strengthens the The appearance features. such as gray and black. which we never perceive or recall in the same picture. You often picture the face of a friend or a famiHar tune without special reference to time or place or circumstances. the image is a composite effect of many past experiences.

Two : different sorts of errors occur in connection with imagery Illusions of illusions of memory. Thought is a higher type of experience than the general image.198 horses agree. We often make Memory and Hallucinations. and memory ' are due to our misinterpreting some factor in the experience. the older background tends to fade into the distance. we met in New and I imagine it occurred when York. mistakes in interpreting our image experiences. the surround- ings are not definitely recalled. only a few details it is easy to place. tures. The most common illusion is based If the memory of an event includes refer it to the wrong time or I recall a conversation with a friend. The inaccuracies of court testimony are often to be explained in this way. to have been merely a is Usually this sort of illusion due to the mingling of imagination elements in a memory picture. The opposite is true when we move to a new town and quickly grow familiar with our surroundings. We soon get the feeling that we have lived there a long time. Your description correct except that the . in perception. * on the location factor. I remembered taking the letter but I imagined the post-box part. just as we Illusions of — make mistakes hallucinaiions. assure I remember ' distinctly posting a certain letter. almost always a word or symbol of some sort attaches to it. It often happens that the memory of a certain event remains unusually vivid. so that we place it much too near the present time. actually the discussion took place at another meeting elsewhere. xiii). MEMORY AND IMAGINATION [ch. and my wife I did so. You describe a is man in a brown suit and a derby hat. viii crea- and which distinguish horses from other In adult Hfe the general image rarely occurs in a pure form. and it becomes a thought (ch. Another illusion consists in mistaking an imagination for a memory. When the letter turns up later in my memory proves ' overcoat pocket the vivid imagination.

An illusion is the wrong interpretation of certain factors or eleme^nts in the experience. we class it as a memory or fancy. But they are not infallible tests. is the experience ception. — . it is a perrunning far weaker than real is ' Another factor which enables us to distinguish perceptions from fancies is that perceptions are independent of our control. and consequently the experience you know through your head music. and prevent hallucinations. for the time being they appear to be perceptions. If we can call up or alter a certain experience at will. These two factors. generally cooperate. intensity and controllability. and felt certain he witnessed them? only to discover that they occurred some time before he was born. Such illusions are often due to the fact that you first imagine certain details and then remember your imagination. An hallucination is the confusion of images or thoughts with perceptions. Some perceptions are faint and some fancies are vivid. One distinguishing mark is Most mental images are far less intense than any perception. since we have no external sensations to compare them with. They are memories indeed. too intense to be due to anything but an just as certainly that the tune ' external stimulus. They come and go according to their own sweet will not as we wish. but memories of narratives that have been told him memories of the vivid fancies which he formed on hearing the stories in (quite innocently) — — childhood. These details were added from the imagination. Who has not related incidents of family history that have been handed down through the years.CH. You know that the table before you is real. thoughts from perceptions. is imagined. We have usually no diflSculty in distinguishing images and intensity. Dreams are vivid fancies. viii] suit ILLUSIONS OF MEMORY 199 was gray and he wore no hat. On dark nights we are not certain what we actually perceive and what we merely imagine.

In certain mental diseases the patient ignores the test of and systematically mistakes his fancies for objective reality. In certain occupations imagination is advance in civilization the use of especially serviceable tor is ' of every sort — whether and deserves cultivation. .jSOG MEMORY AND IMAGINATION [ch. that voice is within us. But neither the experience itself nor its elements furnish a decisive indication of the original source. specter is imagined. they are a stage beyond hallucinations. the professional helped by the cultivation of exact and vivid imaginaman. because such experiences do not * ' conform to the general scheme of things. the scientist. vm In states of high-strung tension one sees a specter. The * crea- artist. based upon the general run of our experiences. or our uncertainty may be greater. due to brain processes. or hears voices warning him. writer. These pathological states are delusions. We the convince ourselves that the ' ' the uniformity and general consistency of experience. If the object seems to act independently of our control. or inventor — tion. the error may be reinforced. either if its Both imagination and ^perception are may readily be mistaken for the fall other general characteristics within the border-line territory. In such cases the normal individual falls back upon a third test. Importance and Training of Imagery. consistency. ination are of varying importance in — Memory and imaghuman life. As we imagery develops more and more into verbal thinking and the use of image pictures tends to become less active. though the experiences are mere fancies. and the bulk of our experiences fall naturally into one class or the other. and the business man usually find verbal thinking more useful. In most cases there is a sharp dividing line between them. The characteristics by which we distinguish imagination from perception are merely practical tests. Even in dreams we sometimes notice the inconsistency of the experience with other circumstances and realize that we are asleep.

the inventor. ' distinguish clearly between true memories of objective events and mere fancies. the better can we appreciate the fantastic tales of Wells and the subtle exaggerations of Mark Twain. and in detail. memory training is of general It is a matter of great social importance to be able to significance. The most earnest mental worker finds relaxation in pure horse-play. imagination. of perception is essential to accurate The trai ning.. we should discriminate clearly between objective facts or truths and the constructions of our own imagination. vm] CULTIVATION OF IMAGERY 201 Nikola Tesla. Lying has an ethical more than a psychological phenomenon * It is in the adult. memory and vivid imagination. " In my mind I change the construction. The attione of absolute sincerity in matters of fact. attributes much of his success to his power of visualizing distinctly. Most images are revivals of external sensations. Fancy as fancy has a legitimate place in mental life. The more completely we separate these two spheres. and even operate the device. Like play and jesting it this reason it is relieves the strain of our more serious occupations. recalling events in detail This must be supplemented by practice in and by constant exercise of the The cultivation of imagination is useful only in certain hues of work.CH. but utiUty. though occasion- and the most rigid logician heartily enjoys is tude to be cultivated — — * Quoted in American Mag. . a pun. Summary." The exactness and vividness of imagery depends largely on ^ our ability to observe our perceptions exactly. make improvements. In this chapter we have examined imagery^ an experience which owes its characteristics to brain traces of former experiences not to the present stimulus. p. The whole idea is worked out mentally before ever a sketch is put on paper. April. 62. 1921. For important for every man to learn to distinguish clearly between truth and fiction. the machine which he wishes to devise.

C. or where you were unable to judge its real nature."* 42.). Inquiries into Human Faculty (ch. an imagination is made up of bits of former perceptions. Take some notable event in yom. cases of unusual recall: W. eyes. On imagination: F. p. The most impor- tant sorts of imagery are memory images and imagination Memory reproduces some perception we images (fancies). I. in Lying bed at night with closed or stories. Essay on the Creative Imagination (trans. in Psychological Bulletin. gathered here and there and put together into a definite image. Read a description of a scene or event from some novel or history. 5. On On J. p. vin ally other kinds of sensations are revived. try to picture imaginary scenes Describe the experiences. how far are they due to retinal stimulation. Galton.recent life (over six months ago) and describe the scene and the succession of occurrences as minutely and accurately as possible. Ribot. Memory (trans. Grade them according to vividness. Ebbinghaus. 1918. Principles of Psychology. 43. Warren. Try many incidents as possible that occurred on that day.202 MEMORY AND IMAGINATION [ch. 40. References: On memory: H. 681. T. auditory. James.). on 'Mental Imagery'). Watt. 207. etc. and note the images which are aroused. 41. Take at random some date between to recall as six months and a year ago. . Practical Exercises: 89. Economy and Training of Memory. compare their vividness with real scenes. Describe any experience you can recall where you have mistaken an imagination for a perception or vice versa. H. Classify them as visual. have actually experienced. the rate of forgetting: H.

which are usually called cognitions or intellectual experiences. first and foremost. The responses that we make when we perceive or remember or think are movements which have to do with conditions imaginations. We now come to a different kind of experience experiences which are made up chiefly of systemic sensations or in which systemic sensations are especially prominent. Memories. A feeling is^an_eQ)erienceJii 3shich sys^mic sensations are the mam elements. though our body and our environment are too — — — closely related to make the distinction complete. kept. This is an older meaning of the term. and include the following sorts: Feelings Emotions Sentiments Feeling Nature of Feeling. images of all sorts. with the condition of our bodily organism not with events in the surrounding world. in our environment not inside our own body. and other images are oiUside us. because the expression 'I sense' has . made up chiefly of reproductions of these same external sensations. Perceptions are made up for the most part of sensations which come from the outer world. and thoughts (which we shall discuss later) all belong to the same class of experiences.— CHAPTER IX FEELING AND EMOTION Affective Experiences. — The experiences we have exam- ined so far have to do with objects and conditions outside our own body. These experiences are concerned.' Feelings are * — Feeling is also used to denote It is still any indefinite tensation. Perceptions. They are called affective experiences.

Our mental the feeling is at any moment generally tinged with a is pervasive feeling of some sort. the less distinct are their details. this is too confusing. they do not merge together. or sense of discomfort fall and stands out sharply. If the general tone pleasant one of happiness or euphoria. now in another.' not the kind of hurt or its location. picture When you look at a is the opposite of perception. their special quaUties usually fade away and the prominent feature is their pleasantness or unpleasantness. ' It is diflScult to locate the feehng of thrill fife ' or to analyze its is quality. It is localized now in one place. localized A pin-prick When you definitely and are a large part of When you have a certain the body in an indefinite way. When sys- temic sensations combine into feelings. eral sensibility Systemic sensations have not only their own special qualities like the external senses. In a feeling.«04 FEELING of organic or pain sensations or both. ix made up of hunger The feehng which we experience before a meal is due to organic sensations. The feeling of general well-being which pervades our body after a hearty meal is base'd on our genon the condition of the body as a whole. The most prominent feature of these experiences is the hurt. It is advisable not to use feeling for the sense of touch. The old English word 'to palp' is better. you feel more and more an indefinite pleasantis ness or unpleasantness within you. [ch. We rarely have two conflicting never come into general use. . or toothache combined with earache. the greater the number This of sensations entering into the experience. you are not always sure whether it is merely toothache. but we must be careful not to confuse the two meanings. a toothache is a very pronounced feeling derived from the pain sense. the feeling of hurt seems to spread over ' — The same is true of pleasant feelings. if it is unpleasant the feeling is despondency. bruised. but also a common feeling * ' — tone: they are either pleasant or unpleasant. pain in the region of the teeth. you perceive and discriminate its various parts.

does not come directly from the external stimulus. Many of our affwUye-expetiences come about in this indirect way. sharp edge of a knife pain is The not pain-ftd but jtam-inducing. In fact. the due to the laceration of the skin and the consequent is organic injury. Under some conditions it is certainly possible to experience two conflicting feelings at once.ofi. most feeling tone in such cases musical chords are pleasant. The opposite change is probably due to some idea which works through If " the very the motor nerves on the bodily processes. pleasure Odors are unpleasant when they produce destructive changes of tissue within the organism. this sort In cases of we do ant together — sometimes with equal vividness. This is one of those popular generalizations which we must learn to challenge. The change from pleasantness to unpleasantness is due to the body becoming accustomed (' hardened ') to the stimuli." the nausea is due to nerve impulses from your brain centers to the glands of your get from listening to music is we stomach. but from some organic change which the stimulus brings about. and various other internal glands (including . it is sometimes stated that and unpleasantness cannot be experienced together at the same time. The due to certain chemical changes (anabolic processes) wrought in our bodily system by the music. We may grow to like certain odors that were once unpleasant or to dislike tones or colors that were formerly pleasing. rx] NATURE OF FEELING 205 feelings at the same time. We are pleased when a friend sympathizes with us over our toothache. so that they no longer produce destructive effects. thought of that fellow nauseates you. Systemic sensations frequently form part of our percepSome odors are unpleasant. but this does not altopleasantness gether obliterate the discomfort of the ache. The experience both the unpleasant and the pleas- tions of external things. The glands which secrete the substances used in digestion.

The feeling of digestive appetite. life which are of supreme importance in the of Our internal bodily experiences are usually subordinate to our experiences of the world about us. due to the healing Sometimes the . are not so intimately connected with conditions in the environment. satisfaction. hearing. with everything else in the background. The autonomic and cerebrospinal systems work together. They have com- — paratively few different qualities. Consequently our feelings often modify our ideas and thoughts very decidedly. There are several reasons Systemic sensations are not so clear-cut and definite as the sensations of sight.toe FEELING [cH. by despondent feelings. But there are times when the organic or pain stimuli are so intense or so insistent that our experience is largely and unmistakably a feeling. are operated by the auto- nomic nervous system. while feelings of aversion are made up of pain sensations and sensations arising from disturbed digestive conditions. are produced (except in the case of pain) by internal stimuli which are constantly changing and are difficult to They man. When a man is despondent it is sometimes is diflScult to determine whether his feeling of despondency disaster were started due to certain disturbing thoughts. Feelings of appetite result most frequently from digestive and generative sensations. touch. They hold. developed as for this. states of feeling are of sions. In many cases the tone of a feeling is not pure. ix those of the reproductive organs). appetites is These definite and aver- according as their general toning pleasant or un- pleasant. or smell. or his thoughts of impending Appetite and Aversion. two opposite sorts. and our ideas often influence our bodily processes and produce very intense feelings. Our feelings are not so well our perceptions and ideas. includes both impleasant hunger sensations tions and pleasant feeling A pain may be accompanied by pleasant sensaprocess. for instance.

These neutral feelings are called excitement. to get at the stimuli and experiment on their changes. unpleasant. the intensity of the accom- panying feeling varies at the same time. further increase in the intensity of stimula- (3) tion the pleasantness increases to a creases. When the intensity of a light or sound or pres- sure is increased continuously. Some attempts have been made to measure the changes of intensity of the feeling tone which accompanies external sensations. which gives muscle sensations. — The intensity It is difficult of feeling is diflBcult We do not discriminate differences of intensity among systemic sensations as exactly as we distinguish brightness or loudness. maximum and then de- At a certain point the pleasantness disappears entirely^ With further increase in the intensity of stimulation unpleasantness appears and thereafter increases steadily. But this change does not follow Weber's Law. The experiments bring out the fol- lowing relations: (1) With slight intensity of stimulation the intensity of the accompanying feeling is zero. Intense feelings of any sort are apt to arouse activity of When this the muscles. which stimulates additional organic sensations and these keep the to measure. In other cases the feeling arouses activity of feelings alive. (2) first As the With intensity of the stimulus increases there is at a slight degree of pleasantness. called emotion. the glands. because feelings have two opposite phases. Intensity of Feeling.CH. (6) With great intensity of stimulation a maximum degree (4) (5) . occurs the feeling passes into another kind of experience. rs] APPETITE AND AVERSION indefinite 207 tone is — it is recognized neither as pleasant nor as Here there is apparently a balance between the destructive and restorative chemical processes in the body. while perceptions have only one. pleasantness and unpleasantness.

this marks the beginning of actual destruction of some of the tissues. but it is the outer too important to feel- be ignored. others will collapse at the slightest misfortune. may refuse to face danger or perplexity when affected weakening influences. — The knowledge of our bodily con- may not be so essential to of us as knowledge world. the difference lies in the internal bodily condition. Destruction of tissue is harmful to any creature. 70. We can only appreciate the real significance of feehng in man's mental life when we consider its influence on the evolution of animal species. ternal situation similar but his own internal condition is radically different. 70. The influence of ing in determining a man's atti- tude toward the outer world Fig.] [CH. We are apt to underestimate the Importance of Feeling. by indigestion. Some men apparently can never be bristle at the disheartened or in- sulted. importance of the feelings in mental life because they are so overshadowed by our perceptions and other dition intellectual experiences. malaria. distance below represents degree of unpleasantness.208 FEELING [Fig. The same man who meets and cheerfully when he is in good health. horistimulation. or if The curve shows how the companying a increase of ijerception varies with we observe ex- Distance above the base-line represents degree of pleasantness. IX of unpleasantness occurs. how differently the same person acts in two cases where the is zontal distance represents intensity of stimulation. is — Intensity of Feeling feeling ae- seen if we compare the responses of different individuals under similar conditions. or other The external stimuli are alike. Those creatures and . The numbers correspond to the six laws given in the text. or most trivial difficulties energetically remark. It follows that any species or creature that develops a means of avoiding the destruction of its tissues will stand a better chance of surviving.

An emotion is usually aroused by external stimuli or by ideas which represent things in the external world. So that any species which evolves a set of receptors and nerves for feeling has gained an additional and important means of survive in the long run. the most important development of feeling is — in connection with the motor activities which it arouses. After a thunderbolt your heart stops beating for an instant and your muscles are tense. either pleasurable or the opposite (usually with definite organic or pain qualities). It is a condition of mental excitement. Mental life is especially concerned with the interaction between the body and the outer world. Accordingly. Emotion Nature of Emotion. by great muscular muscle sensa- which gives rise to intense When the fire alarm is sounded your heart beats faster and your legs almost irresistibly carry you toward the scene. Emotion is the only secondary experience in which ideas do not play a prominent part. they consist of systemic and motor sensations both very vivid. The most significant affective experiences are not pure feelings. but the perception or idea is not part of the emotion it fades into the margin when the emotion surges into prominence. to react positively to beneficial stimuli.CH. accompanied activity or tension. are most likely to These two opposite types of response by the two opposite phases of feeling. An emotion is an experience made up of both systemic and motor sensations. ix] SIGNIFICANCE OF FEELING and 209 (2) species which are able (1) to avoid harmful stimuli. These experiences are called emotions. you feel a thrill of happiness and wave your arms or shout for joy. but feelings combined with powerful motor sensations. tions. When you come home after a long absence. The sight of the smile on the subway — — . These are emotions. are determined getting along in life.

and on the other hand when we are if we succeed in relaxing our muscles and so rid ourselves of the motor sensations. sensations stimulated cular activity. the feeling of anger really angry. according to these stimulate the anger feeling. If we succeed in relaxing the muscles. "William James and Carl Lange independently suggested that the factors really arise in the opposite order We first of clench our teeth and fists. muscle sensations are aroused by some perception or thought. makes you boiling mad. all its motor accompaniments when we act a part in a play). and assume the general anger attitude. both arise together. — — : writers. the emotion vanishes — it passes over into a simple state of feeling." This interpretaWe tion of emotion was generally accepted by psychologists till about thirty years ago. emotion is the feeling speak of " emotion and its expression. — and by your intense physiological and mus- According to popular notions the essential ingredient of the motor display is an after-effect. accept the James-Lange theory of emotion. and both are integral parts of the emotion.210 EMOTION But your anger is [cH. scowl. However. the factors facts seem to indicate that neither of the two Both systemic and has precedence in emotion. IX guard's face as he slams the gate on you. the bubbling up of inner feeling not the the clenching of your teeth and shaking your fist The anger experience is composed of sight of the guard. then clench our teeth and fists. and all assume the anger attitude strain the tension of our muscles. If we succeed in removing the systemic sensations the emotion . the motor sensations generate the feeling sensations Many psychologists now which compose the experience. This theory finds some confirmation in the fact that if we artificially assume the anger attitude with (for instance. It assumes that we first experience the feeling of anger. diminishes and the entire emotion tends to disappear. these movements in turn That is. our feelings are aroused very strongly.

if they have any. The feeling. This reading of human experiences into lower species does often in attributing to pet dogs * In cold-blooded species the circulation is sluggish and there b not that quickening and violent agitation which is characteristic of human emotion. then. xii). where they are not complicated by shadings which depend on thought and com- In popular books the study of animal emotion consists too and cats various shades of human emotion which depend on thought and reasoning. glands are even more important in emotion than in It is found that in some emotional conditions certain chemical products. Emotional feeling and emotional expression are equally important parts of the experience. This is particularly true of birds. among the neighboring These compounds are apparently the stimuli which arouse the systemic elements in the emotion. including mammals and respond so that closelj' Their reactions and expressions corto the manifestations of human emotion we are justified in attributing real emotional experiences to these animals. studied to advantage in plex social relations. are formed in great quantity and diffuse themselves organs. Muscular contraction and muscular tension serve as stimuli for the motor elements. that neither the popular view nor the James- Lange theory correct. ix] also disapp>ears NATURE OF EMOTION «11 — it is called conation (ch. Emotion the joint product of nerve impulses from the systemic and motor senses. The fundamental kinds of emotion may be subhuman species. Primitive Emotions. indicate that emotion — Comparative present in studies s|>ecies is many on animals below man.^ warm-blooded animals. motor expressions more readily than their organic This is why the motor factor seems to be the crucial factor when we is test emotions experimentally. such as adrenalin. .CH. is We conclude. Their emotions. their reduced to a simple motor experience Most persons are able to control processes. are essentially different from ours.

to independent of thought and more primitive than thought. subhuman species are far simpler than in is The emotional thought — display in the dog or cat not the result of it it occurs without thought or reasoning. not an idea. but no thought of dignity. The organic sensations which form part of the fear exp>eriences are stimulated through receptors in the lower viscera acteristic and in the region of the lungs and heart. Human But human adult. which is usually very intense. is shows. like the anger of the bull at the sight of red. rather. in the clusions should not be carried too far. is to study carefully the manifestations of emotions in various animal species and read them into man. When a cat struts away from a growling dog with an air of offended dignity she has a pride emotion of some sort. [ch. or exhibits fear at the sight of a snake or some other strange creature. is gen- This method of studying emotion differs is but the con- emotion from animal emotion in the prominent part which memories and thoughts play in producing it. emotions are determined by ideas rather than by perceptions. and love. The three most fundamental types of emotion are fear. man perhaps more on perceptions and on ideas than helpful. A child cries when we scowl at him. primitive emotions in The most man certain fundamental conditions of life. anger. inciting cause of the emotion is what extent emotion The a perception. The charmotor expressions of fear are certain definite mua- . The feeling tone of fear is unpleasantness. we are not angry when we see a strong man beating a rug. the pride emotion depends less This suggests that even in erally supposed.212 EMOTION facts. are those based on which led to the evo- lution of certain types of reaction in animals long before the human species appeared. His emotion is aroused by a perception. What will help us. ix not help us to understand the actual processes of The mental man. We are angry when we see a big boy beating a small boy.

The special systemic sen- sations are less prominent than in fear or anger. strained tension of the face muscles. which produce trembling. ix] cular PRIMITIVE EMOTIONS 218 contractions. careful observation shows that is the characteristic sensation heart. Its character- Love the third type of primitive emotion. and the circulatory system. These motor activities furnish muscle sensations which form an important part of the emotional experience. they arise from the region of the lungs and from the generative organs. the tone heart and lungs. and rigidity of the lower limbs. which usually causes intense flushing of the face and sometimes a choking sensation and suffusion of the eyes. The popular the heart is notion which associates the emotion of love with not so far wrong. sensations are derived from the upper digestive tract. of anger is An outburst accompanied by vigorous heart activity and breathing. and the muscle sensations which these arouse enter prominently into the experience. Here the general feeling tone (pleasantness) is most prominent. There are various motor accompaniments of this emotion. The characteristic motor activities of anger are clenching of the fists and teeth. The motor expressions of sympathy and love are generally movement toward the object. A somewhat less intense variety of this emotion is sympathy. shrinking movements. raising of the eyebrows. In sympathy a common form of expression is activity of the tear glands. istic feeling tone pleasantness.CH. but that it is located somewhat above the due to the circulation and not to breathing. etc. but the feeling The special systemic is not so prominent as in fear. In anger the feeling tone is also unpleasant. The expression of anger is generally is movement toward the its object — in fear the movement is away from is object. and the special systemic sensations are less definite than in love. is This the way the psychologist describes the three great . These motor activities are accompanied by very intense muscle sensations.

. The cook wants to make a soup that will tickle the palate. The objection to all most classifications is that they try to show possible varieties instead of those that are really significant. The poet uses language which will thrill his readers and arouse the same emotions in them. 237. aggressive. reproductive. Strictly speaking.214 emotions of life. prefer to see love through the poet's eye and fear or anger through the psychologist's. The psychologist tries to show what sensations make up the emotional experience. while others that all. and its ^ social. The list of emotions in Table VIII is based on the different kinds of behavior that man exhibits with reference to his surroundings. It is like the attitude of the cook and the chemist toward the soup. EMOTION It [ch. p. we infer that a great many shades of that emotion are present in the race using that language. defensive. human is by actual An important aid in this study to notice the various names used to distinguish emotions in the languages of civilized and uncivilized races. the nutritive functions do not lead to emotions: eating and various accompaniments are usually x. the chemist wants to know what is in the soup. we might life expect to obser- find scarcely appear at We can only discover what are the really important emotions in vation and experiment. Kinds another of Emotion in Man. See ch. If a large number of different names for a certain kind of emotion are found in a given language.' For our present purpose five great classes of responses may be distinguished: nutritive. ix sounds very different from the descripThe psychologist and the poet have something quite different in view. Some types of emotion have developed tremendously and show many different shades. Most men would tion of the poet or story-teller. — Human emotions have been characteristic or classified in various is ways according as one selected as the starting-point.

But there are certain expressive emotions of an indefinite or difiPused sort which depend indirectly on the nutritive emotions. aggressive. life. Ex:pressiseXSidnt\Ive) Reproductive Emotion Expression Diffused Emotion Expression +Joy (Enthusiasm) —Grief (Despair) " +Love +Lust —Jealousy Mating <t —Shock +Mirth +Ecstasy Restiveness «• «« t* « «4 —Coyness +Tenderness " (female) Maternal Exuberance Play Curiosity +Wonder 3. and the like are expressive made up of diffused feelings.CH. which we have already examined. anger. represented by the emotions of fear. — Human Emotions i. 1. Joy. Aggressive -Fear —Disgust —Timidity (Embarrassment) Flight and Hiding Avoiding Shyness Covering Submission -Anger (Rage) Fighting -Hatred Resenting -Envy +Pride +Exultation Rivalry Domineering —Shame " +Awe 5. . Soeixd 6. Defensive 4. DC TYPES OF HUMAN EMOTION 215 Table Vin. With Temporal Projection Retrospective Reference: + Affect ion +Cordiality -Pity +Gratitude +Admiration —Detestation Family relations Herding Sympathetic -Regret (Remorse) +Satisfaction (Elation) Surprise Prospective Reference: M ^ Antipathetic •t +Hope -Dread Anxiety -Revenge —Suspicion -Scorn •I unemotional acts. These are the original forms. and love. the table shows a number of other well-known emotions that have developed out of them. grief. and reproductive emotions are The defensive.

emotions are defensive or aggressive. them to . may be either pleasant or Frequently they alternate between one quaUty cases and the In other. The fifth class in the table includes the social emotions that are not connected with other sorts of behavior. In most emotions the feeling tone is ). ix The man Some in relation to his fellows develops social special emotions. distinguish. definitely pleasant (-i-) or unpleasant ( — such as restiveness and surprise. The emotion activities of anger is well adapted to the food-getting It stimulates of carnivorous animals. and other types of experience have adapted themselves to changing conditions. but our emo-^ tional experiences continue in almost primitive form. remorse. for example. Certain sorts. Many of the more important emotions seem like echoes of our prehuman ancestors. Some of these varieties are of considerable importance in mental life. many we may readily notice several different It is easy to shades of emotion under the same general type. unpleasant. The emotional life has not kept pace with the other phases of mental evolution. — memory. of In the table the kind of feeling tone that is characteristic each emotion is shown at the left and the kind of motor expression at the right. between anger and rage. has very different consequences from regret. Perception.' 'feeling insulted. for example. The prospective emotion of satisfaction are similar and the retrospective emotion of to joy apart from the time reference.' 'pique. but others do not belong in either of these groups. feeling ' slighted. Some of the less important distinctions are interestNotice the difference between ing to study. There are hope.216 EMOTION social life of [ch. also emotions that are essentially connected with ideas of the past or the future. they do not fit into the social life of to-day. Adapting Emotions to Civilized Life. or between various degrees of mirth.' 'feeling outraged'.

especially through punishment and admonition. The ideal of a calm. No boiler is strong enough to resist every pressure. Social tradition and example help considerably. to blind rage in the presence of an adversary is usually at a sort disadvantage. and the engineer who clamps down the cry-baby ' is safety-valve is heedless of the best interests of his machine. possible to eradicate them entirely. not its fist. passionless life may perhaps be socially desirable. The man who gives way greater exertions their prey. one learned to control is held more or less in contempt. but it does not take into account the innate propensities of the individual. the obvious course is is unsuitable to present to direct this phase of mental life into more suitable paths by systematic training. the display of emotion Since our emotional inheritance conditions. School discipline and home discipline. Emotional training is not so prominent a feature of our present-day educational systems as intellectual training. Expression isj:he safety. ix] TRAINING THE EMOTIONS 217 and seems really to help them in overcoming Even in primitive man strength is more important than skill. The child finds that he makes himself ridiculous * by giving free vent to his emotions. People are even apt to regard the shell-shocked veteran as a coward.CH. Freud has shown that Jx4^-«^ ->-«^^0<^^ . the stolid child or youth is admired by his playmates. teach the child to repress or suppress violent displays of emotion. This is one of the most important tasks of education.\ it is generally accomplished indirectly or incidentally.valve of emotion^ The emotional It is not tendencies are part of our mental inheritance. . A Foch or a Hindenburg is the brains of the army. though really his disability should arouse the same feeling as the loss of a leg in battle. But under modern conditions of civilized life intellectual adjustment and motor coordination are far more valuable than mere strength. socially speaking. We look upon unbridled emotion of any who has not as childish or brutish. The an object of contempt among children.

It is only when our primitive. Sentiment \ Nature of Sentiment. social life of civilized man. inherited emotions are trained into socially acceptable modes of expression that this phase of mental life is brought into harmony with the rest of our experiences and actions. regret. A sentiment is . do not fit in with modern is life. hope. but they require careful training to fit them into the are distinctly antipathetic. excepting those well with modern which The reproductive emotions (especially love and tenderness) are by no means anachronistic. mirth. In some communities this train- ing has gone to extreme lengths. Uncontrolled emotion hampers the proper interaction between the individual of to-day and his environment. The same is true of the aggressive emotions. of joy. and for the most part hamper us under modern conditions. psychology and pedagogy should recognize that life is to some extent behind the times. the social emotions harmonize social conditions. On the other hand. sist in A rational training of the emotions would conmodifying their feeling elements and directing their various classes of emotions differ considerably in motor expression into useful channels. the emotional side of our mental In short.218 EMOTION [ch. called sentiment. — Besides feeling and emotioivthere is another. less important experience connected with our inner bodily processes. hypocrisy. grief. ix the struggle to suppress them often results in nervous disOn the moral side it fosters deceit and organization. The value. Extreme manifestations and the like. The expressive emotions and the retrospective and pro- spective types are socially neutral. The defensive emotions refer back to prehistoric modes of defense. but a moderate display of these emotions is not socially detrimental and of some benefit to the bio- logical life of the individual.

' An action appears good.' The world about us ' A locomotive appears powerful. When something has aroused a sentiment. or by listening to Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. they are intimately personal. selves? Is the * and power in the objects themIn goodness in the action or in the actor? is discussing feeling we noticed that pain not a quality of the we experience pain when the knife cuts and the pain is stimulated by the sharp edge.' notion — . object. In much the same way the sentiment of beauty is stimulated by certain combinations of tones in music or by certain curves or sharp knife. reality. ' cisely The term sentiment has a special meaning in psychology. It is not prewhat we mean by *a sentiment* in ordinary language. or by the memory of one of these experiences. but it carries a trace of each the imagery of 'a sentiment' and the feeling tone of 'sentimental. and it does not correspond to the adjective 'sentimental'. ix] NATURE OF SENTIMENT is 219 an experience which ideas. the Venus de Milo. we connect the sentiment looks with the perception and read it into the objective situation. The prominent elements in the sentiment of beauty are a feeling and an idea of value (ch.* statue ' looks beautiful. though us. ness. The perception suggests the sentiment. xiii). and the same situation continues to affect us. and yet they are excited by something in the external stimulus. Are the beauty. but the sentiment of beauty is not the perception of the Sentiments idea. It may be aroused by seeing perception. The real.CH. but it is not a quality of the music or painting. like pain. color combinations in a painting. ^ made up of systemic sensations and may be aroused by any external sensation or but the experience itself is essentially difiFerent from Your " sense of beauty " is not a sensation nor a either. and then fades into the background of the new experience. And the same is true of power and good- Our sentiments are generated within us. but a sentiment.

attaches to per- ceptions of the outer world. ix classified Kinds of Sentiments. really exist. If we meet a friend who was supposed to be a thousand miles away. heft. the reality of his presence bursts through into prominence. In the two cases the sentiment is of the same type — . or when we are dazed by a sudden blow or a loud things about noise: then the reality element is quite lacking us do not impress us as real. — Sentiments are according to the kind of experience that arouses them. or reality feeling. like reality feeling. We are sure that certain of our images Two opposite varieties of belief have belief.. very much true. palp. hear. The other extreme occurs in daydreaming. We may either believe in the existence of the object we are thinking of. except that it is associated with ideas.220 SENTIMENT [ch. is marginal. In certain pathological condiexperience.] Table IX. When you falsity. Sentiments — Classification of Sentiments Source Perceptions Ideas Reality Feelings Beliefs Esthetic Sentiments Systemic Experiences Dynamic Sentiments Moral Sentiments Motor Experiences Social Situations The sentiment which we ing. your sentiment if is belief in its while you have a mental picture of Vesuvius the sentiment takes the form of belief that this volcano actually exists. [Table IX. adult life the reality feeling rarely occurs as an independent It takes something unexpected. it is of realness. sureness or conviction We are sure that the objects Usually this Like the familiarity feelonly a subordinate element in the perception. or we may believe that no such object exists. or something scheme of things to bring it out vividly. picture a mermaid. that does not fit in with our general — tions the sense of reality disappears completely: the patient declares that the world does not Belief is seem real. and thoughts are : developed aflSrmative and negative belief or disbelief. In see. etc.

CH. Dynamic and esthetic sentiments combine to form the sentiment of the sublime. but doubt. dynamic sentiments. The intensity of the esthetic sentiments and with training. In connection with our voluntary movements there is a sense of power or abUily to act. The 'not' The true Doubt is a sentiment which arises from alternation of belief and disbelief. — usually the actions of other per- The * traflSc cop ' who goes over and leads a blind across the street arouses your approval. and a sentiment of ugliness or discord if the feeling ence is especially intense is unpleasant. power in the universe. The religious sentiment is due to an idea of some mighty thwarted. stimulated by the activity of intensity depends vivid motor sensations are These motor sensations are our own muscles. opposite of belief is not disbelief. in others it is only attained gradually. Moral sentiments come from feelings which attach to our perceptions of social acts sons. A tornado. xv). window arouses a feeUng of disIn each instance the feeling combined with the . If the resistance is strong. This produces a sentiment of beauty or harmony if the feeling is pleasant. through education ' and imitation. 221 — but our attitude gives a sjjecial tinge to the sentiment. Dynamic sentiments arise when associated with our perceptions. some persons an appreciation of beauty and harmony In appears early in life and develops without any special trainvaries considerably with the individual ing. arouse a sentiment of the power of inanimate nature. Esthetic sentiments are especially character- istic of the ' artistic type of personality. the youngster hurls a stone through a shop man who approval. we have a sense of opposition. of force or power in the environment. of being that These are a great factory machine in action. Esthetic sentiments arise when the feeling tone of an experi- and combines with an idea of value. IX] belief TYPES OF SENTIMENT attitude is different (ch. but their resistance of objects upon the weight or we try to move.

They combine feeling and action. this arouses muscle sensations and the Esthetic sentiis no longer a mere sentiment. and may be contrasted with perceptions. — . Emotions are experiences in which both systemic and motor sensations are prominent. which are experiences of the outer world. if they are weak they are crowded out of focus by other experiences. reproduction. dynamic sentiments arouse an impulse to overcome resistance or to exert our own power. Feelings are experiences of our own bodily condition. Feelings are experiences consisting almost wholly of (1) organic sensations that is. ments pass readily into emotions. sentiments lack stable equilibrium. but still remain as enduring sentiments. Summary. ' we are apt to start in to literally as well as figuratively. Moral sentiments. motor expression. In this chapter we have examined three sorts of experience in which systemic sensations are prominent. If a sentiment is weak it becomes an element in some other state If it grows intense. push along a good thing In a word. sensations from the internal organs of digestion. if — remedy We they are intense this very strength transforms them into something else. in the other a sentiment of wrong.222 SENTIMENT [ch. it tends to bring about some of mind. or (2) pain sensations. if they are vivid. are likely to pass over experience into voluntary actions. ix idea of social value forms a moral sentiment. a wrong it. We are not content with merely conIf demning ' or approving the actions of others. Our belief in the multiplication table and other fundamental life. Beliefs are the most stable of all sentiments. Sentiments are the least important kind of experience. beliefs truths persists unaltered throughout — — and other bodily processes. or (3) feeling tone and general sensibility. appeals to us deeply. — in one case a sentiment of right. respiration. circulation. Other underlying undergo certain changes from time to time. In general they are more intense and vivid than simple feelings and occupy a specially prominent place in mental life.

B. Darwin. — References: On On On feeling: E. the disbelief.g. also some statement which you are sure is false. W. Describe the expression of three different emotions. Social Pirychology. ch. Describe the expression of anger (or fear) in a child. 25. chs. Analyze some powerful emotion of your own at the time or soon after the outburst has subsided. On the physiology of emotions: C. Practical Exercises: 44. James. C. chs. Origin and Nature of the Emoturns. Hunger. Now examine the sentiment you have in each case the belief. . 2-4. after a hearty meal. emotion: W. The others tend to fade into the background. describe them as far as possible. and the doubt. Analyze your general state of 45. Principles of Psychology. on 46. after a brisk walk. Titchener. also something about which you are in real doubt. Psychology of Feeling and Attention. in cases you have witnessed recently. Bodily Changes in Pain. ix] SUMMARY 223 Emotional experiences belong to primitive conditions of life and do not fit in especially well with man's higher mental evolution. feeling at three different times. classes of emotion: theory of W. Mention some fact which you believe thoroughly. McDougall. W. Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. 47. . Crile. Cannon. waking. Fear and Rage. in They is are generally weak and unimportant all mental life. e. B. Belief the most hardy of the sentiments. Sentiments are experiences which combine systemic sensations with ideas.S-6. or they lead to action and so are transformed into some other kind of experience.CH. 48.

words. Motor experiences important respect: act. (2) Feelings and emotions are concerned with internal conditions and are stimulated by the physiological processes which go on within our — far own body. Every stimulus starts an impulse in the sensory nerves. and when joined to images and thoughts they develop into secondary experiences called volitions and language. differ from other experiences in one We perceive. Before taking up these motor experiences. In other each movement of our limbs as it takes place. and their kindred are based on the information we receive from the outer world. xiii. . ^ See chs. The muscle sense and static sense furnish information about our movements and responses. whereas perceptions. xii. conations and other motor experiences are concerned chiefly with our responses. There is still a third class called motor experiences. before we on the other hand. our motor activity. we imagine. and feelings keep us in touch with the stimuli that affect us. images. examined belong to two separate groups: (1) Perceptions. These sensations are organized into experiences called conations.' we must examine the motor side of the nervous operation and see how it is have begun to related to stimulation. which are composed largely of motor sensations. are the result of after the motor nerve impulses Motor experiences. we sense affect our muscles. they arise When we walk.CHAPTER X INSTINCT The experiences so Motor Experiences and Response. and about our bodily postures with reference to the outer world. which proceeds to some center in the spinal cord or brain. memories. we feel.

so that the incoming impulses. The most signif- the information information. x] EXPERIENCE AND RESPONSE 225 In these central neurons there is a certain amount of latent nerve energy. in definite groups the neurons were not arranged and chains. is the chemical process of secretion . activity will be incomplete. The same stimulus would lead now to this movement. of Behavior. and this activity seeks neurons. where its energy is expended The final result of the in producing muscular contraction.' actually arouse a greater amount of nervous activity an outlet into other by visual stimuli results first in our perceiving the scenes around us. instead of being * absorbed. now to that. Kinds — Behavior may be grouped into the movements following classes: Diffused Reflexes Autonomic functions Instinctive behavior Intelligent behavior (1) Diffused Movements: Nerve impulses always follow If the path of least resistance. n erve impulse in this case is movement. then. at random. the nerve impulses might follow all sorts of paths and our responses would be largely a matter of chance. The nervous activity aroused in the brain . In the end the central impulse finds an outlet into some motor path and passes out of the brain and down to some muscle. In o ther cases the outlet is into a path leading to some gland and the fi nal result at the centers. tion is it furnishes.CH. and the icant feature of the entire nervous Every stimulus tends in the end to bring about some response. if Our notion of nervous we stop at the central like. and this perception may be followed by a series of memories and fancies. But this succession of events in the brain does not continue indefinitely. feeling. processes of perception. without any appropriateness . and mental process is not but the way we act upon this Action by a creature in response to stimula- called behavior.

pressure. The sensory and motor centers are placed in very definite relaFrom the very beginning certain sentions to one another. sory paths are closely connected with certain motor paths. if a milk bottle is put to his mouth his lips close around it. which control the bodily processes of circulation and respira- . in is called a reflex. kicks about. He wriggles his arms.226 BEHAVIOR [ch. and sounds. certain stimuli produce coughing. (3) Autonomic Functions: The earliest reflexes that occur a child's life are due to systemic stimuli. moves his toes. they find outlets here and there through various motor channels. brought about These are immediate definite response to by inherited connections between sensory and motor nerve paths. These diffused random movements are the result of general stimulation by The incoming impulses light. his eyes. or reflex action. \Mien same time by several stimuli none of which is especially intense. x whatever. (2) Reflexes: Diffused response is not the only form of Our nervous system is behavior in the new-born child. winks. they bear no significant relation to the stimuli. his head. gurgles. are weak and diffused. These responses. Diffused he is affected at the movements occur in the new-born child. definite stimulus. Observe a child lying on his back when nothing in particular is affecting him. touched with a stick he grasps it. Long before birth the heart begins to beat through stimuli which arouse activity of the heart muscles. his lips. responses. stimulated and the result Immediately after birth the lungs are is muscular activity which draws the air into the lungs and expels it again. so that stimuli which affect a given receptor are bound to bring If an infant's palm is about certain definite responses. others produce sneezing. his responses are uncoordinated. A a due to an inherited arrangement of the nerve paths. arranged at the start by heredity in an orderly way. Impulses would tend to spread into several channels at once and cause diffused movements. warmth.

for example. processes are These chains tance to life. processes are subject to some control by the cerebrospinal its activities. which continue in endless of the individual. they do not interest psychologists especially. by the autonomic But they do not form a single continuous series of reflexes like respiration and circulation. which govern the life called autonomic functions. They are of the utmost impor- but since they are only indirectly concerned with Their special bearing on the individual's relations to his environment. When food is taken into the mouth the digestive activities All these organs are stimulated and the autonomic processes begin to act at once. (4-) Instinctive Behavior: The nervous connections within the cerebrospinal system are not so close as those of the autonomic nerves. the heart till pumps blood into the arteries continuously of reflexes death. the lungs expand and contract. is system. There is more branching of neurons and consequently more possibility of alternative motor dis- . are so KINDS OF BEHAVIOR 227 arranged that each response furnishes a stimulus They form a chain of for another reflex of the same sort. psychology not particularly concerned with the autonomic functions. x] tion. connected with the main cerebrospinal nervous system ii). psychology is lies in the fact that the autonomic nervous system (ch.CH. Regardless of the environment (except in a general way). Digestion depends upon stimulation by food in the stomach or intestines. digestive processes are controlled also. By reason of this connection the autonomic func- tions may spinal centers. in voluntary changes of respiration and in the changes in heart activity that accompany the emotions. be modified by motor impulses from the brain and This occurs. they include a whole series of digestive ending in the excretion of the waste products. and often serve to stimulate and modify Apart from this connection. series during the entire life reflexes. The system in the absence of food the digestive organs are comparatively inactive.

[ch. acquired by the individual. but some of these reflexes cause stimuli which produce other best illustrated in the of the lips with reflex. a large part of behavior instinctive type. (5) Intelligent Behavior: The branching connections in the nervous system make possible still another type of behavior. x centers are so arranged by inheritance that certain connections are inevitable.228 charges. has grown up in the course of the preceding. The contact the breast or bottle causes the lip-grasping serves as stimulus to the sucking reflex. where the branching connections are not so numerous as in man. may come in time to be grouped into hard and fast series of actions which are of the utmost importance to life. no thinking and deciding what to do. A series of useful movements whose connection is not based on heredity. but gent behavior. is of the Remember There is that in any instinctive act the successive steps follow in natural order — each is caused by ^ no delay. Reflexes that are not so closely connected as to form instincts. . Any an succession of cerebro- spinal reflexes like this. long ages of time through the natural selection of useful arrangements of the neurons and centers. reflexes. The progress of the action is automatic unless checked by some interfering stimulus. Instinctive behavior generally brings about some result that is useful to the creature that is. This is feeding activity of the infant. This is because the nervous struo ture. is called intelliIf the act becomes so fixed that it proceeds as is ^ Not to be confused with autonomic. especially in early Not only are there from the beginning certain definite reflexes to external stimulation. behavior. so that when a given stimulus occurs a definite chain of reflexes inevitably follows. This in turn The milk stimulates the swallowing reflex. or instinctive In subhuman species. like the rest of the body. it is adaptive. in which one response provides the stimulus for the next. BEHAVIOR But the various nerve paths and life. . is called instinct.

Early in life our instincts begin to be modified. and they seem to improve by practice. but they are not especially adaptive they do not answer the problems which the stimuli set before the child. The shudder reflex extends over a larger part of the body when the . instinctive elements elements. swallowing assists the nourishment process. that the response not diffuse. Reflex Behavior Nature of the Reflex. Most of our actions have marked and equally marked intelligent Walking is especially hard to classify. This makes it a suitable type of activity for response. volves the operation of a single nervous arc or a arcs acting together.CH. but the fact that walking always develops at about the same age indicates that it depends fundamentally on certain inherited factors. and these new modes of action are often so quick and automatic that they seem to be inborn. — Winking protects the eyes. is definite. infant's diffuse It accomplishes something. it is While reflex activity by no means invariable: the response usually varies with the intensity of the stimulus. — may solve some of the minor problems weeping may remove a cinder from the eye. called a habit. x] KINDS OF BEHAVIOR it is 229 automatically as an instinct. — The reflex is the simplest form of It in- response in creatures possessing a nervous system. The movements are responses to stimulation. Definite reactions of the reflex type do this. and the effect is apt to be widespread. Very intense stimulation generally causes violent muscular contraction. The human adult finds it difficult to draw a sharp between instinctive and intelligent behavior in the case of his own actions. When the child starts to walk his movements are uncertain. number is of The characteristic feature of reflex activity is definite. Even of glandular reflexes life. Speaking line and writing are instances of human habits. On the whole the act of walking seems to be mainly instinctive in man.

or it may proceed to a higher center and then pass out. .230 stimulus is REFLEX BEHAVIOR more intense. reflexes the sensory impulse travels to a higher brain center and the adjustment takes place there. A sudden The loud noise often produces violent beating of the heart. so that you withdraw the hand before you In higher feel the heat or pain. causing responsive activity. [ch. This process may be complicated in two ways: (1) The impulse may either cross to the motor path and pass out at the first opportunity. and from there part of the impulses pathway to the cardiac muscles.' When we hear a sound and auto- A number of parallel neurons in the nerve usually carry the impulse inward or outward. When you touch a hot stove. passes out through a motor then to a higher center. but its peculiar quality brings about a much more violent response than ordinary contact. In lower reflexes the adjustment takes place in the spinal cord or in the lower centers of the brain. On this this rule: the tickle stimulus is less intense — basis reflexes are divided into lower and higher. x The tickle reflex is an exception to than the ordinary touch stimulation. sensory impulse goes first to the primary center of hearing. On this basis we distinguish between simple and comsensory impulse may pound reflexes. (2) The produce a single response. at the center the impulse passes over to a motor path and descends to a muscle or gland. Varieties of Reflex Action. the sensory impulses affect ^ all travel up through a all outgoing impulses single sensory nerve and the proceed along one motor nerve and a single muscle. In reflex action the stimulus starts a nerve impulse along the sensory nerve toward the central part of the nervous system. or the motor impulse may divide and go out to two or more effectors at once. the sensory impulse upon reaching the spinal cord immediately passes over to the motor side and a motor impulse goes out directly to the hand. A simple reflex involves a single nervous arc.

cf. Fig. because the outgoing impulse is distributed into . Fig. or at least a large area. Thence a motor impulse passes along the 6th cranial nerve (E) to the eye muscles (F).] reflex A compound involves two or nerves. p. In nearly all reflex is a certain compounding of impulses in the sensory part of the nervous arc. [Fig. the muscles contract and the eye is turned toward the sound. the action reflex. 41. it serves to intensify the response.) [After Herrick. 16. 16. the withdrawal of the hand from a hot surface is usually in response to a temperature stimulus that affects many warmth receptors covering quite an area of the skin. The hand-grasping reflex is a more separate motor compound reflex. is wink The simplest sort of compounding occurs in reflexes which have two or more motor effects.1 because it involves the muscles of actions there all the fingers and several joints in each finger. The impulse travels to the center for eye movement (D). A sound stimulates the ear (A) and starts a sensory nerve impul<ie along the 8th cranial nerve to lower auditory center (C) in the brain. (A simple spinal reflex is shown in Fig. 71. but seldom changes its character.CH. The eye- a response to stimulation of the whole field of vision. 71. X] VARIETIES OF REFLEX is 231 a simple matically turn the eyes in that direction. — Simple Reflex Simple cranial reflex from the ear to the eye muscles. This compounding of sensory impulses is not especially significant. This is called a distributed reflex.

M2.l mus- ing reflex of the hand all the fingers are bent at once. 72. Pig. sucking. [CH. and allied reflexes. and tongue. the sucking reflex sends motor impulses to several dif< If the highei ferent muscles in the lips. and — Distributed Reflex m the vocal reflexes are exam- Showing how stimulation of a receptor ples of this. centers side of come into play the response may be on the opposite the body from the stimulus. frequently it is bilateral. M3. X The operation of a distributed reflex is This diagram represents what happens. such as grunting or flinching. Graspcertain ing. in which the impulses lead to opposing or antagonistic muscles. while part may travel up to the brain and produce some other type of activity. Among compound taches to the considerable importance at- way in which the different muscles are related. cord tion it For when the nerve impulse reaches the may divide. cheeks. for example. shown A simple reflex may form part of a distributed reflex. 72. [From Herrick. In the grasp- skin leads to contraction of several different cles Ml. In . example. in the pain reflex. in the knee-jerk. We distinguish between antagonistic reflexes.282 several REFLEX BEHAVIOR motor paths. in Fig. If the entire impulse it reaches a higher center may result compound in a coordinated reflex. where the various muscles assist one another. This sides is due to the fact that the motor pathways to the two of the body are connected by transverse paths in the reflexes brain. a pormay cross over di- rectly into the cord or the motor path and cause the leg to fly up.

etc. Ear twitching (controlled in some Hand withdrawal (to heat Digestive reflexes (autonomic) and pain) Trembling Rhythmic contractions paralysis agitans. Occasionally pure. etc. centrally modified in adult D. etc Scowling Stretching Convulsive contractions (to deep pressure and heat. ciliary reflex Eye-fixation and convergence Hiccoughing Sneezing Patellar reflex (knee-jerk) Great toe reflex Vasomotor changes (blushing. etc. more often centrally modified Coughing Swallowing and gulping Visceral discharge. Posture reflexes Jumping (ankle Sitting up Rising reflexes) Bending forward Holding head erect Sitting Standing Equilibration .CH. Largely pure — subject to inhibition or reinforcement Hand twitching (to dermal pain) Plantar reflex (to stimulus on sole of foot) Winking Accommodation. 233 A. paling) Breathing changes (to specific stimuli Dizziness reflexes and to onset Groaning Laughing of sleep) Yawning Vomiting Facial reflexes (to bitter taste.) Shivering (in epilepsy. Pure Sucking Tugging (wrist reflexes) Biting and grinding Spitting Clasping (elbow reflexes) Hunger and thirst reflexes Lip and tongue reflexes Vocal reflexes Reaching (shoulder reflexes) Kicking (knee reflexes) Stepping (gluteal reflexes) Turning the head Tossing Grasping (finger reflexes) E. to pricking and other Gasping Weeping Sobbing dermal pains.) Sudorific reflexes Salivation Cramp movements Squirming Tickle reflexes C. X] VARIETIES OF REFLEX Table X. etc. Generative reflexes Reflexes to odors Smiling Wincing. Purest — — Human Reflexes least subject to central modification in adult reflex 'Pupillary ' or individuals) iris Shuddering Starting (to sudden noise. and to visceral pain) in infancy.) B.

In some cases a number of similar reflexes have been grouped together under one name belong to the pure reflex type. they may be alternating. To-day we know that instinctive behavior is the result . These relations emphasize the fact that a reflex is not a mere muscular contraction. as winking may X in the Table (e. Instinctive Behavior Nature of defined. which enables them to do the right thing in the right way. knee-jerk. and the same motor paths that carry impulses for the winking reflex also carry impulses for voluntary winking and for closing the eye. but compound reflexes generally tend to bring about some result which makes life a bit easier. such as the it accomplishes something — . The list is chiefly interesting as showing the great variety of comparatively simple motor activities. Table shows the most important human reflexes that have received familiar names.g. There are many others with technical Latin names which involve single muscles or whose connections are somewhat obscure. Human activities — In human adults comparatively few Even such a reflex be reinforced or partly inhibited by voluntary control. the facial reflexes). as the flexing of the several finger joints in grasping. Reflexes. This notion still prevails in popular psychology.. Instinct. without consciousness or deliberation. or suppleTuentary. — The term instinct it has been variously Earlier writers treated as a mysterious innate power possessed by subhuman animals. x some allied cases the actions of different muscles tend partly to one another. partly to reinforce ing. as the two legs in walkneutralize. and trol -»-!>• how much more voluntary conwe have acquired over some than over others. Where several reflexes follow in succession. may not be particularly useful. it is a resyonse to the stimulus An isolated reflex. these are called and antagonistic reflexes.234 REFLEX BEHAVIOR AND INSTINCT [ch.

and that this * central adjustment is due to inherited nervous con- nections. grasping with the lips. movement serves as a stimulus \Mien the left foot touches the ground the touch stimulus. for example. As a general rule the same fundamental instincts appear in every indi\ndual of the species at about the same i>eriod of life. x] NATURE OF INSTINCT ' 235 of integration and coordination of nerve impulses. Instinctive action takes place because each reflex that composes it follows an inherited path of least resistance. walking. Each is furnishes a stimulus which causes the next reflex. This involves a sucreflex in the series cession of different reflexes bending the head. In most instincts each act in the series involves a different kind of reflex from the preceding. it stimulates your swallowing reflex so powerfully that you can scarcely avoid making the swallowing contractions. not upon gradual learning by the individual. A typical example is the suckling instinct in the human : infant. FoUowing out this notion. as already pointed out. together with the muscle-sense stimulus from the muscles of the left leg. and in which (6) the connections dei>end ujx)n inherited In structure. 22a . because they all »P.CH. each for the next. starts the motor impulse for lifting the right leg. and so on. * In later still life the series broken up. and swallowing. but the last into the link in the chain holds: when you take food mouth. sucking. in which (a) one reflex furnishes the stimulus that leads to the next. instinct is defined as any sort of complex behavior that involves a set of reflex activities. and because the motor response of one reflex provides the appropriate stimulus for the next. especially if it reaches the back of the tongue. This succession of response and stimulation is characteristic of instinctive behavior generally. The development of an instinct may be thwarted if at any stage the movement does not lead to the proper stimulus for the next stage.

If a variation should occur in the feeding instinct of such a sort that the sucking reflex was not stimulated by lip-grasping. The is origin of wide- spread instincts and their special varieties basis of natural selection in the following explained on the way: place in connection Each separate reflex appears in the with some chance variation of nerve given reflex is first structure. of reflexes into instincts is The combination pathways due to chance variations in the position of nerves. The is. As we pass from infancy the feeding instinct is greatly modified by the use of our hands and various implements for eating. instinctive behavior. the result would be disastrous to the infant: he would starve to death. reflex paths. — The human adult . Human Instincts. that because a useful in keeping the creature alive. those are at a disadvantage and die young. It ceases to be a pure instinct. Origin of New Instincts. then the creature possessing this new combination is more likely to survive and transmit the instinct to his oflEspring. especially fitted to preserve the animal's life. purely instinctive way. man- — kind among the rest. Detrimental variations tend to weed themselves out by the very same selection that promotes the survival of advantageous variations. Suppose some new combination of brought about by chance variation and capable is of inheritance. seldom behaves in a His activities are largely modifled and controlled by individual experiences. has evolved certain typical kinds of Some instincts belong to a large num- ber of species. varia- tions that are useful to a species are selected. Every species of animal.INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR inherit the [ch. others to a single species. x stantially the same fundamental nerve structure and live in subsame environment. which bring certain close together. more and more individuals having without it this reflex live to maturity. Even the deep^ underlying instincts are partly suppressed and reduced to conventional forms. Not every new combination is advantageous.

x] HUMAN INSTINCTS 237 Many instincts. In this sense walking is a human instinct. restrict human instincts to a activities Nutrition: maintenance of bodily organization Reproduction: perpetuation of the species Defense: prevention of injury by the environment Aggression: destruction of enemies Social organization cooperation with his fellows Individual development: his own improvement : Most of these great objectives in life give rise to emotional expression. They are. but only that it is very largely determined by inheritance. we find that man tries to attain one or other of the following results by his many. say chologists as to the is innate and how There have been wide differences of opinion among psynumber of human instincts. The tendency to prefer the right hand over the left. In later life it is diflScult to how much of our right-handedness much is due to training. Both views are partly correct. in . they are modified innate tendencies never get a chance to develop into by habits which are already formed when the tendency appears. as of the lower species.' »P. What objects in life do our various movements and actions accomplish? What purposes do they serve? Looking over the field broadly. When we speak of human instincts. but he has a great number of modified instincts. It is convenient to classify human instincts according to the kind of results they bring about. James and others insist that as man possesses any a great variety of instincts — Other writers few kinds. in fact. 214. The human adult has few yure instincts. like most animal instincts. though a child may be aided in developing it by teaching and imitation.: ^. for instance. does not appear till after the child has learned to use his hands in various ways. so that what we get is a form of behavior that is partly instinctive. it is to be understood that the behavior described is not wholly inherited. partly intelligent. as we noticed in the last chapter.

court- Wandering [Hunting] Acquiring [Hoarding] Cleanliness Diffused expression 3. Maternal Filial (of infancy) Defensive 4. they determine both instinctive and intelligent behavior. which to-day and globe-trotting. others is we recognize many familiar kinds of not so clear. Looking over the actions which need no comment. The meaning of some-of the The wandering instinct. . Human beings.] The principal human list instincts are shown in Table XI. warding off destruction.INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR fact. overcoming their enemies. Social 6. reproducing their kind. cooperating with other men. whether emo- tional or not. perform actions which result in their getting food. Nutritive Reproductive Walking Feeding Mating ship) (sexual attraction. — Human Instincts 2. and improving their own condition. Table XI. [CH. 1. seems to be finds expression in exploration . by nervous make-up. filial) Individual Development Family (parental and Tribal [Herding] 'Apopathetic* Imitativeness Playfulness Curiosity Dextrality (ri ght-handedness) Sympathetic Antipathetic Cobperative [Note: Communicativeness Esthetic expression in square brackets denote Names a more primitive form of the same instinct. These six kinds of biological purposes serve as a basis for classifying their inherited human instincts. X the motives for all our complex actions. Aggressive Fighting Submission Hiding Avoiding Fighting Resenting Domineering Rivalry Modesty [Shyness] Clothing [Covering] Constructing [Home-ma king] 5 .

grief. as one might suppose. in primitive The covering and home-making man are instances of this.CH. tendencies. somewhat group develop than the others. x] HUMAN mSTINCTS 239 derived from a more primitive hunting instinct. Fighting and ways of responding to the same stimuinstincts but many defensive instincts have no counterpart in the aggressive group. A child may manifest the same devotion toward adopted parents. Part of this diverfists or the feet behavior. In civilized man these instincts have developed into clothing and constructing The constructing instinct has had far-reaching results in the sphere of invention. Symptoms of courtship are seen even Filial instincts determine the child's bein young children. fighting may be performed with the or even with the teeth. due to the slow maturing of Yet rudimentary expressions often the generative organs. These diffused instinctive expres- sions are the only instincts in the nutritive group that are distinctly emotional. but of an instinctive tendency on the child's part to behave in certain ways toward those who After the fostering age is past. appear at an early age. . and the tend- ency to acquire property harks back to a hoarding instinct in the days when life depended on storing away supplies for the winter. more and more on a social basis. family ties rest foster him. includes the natural expression of and the like. fleeing are alternative lus. they arose because man needed protection from rain and cold. — sity of expression is due to the fact that our inherited tend- ency to fight ing* is developed this is way or that by intelligent learn- Diffused expression it the emotional display of general systemic conditions. havior toward his parents. joy. The defensive and aggressive instincts are not always instincts belonging to the reproductive later The opposite alternatives. Often a single instinct includes several different kinds of For example. it is not a question of actual relationship.

and others are repugnant. believe that the distinction rests on inheritance. We see instances of each almost daily. We approval of others. forms neither defensive nor aggressive but have to do chiefly with social organization. this feeling? Usually some sensation smell. and in other special ways to their expressions of disapproval. Certain people please us from the start. feeling in us. the distinction is more obvious. The we trace In the list of social instincts are included only those of behavior that are essentially social — actions which are remotely as so. the bare fact of their being around has an We respond in special ways to the effect on our behavior. called apopaihetic (for The instincts want of a better name) tend to act differently when others are present. The havior distinction is between sympathetic and antipathetic be- too obvious to need discussion. and the modesty instinct are apt to be them back to their primitive forms. What stimulates from sight.240 INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR clothing instinct If [ch. . etc. Shyness is connected with our personality. In each case the person arouses a. The external senses may also The scarcely human body odor often arouses an indefinable antipathy. hearing. or whether the two opposing types of behavior There is reason to are acquired through social intercourse. race antagonisms are probably due to this cause. In civiHzed life modesty is a defense measure against the attacks on our mental privacy. even though they pay no attention to us. while clothing is a means of protecting the body. The only question is whether this distinction is innate. Family life may exist without community we find in many primitive races. are responses to the attitudes of others. that — man's voice pleases arouse dislike perceptible — consciously or subconsciously. us. covering has to do with our body. The family to the mating instincts — instincts are closely related tribal instincts only life. This man has an attractive face or manner. x confused. covering and shyness.

an action is imitative if it reproduces some other person's act.CH. Imitation. . community results ' is instinc- tive in the ants. then. which find expression in various sorts of acts. the act is imitation. In man cooperation is largely an acquired probably rests upon an instinctive basis. We are able to imitate not only vocal expres- and gestures (like the monkey). This is due to the vast system of connections between the various centers in the Imitation. They are definite inherited tendencies. But some is there are distinct inherited paths in the nervous system which enable us to try to imitate. for instance. where we see only the result sions (like the parrot) * The tendency is imiiativeness. where certain classes of individuals perform trait. We copy handwriting. The types of behavior connected with individual development (Table XI) are not instinctive but it — responses. but muscular movements of almost every sort which we see others perform. is not an instinct. but there is in certain an instinctive tendency to imitate.' The same is true of play and curiosity. Generally the abiUty to imitate anything ing is acquired — by a process of learn- it is not inherited. but they are learned more quickly on account of the innate tendency. Division of labor to produce various duties. nor the monkey for instead of responding in inherited tendency to imitate reproducing articulate expression. or if it brings about a result which resembles some other result. The imitative tendency is much stronger and more extensive in man than in any other species. But the parrot has no arrangement of nerve paths for reproducing gestures. strictly speaking: they do not represent definite ways of acting. may be observed in any one of a hundred different actions. x] HUMAN INSTINCTS ' 241 The cooperative instincts are similar to the tribal instincts. Instinctive Tendencies. the parrot tends to imitate speech and the monkey to imitate gestures. The actions themselves are not inherited. species human brain. entirely different way. An found in some subhuman species.

listening to gossip. Children learn to play games by imitating other children. Right-handedness. it is based on man's nervous make-up. behavior. The curiosity of dogs and other animals is probably merely involuntary attention to very vivid stimuli. The dog is not curious to explore the burrow in the ground. whether imitative or spontaneous. delving into history. but which serve as an outlet for our nervous energy. Curiosity is the innate tendency to seek information. and other kinds of deep-rooted human trait. have one common feature they It is \'f represent relaxation from the serious business of life. Curiosity manifests itself in mankind in a variety of ways. social or solitary.242 INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR [ch. Play is partly an imitative phenomenon. is the hand over the other in performing acts. they imitate (often grotesquely) the actions of older people. The tendency . Such widely different activities as * playing telephone. though in many individuals is it is the left (sinistro- supposed to rest on a greater development of certain motor centers in one hemisphere of the brain and is apparently connected with the formation of dextrality). x and not the movements made in writing: we can reproduce the form of objects in nature by gestures or by drawing. study of nature. which differ according to the individual's tastes and habits of life. and distinguishes man from other pecies. in a majority of cases the right hand is preferred (dextro-dextralpreference of one ity). play means a tendency to perform acts which are not directly concerned with our bodily or mental welfare. he is held there by the odor which indicates the presence of a rabbit. more properly called dexlrality.' the game of football. when they play at being grown up. but the tendency to imitate is inherited. But the play behavior has also a distinctive character of its own. This is characteristic of all play. It may take the form of exploration. Often the imitation succeeds only after a more or less elaborate course of training. a ramble in the woods. a solitary game : of «{ards.

These are not acquired. and to perpetuate the species. Besides these special instinctive tendencies. has not as yet received a satisfactory explanation. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. it is found in gregarious animals and others. Its early manifestation in childhood it is primitive races seems to indicate that a real inherited tendency. xiii). like reflexes. an aggressive. and a social tendency in human behavior. which leaves his hands free to practice gesturing and writing. as indicating a fundamental nutritive tendency. Popular writers speak of an Strictly speaking there is * instinct of self-preservation. they are based on something in our inherited nervous constitution.' no such instinct. Taking all these as a part of our general inherited bodily organization. But we have inborn tendencies to nourish ourselves. It manifests itself in many ways. which are usually in the left hemisphere. there seems to be a general innate tendency underlying each class of instincts.CH. that Development of Instincts in the Individual. Esthetic expression. The tendency to communicate is not peculiar to man. We may regard walking. the artistic touch which many human and among actions exhibit. a defensive. and by man's upright posture. In the same way we note a reproductive. Communicative behavior is greatly assisted by the development of the language centers in the brain. it is correct to say man has a very fundamental instinctive tendency to keep himself alive and to preserve his species. and vice versa. They belong to human nature. But in man it is unusually strong. which are developed into systematic modes of expression by intelligence through the influence of the social environment (ch. x] INSTINCTIVE TENDENCIES 243 the language centers. such as gesture and speech. to defend ourselves. feeding. and the like. stitution of each individual. belong to the inborn con- The nerve structure through . — Instincts and instinctive tendencies.

x which they operate is provided for in the original germ cell from which the individual grows. till It is is sometimes stated that instincts are invariable. The nervous structure needed for many of the instincts is practically ready at birth. or if we encounter a stone in the path. is usually not completely adlife. We adjust our walking movements to slopes and obstacles variations are due to differences of pressure foot. But since we all live in the same general environment the appropriate stimuli usually do occur. and is derived directly from one parent or both. and in some cases it develops long before: but no instinctive action can take place till there is some actual stimulation and until the several reflexes which compose it are linked into a series. so that the instinct appears sooner or later. till some time in the second year of This is because the muscles of the legs are not sufficiently developed till then. and in some cases it may never be perfected. The welding of separate reflexes into an instinct is often not completed till a considerable time after birth. on the sole of the due to visual stimuli from the objects we see ahead. In short. any given instinct begins to manifest itself at a certain period of life. others are . The reproductive instincts are not fully developed somewhere between the tenth and fifteenth years. Nor is this altogether a matter of consciousness. Some of these influenced by various being performed. for example. This does not mean that a given instinct is present at birth. Instinctive This not absolutely true. the appearance of the instinct is delayed. movements are greatly stimuli that occur while the act is In the act of walking we adjust our movements in different ways when we step up or down or walk on a slope. Human justed walking.244 INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR [ch. nor that the appropriate nerve connections are already formed at birth. and the period at which it appears depends not so much upon the chance occurrence of appropriate stimuli as upon the 'perfection of the nerve connections and effector organs. If the proper stimuli do not occur at the right season.

In the complex cortex of the human brain the higher centers gather in and send out impulses which inhibit certain reflexes and reinforce others. while intelli- gent expression depends essentially upon the effects of reten- V tion. Before examining motor experiences (ch. is to transform our actions little by little from the instinctive to the intelligent type. xii). fighting. is that walking and feeding and other instincts show the effect of learning? The explanation that in such cases of the inherited paths or lines of conduction in the nerv- ous system are broken up and other pathways are substituted. Some responses are inherited. as time goes on. stimuli. is on an instinctive and develop along basis. To the extent that this occurs the behavior Ibses its instinctive character. By inherited is meant that certain definite arrangements of nerves in the body are determined from the start. often without being aware that we are doing so. The effect of this. there are no pure instincts. in walking. We step down from the curb or walk around a tree. There are similar variaquite as well tions in the instinctive actions of animals where there is no question of intelligence. feeding. intel- ligent The nearest we come to purely instinctive behavior instincts. others are acquired by each individual.when we are absorbed in conversation as when we are paying strict attention to the path in front. their natural connections are such that if — a cer- . K how some instinctive expression is it is not modified by experience. and other modified Summary. They are due to variations in the The chief difference between the variations which occur in instinctive and intelligent behavior is that instinctive modes of expression are not altered by past experience. we must study the relation of responses to stimulation. of intelligent actions In the human adult Our behavior consists largely rest which The instinctive tendencies persist lines.

Blanton. learned — it is innate. James. B. fighting. Instincts do not Any given instinct appears necessarily appear at birth. e. References: On On reflexes of infants: M. 5. Test in your case and report how far each is under voluntary control. 10-15. Watson. (c) to find out things you do not know. instinct: W. etc. 1917. 7.. their nervous paths are inherited. which arm or leg acts first in putting on or removing your various garments. 3. intelligent.. G. 63. An instinct is a complicated form of response made up of a succession of reflexes.. 60. L.g. chs. 8: J. Describe (or name) all the different sorts of muscular movements which you can observe in your face and head. Educational Psychology (briefer course). chs. . Examine why you have the following tendencies: (o) to sympathize with your friends. Man has few pure instincts. (6) to collect objects of some kind. when the tendencies. 4. Principles of Psychology. 62. bodily conditions for or it are ripe. Psychology.g. J. but the tendency itself is innate. The simplest inherited response is the reflex. x given a certain definite response always A reflex is not Coughing. 51. in Psychological Review. Social Psychology. eating. Besides instinc- tive responses movements we have certain instinctive Imitation and other inherited tendencies express themselves in actions that are not inherited. 2-4. Instinct in Man. Thorndike. and partly Nearly all our activities are . W. McDougall.246 tain stimulus follows. Most of his inherited behavior is modified partly instinctive by learning. 7. walking. Drever. Examine a number of the most familiar reflexes given in Table X. 456-483. winking. ch. It is also innate. chs. Report all noticeable right and left preferences in your actions. ch. E. INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR is [ch. e. Practical Exercises: 49. 24. they are the automatic outcome of certain stimuli. Analyze the motor processes included in three different human instincts. are reflex responses.

The adaptation effect does not wear away when we . they mean simply : that conditions loithin the organ- ism have changed. and muscles. Your responses you make more rest. — If the same stimulus bp ap^ied^ effect to the same individual time after time. If the knee be tapped repeatedly. so that the outcome is different. become better adapted to the hits. There are destructive chemical changes in the tissues which tend to weaken or inhibit the usual response. synapses. his responses rday. the knee-jerk gradually becomes weaker. These differences in the when the external causes are the same do not throw doubt upon the uniformity of nature.CHAPTER XI INTELLIGENCE Individual Adaptation. It is not an im(6) Adaptation acts in the opposite way. There are two distinct kinds of individual modifications in responses fatigue and adaptation. Fatigue is a condition of diminished efficiency. or to gradual improvement of the old paths by cutting out useless movements. but to the formation of new paths in the nervous system. It is due not to destruction of tissue. but a distinct improvement due to more perfect adjustment. (a) The fatigue change occurs in instinctive actions and reflexes as well as in intelligent actions. In ordinary cases fatigue disappears after a period of rest. and practice firing at a target. If you are unfamiliar with shooting. pairment of the response.* change. you find after awhile that you begin to get better results. Constant repetition of the same stimulus causes wear and tear in the receptors. when the exhausted tissue is restored by the building up of new chemical compounds. situation.

In certain experiments it was arranged to strike the knee with a hammer held and operated by mechanical devices so as to insure uniform force and location of the blow. An example of this is the conditioned knee-jerk. conditions a response which in the beginning was called forth by a certain stimulus. The new reflex acquired in this way is called a conditioned reflex. may become the response to a totally different stimulus. one of which (A) leads to a definite not. and Conditioned Reflexes Nature of Conditioned Reflexes. B occur alone.248 it INTELLIGENCE intelligent behavior. may bring about the response which originally belonged to A. This is a specially good example because there is no quesIn tion of association of ideas. and if characteristic response. The auditory stimulus (B) brought about the response which belonged originally to the contact stimulus (A). If you tap a certain spot just below the knee-cap. A bell was sounded each time before the hammer fell. [ch. here there new connot. xi is tends to persist. Increased adaptation of response the dis- most notable characteristic of tinguishes it from instinct. The subject had formed a conditioned reflex. and . During the experiment something went wrong with the apparatus. The hammer fell part way but did not strike. — The simplest form of Under certain acquired adaptation occurs in reflex actions. The knee-jerk it is not under voluntary control. This is the natural knee-jerk reflex. Conditioned reflexes are built up when two stimuli occur repeatedly at the same time. you cannot produce by suggestion. while the second (B) does After a number of repetitions of the it two stimuU to- gether. is other cases there might be some doubt whether the nection was automatically acquired. Yet the leg flew up. just as it was accus- tomed to respond to the blow. the leg flies up.

by repetition the synapses connecting this sensory nerve with the definite motor path of the other will be . the smell stimulus causes a response in his salivary gland saliva accumulates in his — be mouth. Pawlow made an incision in the dog's salivary gland and inserted a glass tube which passed through the corner of his mouth and hung down. Ovu" response to the dinner bell is involves a more complex mental process and of conditioned reflexes not quite analogous to the dog's conditioned response. The saliva passed out through the tube and could be observed by the experimenter as it dropped. the combined impulses will tend to follow that path. is brought in. xi] CONDITIONED REFLEXES 249 we may assume that established in the other simple conditioned reflexes are A dog sees same automatic way. Sup- pose that at the outset the sensory nerve bearing the other impulse has no definite motor connections but its stimuli produce diffuse movements through one motor path or another according to the condition of its various synapses.CH. the sensory nerve bearing one of these impulses has a definite motor path. after awhile a conditioned salivary reflex will be brought about by the mere sound of the before the box is seen. a bell be struck every time the box bell. The strength of the conditioned reflex was measured by the number of drops per second. When two stimuli occur simultaneously their may come together in one of the centers. This has been definitely proved by Pawlow's experiment. Then. It is probable that the watering of the mouth ' at the sight of a juicy peach is a conditioned reflex and is not due ' to an association of ideas. a box containing food and smells the food. Conditioned reflexes are found in man just as in lower animals. a conditioned salivary reflex will after awhile aroused by the mere sight of the box. If the same box be brought If in daily. The formation depends upon the nerve impulses If existence of branching connections in the nervous system.

For. automatically and unthinkingly as an instinct. In so far as our behavior is not fully determined by inherited paths in the nervous system it ceases to be instinctive. is two stimuli occur together. In psychology.' 250 strengthened. — When in the reflexes are altered. CONDITIONED REFLEXES * ' [ch. but not always when we have once learned to perform a suitable act it may be carried out just as It is best. there are changes complex actions of which they form part. actions tend to be adaptive It will readily type of individual be seen that the brings about in the animal's (or the man's) — that if is. It also finds that we are usually aware to some extent of the fitness. to be suitable or fitted to the general situation. then. but is acquired by the individual. a response suitable to both likely to Intelligent Behavior Intelligence. inborn.' intelligent behavior is defined as any complex action which is not inherited. innate. . imply that we realize that the actions in Psychology shows that though individually acquired behavior tends to be suitable it is not always so. The words intelligence and intelligent are used in psychology in nearly (but not quite) the same sense as in popular lanPopularly the expressions intelligent actions and guage. its * nerve impulse will follow the motor path of the reflex stimulus and will bring about the response originally belonging to the latter. and by other changes to be described later. provided the intelligent behavior question are the proper thing to do. — : * 1 Instinctive means inherited. xi established that Eventually the connection becomes so firmly when the diffuse stimulus occurs alone. The conditioned changes which it reflex is the simplest modification of behavior. Instinctive behavior is modified by the acquisition of conditioned reflexes. be suitable to either.^ Complex actions which are due to individually acquired connections of nerve paths are termed intelligent actions. not to lay stress on the awareness.

CH. xi]

NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE

251

way suitable to the situation.^ Intelligence means the capacity of an individual to break away from instinctive behavior and acquire new modes of action. Inresponse be in any
telligence
is

often used as a shorthand term for intelligent
is

behavior, just as instinct

used for instinctive behavior.

Although instinct

is

the usual form of behavior in sub-

human

species, there is a certain

tation in all animals except those low

amount of intelligent adapdown in the scale of life.

This is shown by experiments with the maze. [Fig. 73.] An animal is released at the entrance (A) of a maze, food having been placed at the far end or center (B). The hunger stimulus, reinforced by the odor stimulus, arouses him to action. He starts off and after a certain number of hesitations, false moves, and retracings reaches the food and satisfies his hunger. The same program is repeated on the same or successive days. It is found that after a number of trials the animal succeeds in reaching the food-box in a shorter time, and with fewer false moves as indicated by the total distance traversed. In an experiment with 27 white rats the average
in the eleventh,

time was reduced from 467 seconds in the first trial to 40.3 and the average distance from 4216.1 to
1029.8 centimeters.
fish

Even
trials

and other Crustacea there is a

distance after

many

low as the craytime and in a simple maze.
in species as
slight reduction in

The animal's behavior in the maze experiments consists of a
long series of reflexes which, taken together, form a complex
action.
ified in

the course of time.

The action at first is instinctive, but it becomes modThe rate of improvement serves

as a measure of the animal's intelligence.'^

Adaptive changes in behavior are not limited to improving
the efficiency of responses. The most important changes are those that bring about new kinds of response. Human beThis excludes movements that are entirely irrelevant, but includes and small, that occur during the process of learning. * Compare Table XII, p. 260.
^

errors^

large

252
havior
is

INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR
far

CH. XI

the behavior of any

more subject to this kind subhuman species.

of modification than

In the

human

child

H>
/

/
.•*

.,.•""'
..•••"
i

*-^.
•,

"\ N**\
\

\
\

\ \

'

I

:

••

••

W
'I

*

;

.^^

:

:

I

•;

'

I.— -«

!—

'.

Fig. 73.

— Mazes for Investigating Habit Formation

used to determine the rate at which an animal learns the right path from A to B. Upper figure is a simple maze used by Yerkes with frogs. One choice of paths at start, one choice near end. (From Harvard Pgychological Studies.] Lower figure is a maze used by Hubbert with rats. Heavy line shows actual path of one rat on 62d trial. See Table XII for results of this experiment. [From Jour, oj Anxmai Behavior.]

Two mazes

we observe any number

of instances in

which new forms of

response are developed through individual experience: talk-

CH. xil
ing,

NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE

253

clothes,

manipulating knife, fork, and spoon, buttoning the opening the door, climbing stairs, folding the napkin,

writing,

swimming, riding a bicycle, and many
are generally concerned with

others.

Adult

acquisitions

more complex

processes, such as steering a sail-boat or motor-car, typewriting, telegraphing,

Learning, or habit formation, is the Habit Formation. process of forming new connections in the nervous arc and There are perfecting these connections through repetition. two rather different sorts of learning: (1) The formation of inotcyr habits, through coordination of muscular movements as, for example, learning to typewrite. (2) The formation of

and shooting.

menial habits; this means establishing
brain,

— connections which
When
*

new connections

in the

pression.

have no immediate motor exwe learn to notice weather signs or to
'

observe things
logically, or

out of the corner of the eye
chiefly the forming of
is

or to think

when we memorize a poem
is

or the multiplication

table, the acquisition

the brain

centers; — there
incidental.

new paths

in

eventually some motor result,

but

this

is

The learning process is

substantially the
results differ.

mental habits, though the
tion,
(6)

same in motor and Both kinds of habit(a)

formation involve two steps or stages of progress:

tions.
a.

a

— making new connections in the nervous system; and Fixation, — strengthening these newly acquired connecThese two processes supplement each other. Acquisition. — A baseball pitcher a way to deliver new curve — one that he has never pitched before. A
finds

Acquisi-

billiard player

makes a new kind

of shot.

A

recruit in the

training

camp
first

gains the ability to respond by the proper

movements
case the
it is

to each

command

in the drill

manual.

In every

time the new movement is made, or whenever altered, the man has acquired something. The acquisi-

is not a change in the muscles but a change in the nervt ous paths that operate the muscles. Intelligent acquisi-

tion

254
tion
'

INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR
of

[CH. XI

new movements

is

the process of forming

new paths

of conduction in the central part of the nervous arc.

Acquisition does not involve the growth of

the projection of

new

collaterals.

new neurons nor The neurons and their
life.

branches have already been formed in pre-natal

It

is

only the course of the impulse that is changed. The acquisition of new responses means that the nerve impulse is shunted from the usual path to some new path. This means
its course passes through a synapse which has not hitherto been used, instead of through the commonly used synapse. In Fig. 74, suppose the usual path of the impulse be * '-.^ along the neuron A and > out into the neuron Bl; then if on some occasion

that the impulse in some part of

\

for

any reason the imdis-

pulse passes over into

B2, a new path of
charge
is

opened and a
is

new
Fic. 74.

response

ac-

quired.

— Changes of Path in Habit
Formation
of

How do these changes
path
are

Diagram to illustrate the acquisition of new nerve paths. Nerve impulses travel along A in direction of
arrows to synapses connecting with Bl, B2, B3, B4, which are alternative pathways. (See text.)

They

come about? made possible
by the
of

in the first place

existence

manifold

connections in the nervous system.
collaterals or branches,

There can be no acquisi-

tion unless the central neurons are provided with a

number of

or higher neuron.

each connecting with a different lower The several synapses leading out from a

given neuron must vary in their degree of resistance, and they must be capable of varying independently, so that at one time a certain synapse (connecting with Bl) will be less
*

Instinctive acquisition

is

a

racial

product and depends upon the evolu-

tion of the nervous system from generation to generation.

CH. xi]
resistant

HABIT FORMATION
(connecting with

255

than any of the others, at other times another

synapse

B2

or B3).

If

there are no

branches the nerve impulse will always follow the same path; and if there are several branches but a certain one of the synapses is always the path of least resistance, then the impulse will always follow that path.
tions in the brain centers

has inherited an intricate system of multiple connecand particularly in the cortex. His central nervous system includes a vast number of alternative paths capable of being brought into connection. This is the

Man

real cause of

man's superior intelligence as compared with

other species.

But
tion

this only

means that acquisition

is

possible.

still

remains.

How

is it

actually brought about?

The quesThe

upon changes in least three ways in which we form new paths: (1) One synapse may become less resistant to the passage of impulse than it was before;
actual change of path in every case depends

the conditions of the synapses.

There are at

or (2) the synapse that usually carries the impulse

may

blocked and the impulse passes over into the next best path; or (3) a very intense impulse may succeed in breaking through several synapses at once, just as a powerful stream of water not only

become

very resistant, so that this

pathway

is

fills

the usual channel but trickles over into other channels

It is likely that the degree of resistance at synapses is determined by the quality as well as the intensity of the impulse, and that it depends also on conditions in the next higher neuron the neuron into which the impulse seeks to pass. These three ways of altering the nerve paths give three

as well.

kinds of acquisition:

(1)

Accommodation occurs when a new

path is opened. In reading aloud, when we see a new word the nerve impulses are shunted into new paths according to our retention and memory of the several letters or syllathere is an accommodation of bles composing the word;

response.

(2) Inhibition occurs

when the

old pathway

is

^56
blocked.
friend

INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR
When we we prepare to
is

[ch. xi

see

greet

some one coming who looks like a him in one of the usual ways; if

when he comes
of response

closer

closed

he proves to be a stranger, the path and the bow or greeting is inhibited.

(3) Diffusion; the impulse may spread into several paths simultaneously into new paths as well as old. When we are walking to the station to catch a train, if we hear the loco-

motive whistle, there

arises

a very powerful nerve current, due

to a combination of the sound sensation

sations concerned in walking; this causes the

and the muscle senmotor impulse
is

to spread into several paths; the result
response.

a

much

livelier

Sometimes these forms occur together.
bined with accommodation when

Inhibition

we

start to

is comwind a clock the

wrong way. If the key does not turn (inhibition), we thereupon alter the course of the motor impulse and twist it in the
opposite direction (accommodation).

Most examples
atically

of acquisition

drawn from every-day

life

involve complicated actions.

To

study the process system-

we must

start with the simple reflexes

which compose

our actions and observe
ditioned reflex
is

how

these are modified.

The

con-

a typical case of accommodation.

When

you learn to check the eye-wink, or the cough, you are inhibiting these reflexes. Diffusion may be studied by attempting to twitch the ear voluntarily if you have never done so before. The effort to raise the ear causes the motor impulse to spread
to various regions near by.

You

raise

your eyebrows, move
successful,
its
it

your scalp,

etc.

If

the effort

is finally

means
of

that the impulse, in spreading, has forced
hitherto unused

way

into the

pathway leading to the levator muscle

your

ear.

Fixation is the process of strengthening the b. Fixation. connection in the newly acquired path. The passage of the nerve impulse through a new synapse tends to set ' the
'

structure of that synapse so that

it offers less

resistance in

CH. xi]
future.
If

HABIT FORMATION

257

to wear away; the acquisition
returns.
after, it is

only one impulse of the sort occurs the effect tends is lost and the old response

But if another impulse of a similar sort occurs soon more likely to pass through the new than through

the old channel.

An

acquisition

becomes permanently fixed

when the new pathway is finally established. The rate of progress in fixing a new path depends upon four The new factors: repetition, intensity, recency, and conflict. path is more firmly established in proportion to the number of
times the given stimulus
tition is
recently.
is

repeated.

Fewer

repetitions are

needed when the nerve impulses are very

intense.

The

repe-

more effective if the These conditions of

original acquisition occurred

habit-fixation correspond to
is

the three laws of recollection.^ Recollection, in fact,
special case of fixation.

just a

The connection between

visual

impressions and verbal memories becomes fixed in the same

way

as

motor habits, so that the sight

of a certain face leads

to the recollection of the man's name.

The remaining
flict,

condition of fixation, the principle of confirst
if,

corresponds to the
is

law of forgetting.^

The progress

meanwhile, impulses of a different In such cases the sort occur, which use the old pathways. old connection is maintained along with the new, and fixation takes longer. Suppose when we start to learn typewriting we use two machines with slightly different key-boards or
of fixation

hindered

with the shift-key in different places.

two

different resp)onses to similar stimuli.

Here we have to learn The two responses
If

conflict,

and

this retards the progress of fixation.

we

attempt to memorize a poem in which each stanza begins with the same line and then runs on differently, there is the

same sort of conflict. As the process of

fixing a habit goes on, two different our actions are im' changes in the behavior take place proved in two different ways:

1

See ch.

viii,

pp. 186-187.

»

P.

isa

258
(1)

INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR
As the new connections grow
is

[ch. xi
is less

stronger there

hesi-

tation, so that less time

needed for performing the action.
act.

This
(2)

effect is

caWed facilitation of the

As the new connections become stronger there are fewer
and erroneous movements gradually drop out.
This

diffused impulses along alternative paths, so that various
useless
is

called elimination.

Law of
path
is

strengthened, the

Facilitation or Speed: As the newly acquired new response tends to proceed more

rapidly.

of Elimination or Accuracy: As the new connec* and erroneous movements; the response becomes more precise and more accurate. These two types of improvement may readily be observed in the progress of any complicated habit, such as typewriting. After you have used the machine some time you find that the movements follow more rapidly. At the same time you will find that you strike fewer wrong keys, and make fewer useless movements, such as wrinkling the brows, puckering the hps, exploring the keyboard with the eyes to find a letter. If you work methodically at learning a new habit your progress may be measured quite exactly in terms of speed and
tions improve, there are fewer useless
precision.

Law

The

speed of performance

is

reckoned either by
if

the amount accomplished in a given time or by the time re-

quired to perform a stated task.

In learning to typewrite,

you practice an hour a day, yoiu- iinprovement in speed may be measured either by the number of words typed in five minutes, or by the time required for typing a single page day after day. Accuracy is measured by the number (or percentage) of errors; in learning to typewrite you compare the number of mistakes made from day to day in typing one page. Experiments on the rate of learning have been made in

many common
balls,

habits, such as telegraphing, juggling three

shorthand, and mirror-writing.

Fig. 75

shows the
*

progress of a novice in learning to telegraph.

The curve

'

— Curve of Learning Shows the progress of facilitation (speed) during the fixing of a habit: learning to telegraph. The experimenter was entirely unfamiliar with the habit at the start BulUiin.] [From Swift. Vertical numbers denote the number of words which the learner was able to telegraph in 6 minutes after 30 minutes of practice. Horizontal numbers denote successive days. 75.CH. in Psychological . XI ] HABIT FORMATION f5g 100 Pig.

1 6 11 16 21 467.8 . The series Table shows average time and average number H. Time (sec. Habit Formation in the Rat: "rial Av. Hubbert.2 1029. Time Av.- 26 31 4216. (cm.0 186. daily. Psychol.8 868. 4. 1914. xi (which is really a jagged line) represents the number of words tapped oflf in 5 minutes on successive days with the same amount of daily practice. J. measured by the time required to typewrite Their speed is fifty-five letters and their accuracy by the number of errors. B. Habit Formation in tay 1 — Progress (sec.) XII.3 25. A. 17. p. It shows the gain in speed. Average attainment of 4 human subjects learning to typewrite nonsense was performed 3 times of errors per series.1 1719.260 INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR [ch. not in accuracy.) .25 8 9 groupings of 7 different BS 40 47 letters. p. of Animal Behavior. Dist. Table XII. Two trials each day. habits involved are Table XII B though the shows the . arranged in a series of 55 letters. Bair.1 31. Monographs. (J. NoK of Errors 2 3 4 5 6 7 79 72 63 60 56 29 27 14 10 M 7 4 2.6 40. animal allowed to feed after second trial.) Av. 19. Progress in both speed and accuracy are shown in Table The upper table (A) shows the average progress of four men in typewriting nonsense groups of letters..No.2 Average attainment of 27 white rats in maze experiment.5 593. (H.4 739. measurements The same sort of may be applied to animal much simpler. learning. 63.9 756.5 2 0.) B.5 24.2 26.) of Learning Man: Av.

in this experiment the accuracy is measured. On the other hand changes. tain situations occur over .— CH. the period of between two slopes. we pursue our regular occupations in much the same way. xij HABIT FORMATION 261 average progress of twenty-seven white rats in learning to thread a maze. is Then if practice is continued. but by the distance covered by the rat in his wanderings. there is virtually no improvement. by rather long rest intervals. This flat after a time the In Fig. is more rapid if we we split it up into parts and learn f Relation between Acquisition and Fixation. we breakfast under much the same conditions. the 19th and 30th days. If the progress is is represented no-progress a flat stretch man takes a new by a curve. Contrary to the general impression. . which indicates the amount of unnecessary movement. The speed is measured by the time required. we are constantly meeting the same people. After a certain amount of practice the progress appears to cease. interrupted more rapid when the repetitions are a short period of time or when they are spread But the progress in memorizing a speech if learn it as a whole than each part separately. The new rise in the curve indicates that another acquisition has taken place. not by the number of errors. which in turn becomes gradually fixed. In some experiments on human learning an interesting fact brought out. 75 there is a plateau between Plateaus are prn hahly dn*^ tr> mir having about reached theHimit of improvement -^Kuigh facilitation and elimination. Cer- — *-i-i and over again with no significant Each morning we have to dress. spurt. ~An interesting practical is problem in learning is whether progress in fixation crowded into over a longer period interspersed with intervals of rest. Our world presents many constant and many variable featiu*es. part is called a plateau. we walk the same streets. it has been foimd that progress in memorizing is faster (in the long run) with shorter practice periods.

and both are phases of intelligence. so that finally the act becomes as automatic as any instinctive act. New responses (acquisitions) are accom- panied by vivid consciousness. Habits the pen. and are just as permanent factors in the environment as new reactions are suitable to new conditions. of writing modes of behavior. xi we vary our dress according to the weather or the occasion. such as operating a pen in writing. we find new tasks to perform. some writers regard them as cases of lapsed intelligence. we indulge in a variety of recreations.^ Even the simple life act of putting on our clothes and buttoning them must be learned. Intelligence means capacity for adaptation. Our inherited nervous connections are not sufficiently elaborate to enable us to perform the duties of civilized human beings. This is a wrong notion. A deeply rooted habit. while habits (fixations) are not. Most of the situations in human Ufe are too complex and varied to be solved by instinctive behavior. and we must (2) automatize many acts by fixation. The modes variable situations in of behavior. A habit is as much a display of intelligence as a new response. is a case of lapsed consciousness but not of lapsed intelligence. Most situations in life contain both old and new elements. require acquisition of new and the constant situations need fixation of responses. There is no lapse of are individually acquired suitable to the intelligence in fixed habits — only a decrease in the vividness of the impressions. how to wield how to write — This becomes a fixed habit.262 INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR [ch. Because fixed habits proceed automatically. When we write a letter. ^ Ants have an elaborate inherited nervous equipment. we travel. in order not to waste time over details that are always the same. . we meet new people. One process is just as important as the other. that is. but We learn in childhood we write different words and sentences. We must (1) adapt ourselves continually to new situations by new acquisitions. we hold the pen and manipulate it in a stereotyped way. and can meet some very intricate situations instinctively.

and in the end (6) accidental success. then a large part of our acquisitions are by no means an improvement. The real acquisitions are those These suitable acquisitions are and tend to error persist. reached by making the brain connections more automatic and reducing the vividness of consciousness to a minimum. If by an acquisition we mean every new variation that occurs in our movements and expression. This type of adaptation is found in subhuman species as well as in man. effort is spent by a Notice that in your own case the performance of these stereotyped actions actually impeded if may be you attend to each movement. than conscious behavior. Trial and error is a process and Error Learning.CH. which includes (a) persistent trials with wrong responses. and Trial — . Fixed habits always tend to be adaptive (or suitable). We are able to think out some other problem at th6 Notice same child time. Suppose a dog is confined in a yard with a latched gate. tend to be adaptive? not count as acquisitions. selected. He sees a cat outtrial I. because none but suitable actions are likely to be repeated But does a new acquisition Yes and no. We may try a dozen times before we hit on the right movement to accomplish what we are after. is only one factor in the process. XI] It ACQUISITION AND FIXATION 263 cannot be emphasized too strongly that the all-important fact in psychology is the creature's response to the situation which confronts him. such a condition marks a higher degree of intelligence than the con- scious planning of every detail. how much time and who is just learning to dress. But most of these failures drop out at once. In all fixed habits subconscious behavior is more effective. awareness of the situar If the best results are tion. they do constantly and become fixed. Consciousness. The dressing habits formed in childhood enable us to prepare for the day's work more rapidly. more intelligent. The selection of suitable new responses comes about in two different ways: (1) through and (2) through associative memory. that get us somewhere. more adaptive.

In a word. but we persist and try all sorts of variations. These are all responses to our visual and static sensations. They are not successful at first. is more likely than any other to recur in future. does tend to be adaptive. the gate flies open. The gate prevents the completion of his usual response to pounce on the cat. being the last in the series. and the successful response. Many human ing. the motor response is inhibited and finds some other channel. and the dog gets out. sees and smells the cat all the time. What goes on in the nervous system during the trial and error process? The key to the explanation is the persistence In the case of the dog at the gate. The gate holds despite his pawing and By chance his paw touches the latch-bar and barking. Acquisition by trial and error. habits are the result of trial and error learn- In first learning to ride a bicycle we make a lot of useless movements. these responses are successful and gradually supplant the rest. which wabble us zigzag along the road and bring about numerous falls. The cat-stimuli keep sending nerve impulses to the dog's brain and lead to a continuous series of movements. releases the latch. The jumping and pawing are persistent trials with misfit responses. then. the dog of the stimuliLS. xi pawing it and barking vigorously. it is more likely to recur than any of the other responses the next time the same situation is presented. they do not bring him to the cat. The jumping and pawing movements are accommodations of response due to the increased resistance of certain synapses — and the lowered resistance of others. Pressing the latch-bar is an accidental variation of response which brings success. [ch. Certain twists and body movements keep us upright and steer the wheel in a straight course. persistent trial is likely to meet final success by sheer chance. and because it was the most recent of the series. For the very reason that it solves the difficulty it is the last to be tried. When the new response .264 side mXELLIGENT BEHAVIOR and jumps at the gate time after time.

a motor impulse started and bothersome situation gone and ceases to stimulate our thinking. the When is the thought of is the correct solution arises. . It resembles trial and and error in one respect. The thought board. We pictiu*e to ourselves various ways of acting. the sjniapse through which the impulse passes remains a path of lesser resistance because the situation is solved and the bothersome stimulus is removed. arousing one thought after another. xi] TRIAL AND ERROR 265 succeeds.<m. therefore. xiv). Learning by means of associaMemory. The stimuli do Instead. the nerve impulses not result in trial responses. As long as our thoughts fail to present a satisfactory An solution. and we example of learning through associative memory is the attempt to solve a chess problem or a mathematical puzzle. the nerve impulses continue their course in the brain. Instead of actually making the chess moves we picture them mentally. and so on till we picture some action which brings about the suitable result. results in action. a higher type of acquisition. keeps the impulse going rather than the sight of the chessAssociative memory involves higher centers in the trial brain and better connections of the neurons than error acquisition. one after the other. We think over the various ways of proceeding. Then at last the nerve impulse passes out into the appropriate motor channel act. 2. we picture another. which arouses memory and pictm-es form of the problem mental pictures. if one course of action does not solve the difficulty. This method of learning is called associative memory because our thoughts depend altogether on the revival of retention traces in the brain. pass from center to center in the brain. the next time a similar situation occurs this channel is more Ukely to prove the path of least resistance than the pathway through other sjTiapses. and these trains of association (ch. arousing a succession of Associative is — tive memory images and thoughts.

266

INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR
is

[ch.

xi

the last thought, which
acquisition

the successful one,
is

is

most

likely to

recur the next time a similar situation

presented.

So that

by the

associative

memory method

tends to be

adaptive

also.

Growth

of Intelligence.

Intelligence, like instinct,

is

a

racial growth.

The capacity to

acquire

new responses

evolves

gradually from lower to higher species of animals as the nervous system becomes more complex. But unlike instinct
it is

also

an individual growth.

In the

human

species intelli-

gent behavior develops gradually in each individual and

may
cer-

continue to progress until far beyond middle

life.

Every

intelligent act

depends upon the perfection of
it.

tain simpler acts which compose

The

act of writing

depends upon our abihty to move the fingers and wrist so as to trace each letter properly. This in turn depends upon our
ability to hold a pen or pencil. After we have learned to form the letters by means of certain wrist and finger movements we extend the same act to other muscles, when we write

large

upon the blackboard.^ Certain elements

in the act of

writing are utilized in typewriting and typesetting, while

other elements in handwriting are lacking in both of these
acts.

Owing

to the intricate interconnection of the various

man an almost infinite number of new motor combinations are possible. These new actions are due not merely to differences in the stimuli, as in the case of instinct,
brain centers in

but to the manifold connections in the brain. Human habits are so complex that it is difficult to classify

them

satisfactorily.

Some

of

them

fit

into the

same general

types as the emotions and instincts.

Our

table habits are

obviously nutritive; dressing and house-building are defensive;

warfare

is

aggressive behavior; educational acquisitions are

habits of individual development.
several different classes.

But most habits belong to

nutritive

if

are social; they are also they give us bodily exercise; or developmental if
»

Games

See Fig. 80, p. 368.

CH. xi]

GROWTH OF INTELLIGENCE
Boxing
is

267
both aggresas a

they exercise our thought processes.
sive

and defensive; and

exercise

— or

it is

nutritive

when used

mode of

if

we adopt boxing
is

as a profession to gain our

livelihood; a friendly bout

social behavior.

The

difficulty of classification is

due to the fact that

intelli-

gent behavior represents a response to the entire situation which confronts the creature, rather than a reaction to this or
Intelligence tends to express the organism as a whole, not merely some special phase of organiThere seems to be no natural scheme of classificazation.

that particular stimulus.

tion, except the

very practical division into useful and

detrir

mental habits.

Training of Habits.

— Given

a sudden emergency, some

men
fall

generally do the right thing, while others always

seem to

need special training. Readiness to meet unforeseen situations depends upon trainIn the first place, we ing in several phases of mental life.

down.

The

latter individuals

must

train

our 'perceptions
If

— we

quickly and exactly.
ing of the situation,
If

we perceive

must learn to observe instantly the real mean-

we are in a better position to act properly. we are more likely to see where to direct our efforts. Memory training is also important in meeting new situations. Few situations are
we can
pick out the significant details,

wholly new; the organization of our memories will assist us in coping with situations that are partly familiar. The training
of our thougJit processes (ch. xiii)
is

one of the most important
the fixation of

factors in adaptation.
habits is essential

And

finally, training in

even in connection with new situations. From the very nature of the case there can be no special training in the acquiring process itself. The unexpected is unexpected. We can only train the underlying processes of observation, memory, and thought, which will render any new situation less strange. When we are not confronted with an emergency but with a general problem of action, the nature of the acquisition process itself offers a helpful sugges'

'

268
tion.

INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR

[ch. xi

only

The trial and error method is fundamental, and the way to insm-e success is to stick to the task to persevere. The copy-book motto, " Try, try again," represents a

real principle of

mental activity.

The other side of intelligence, the fixation process, admits of much more systematic training. The process of strengthening habits has been investigated in the laboratory and some
definite quantitative results

a practical value.

We

have been obtained which have have already noticed that, in certain
is

kinds of learning, progress

quicker

if

the practice periods
of study periods in

are comparatively short, with periods of rest in between.

These

results bear directly

on the length

How much time should be devoted to one subject at a stretch.? How long should the recreation periods be, and
schools.

how

should they be distributed.? In recent years, much has been accomplished in the psychology of pedagogy, which it would take too long to describe here. The importance of cultivating useful habits can scarcely be
overestimated.
table manners,

The
life.

habits involved in dressing, writing,
social intercourse are essential to

and general

cannot respond to new features in the environment unless we have developed habits which meet the permanent phases of life. A habit tends to become detrimental to our welfare when it is too firmly fixed to admit of modification, or when it usurps
a well-ordered
If we are so wedded we must drop work for a cigarette at important junctures, or if we are so fond of telling anecdotes that we cannot readily listen to others, we are likely time and again

We

the place of other, more useful responses.

to smoking that

to lose certain business or social advantages.

There are also mannerisms and stereotyped actions which waste time and Nervous moveenergy, or which are disturbing to others.
ments, drumming with the fingers or tapping with the foot,

hemming, coughing, and giggling are useless habits; a shrill tone of voice, uncouth table manners, whistling in public, and

CH. xi]

TRAINING OF HABITS
'

269

the like are socially annoying.
*

All these may be classed as from the social standpoint. Biologically and psychologically bad are such habits as intoxication or the habitual use of drugs, which impair the vital processes and weaken our mental lifci The practical problem in such cases is how to break the habit how to modify it into a useful form or suppress it entirely. This is one of the hardest problems of life. In extreme cases the individual seems powerless to break the

bad habits

habit by himself.

Drug

habits are especially masterful

because they produce a physiological state which acts as a powerful stimulus to repeat the action; drastic measures by
others

seem necessary to check

this class of habits.

Some habits can be checked by substitution. Nervous drumming with the fingers may be broken off if each time we catch ourselves at it we begin some other hand-and-finger movement; or if we turn to some useful occupation involving
the use of the fingers.

Day-dreaming may be repressed by

reading or by trying to solve some useful problem. A man who smoked to excess broke the habit by taking a long trip

where no tobacco was available. Some habits can be broken by interposing an irrelevant stimulus. A sudden shock will sometimes shunt the motor impulse into other paths. This explains how a bad habit is often cured by punishment or through the shock of being caught in the act. Mutual assistance is extremely useful
here.
If
is

friends agree to cooperate in the proper spirit

progress

to produce

more rapid. Reprimanding and ridicuhng are apt bad effects even though they break up the habit.
is

Habit-breaking
should

of its principles

is

such a vital matter that a systematic study well worth while. The schoolmaster

know how to unteach as well as to teach. Summary. Intelligence means the ability to acquire new and suitable forms of response by individual modification. It means changing our modes of behavior from the inherited

270

INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR
of acting to

[ch. xi

ways

something new.

The simplest type of modi-

fication occurs in the conditioned reflex.

A higher

type

is

the

transformation of instinctive behavior into intelligent behavior.

This requires a complex nervous system with manifold connections.

The
steps
:

learning process, or habit-formation, includes two
acquisition

and fixation. Acquisition means the performance of some new response; in fixation we improve a new response by making it more exact and more rapid. These

two processes go together. There are two methods
associative

of learning: trial

and

error,

and
right

memory.

In the former we persist in making
till

various wrong responses

one

— which

at last

we happen upon the
rest.

memory
pen to

In associativelearning we think over various solutions till we hap-

tends to supplant the

strike the right one; this supplants the other thoughts.

A fixed habit is just as intelligent as a new acquisition if it
enables us to meet the situations in
life.

New

acquisitions

depend on our having certain fixed habits as their foundation. A habit is bad only to the extent that it prevents new ac'

'

quisitions or interferes with our individual or social welfare.
Practical Exercises: 54. Experiment with the formation of some new habit. Practice a certain amount daily and record your progress in speed and accuracy. [This should be started two weeks ahead.] 65. Make a list of 'useless' and 'annoying' habits observed in those around you, including some of your own. 56. Take some trivial useless habit and try to break it. Report the methods used and the degree of success. 57. Practice mirror-writing, looking in the mirror attentively, with your hand concealed from direct view. Report any notable feature of the
experience.
58.

Try

to twitch
in

your

ears.

make

your

efforts,

Observe and report what movements you and what success you attain.

References:

On conditioned reflexes: J. B. Watson, Psychology, pp. 2&-38. On learning and breaking habits: S. H. Rowe, Habit Formation. On experimental investigations of learning: E. L. Thorndike, Educational
Psychology, vol. 2; E. J. Swift, Mini^in4ke Making, ch. 6.

/
CHAPTER
Motor Experiences.
ever sort
is

XII

VOLITION

— In chapters x and

xi

we have examwhatcomplicated

ined the different kinds of behavior.

All behavior of

response to some stimulus.
is

In

all

behavior there

a central process of adjustment between the

stimulation and the man's response; and in connection with
this central nerve activity there arise sensations, perceptions,

and other experiences. When you see a ball coming swiftly toward you, and you step aside to avoid it, your perception of the ball is an experience which arises in connection with the
adjustment process in your brain; the perception takes place ajter the stimulus (the light from the ball) strikes your eye

and

before

you move.
all.

You

perceive the ball, and then you

side-step.

But

this is not

affecting us at a given

to them.
tions

We know not only what stimuli are moment, but how we are responding You are aware that you are moving out of the path
You
get this information through muscle sensor
arise after the response has begun.

of the ball.

which

Your

experi-

ence of making the movements is a very different sort of experience from your perception of the ball. Motor experiences are experiences of our
actually

stimulated by the contractions of our muscles

making the response;

own movements. They are when we are they inform us about our own

responses and not about the stimulus which started the
response.

This information helps us to guide and control

the progress of the movement.
sensations.

Motor experiences are composed of kinesthetic or muscle Every movement, whether reflex, instinctive,

or intelligent, which involves muscular contraction, gives

272
rise

CONATION
to muscle sensations.'

[ch.

xn

In the case of reflexes these sen-

sations are generally weak; they do not form independent

experiences, but enter as marginal elements into

some other

experience that

is

present at the time.

We know

we

are

winking or coughing. But the chief experience when we wink is a darkening of the visual field; when we cough the experience is partly of hearing the sound of the cough. In instinctive and intelligent acts the muscle sensations are more apt to combine into definite experiences; they form special sorts of experience, which are different from any of
the kinds so far considered.

Conation
Nature of Conation.
usually not vivid

— Our simple motor experiences

are

and have never received a popular name. Psychologists have adopted the term conation for this kind of experience. A conation is an experience made up largely of motor sensations. It gives us direct knowledge of our own bodily attitudes and movements. There are frequently other elements in a conation besides muscle sensations. If the head or whole body is moved, we have static sensations from the semicircular canals. These are motor sensations, though they do not come from the
muscles.
ence.

The

external senses also contribute to the experi-

arm moving; these visual sensations form part of your conation. In certain diseases where the muscle sense is destroyed, the patient is not aware of his movements unless he sees them; he can move his arms and legs if they are visible, but is unable to do so with his eyes shut. Touch also furnishes information of our movements, through the rubbing of our clothing on the skin. The special qualities of conation are effort, strain, and resistance; where the static sensations enter in, there is also a nameless quality which may be called whirl. The external
see your
^

You

Glandular reflexes

may produce systemic sensations.

OT.

xn]
add no

NATURE OF CONATION
special quality to the experience,

273 but they tend

senses

to arouse slight muscle sensations or images. We notice this on a train when it starts smoothly, or if our own train is

standing
of the

The sight still and a train close by starts to move. motion leads to an impression of motor effort on our

part.

Conations occur in connection with reflex actions, instinctive

movements, and habits.

We have reflex conations occa-

when a reflex action causes vivid muscle sensations. When we start at a sudden noise, the movement arouses a conative experience. Coughing and sneezing are accomUsually the sensations arising from panied by conation.
sionally,

simple reflexes do not give definite conations, but are incidental elements in our perceptions or feelings.
Instinctive conations

most frequently accompany the

so-

called

'

nutritive

'

instincts,

such as wandering, acquiring,

cleanliness.

In other classes of instincts the systemic sen-

sations are apt to be. more vivid than the motor; in fighting,

sympathizing, mating, and even in modesty reactions, the experience is an emotion and not a conation.

Habit conations are motor experiences which accompany
the performance of well-established habits.
experience of the various
difficulty,

We are vaguely
is

aware of our activity when we are dressing; there

no vivid

movements

unless

we meet some

ton.

Then

such as a misplaced shoe or the loss of a collar butall at once the response ceases to be automatic
is

and the motor experience
volition.

no longer a conation, but a
life

Conations are neither so vivid nor so important in
perceptions, memories, or feelings.
instinctive

as

The motor

sensations of

by other not a true conation. If the systemic sensations are strong the experience becomes an emotion; if vivid images or thoughts are present it bemovements
are usually overshadowed
is

elements, so that the experience

comes a

volition.

Intelligent actions, except automatic hab-

before you act. and their experiences rise to a higher level than conation. the act is sensorimotor and probably instinctive. not a act sensorimotor — the stimulus it is like a flash. — In man. our action is When as at length the nerve impulse of these ideas much an outcome as a response to the original stimulus. responses to stimuThe intricate system of con- nections between our various centers permit the nerve im- pulse to travel from center to center before it discharges into a center. discharges. The man who is action. Volition Will and Ideomotor Activity. which are responses to sensory stimuli.274 its. is acting in a . and you suddenly remember an engagement at 8:30. xn usually require thought. Your response to the thought of lateness is ideomotor and intelligent. Many of our habitual acts are quite automatic. The distinction between sensorimotor and ideomotor action not quite the same as between instinctive and intelligent All reflex and instinctive acts are sensorimotor. the a sensation. your action is ideomotor. If you stop to think. vegetating comfortably. but not all intelligent acts are ideomotor. ideomotor. motor pathway. If you are lying in bed in the morning. lation are frequently delayed. Such responses are called ideomotor actions. though they have been acquired by a learning process and are therefore intelligent. The movement is started by the of is thought. in contrast to sensorimotor actions. the alarm-clock wakens you and you jump out bed. If some one douses you with water or pricks you with a pin and you jump out of bed. As the impulse passes through each ideas are aroused corres[K)nding to the memory traces re- tained in that region. starts to change his collar for dinner and finds he has unis dressed completely and turning down the bed. they are sensorimotor. even for an instant. VOLITION [ch. you jump up thought If is — not by a direct sensory stimulus.

'will' is the capacity for ideomotor activity. When you make the journey you produce actual movements and receive sensations which correspond to the image experiences that you had in making your plans beforehand. which you previously thought of. gether too perfect. Volition is especially important in is life because the idea an anticipatory image or purpose.^ This is not the case. There is no inherited or natural connection between the idea of a given is in movement and . of actions which he has learned — acquired individually — in fact. xn] roEOMOTOR VS. together with certain muscle sensations of effort or memories of such sensations. I . Your will has changed the course of events in the starts the action which outer world. sort of Every idea expression tends toward some expression but the exact the beginning a matter of chance. the act itieif is 'voluntary. its execution. we have a thought of the action. Just so far as you accomplish what you planned to do you bring the events of the outer world under your own control.CH. alto- The kind actions is of experience which accompanies ideomotor loill. but the act not instinctive. SENSORIMOTOR is 275 a series sensorimotor way. and as a restdt of your actions this situar tion. You think of a certain situation. It may be any sort is Strictly speaking. — the nerve impulse into the proper motor path.^ called volition or A volition is a complex experience made up chiefly of two sorts of elements: motor sensations and ideas. Volitions are generally more vivid than conations. The actual working of ideomotor activity is often misunderIt is commonly supposed that the idea of a movement tends to produce that very movement that the idea directs stood. is finally brought about. 'volition' the experience which accompanies the action. Suppose you plan a trip to the mountains and afterwards take the trip.' * Even so acute an observer as James held this view. it represents what we are going to do. When we vxiU to do a certain thing. the habit is it is and has reduced to a perfect habit.

which is a great step toward control of the physical world ^ by living beings.276 of VOLITION There is [ch. In this way our volitions come to be followed by just the movements we want to make. Or try yourself to perform some action which you have never learned to do. . no inherited adaptive connection in volition as there is in reflexes. there is twitching. The ability is not inherited. The will is not (like perception. and it results in various movements. but acquired. no inherited tendency to pick up a book when you will to do so. motor impulse Volition is a distinct advance over the kinds of experiences which we have so far examined. ing to copy the letters of the alphabet or trying to draw a picture. up a book. This is evident if you watch a very young child trying to pick something up. and the right reinforce the idea movement happens to follow. you grasp it at once. he has not yet learned to connect up Watch a child trythe idea with the proper motor impulse. such as earwill to pick When you But this is the result of a habit. xn movement. memory. selected. so that the next time the proper is more likely to follow the idea. It anticipates what is going to happen. The volition experience leads to voluntary activity. The idea is vivid. and emotion) concerned chiefly with the reception of information from the outer world or from our own bodies. the muscle sensations and make this particular nervous connec- tion stronger than others. This If is because the right response has already been the child thinks of picking up a book. but with action by the individual upon the environment.^ Volition Instinctive behavior involves some control over nature. He fumbles about. increases this control tremendously. but it does not issue in the movement which you willed. such as twitching your ears. the proper connections between brain centers and motor paths are acquired by trial and error. the act is performed awkwardly. All ideomotor responses must be learned. In adult life all our ideas of action lead to the appropriate movements except in rare cases. and even if he finally succeeds.

There is no apparent delay. various ideas follow in succession. The bright spring weather suggests a motor trip through the country. each representing some different course of action. combining pleasure with exercise. The length of the latent period depends on the nature of the situation. in voluntary action this is immediate sponse checked and the idea of lighting follows. Immediately you get up and turn on the light. but because it tends to bring . When you are reading a latent period is often very short. Volition is selective. delay is due to the fact that the motor expression is checked and a train of ideas take place before the action begins. proves the most powerful impulse. But such situations are comparatively Most of our voluntary acts are decided quickly. xii] VOLUNTARY ACTIVITY 277 Voluntary activity is distinguished Voluntary Activity. which takes place in voluntary actions is due to When our motor expression is checked or inhibited. such life. — An intricate course of action. The motive of duty suggests finishing a half-written article. brisk walk. The reis sensory response to this situation would be to drop the book and close the eyes. The deliberation which precedes voluntary acts is not always long. the complexity of the nerve impulses. there a slight delay before you act. and my choice * ' The voluntary activity proceeds along this line. On a holiday morning my first plan is to spend the day reading in the library. Finally. book and the dusk gathers.CH. The rare. from other activity by deliberation and choice. When at length one of these becomes so strong that it leads to nervous discharge along some motor path. generally requires a long time to think out. Yet the as the choice of your career in act does take longer than a simple sensory response. the thought of a long. not because it determines events which are otherwise indeterminate. you suddenly notice that it is too dark to read without great effort. the result is a voluntary movement. The latent The period between the stimulus and response is longer.

the action when it does start tends to be more suitable than an immediate response would J. — We have (1) distin- Simple motor experiences or conations. Intelligent behavior is not inherited. that we inherit nervous paths and connecting synapses which enable us to perform these actions without a course of learning. It is not so important a problem if we emphasize the delay factor and the notion of fitness. and so enable us to guide the course of our movements and control our actions. but in voluntary action the nerve impulses in the brain pass from center to center before the motor impulse starts. we do not inherit definite paths and connections for this type of action. Instinctive behavior is inherited. be. As a result of the delay and of the changes in the central nerve impulses. and during this period of suspense we think of the various alternatives. Motor experiences have a different meaning in our lives from perceptions and memories of external objects or from feelings of our guished two sorts of motor experiences: own systemic conditions. You keep on walking or steering your bicycle or tying your necktie because you are kept informed every instant as to how your movements are progressing. composed of muscle sensations and ideas. ^ The question whether the will is free has been debated for ages and has not yet been finally settled.278 VOLITION [ch. instead of the most obvious. motor experiences not only shall act. . These two are alike in that they give us information about our motor attitudes and the movements we are making. Relation of Volition to Intelligence. intelligent acts. and (2) Volitions.^ In any response the path of motor discharge is along the line of least resistance. Leaving out of account simple reflexes and autonomic human behavior is mainly of two sorts instinctive : acts and is. xn about the fittest actions. which are made up chiefly of muscle sensations. These other experiences are chiefly receptive. tell us what we are doing but suggest the way we activities.

So our responses are largely automatic. — Voluntary actions are most amount effective when we act after the proper of deliberation. Instinct and intelligence are two different ways of acquiring motor ability. the motor experience which accomvolition. Intelligence panies them is a conation.CH. the like way we actually perform the act may be just an instinct. and letting means inattention to stereotyped actions them proceed automatically. This requires thought and volition if our response is to be suitable. nor yet a situation without some new element. xii] RELATION TO INTELLIGENCE 279 but merely the possibility of making these new connections (among others) by acquisition and fixation. all But once a habit is acquired. In other words. This is the case been completely fixed or established. In . adaptive actions are sensorimotor. Most situations are partly a repetition of familiar circumstances. Instincts are racially acquired. Training the Will. But if they are to suit the situation they must be partly voluntary also. when the action has Most of our actions in every-day life are a mixture of old and new movements. they are learned. It impedes the performance of a stereotyped habit to attend to each movement closely. habits are individu- ally acquired — that is. Some highly intelligent. without voluntary control. not a means attention intelligence also to the branch-points and alternatives of behavior. but whether we shall put on a fresh collar or continue undressing depends on other factors in the situation. We rarely meet an entirely new situation. Removing the collar is a fixed habit. but with something in them which is quite different from anything we have experienced before in the same connection. Volition is useful only so far as the situation is new or ambiguous. not of our intelligent acts are performed voluntarily. A distinction must be made between the way we acquire the ability to perform an act and the way we perform it. with voluntary control of behavior at these points.

' 280 childhood VOLITION [ch. will We read of the Spartan boy who was gnawed by a fox which he had brought to school concealed in his clothing. a habit of day-dreaming the patient is — of living in a fictitious world. before you act. The taught first. Emotional — He must expression (weeping. once. up the possibilities quickly and then acting without nee^ss The ordinary situations of life are clear enough for quick decision.) trolled is is restrained and con- by admonition and punishment. pose idea) to keep one steadfast in vigorous action or in He who is trained to control his ' actions purpose and grit is best able to cultivate useful to break bad habits. In popular psychology will power means the capacity to go ahead and keep going ahead in a motor way. the greatest deterrent. If the thoughts I will or ' by steady and habits — ' I will not . Too much deliberation leads to a vacillating attitude. The strongwilled man is one who pushes his purposes to completion regardless of obstacles. The child tends to act at the mere perception of the situation. parallel might be cited the American governor of Cuba. will to refrain In adult life. xii we must learn to inhibit too hasty action. Long deliberation is apt to lead to delay. We should cultivate the habit of sizing. a condition where unable to reach any decision at all. despite a raging fever. who fulfilled his stuck to his post and administrative duties faithof vivid thought (the purself- fully for days. These instances show the power restraint. kicking. on be taught to avoid impulsive action that is. Its pathological manifestation is aboulia. the will to act comes later. " Think children." is the maxim commonly taught to and with good reason. As a modern not turn him aside. the emphasis is on the other side. if restraint has been properly cultivated. action in which the motor impulse follows immediately upon stimulation. etc. whatever * ' happens. and yet by sheer strength of will kept a passive countenance and showed no signs of his agony. He is not discouraged. Even physical pain.

unreasoning children. The majority of suggestions from those about us are probably reasonable deserve consideration. is an essential part of the child's education. in — An ideal is a very complex experience which ideas. Training in obedience. If the training docile — he is effective — if it makes the * child perfectly will develop into a type of which his parents will ' traits masterful not be proud. If he inherits the same which prompts them to treat him this way. systemic sensations. or an unsocial obstinacy. not our own. Training the will gives us greater ability to resist suggesThis does not mean that if some one advises us to do tion. It is the parent's duty to show the why and the wherefore of his com- mands. and to cultivate in the child the spirit of challenge.CH. xiil find strict TRAINING THE WILL 281 motor obedience. Ideals Natiire of Ideals. a thing we should promptly refuse. and competent. are fitting their children to be the slaves of others. and motor sensations . and But neither should we promptly Voluntary decision requires at least an instant If we fall into the habit of following a certain person's suggestion ivithout hesitation. in conforming to social conventions. he will rebel and the attempt will fail. we become the agents of his will. obedience. But when the master-mind reliance removed we are in sore diflBculty if we have lost our selfand power of self-guidance. But when he reaches the reasoning age. with two unfortunate outa min- imum of will-power. This seems the only way to avoid one of comes : either a hopeless obedience to suggestion. This is especially to be remembered in the home training of Parents who insist upon immediate. person is This may have no bad effect on us is if this particular is conscientious so long as he there to guide us. one need not fear being over- mastered by any habit. parents and teachers should not expect unreasoning obedience. of deliberation. acquiesce.

riences in which one or other of these different elements pre- dominates. Usually they are marginal or subconscious. feeling it. Ideals generally grow up by degrees out of particular expefession. or it may be strengthened by meeting some one who has made a conspicuous failure in some other fine that appealed to us as an alternative. Our deepest-rooted ideals are usually formed slowly and are related to a host of separate experiences. he has a general image or thought of the various characteristics of the medical pro- he is stirred by a noticeable feeling when he thinks of what a doctor can accomplish. with their accompanying motor sensations. It consists of [ch. We are told that we are fitted for a cer- with some one who has been successful in this particular line of work. vague and unimportant. Ideals are of the utmost importance in human life. are such as will tend to fit him to become a capable physician. Motor experiences are divided into conations A conation is a simple experience which accomIt is usually panies reflexes. and fixed habits. and are usually noticeable only in the attitudes which we assume (ch. and doing it. but we rarely experience them as distinct and vivid states of mind. together with an intense feeling and a strong tendency to act. xv). xii a vivid image or thought. They are underlying motives of actions. these and our static sensations are combined into experiences of our own activity. and his acts. an ideal involves thinking a thing. If one's ideal is to become a physician. instincts. and volitions.282 are all IDEALS prominent. The experiences which develop into ideals are due largely to social stimulation. but their importance consists in their persistence and pervasiveness rather than in their vividness. They stick to us through thick and thin. In other words. or the ideal may be aroused by contact Summary. . Mus- cular contractions stimulate muscle sensations. — The various kinds of behavior discussed rise to in the two preceding chapters give motor experiences. tain career.

especially the muscle sensations. chs. James. Describe the chain of experiences involved in picking up a book. Examine your experiences when you are planning some course action. Trace the development of your ideal of what yoiur career should be. and motor sensations. 1913. which are of prime An ideal feelings. F. 61. On ideas and movements: M. such as of how to spend a holiday. W. 62. is a composite experience which includes ideas. The connections in the nervous system between the will-impulse and the appropriate movements are not inherited. E. References: On volition: W. Test your ability to inhibit each of the reflexes in lists A and B. ery. ch. Practical Exercises: 59. Movement and Mental ImagThorndike. of Table Also try which of them can be brought about (p. 63. The and special features of will are the delay (with deliberation) choice. X voluntarily. 233). 60. xn] SUMMARY 283 A volition is an experience composed of motor sensations and ideas. Analyze the motor experiences of laughter. McDougall. which in the course of time are put into effect. in Psychological Review. 9. Ideals are rarely vivid. 26. but acquired. Washburn. . importance in life. 16. they usually form underlying attitudes. The actions which follow a volition are called ideomotor actions. 20.CH. Social Psychology. 91-106. Principles of Psychology. the ideas are anticipation images or purposes. L.

There is at present no satisfactory evidence that this direct communication ever takes place.CHAPTER Communication. " Keep your mouth closed and hold your head lower. Besides all this. and these indications are always received through our ears or eyes or some other sense receptor. and the process of learning to swim is much simpUfied by the communication of these ideas." says the swimming teacher. sorts of experience: language . In many cases we can shorten the process of learning considerably by the simple expedient of having some one else tell us what to do. communication and social intercourse are the means of building up two new and thought. the experiences of one member beings. Ideas are passed along from one individual to another. of the community frequently aflFect others very decidedly. What one reads in popular magazines and novels about telepathy can be dismissed as highly improbable. It not only enables us to learn rapidly. but it furnishes us with a great store of ideas which no single individual could gather during his limited life-time by his own unaided efforts. XIII ^^7 considered a man's LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT — So far we have experiences as something belonging to himself alone. The communication of impressions has an important bearing on our mental development. and as having no connection with the experiences of other human As a matter of fact. Communication is an important factor in mental life. We get ideas from other persons by means of indications which they express in words or gestures. without the medium of the nervous system and receptors. There is a popular notion that one mind sometimes influences another directly.

volition the response is some direct effect on the general environment. The sound of the word bridge in no way resembles a real it by means of you have seen the to a friend. Both volition and language are composed of ideas and motor sensations. an artist you cannot reproduce this in You may have a but unless you are picture form for the benefit of others. " Open the door. You can only communicate If arbitrary. But by repeated association between the spoken or written word and the object. A first thought is a special kind of idea which developed in the of place as an aid to communication. conventional symbols. Natural Bridge and wish to describe it by means of visible symbols (by writing a series of words) or audible symbols by saying bridge and uttering other conventional sounds which call up corresponding ideas in his mind. and in the course of time the word tends bridge. the word calls up the memory image of the object. so that of we represent the bridge in terms itself. out. words instead of by a mental picture of the thing . Language responses often bring about indirectly the same result that volitional responses bring about directly.CH. and this arouses in him an idea of the Natural Bridge which is more or less like your own idea. you do so — * ' * ' and the written word bridge does not look like a bridge. xm] COMMUNICATION 285 Language is an experience made up of the same kind of elements as volition. Voluntary action enables you to open a closed door by turning the knob But if the knob does not work." and this language response on your part may induce some one inside the room to turn the key and let you in. Your friend reads your letter or listens to your description. But language leads to a very In the case of different kind of response from volition. vivid memory some event in your life. in language the response is some gesture or vocal expression which arouses an idea in some other person and brings him into relation with the speaker. you call with your hand. to replace the image.

emotion. instead of images. — . they involve the development of special centers in the brain. conventional representations which take the place of mental pictures (images) of objects and events. Thoughts are arbitrary. Fancies and general images consist of bits gathered together from various perceptions. that is. are called thoughts. experiences. — Symbolic Experiences. conventional signs not mental copies of what they represent. they are arbitrary. (2) Language and thought form a higher grade of experience than perception. memory. grow up together. We find. that language and thought are composed of ideas and motor sensations. Except in rare cases the sound and the written letter do not resemble the thing for which they stand. then. The greater the number of words in a language. and the rest. These two types of experience. language and thought. so that the spoken word is intimately connected with the thought-word. Primitive man speaks with reference to some listener: he learns to think in words through repeatedly uttering words for social purposes. The last-mentioned characteristic distinguishes thought from other sorts of ideas. A memory is virtually a reproduction of some definite perception.286 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT [ch. and that they have a number of peculiar characteristics. the more acute is the thinking in the community using that language. The distinguishing mark of a general image is that it reproduces in a sketchy way the appearance of some class of objects. Language and thought belong to a higher level than other They involve the growth of several new adjusting centers in the cortex of the brain. xin Ideas whose prominent elements are words. which are not found in the experiences noticed in previous chapters. (3) Language and thought are symbolic. Speaking and thinking in words depend on the accumulation of traces in one or more of these special centers. (1) Language and thought depend on communication between individuals. If you speak a word you hear the sound of your own utterance.

for instance. another with the idea of a man. which do not resemble the things we are thinking about. sohtary man should have devised the words * ' — sion in a special type of behavior: gesturing makes use princi- . In this way thoughts tend to displace general ideas in our Thinking is largely a series of wordmental experience. Among civilized men this association is so strong that the arbitrary sound produced by uttering the word tree. and writing. Thought is an outgrowth of language. and so on. There is evidence that castaways gradually lose the power of ready speech. becomes the chief element in ideas every time our general idea of a of the tree. A certain sound or gesture comes to be habitually associated with the idea of a tree. Each finds expresusing any symbolic terms. the mental picture of the tree tends to become more and more vague. so instead we make some arbitrary sound or gesture which takes the place of the picture. xiii] It SYMBOLIC EXPERIENCES 287 would not be easy to draw pictures similar to our general we wished to communicate with others. speech. One can readily call up memories and general images of the things he has — ' ' experienced. It is social situations that lead to the invention of words. and to their use as ideas in p'ace of imagery. The fact that some of us think aloud when alone is no argument. The Different Kinds of Language. we are simply exercising a firmly established habit. In all ordinary situations of life we could prob- ably work out our ideas by means of mental pictures without There seems no reason why a tree and cow to help him in thinking about trees and cows. through constant association the conventional sound or gesture tends to become more and more a part of the idea. We think of trees chiefly in terms sound or vocal utterance of that word. pictures We think in terms of words and sentences. their thinking probably reverts more and more to the image type.CH. The principal kinds of language are gesture. not of object-pictures. Words are arbitrary signs or symbols which we use instead of calling up the copy every time.

' * while gestures are apt to interfere with these occupations. Certain movements of the hand and head came to denote fish. etc. the English word-associations are deeper rooted than those acquired later. though some people do not seem to realize this. we can secure a man's attention to what we say without stepping in front of him or seizing hold of him. — advantages. writing uses the hands pairs of opposite sent. Otherwise it has been almost wholly superseded by speech. fruit. all belong among mankind to the same mental type: vocal expression. . paper. English. One can it is listen to oral conversation without turning the head. etc. cooking. The various languages or tongues which have grown up Greek. Facial expression is a more primitive type than any of these. xiii hands and head. or * movements came to signify assent or discome here and go away.288 pally of the LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT [ch. In time many of these gestures assumed a conventional form. but in ordinary situations speech has all the the same time. French. so that if one starts life in an English-speaking community. not easy to watch the plow and a companion's gestures at The ears are always open. Vocal language is much more convenient than gesturing.' Gesture language is still used among the deaf. One can easily speak when engaged in fishing or plowing. meat. but it is generally an expression of emotional states and is rarely used Winking an eye er smiling at some one for communication. They differ only — — words that are arbitrarily associated with each Associations of ideas formed in early childhood are most likely to persist. A young in the special object or meaning. may be treated Gesture language probably arose earlier than speech. speaking uses the mouth and and some instrument which leaves a permanent mark on stone. fire. throat. In the sick room gesturing may be more effective. It came from the practice of pointing to objects or waving the arms to arouse attention. as facial gesturing.

xra] child VARIETIES OF LANGUAGE 289 may easily be taught three or more languages and remain master of them all. of graphic language in space is is In fact the chief use communication Graphic language.' The number 1492 conveys the same meaning to all men. received visually. and phonography. which makes it possible for one person to communicate with others at great races each modern western distances or after long intervals of time. telegraphy. but ' ideographs. printed in raised letters. symbol represents an elementary vocal sound. or each graphic unit became conventionalized.CH. either consonant or vowel.* There are several varieties of graphic language.^ Nearly all graphic languages are asymmetrical. are perceived by the sense of touch. In the older graphic languages the records were rude pictures of objects. whatever their tongue. is auditory. The letters of our alphabet are symbols for vocal sounds which are themselves arbitrary symbols for objects. Written (graphic) language is used in civilized communities It consists in making permanent to supplement speech. which to extend the range of and time. as in syllabary Japanese. Besides ordinary handwriting may be mentioned printing. languages learned after the adolescent period are rarely so well organized or so thoroughly It is not known whether each tongue develops assimilated. except the phonographic variety. like gesture language. as in came to symbolize a syllabic In the graphic language of sound. Later in life. typewritIn all these forms the ing. In the Greek and Latin alphabets the record always runs from left to * Our numerals are not vocal symbols. papyrus. bricks. later these pictures Chinese. ' Books for the blind. or paper. marks or impressions upon stone. but we know that the associations between words of the same tongue are closer than between those of different tongues. verbal associations are more diflScult to form. . characteristic feature is the permanent record. a special center in th^ speech region.

like other types of behavior. — Communication is a twospeaks..290 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT [ch. affair. 76.] letters turned around. [Fig. Hold it before a mirror and the writing is plain. ' Mirror-script ' is most persons. when the resjxjnse is made. a chisel is is more easily pulled is more naturally swept sided effective when pushed. in Chinese from top to bottom. in Hebrew and Arabic from right to left. The order is practically never reversed. you can learn to write and read reversed The direction in which we write may by possibly be due to the sort of instrument originally used our ancestors in handwriting: a quill along. It is not completed. practice sufficiently script quite readily. after the first person A . and it is usually difficult to This is due to long fixation of habit. xiii right. — Reading Mirror Script Unkss one is practiced in reading reversed writing it is difficult to recognize and read a single word of this. a brush down toward you. 76. more Understanding and Reading. if you jX/AjL'^-fr- - '.' Fig. nor are indlA idual unintelligible to write.

then the nerve impulse center. which stimulate B's ear. understands what special English regulate the speed of receiving the stimuli. notice . There is first a sound- perception process in B's auditory center.' but the process of receiving and understanding written language is known as reading. spoken words produce complex sound-waves. But after this there is ^ It may be called comprehension or listening. The effect of these verbal stimuli is very- different from that of other sounds. Reading is more under our own control than the reception of spoken We can move the eyes slowly or rapidly so as to words. The general meaning of the sentence suggests the thought. When B gets A's thought. we can glance back and read a sentence over again. the sensory elements are not prominent. Even the most expert proofreader may overlook these errors. The writing arousing of thought in a second person is by speech or called understanding. passes into his auditory-speech (word-hearing) where word-perception occurs. and if some letter or trivial word is omitted the imagination supplies the gap. not the individual letters. A word-stimulus is a sound or a visual effect. In reading. we usually do not it. which almost smudges out the individual sensations. It is perceived like other stimuli.CH. There is no term for receiving and understanding spoken words and gestures. This arouses in B a thought similar to the thought experienced by A as he utters the words. and often a wrong letter in a word passes unnoticed. Our failure to detect such errors is due to the fact that understanding involves a double mental process. he A is trying to communicate. is We If there an imperfection in one of the letters. xiii] there is UNDERSTANDING. The same is true in speech. READING 291 The a receptive process on the part of another person B. perceive the total word. and just as in every kind of perception the piecemeal sensations merge into a general total effect. though not to the same extent.

who you to transmit thought without understanding it yourself. We get the same effect in reading if we come across some unknown foreign word or phrase.writing center for written language. Reading aloud tion process. the lies in word-uttering (speaking) center ^ the left frontal lobe is possible that the gesture center is distinct from this. You can even learn to read aloud mechanreceive It is quite possible for ically in while. 14. (2) a word. if the left side of the body is paralyzed the individual's capacity for thinking and speaking are usually quite normal. but if the right side is affected some of the language functions are apt to be impaired. or marks on the page. y Brain Centers for Language and Thought. 77. a further working over of the material in the higher verbal which transforms it still more.292 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT [ch. thinking of other things all the but giving the right accent and intonation to the sen- tences. if you read aloud in an unknown tongue. a word-seeing center for reading and These centers are found in only one side of the brain usually the left side whereas the other centers are found in both hemispheres. This effect is noticed if we listen to some one speaking alternately in English and an unknown tongue. In cases of paralysis. (4) (3) a word- hearing center for understanding word-sounds and for auditory thought. xiii centers. The unfamiliar words are heard or seen plainly. • Cf.^ The word-hearing center lies near the — — auditory center in the left temporal lobe of the cortex. but they do not arouse ideas. ^ The location of these four higher centers is shown in Fig. and the persons it. It * ' ' . (1) — There are four and thought: ' special brain centers concerned in language a word-uttering or speaking center for vocal language. 13. Recent investigation indicates considerable individual differences la the location of these centers. and for visual thought. is a further complication of the communicareader acts as a relay between the author The who expressed the thought originally. they are merely sounds. Figs. your own tongue. The right side of the body is controlled by the left side of the brain.

IS. Word-bearing or auditory language center is in temporal lobe near the center for hearing. SPECIAL BRAIN CENTERS lips.) though not deaf to sounds in general. A deaf man is mute merely because the connections between lip>-word seeing and word uttering have not been trained. Reading or word-seeing center is in occipital of cortex of the left hemisphere. lips. In the case of deaf persons who have been taught is to si>eak and to read the * lips. and operation of the two. He may be able to utter words through other connections.CH. Tl. These connections are harder to form than between hearing and uttering ^ This disorder is called aenaory aphasia. though he may understand the meaning of words. the patient is If the word-hearing region is destroyed unable to understand the meaning of words. . xm throat. (Cf. front of the Diagram drawing. If the word-uttering center is destroyed the patient is unable to speak. These two regions are connected together by Vocal language ordinarily involves coassociation tracts. and jaws. lobe near the visual center.^ KlAMaC Pig.' a connection developed between the word-uttering center and some center in the visual region. Figs. 14. near the region which controls movements of the tongue. This disorder is called TTwtor aphasia. — Language Centers in the Cortex head is at kft of the Speaking or word-uttering center is in frontal lobe near centers Writing center is near centers for movfor moving tongue. ing fingers. The popular term deaj-mute is incorrect.

the sounds they make in galloping or neighing. xiii words. tongue. visual. When you center in is think in terms of the sounds. man consist largely of verbal thoughts. We classify people according as their thinking belongs to one or other of these types. Its destruction causes inability to write (agraphia). but under proper treatment they can be readily developed. Destruction of The patient sees but they do not convey any meaning to him. their movements. For most of us the word horse' is the main feature of our idea of a horse. — — * : sations of uttering it. Destruction of one function is not so likely to involve disturbance of the other.294 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT [ch. and hand-motor. and throat in speaking For others it is the looks of the printed word. the word. In a few cases it may be the muscle sensations from the hand in writing. if you form the words is your throat. vocal-motor. the nerve activity in the word-uttering . The word-writing center lies in the frontal lobe near the center which controls hand and finger movements. The ideas of civilized The Different Kinds of Thought. For others it is the muscle sensations from the lips. The word-seeing (reading) center lies near the visual region in the occipital lobe of the left hemisphere. So there are these four different kinds of thinking: auditory. We picture vaguely the appearance of horses. but the focus of the idea is the word. just as an Arabic or Chinese inscription appears to us only as a miscellaneous collection of marks. But in many cases a man's thinking may combine two or more of these elements your thought of a horse may include both the sound of the word and the motor senthe letters. In fact the word-seeing center is more closely connected with the word-uttering center than with the word-writing center.hearing the seat of the nerve activity. These two centers are not so closely connected as the two vocal-speech centers. this area causes inability to read {alexia). For some persons a word is chiefly a sound.

where the meaning is especially important. the meaning of a thought comprises those elements in the experience which correspond to the object or situation. every thought contains certain elements which resemble the object or situation we are thinking about. In most cases these ideas — ^ These slight vocal adjustments are called implicit responses. as distinguished from the mere verbal or symbolic elements. guage. The destruction of any one of the four special centers leads to disturbances of thought as well as of lan- This is why aphasic patients of certain types often break off in a sentence and seem to lose track of their thoughts. by observing it closely. KINDS OF THOUGHT 295 In the vocal type of thinking. what happens is that these marginal elements become prominent. if you take a famiUar word and repeat it over and over again (man-man-man-man ) it finally loses all meaning: the sound becomes so insistent that the image elements disappear altogether. heavy. who think in ments. the thought is usually is merely a slight muscular adjustment which is not detected except by very delicate instruIndividuals of the 'visual' tyi>e. Meaning and Value. This occurs very notably in scientific and logical thinking. . On the other hand.* terms of the looks of printed words. Your thought of a book is usually tinged with some idea of its being thick. use the reading center in not expressed aloud. These " bits of the real thing " make up the meaning ' of the thought. When you try to examine the meaning of a word. the arbitrary word or focus of the experience. When we think of man. true or the opposite of these.CH. long. The value experience is the same sort of thing as the experience of meaning. man ' is the central feature But at the same time there is somewhere in the background or margin of the thought a fleeting image of some particular man or of certain human characteristics. difficult to read. except that it has to do with intensity and quantity. These faint images constitute the meaning. — Although thoughts are symbols. xin] center. In other words. there thinking.

a belief is partly an idea of the worth of some statement. The same experience may have very different values attached to apple fall.296 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT [ch. but he treats it as a fact to be studied carefully and dispassionately. events to the * ' . In short. the experience acquired a meaning and a value hitherto undreamed of. his first duty is to determine where the trouble lies. he may be disobedient because his attention has not been trained to listen to what you tell him. he may be quarrelsome or obstreperous on account of digestive disorders. A child may lie because he does not appreciate the distinction between memory and imagination. ix) . The value idea is especially — prominent in sentiments (ch. This distinction brings out an interesting peculiarity of the Psychology psychologist's attitude toward social relations. we get a rather new sort of experience the idea of value. sciences enable us to adjust our valuation of situations These and objective values of the world about us. ethics teaches what is good. Often this suggests a remedy which avoids the need of punishment. this value element comes to the foreground. is just as much concerned with faulty logic and bad conduct as with their opposites. One might almost regard them as instances of applied psychology. Psychology investigates the nature of our experience of it has nothing to do with finding out the real value of things. as he thought about it more carefully and formulated the law of gravitation. They make up its value tinge. When Newton saw the probably seemed a trivial occurrence. When he comes across an instance of wrong-doing he does not proceed at once to reprove or punish. But if we attend closely to some quantitative characteristic of an object. The psychologist knows that in each case the error is due to something in the man's nature. it it at different times. xiii are vague and only form part of the margin of the thought. Logic determines what is true. He does not approve of immorality. Afterwards. esthetics shows value. but what is beautiful. partly a feeling.

" All horses are vertebrates. If — we combine the concept of a horse with the concept of a vertebrate. make your thought correspond as nearly as really are. we obtain the judgment. " This light bright. When you think of a horse. They contain irrelevant elements tacked on from casual associa- . — As human thinking progresses. which is attributable in no small degree to the work of psychologists. smaller than an elephant." — or. the what horses more trivial associations fade away. and combine the meaning with the is value. the meaning of your thought includes certain definite characteristics When you possible to try to common to all horses. In the same way the value elements in your thoughts tend to conform to the real values of the objects. the meaning and value elements in thought become more prominent and at the same time the meaning of familiar words tends to become stereotyped. A concept is a special type of thought which tends to be " true to life." or. xra] it is MEANING AND VALUE first 297 of all to the business of the psychologist to try understand the situation which led to these breaches of ethics. " Horse vertebrate. Our ordinary thoughts grow up in haphazard fashion." When we think of a certain is light and of its intensity. is called a concept. as it is expressed in language." A judgment is a thought which combines two concepts. besides the word. distinguished from ordinary thoughts cision They are by their greater pre- and by their close correspondence with real things. " A horse is a vertebrate. the resulting thought the judgment.CH. only the reaVLy characteristic elements of meaning or value. A A thought which includes. only those remain which are characteristic or significant. The practical result of this attitude is seen in the recent improvement of the methods of handling delinquents and criminals." Concepts and judgments are rational thoughts. 1^ ^ Rational Thought and Rational Behavior. horse is larger than a man.

xiii Your casual thought of a harbor may be associated with docks and your thought of a lake with islands. the equivalent of ' a 'proposition. Neither of these associations is characteristic. but an outgrowth of more fundamental experiMental development is one single continuous process from the simplest type of stimulation and response to rational behavior. The higher animals act intelligently. but life. . The judgment horse — black ' may starts be instantaneous. faculty of the The popular notion of reason is wrong in making it a special human mind. is not guided by thought. it with one term and the other term comes afterwards.298 tions. Rational thought assists us tremendously in handling real situations. mean- Rational thought and rational behavior are often called reason. rational thought has led to special sorts of verbal expression. Behavior based on rational thought is rational behavior. does not help us to meet the problems of real The more closely our thoughts correspond to actual situations in the world about the more appropriate our responses are likely to be. It is not a brand-new mental endowment. no sudden jump. action that is brought about by individual acquisition is intelligent behavior. Since thought is closely bound up with language. it a source of enjoyment in our leisure hours. ences. There is no break. an action is rational only if it is brought about by rational thought. which Any is a stage higher than ordinary intelligent behavior. but they do not act rationally. is Pure fancy. but the proposition takes time. because their behavior us. and your concept of a lake does not include islands. xiv). The language equivalent of a concept a judgment is is a term. A human child begins to act rationally as soon as he acquires thoughts with definite ings. This involves a succession of experiences (ch. LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT [ch. your concept (rational thought) of a harbor does not include docks. As your experience broadens they fade away. as aroused by fairy-tales for instance.

CH. The rational judgment of matter was that it consisted of four elements earth. It is scarcely posImportance of Language and Thought. More than any other type of experience. and water. solid body. air. except perhaps emotion. Rational thought is merely the final focusing of the picture. which carry us to a higher stage of mental life than the trial-and-error way of learning. if our perceptions are wrong. Any misinformation may be corrected even apart from reason by cutting out chance associations and broadening our outlook on the world. They are still in the making — still improving. importance of language and thought They lead to two new kinds of in the mental life of man. — and many concepts and judgments accepted to-day are doubtless just as false. There is also a popular notion that human reason is infalliAs a matter of fact it is quite liable to make mistakes. is its A noticeable feature in the growth of language its slow evolution in the race and rapid development in the indi- . This information is — correspond to actual conditions. Rational thought furnishes merely our nearest approach to the truth. language and thought must be studied in the hght of their history. even reason may be unable to correct the impression. Taken together. Many of the rational thoughts of antiquity have been found not to through our senses. direct information concerning the world is Our obtained put together (integrated) by combining sensations into perceptions. language and thought provide a tremendously effective means for adapting our responses to the general conditions of the environment. behavior. in which the stars were fixed. surmounted by a transparent dome. In ancient times the most rational concept of the earth was of a flat. On the other hand. xm] RATIONAL THOUGHT 299 ble. But emotion is a survival from ancestral conditions. communication and rational behavior. fire. memories. and thoughts. while language and thought are recent human sible to exaggerate the — acquisitions.

300 vidual. Training of Thought and Language. species. The development of language and thought in the individual depends not only upon the social environment. partment of mental diflFerences in This is especially true of rational thought. LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT [ch. Within the human the sphere of thought. Given a rich vocabulary. and secondary education teaches us to remember. If the vocabulary of a community is scanty. as the sphere of thought in the race enlarges. general education is — The highest stage of and of the If largely a training of thought it. language) we must possess inherited pathways between the word-hearing center and the word-uttering center. the mentally well-developed individuals in the community quickly attain a wide range of thought. xiii New words are invented gradually. each child acquires a large vocabulary at an early age. — — ing. more than any other dethat reveals the greatest individual capacity and attainment. understand the principles of whatever branch we are studyspecial objective is often overlooked student. It till after the final examination. It is because of the great masses of association fibers present from birth in the human cortex. but upon In order to speak (to use vocal inherited nerve structure. You can readily find the value of the gravity factor g in . The growth of thought depends upon the existence of words. college education should teach us to think. Writing involves countless pathways between the word-seeing or word-hearing center and the word-writing center. and on retaining them to is far more useful to know how to think about the facts. This by both instructor and Too much emphasis is laid on imparting mere facts. that man's intellect is so vastly superior to that of species it is any other life. Much the same is true in regard to thought. Once adopted they are transmitted rapidly to the bulk of individuals in the community. the range of thought is limited. rational processes that grow out of primary education teaches us to perceive.

ogy is more interested in diction. thought means especially the cultivation of as it might be called. because both methods of imparting knowledge are constantly used in modern educa- Text-books give the main principles. Faulty grammatical construction and the use of incorrect words or vague phrases indicate slovenly habits of thought. Such motor accompaniments act as a drag in reading. (So-called mental arithmetic really auditory arithmetic. A practical problem in education is whether to cultivate rize. and they rarely make the thought more clear. way to accomplish this is to ponder. You will read more quickly if you learn to suppress the and understand quite as well incipient tendencies to utter the words or to form them with the lips and throat. indicate clear thinking. Certain types of sentence. xiii] TRAINING OF THOUGHT It is 301 your physics book. cultivated. . Try to picture the relations step by step. The training The best of rational thought — of clear thinking. but to seek out the connections between the facts. — not to memo- an effort to retain. In psychology it is much more important to get the right notion about the learning process than to memorize any of the tables or principles as the elliptical * ' definitions in this book. except that stuttering and faulty pronunciation often Psychol- indicate faulty coordination in the brain centers. the diflSculties by word of mouth.CH. more useful to understand such motion of planets. that strike any individual student are better overcome — — Their only real use is to focus your wandering attention is when you are tired or the subject is uninteresting. Some students master a subject better by reading. and others by is listening to lectures. in * visual * or * auditory ' thinking. It is often a help to the student for the teacher to ask. Psychology not especially concerned with vocal enuncia- tion. " What do the use of certain words.) Both methods should be tion. An important point is to learn to suppress the motor type of thinking. Practice makes the process continually easier.

78. xiii you mean by word)?" The very challenge may lead to clearer conception. but in the diagram. There are numerous primary centers in the cord and in the lower part of the brain. feeling. sory centers. for simplicity. Their relation to the two lower levels of mental life is shown in the accompanying diagram. and motorsense centers. so that a whole chain of experiences may succeed one another before any important motor impulse is started (ch. To successfully attain a happy mean. and to the various These secondary or intermediate centers are centers there. thought. this training must be begun early in life. active in our experiences of perception and imagery. The voluble man dresses his thoughts in public. An important problem in education is to teach the child to maintain a proper balance between language and thought. systemic. silent man overemphasizes the thought side and is inclined to be unsociable. It is the task of the educator to subdue the chatterer and draw out the reticent one. : actions. as we have seen. involve a higher sort of behavior than other types of experience.302 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT this sentence (or [ch. The contemplative. and volition. xiv). They are closely interconnected. paths lead up to the cortex. (1) — [Fig. From these primary sensory centers the nerve impulse may pass over directly into one of the primary motor centers (shown at the right of the figure). Language and Higher and Lower Levels of Behavior. (2) Intermediate Nervous Arc: From the primary sen-. But sooner or later the nerve impulse passes over to some .] Lowest Nervous Abc: From first the various receptors the sensory nerves lead of all to the primary centers. they are grouped into three headings external. the simplest type of behavior. instead of within the private chambers of his own mind. emotion. and from there pass down directly to some muscle or gland or over into the This lowest nervous arc gives reflex autonomic system.

78.." ore.CH. many separate centers are included in square labeled "external sense centers. The centers are shown very schematically. xin LEVELS OF BEHAVIOR 303 secondary motor center. they differ in this respect from .g. The movements resulting from these second-level motor impulses are coordinated. Broken lines (below at right) indicate that motor expression stimulates muscle sensations. Arrows indicate direction of nerve current. e. and from there an outbound impulse goes out to the lower motor centers and thence to the effectARC 3* Vferbal and CommunicAlan Rational Rational Molor Ccrflers AcUon EffWtors (Motor Oraans) Reccfton {Sense Cxieroceptors IriltrxKtfUon Prophocefftors Fig. — Mextal Levels Diagram showing the three levels of nervous arcs and the grade of mental life corresponding to each level.

and more suited to the Rational behaventire situation' than the simple reflexes. adaptive and controlled than ordinary ior is much more is * intelligent or instinctive behavior. feelings come from systemic sensations. which are derived from all three sources. volitions out of motor sensations and ideas. The highest types of human experience are language and thought. gives instinctive operation of the secondary nervous arc behavior — usually a combithird set of centers nation of the two. xin simple reflexes. instead of going over to the motor centers directly. ception. From these centers the nerve impulse passes over into the verbal and rational motor centers and then down through motor paths to the lower motor This highest level of becenters and out to the effectors. may pass up to the centers for thought and language. Their real significance in psychology is their . and conations from motor sensations. — In chapters vii various kinds of experiences to xiii we have examined the which are found in man. sentiments out of systemic sensations and ideas. There are also experiences called ideals. All these kinds of experience are different ways of putting together (integrating) the information brought in over the sensory nerves. There are also experiences derived from two sources: emotions are built up out of systemic and motor sensations. and imagination are built out of sensations which we receive from the world around us. The behavior is more controlled. Summary. havior has two different forms: actigiiit^ c ommunicqj iDn and rational The development of the two higher levels of the nervous arc accompanied by more perfect adjustment of the responses. Impulses from the second-level experience centers.304 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT The and intelligent [ch. which are brought about by a third level of nervous arc and involve four special centers in the brain. (3) Highest Nervous Arc In man a : and a tertiary nervous arc have developed. Per- memory.

medicine. Analytic Psychology. Egypt. idiot. Stout. On meaning and value: W. right and write) Observe the speech of a two or three year old child. Judd. 4. Report any notable mistakes in pronunciation. ch. xiii] relation to behavior. E. thunder-storm. Practical Exercises: 64. Read one to yourself and have a friend read the other aloud Compare your experiences in "understanding the problem" to you.g. Max MUller. geometry. though and thought) or if they sound like the right word and look different (e. London. by the two methods. Read again carefully and observe what mistakes have escaped you. Ask some one to prepare a typewritten page with many typographical errors. H. Do you notice errors better if they look like the right word but sound different (e. ch." Take two similar problems in physics. 67. Before Adam.. — as our sensations are organized into definite experiences. 10. Read the page rapidly. and suggest the explanation of these errors. Graphology and the Psychology of Handwriting. checking the errors noticed. rev. grammar. writing: J. 10.CH. note how far the distraction interferes with his pronunciation and especially with the vocal inflections which "give the sense. 68. and at the same time to think of other things. F. chs. ch. Downey. 2-5. Urban.g. penitence? Ask some one to read aloud. 65. . What constitutes your thought of school. . M. ed. J. steamboat. Science of Thought. orchestra. 66. Valuation. Psychology.' References: On On On language: C. misuse of words. SUMMARY 305 ing as the stimuli Our responses are more suitable accordare more completely integrated that is. or some other science. relation of language to thought: G.

ing stream of nerve impulses which course through the brain. Each step passes gradually into the next. We often speak of the flow of thought and the flow of language. with its various experiences and actions. stood except by reference to what has gone before. only part of the story. Our mental life. If one step is cut out or if the order of procedure is inverted. in endless succession. moment by moment. In reality our states of mind are not completely separated from one another. You must load your gun before you press the trigger. may be likened to a stream which flows steadily onward. Mental life is not a series of act is affected independent happenings. the action may be quite ineffective and even absurd. Each experience and each by our past experiences and actions. rousnow one experience.' CHAPTER XIV MENTAL SUCCESSION The Stream of Consciousness.' It is not ' ' * so common to and all James these speak of the flow of perceptions or feelings. bearing on its bosom ships and cargoes of various sorts. Human The response to a given situation often involves a long series of actions. one step leading to the next. but other experiences flow along in much the same calls this general flow of experiences way. the stream Our conscious life at any instant is a crossThe present cannot be fully undersection of the stream. The simile of the stream helps us to picture the flow ' . actions are rarely instantaneous. For the most part behavior is a continuous process. isolated experiences and responses. year by year. and thread your needle before you begin to sew. day by day. is — Thus far we have considBut this ered detached. Underlying the thoughts and perceptions of conscious life is the of consciousness. not a series of detached reflexes. now another.

There are really two different currents in our mental life. memories. different Perceptions are quite flow of perceptions from thoughts. controlled largely The is happen to affect us. the background of the picture was an illusory memory. How rapidly do our Popular notions on this point are quite experiences flow? vague. The highest velocity of nerve impulse so far discovered by physiological experiment is about 400 feet per second. There is undoubtedly a slip somewhere in all such stories either an exaggeration of the number of experiences involved or a wrong interpretation of Speed of — — — the experience itself. ending with the crashing of a real mirror which wakens the sleeper the whole dream having presumably been started by the crash itself. The resistance at the synapses causes delay. or (better) two separate strands which interweave to form the texture of of stimuli that by the succession experience. but there is a limit to the speeding-up process. We hear of dreams which involve a long succession of events lasting a year or more. and images is determined almost wholly by conditions in the brain. Fanciful stories are told of drowning men who live over their entire lives in a few minutes. The terror of drowning may arouse many memories which had lain dormant for years. in which the dreamer seemed to have lived over the events successively. Such stories lead to wrong ideas of the duration of our experiences. while the flow of thoughts. and this lengthens the time of passage from neuron to neuron. . Reaction Time. and may speed up the flow of thought considerably. XIV] of life. STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS In other respects it is 307 imperfect. In the mirror dream the experiences probably came in the form of an instantaneous picture. Thought. Our experiences are not uniform like a stream of water. and these two types of experience flow along in very different ways.CH. The by the rate of change in p>erceptions and thoughts is limited rate of conduction of the nerve impulse.

Reaction time is divided into three periods: (1) Sensory conduction from the receptor to the brain center. probably because the eye takes longer to receive its stimulus than the ear or the touch corpuscles. and the pressure of the keys stops them. Visual reaction. take place before the motor impulse starts. By means of electrical connections the stimulus starts the hands of a chronoscope [Fig. the laboratory. xiv to Having found determine in accomplished. such as discrimination or association. is found to be consid- erably longer than auditory or tactile reaction. While siderable difference in the reaction times of the according as his attention is fixed . as soon as the subject perceives it he presses a key. this physiological limit. of the nerve impulse (3) Motor conduction from the brain to the muscle. In simple reactions this period is devoted to the mental process of perceiving. but in complicated experiments certain other central processes. (In this period is included the time required for the stimulus to excite the receptor and sensory nerve. together with the time needed for the muscular contraction to take place. the next step is short a time a simple mental act can be This has been determined by experiments in A stimulus is given a sudden flash of light — or a noise. This duration is called reaction time. because we do not know how much time is required for the impulse to pass through the synapses nor the length of the reception and muscular-contraction periods.) (2) Central processes.308 MENTAL SUCCESSION how [ch. so that the duration of the entire stimulusresponse process is accurately measured. the duration of the two conduction periods is not completely determined. 79]. for example. There is also found to be con- same person on the stimulus (sensory reaction) or upon the movement (muscular reaction). If the subject has been trained to react to the stimulus as quickly as possible. Although the rate of nerve conduction is approximately known. the reaction time represents his utmost speed for this particular kind of perception.

hands do not move till an electric current meshes a cogwheel (back of upper dial) into the clock-work. which vibrates over a cogwheel. Circuit is made when the stimulus is given. Each dial is divided into 100 units.FiQ. and broken when the subject reacts by pressing a key. Clock-work (behind the dials) is started and stopped by pulling the cords \. the speed is governed by vibrations of a small reed D.001 second = 1 sigma). — Hipp Chronoscope Instrument used for measuring reaction lime. 79. B'. A' at left. . lower dial measures tenths of a second. Weight C furnishes motor power for clockwork. Upper dia] measures thousandths of a second (0. The wires of the circuit are joined with the Hipp at binding posts B.

p. nition time for a letter of the alphabet His recog- word 45<r. Or the subject is required to press one key for blue. Titchener found in his own case that recognition of a color required 280" longer than simple visual reaction. and require the subject to recognize the color before pressing the key. 432. When the observer sees or hears the word it arouses a thought in his mind. These relations was 51 a and for a short hold generally. Table XIII. the experi- ment measures complex reaction time. Experiments have been made on the time required to The stimulus is a printed or spoken word. The unit of measurement is is the thousandth part of a second. so that the increased duration of the reaction represents the time required for the additional mental process. This is discrimination reaction In any complex reaction the conduction time to and is from the center the same as in perception reaction. requires less time to recognize a word of three letters than a single letter. If Text-book. . time. and so on. the figures given in Table XIII repre- sent the average perceptual reactions of trained subjects. experiment may be safeguarded by having the observer react by speaking the word aloud instead of pressing a key. xiv considerable variation between the reaction times of different individuals. which called a sigma (o-). Stimulus — Reaction Time of Perception Sensory Attention 290(7 Muscular Attention 180<r Light Sound Electric on skin 225 210 120 105 [From Titchener. another for red. The experimenter may show in turn a number of different colors in chance order.810 there is MENTAL SUCCESSION [ch.] the observer is directed to perform some mental act in addition to perception before he presses the key. he is directed to react The just as soon as this thought suggests another idea. though the absoit lute times vary for different persons. the associate one thought with another.

' of Perceptions. neither does ' quick as thought.CH. thoughts may be modified in some of their details more quickly than a brand-new association can be formed. eyes. You can arouse the memory of a rose and the feeling of pleasure at its form and odor. uninterrupted by any notable experiences of other sorts. Our mental life often consists for a long time of a series of perceptions. feelings. The Stream — A large portion of our expe- riences are the direct result of stimuli outside our body. Slight changes in perceptions may take place much more rapidly than the rise of new perceptions. and conditions in the environment. can readily arouse a thought of my brother. just as light has a limiting rate of transmission. ideas. so But are we certain that thought and perception have their speed limit. ears. whose vibrations press a so that it makes the electric contact. 'Quick as lightning' does not mean 'instantaneously'. and give rise to a stream of perceptions. but you cannot get a perI arouse a perception of him . but I cannot if he happens to be a hundred miles away. We do not control the flow of perceptions in the same way that we control our own movements. The experimental investigation of reaction time has not fully solved the problem of the rate at which our experiences follow one another. which are for the most part independent of our will. xiv] REACTION TIME 311 voice strikes a sensitive membrane. In a over 6000 auditory association reactions on 22 persons Wreschner found that the average association reaction small hammer series of time was about 2000(r (2 seconds). These stimuli are changing constantly. skin. hear. * We may see.' and heft ' the things about us without being affected by any striking emotion. and without having any definite thoughts or memory pictures. The succession of these experiences depends primarily upon Stimuli which affect our and nostrils are due mainly to forces outside our own body. * palp.

The ultimate source of perception lies in the world outside us. is The starting-point always a perception or some other sensory experience. xiv odor if there is no rose present to stimulate your eyes and nostrils. The (1) (2) succession of perceptions is determined by the follow- ing factors External stimuli and their changes.. but the train of ideas. Excitement. But we have little power to produce any desired per- Our ability to control our perceptions prevention — not production. images. and ^' thoughts uninterrupted by perceptions. (3) Retention of the effect of similar stimuli that in the past. once started. We see an object differ- ently according as we look at it with the center of the eye or occurred the periphery. Of these four factors all but the first are conditions within our own body. The Stream of Thought. may proceed of such a series for a long time without interference. . perceptions and emphasize others. We ception at will. pleasure. Yet the external factor is the great determining condition of perception and outweighs in importance all stimuli Motor the others combined. Often we modify a perception by adding images or thoughts. distaste. we may get rid of it entirely by closing the eyes or walking away. Repetition and retention improve one's ability to pick out certain stimuli and combine them into perceptual y^ states. so that a tree seen in the dusk becomes a bird or camel. The manner of stimulation. (4) Systemic and motor stimuli which occur at the time. is mostly by way of can reduce a perception to the margin of consciousness by attending to something else. — The mental life of civilized man often includes a long succession of memories.: 312 ception of its MENTAL SUCCESSION form or a sensation of its [ch. resulting may inhibit certain and the motor activity enable us to get rid of certain external stimuli and substitute others. pain.

which In lower animals memory starts a new sensory experience. each independent of external stimulation except at the very beginning. when the memory we want does not come immediately we usually have a long succession of other ideas. In subhuman species prolonged trains of ideas apparently If an animal has a memory or any other image. A dog gives evidence of remembering his master after prolonged absence. The principles which were enumerated as laws of recollection are fundamental laws of the association of ideas Law of Similarity and Contiguity. of one of your boyhood games. Recalling a memory is merely a special case of caljing up any image or thought. xiv] STREAM OF THOUGHTS 813 do not occur. of mining coal. this thought excites another is thought. train of thoughts is Such a called thinking. The succession of mental images and thoughts is commonly called association of ideas. frisking about. and so on through a long series of thoughts. of the Boy Scouts. of the amount of coal consumed in a steamer. viii). even more fragmentary. then of a great Atlantic liner. it leads at once to barking. of a certain school teacher. it either leads directly to motor expression or is quickly followed by some new perceptual experience. A perception arouses a thought. and vigorous wagging of the tail. of revival services. you hear a certain humming noise and think This suggests the thought of the airplane post. then you think of crossing the Atlantic. of an airplane. and so on. of a miner who became a clergyman. It is the same process that we examined under Recollection (ch. Even while the memory image lasts it may be interrupted by a word or a gesture from his master. this in turn a third. in fact. but instead of this memory starting a train of reminiscences. tends to become one of the most important phases of mental life. For example. of a boy choir. A long series of thoughts may arise in quick succession.: CH. and more especially thought. The idea aroused by (1) * * . In man imagery. of gospel hymns.

with the same thought as a starting-point. These laws of association are not arbitrary. (2) Law of Frequency. they determine which way thought will jump. or which has occurred most recently. original strength and recency of excitation. we may proceed along two entirely different thought according to the different systemic stimuli are receiving. are factors which determine the relative degree of resistance of several possible pathways. The reproductive organs affect our thought trains in the same way. course of a train of thought. on pleasant subjects and the things we expect If we are dyspeptic we are prone to think of difficulties and annoyances. or which was originally most vivid. As between different pos- with a given idea. and the remainder consists of experiences that were formerly experienced near it in time and place. and circulatory marked than that of the other Another secondary influence on the direction of thought is our general view of life and the special interests that appeal . frequent repetition. In addition to these principal factors which determine the of impulse. Original Vividness. our thoughts are likely to dwell to accomplish. they The resistance is diminished by the retention of the effect of former impulses in various centers. lines of that we The influence of stimuli from the respiratory is less organs on thinking internal systems. offers least resistance. sible associations and Recency. in later life this tendency may vanish of its accord. Our general bodily condition often plays an important part in determining the direction of our thinking.314 MENTAL SUCCESSION [ch. In adolescence thoughts tend to be directed at times rather persistently toward sexual matters. there are certain secondary influences. depend on In passing from center to center the current always follows the path that the activity of the nerve impulses in the brain. xiv association is partly similar to the one preceding it. If our digestive organs are working well. contiguity. So. similarity. that one is most likely to follow which has occurred most frequently.

tude may direct the course of your thinking for a long time. patients persist in thinking that they are followed by enemies. are not likely to notice this in ourselves. In all such cases the direction and . and proceed to work out the details in thought. different the Law it of the Personal Equation: As between possible associations with a given idea. and this desire attius.CH. like our perceptions. his attitudes determine very largely the direc- tion of his thinking. V Control of Thought. but We whose interests are quite different amazed to see how persistently he turns the conversation toward his own special interests and away from the channel Fixed ideas are an exaggerated and of our own thoughts. or read. on to and you the best solution or pro- gram appears in thought. another's to athletics and sporting subjects. of external stimuli. We may direct our thinking along certain lines by taking a definite attitude and holding a given problem or goal before You wish to recall a certain name. hear. xiv] STREAM OF THOUGHTS and 315 to us. their thoughts always hark back to this fixed delusion. The trend of a person's life determines his attitudes (eh. xv). and so on. All these secondary influences which determine the direc- we meet one from our own we are often tion of thought may be summed up under a single principle. We ourselves determine their course in accordance with the principles of associa- The ' ' . — Thoughts are not the direct first result thought in a train may be due to something we see. that one tends to succeed which carries most interest to the individual or is most in keeping with his present systemic condition. tion. Certain insane usually pathological form of this tendency. One man's thoughts run if to money. think over various possibilities till You are called solve a mathematical problem or arrange a concert. but those that follow depend chiefly on processes within the brain itself. To this extent thinking is free our thoughts are not driven into us by external forces. You have the notion of a half-complete invention.

you actually do awake The controlling medium here is subconscious. But Wednesday afternoon it somehow reappears — you remember the en- (Not always. The sight of the knot or the absence of an important article of apparel suggests to you the particular thought that induced this unusual action. xiv some extent the material your thought are under your own Thinking may also be controlled indirectly by motor acts. [ch. A train of thought once started continues indefinitely till something occurs to check it. Thinking is It is not compelled by at once free and determined. All these mental and behavior operations are means by which an individual controls his own thinking. 6 30. The thought makes a vivid impression. but it follows definite paths determined by the make-up of our nervous system and by the attitudes built up through our entire past experience. You are aroused from thought by hearing * ' ' some one call you. You tie a knot in your handkerchief. unfortunately!) These retention traces seem to be impressed on the lower centers and to be in some way connected with our subconscious life. and is gone. may put an end to your thinking. or before going to bed you hide a stocking. Smith. An intense external stimulus. The association is more direct when you place in your hatband a letter to be draw money. or by some striking object appearing before your eyes.' ' return umbrella ' — — ' ' is still more effective.' see A written memorandum mailed. at almost exactly that hour. A friend asks you to dine at his house next Wednesday. You determine to awake to-morrow morning at gagement.316 to MENTAL SUCCESSION of control. If the central nerve impulses are discharged into a . This is indicated by some of the phenomena of sleep and the hypnotic state.' outside forces. : If you are practiced in the art. Sometimes a thought leaves a trace in the nerve structure which arouses another thought long afterwards. producing vivid sensations and perceptions.

in which the succession is determined by a special mental attitude and by the meaning of the thoughts. the train of thought is broken off. and you start to act. The synapses which join the sensory paths with the brain and the brain with the motor paths become highly resistant. Only intense impulses penetrate to the higher centers. The period of sleep enables the organism to restore the nervous energy used up by the activities of waking life. lights. present many unusual features. In man the period covers about one-third of the entire day. Temperature stimuli suggest . This is the ordinary type. or a sound which possesses unusual personal interest. The sudden thought that it is time to attend a class sets you in motion. Dreams. which we have been discussing. the unpleasant and terrifying dreams known as nightmares are attributable to indigestion. or other external stimuli. (2) Dreaming. — Sleep tem. which are modified by a special condition of the nervous system called hypnosis. xiy] CONTROL OF THOUGHT 317 motor pathway. but the mental activities that occur during sleep. It is The distinctive fact in dream experiences is that the central neurons are almost wholly cut off from their sensory and motor connections. (3) Hypnotic thought processes. A loud sound may penetrate to the centers and arouse us. is a special condition of the nervous sysan essential part of the repair process of living creatures. in which the flow of thought is modified by a special condition of the brain called sleep. As a physiological condition. or impulses which play a prominent part in our mental life.CH. During sleep we are not ordinarily affected by sounds. Organic stimuli are often very effective. as when the child's fretting wakens the mother. sleep is just as normal as waking life. (4) Rational thinking. which is subject only to the general laws of association. ^ Several different kinds of thought trains may be distinguished: (1) Casual thinking. odors. called dreams. and ends your reverie.

xiv dreams of a conflagration or of walking the Tactile stimuli are rarely effective. Occasionally a strong motor impulse breaks down the resistance. as when we turn over in bed or talk in our sleep. The same is true of sleep-talking. The very beginning of such movements serves to waken most persons. arms. usually no indication to an outside observer that is the sleeper dreaming. our experiences consist * During sleep the is autonomic processes proceed much as in waking life. largely cut off from sensory impulses. and throat These incipient movements are probably more is twitching movements of the often occur. Where the motor impulse does not produce actual movement. Sleep-walking occurs when specially strong motor impulses find effective expression without wakening the sleeper. slight feet. or some other coordinated activity either remains without any motor expression. locomotion. motor discharge is checked. the fact that many dreams higher brain centers are inactive. or at most produces a very slight effect. common than There is generally supposed. On the other hand. On the other side of the arc. fingers. The breathing more regular and may take on a new rhythm. so that an idea which in waking life would lead to speech. it means only that he is unable to recall dreams. we sometimes recall a dream immediately after waking only to lose all recollection of it soon after. and the sleeper himself may recall nothing on waking. are forgotten does not justify the sweeping conclusion that the sleeper is always dreaming. sleeping thoughts This is not conclusive proof that the The connection between and waking thoughts is often very slender.818 MENTAL SUCCESSION [ch. is It may be that sometimes the entire cortex inactive. but in certain individuals and under certain conditions somnambulism proceeds in a coordinated manner. . Dream life differs from waking life principally in having Because the cortical centers are a much narrower field.^ streets unclad. When any one tells us that he never dreams.

strangeness of our The dream experiences is due to of this mistaking of our thoughts for perceptions. After we awake many of the incidents strike us as — This sometimes happens in waking life. and it would not have seemed absurd. R. they stand out vividly and seem to be actual perceptions. intense than the imagery of waking life. xiv] chiefly of imagery DREAMS and thoughts. A dream is really a train of thought and not a succession of perceptions. We would suppose the report of the man's death was a mistake. For example. The incongruities and absurdities in the succession of incidents in dreams are to be explained in the same way. At once I recollected that the report of his death was a mistake that it was really another friend who died.CH. Not having heard the report denied I was far more astounded than in the dream falsely reported the incident. waking life. 3W This seems sufficient to explain the fantastic character of dreams and the absurdities Dream images may not be actually more they exhibit.^ This supposed memory recollection was merely a new thought. ^ But our dreams seem at the time to be real perceptions. At times some incongruity may be noticed during the dream itself. Two weeks later I met him. it is entirely natural for you to think of your friends But you do not see your dead friends in after their death. so that you do not associate the thought of the man's being dead with his appearing before you. Some time ago the paper! death of C. * The train of thought described on page 313 might easily have occurred as a dream. so that their lifelike appearance in dreams is often startling after you awake. . Any one your dream pictures might readily have come to you as a thought in waking life. At the time it seems quite — natural. I was once surprised in a dream to see a friend who had been dead for some years. but since there are no sensations with which to compare them. and we would have considered it a most fantiistic dream. and may puzzle us. in waking life it would be called an hypothesis. W. because your brain centers are cut off from one another.

you picture yourself as performing the act. When you dream of the act of stabbing. and not voluntary acts. surprising that honorable persons sometimes it is not kill- dream of com- mitting dishonorable actions. (3) our personal control is diminished. A study of effects will help us to appreciate better the cinematograph construction of dreams. influence the direction of our . and that dreams (that is. To sum up. (2) as a consequence. or ing.320 MENTAL SUCCESSION [ch. xiv fashion. experiences take a more personal form. stealing. and our subconscious tendencies are more prominent. in the brain to inhibit them. such as lying. One need not be alarmed They do not imply any hidden flaw in a at such dreams. and the brain conditions of volition are reproduced without the motor activity. person's character. and thought is mistaken for real perception. the muscle-sense memories are more vivid than in waking life. because there are fewer intense impulses Our general attitudes also dream experiences just as they direct our trains of thought in waking life. With the exception of these differences it appears that dream experiences are formed in the same way as waking thoughts. Just as ideas are more vivid through the absence of * real ' perceptions. In dreams. A thought is by no means always a unsh. absurd because real beings and things do not act in this The motion pictures have succeeded in reproducing in visible form many striking effects which formerly were obtained only in dreams and vivid imaginations. though in waking life we usually think of them as performed by some one else. so subconscious experiences are apt to rise to the surface and become conscious during sleep. Subconscious life plays a more important part in dreams than in waking experiences. dream life differs from waking life in the following respects: (1) the higher brain centers are cut oS from one another and from most sensory and motor paths. Every one thinks of these acts. Since dreams are thoughts. our experiences are fragmentary and incoherent.

Hypnotic suggestion may induce anesthesia of one or more ^ This is popularly called hypnotisir. or making him move his two hands in a rhythmic. molded by past experiences. inhibits to a great extent the effect of suggestion. or talking to him in a droning voice. notic subject does The hyp^ what he is told to do. flict Suggestions are resisted only if they con- with his deepest moral sense. but they are controlled by the mind of another person. Hypnotism means the 'theory of hypnosis'. Another special condition of the nervous sysHypnosis. He will then gradually pass into the hypnotic state and lose the power of coordinating his thoughts and controlling his actions. but certain pathways become more resistant. Generally the hypnotic subject is governed by suggestions from the one who induced the hypnotic state and he pays no attention to anyone else. circular way. If told is peculiarly susceptible to sugges- that he is in a lake he immediately begins to If make swimming movements.ca. that a sheet of blank paper is the hypnotizer tells him a letter from a friend he starts to read it. xiv] DREAMS S21 same laws as ordinary waking life. . and suggestions received from the hypnotizer are all-powerful. The ordinary sense of fitness is lacking and he will unhesitatingly perform acts which ordinarily would be checked by the feeling of absurdity or fear of ridicule. tem is hypnosis. There are various ways in which a person may be hypnoby having him fix his gaze on a bright object. His actions are not inhibited as in sleep. tized: The hypnotized person tion. The process of hypnotizing focuses his attention on one individual. hypnosis is the physiological condition. .^ In hypnosis the sensory and motor paths are not cut off from the brain as in sleep. In the hypnotic state these inhibitions are lacking. In normal life our personality. while others are unusually open to trains of thought in sleep) follow the trains of thought in — connection with the centers.

The stream periences in hypnosis follows the laws of thinking rather than the laws of perception. constantly guided by verbal stimuli. (5) his actions are more completely controlled by suggestion. is another special kind of thinking. but the succession of thoughts is it is not self-guiding. as in ordinary thinking and in dreaming. MENTAL SUCCESSION The subject will not flinch if [ch. but only verbal suggestions have conscious effect. given. Dreams gud hypnosis are lower and — . (2) the hypnotic subject receives external stimuli. or reasoning. Rational thinking. Reasoning. (1) in hypnosis there is an abnormal condition of the brain centers.322 of the senses. perceptions and other of ex- experiences are subordinated to them. not disturbed by outside impressions nor accompanied by motor activity. but not in keeping with the real surroundings. Summing up. (4) his senses may be sharpened or blunted by suggestions. For practical purposes we may consider hypnotic experience as a dream-like mental condition. In both sleep and hypnosis our thoughts are especially vivid and are mistaken In sleep the flow of thoughts is ordinarily for perceptions. in hypnosis the succession of thoughts is determined by verbal suggestions from another person and results in motor activity appropriate to the thought. and the effects of this suggestion may last over into waking life. xiv when pricked by a needle or touched with a hot iron. induced and controlled by some one else. instead of by the dreamer's own mental processes. The peculiar behavior of a hypnotized subject is understood if we compare him with a dreamex'. Hypnosis is a condition in which the thought-life is raised to the focus. (3) he is able to make real movements instead of having merely ideas of movement and speech as in sleep. the subject is able to distinguish one blank sheet from another when told that they are photographs of different people. the proper command is At other times the hypnotic suggestion may bring about hyperesthesia.

is rational thinking. If we think of fourteen dollars added to a pile of twenty-seven dol- This it we conclude that there will be forty-one dollars in the pile. An inference is a new thought. Of course we may happen at if not have the fourteen dollars to begin with. Reasoning is a special type of thinking in which the associations correspond to processes in nature. If the original thought affect us in ceptions is often quite unsystematic. so that the succession of perThis haphazard connection of unrelated perceptions tends to be reproduced in our ordinary trains of thought. in the series corresponds to real things or events or facts.CH. haphazard order. so that we often associate objects or events which are not actually connected in nature. which we believe will tally with reality. and then the result does not just the same: we lack the dollars nies or pebbles or eggs or But the thinking is rational we can try it with penpages in a book or anything else. How has man gained the ability to reason to think rationally? Reasoning is not a special mental power. In our waking life the stimuli from the external world higher. then the whole train lars will represent something real. based on associated meanings or values. while reasoning a The stream of rational more adaptive variety. It is — . You may readily think of gold being discovered in your own back yard. This train of thought is casual thinking. His thinking was about real gold and the real consequences this discovery would have on his life. all. thoughts is made up of concepts and judgments. and go on to picture how you would mine it and what you would do with the proceeds. xivl less REASONING is organized than casual thinking. as in casual thinking. the succession is determined by their meaning instead of by mere similarity and contiguity. The conclusions which we reach through reasoning are called inferences. because whenever we actually carry out the result tallies with our thought. Very different were the thoughts of Captain Sutter in 1848 when gold was actually found at his mill.

of getting a time-table. The initial thought in this case is not the word Niagara. They lead you nowhere. your flow of thought may follow all sorts of directions.324 MENTAL SUCCESSION [ch. But if you think of actually going to Niagara. they depend merely on chance similarity of sound or chance contiguity. and Henry is older than William. and B is greater than C. then John is older than William. etc. (2) The complex organization of the human brain. the workings of nature are found to be the same. the language centers that enable us to get the ab- stract ideas in the first place. We because we always obtain that result (1) dollars and eggs and everything else. Rational thinking is applied also to special situations. Our language centers enable us to devise arbitrary words. your train of thought tends to become rational: you think of how to reach the place. None of these steps of thought is based on meaning. but the . Nature is built in this way. These and metic. Man has discovered that if A is greater than B. that you would like to hunt buffalo in the plains. There are many other varieties of reasoning besides arithLogic is one of them. If John is older than Henry. When you think of Niagara casually." etc. packing. Everywhere and in every phase we know of. You may think of your chum's trip to Niagara and BufiFalo. which are symbols instead of pictures. getting to the station. even without concrete things to work but with. fourteen. that a carpenter's plane would smooth a man's face quicker than a safety razor. drawing money. due to two circumstances: The uniformity of nature.." " twenty-seven. then A is greater than C. other logical relations are used in reasoning. By means of these symbols we can do abstract thinking we can connect fourteen and *' — with learn that 14+27 = 41 — twenty-seven in thought. and this may remind you of meeting a fellow named Gillette. xiv an outgrowth of ordinary thinking. When we find that the abstract relation actually we tend to apply it holds for dollars and eggs it is to other things.

A superstition imagining some relation in nature which does not really exist. or a judgment about going to Niagara. Thirteen at the table must mean death to one of the company. fallacy but a careful thinker is likely to discover the error by noting . trip to the railroad ac- there is In such cases there is no fallacy in your inference. but now and then the casual association 4+7 = 12 may creep in when we add up a column. The science of logic points out the proper use of reasoning. Once these fanciful connections are formed in our minds they are hard to eradicate. Sometimes the failure is due to our expecting too great uniformity in nature. is invaluable in training us to reason Rational thinking sometimes gets correct results in fails. Yet the only way to dis- — . especially if testing their falsity might mean death to the experimenter. The most common The rational asso- some inconsistency in the results. ciation 4+7 = 11 becomes very strong through repeated experience. xiv] REASONING 325 concept Niagara. because human beings obey you when you speak with authority. My adding machine than I do. summing up a column of figures oftener People have been known to miss their train even These of causes. This is called a Slips in reasoning are common in every one's life. The ancients reasoned that a certain its plant must be a remedy for heart trouble. A course in practical logic correctly. If leaves you pronounce some mystical word. because are heart-shaped. the winds or the mountains will obey your commands.CH. Your Falls may be frustrated by a new time-table or a cident. merely ignorance of some important factor in the is situation. because there were thirteen at the Last Supper. when cause the trip was carefully planned out beforehand. failures are is due to a variety a faulty connection in the brain. Encke's comet did not return quite as soon as the calculations predicted: something not foreseen by astronomers delayed it on the way.

You are perfectly sure it is the scenery that decides you to take that stroll not the girl you are likely to meet on the way. effective prepare for them beforehand. but you originally thought of the improvement only as a benefit to yourself personally. You advocate opening a new street. We and consider how we would act When we work with scientific or how nature would act. This mental process of constructing artificial reasons is called If you analyze your real motives you will be jrarfignflitaaiiftZL — surprised to find occurs. xiv is tinguish between a correct inference and a superstition for some one There Often it out and see what happens. or laying a sidewalk. The salesman knows a hundred reasons why his goods are better than any others. Rational thinking is and most picture imaginary situations : ( ) . which transforms the feeling into an emotion. another. Volition results in movements which usually change our situation and bring about new perceptions." Reasoning is the most important step in the growth of It enables us to anticipate events adaptive behavior. and he honestly believes them. hypotheses we combine the two types of thinking.826 MENTAL SUCCESSION to try is [ch. the exception of perceptions and thoughts we rarely have a long uninterrupted succession of any one kind of experience. An emotion is apt to exhaust itself quickly and pass over into thought or volition or speech. Our conscious Ufe The General Stream of Experiences. we arrive at a decision by some train of casual thinking and then try to make our decision look rational by constructing a plausible explanation. The teacher of practical ethics might well begin his instruction with the injunction: " Be honest with yourself. more insidious misuse of reasoning. < ^ supplemented by casual thinking. or putting in more lights. A feeling usually brings about action. In the general vista when it is — . how frequently the rationalizing process is and how strong the temptation to use it. on the ground of great public need. With is a vast stream comprising experiences of many sorts.

small patches of other experiences are intersp)ersed. tion In reality both percepthe time. while among primitive peoples the emotional life is more imporvolitant than thought and imagery. . one of or subconscious. When you are out walking with a friend your attention oscillates between the perception of things about you and the thoughts and indistinct utterances of your conversation. a sharp blow. In almost every life. them being vivid. human being. a thought. a flash of light. whether civilized or savage. But unless the new stimulus very intense finds a rival in the nerve impulses that are already active in the brain. the rest marginal Their relations change. life Our mental at any instant may include more than one experience: a perception. perceptions are most frequent and form the core of mental Among educated adults of civilized communities thought and imagery occupy a good second place. and a volition may all be present together.CH. the change is and thought are present the focus of attention — all in in the relative vividness of the two. The direction of our and attention is important in determining what the If you are interested in following a trail in the will be. or it may combine with them. and the thought which was may advance to the foreground. or a muscumay force it lar strain a perception upon us and crowd all other is experiences out of the focus. Motor experiences generally rank ahead of the emotions tion and language — — among civilized races. kind of experience will occupy the focus of attention is determined by the relative strength of the various nerve impulses occurring in the brain at that at What any given moment moment. xivl STREAM OF EXPERIENCES may 327 of experience there be long unbroken stretches of per- ceptions and long unbroken stretches of thought. between these. The new sensory nerve impulse may be interest effect wholly or partly inhibited by the existing central impulses. the perception may fade into the background. This depends partly on the intensity of stimula- A loud noise. tion.

and present condition of our nervous system. though you may have supposed they were quite relaxed. or study. go home and prepare for dinner. xiv woods. The Stream of Actions. the succession of our experiences in the general stream of mental life depends both on stimulation and on the make-up. These also form a Every act involving muscular contraction stimulates the muscle sense and may lead to another act or to a continuation of the same activity. In short. act is And new completed it generally brings about a When the which demands another response. and in part the laws of the stream of thought. we are usually maintaining their tension. like catching a ball. a broken twig. — Mental life includes not merely series. involve a series of coordinated movements lasting an appreciable time. . Even simple when the situation acts. or if his play ends the innings he is no longer wanted in the field and is expected to run in. training. on the other hand. We are seldom entirely quiescent. he has to throw it. the perceptive life — dominates. persistent personality. It follows in part the laws of the stream of perceptions. the most trivial signs will strike your attention a blazed tree. You will find that there is some muscular tension in these members. A geometrician like Archi- medes. or your arms completely. is up out of all our an all-important factor in determining the course of the stream. When we are not actually contracting some muscles. fielder has caught the ball. Our present. which has been built past experiences. or a footprint. Try at the present moment to relax your facial muscles. for the time being. our experiences but our actions. or your legs. When the game is over he has to dress. may be so absorbed in reasoning out a problem that no external stimulus will move him.828 MENTAL SUCCESSION [ch. An emotional man flies into a violent rage or into wild exul- tation over some event that arouses merely perception or thought in another. or see a friend.

Our active a succession of responses. experiences and responses which have been examined in the foregoing chapters are not detached events. is Summary. dreams. wax and wane. They form a continuous stream or succession. Sit with pencil and paper and note the first word you see in a book opened at random. then . then the first word associated with this second word. In the case of perceptions. the succession ciples of association. the inferences which we draw from them tend nature. one after the other. The flow of experiences depends partly on what effects us from outside. and so on till he has made (and uttered) 10 associations. in thought. Instruct the subject to call out the first word which he associates with your stimulus word. Practical Exercises: 69. reasoning. Repeat several times and find his average association time for a single association. and partly on our inherited and acquired mental conditions. which occur in sleep respectively. continually. xiv] STREAM OF ACTIONS is 329 life Rarely. — The determined by the mental prin- Besides the ordinary or casual trains of thought. which come and life is go. emotions. each determined cessive experiences. 70. thoughts. to correspond to real events or general truths of Our receptive life is a succession of perceptions. Stop the watch and note the time. responses. volitions. at the same time starting the watch. except during sleep. and hypnosis. Write down the first idea which it suggests. Test a person's association time with a stop-watch. and other experiences. The materials used in reasoning are concepts and judgments. thinking has two somewhat abnormal varieties called dreaming and hypnotic experiences. This is called reasoning. the external stimuli are largely responsible for the course of experience. A higher form of thinking occurs when the association is based on the meanings and values of our thoughts. Waking life is a flow of actions — a continuous succession of by our suc- the response resting.CH. Choose some noun or verb and say it distinctly.

including the experimenter. References: On association and reaction time: H. The experimenter holds a stop-watch. Jung. Studies in Word-Association (trans. bury. History of the Association C. Sleep (trans.). Moll. dividing the total time by the number of persons in the circle. The instant the second person feels the pressure he presses the hand of the third. the The average reaction is found by experimenter stops the watch. Warren. explain if possible the incongruities. de Manacelne. Attend carefully to a conversation between two persons. ch. Note which associations are 'rational' and which are 'casual.). Psychology of Reasoning. C. of association operate. When the last person presses the experimenter's hand. 71. and so on. since each has reacted once. out warning he presses the next person's hand. 22. and Examine each so on for series of 15 or association and determine which of the laws of association are responsible for its formation. Examine the succession of your experiences during the past 10 minutes and study the relation between perceptions and thoughts in the series. S. ch. G. around the circle. this latter. Freud. starting the stopHwatch with the same movement. Interpretation of Dreams (trans. what laws 73. 8 . Chain reaction. Report 72. Pills- . Principles of Psychology.). Let a group of persons. On reasoning: W. Analyze the succession of experiences in one of your dreams. W.). B. On hypnosis and suggestion: A. On dreams: M. a xiv 20 by successive associations. Hypnotism (trans. James. Psychology.' 74.830 the first MENTAL SUCCESSION idea suggested [ch. Withjoin hands in a circle.

acter. and they tinge our perceptions with a sense of familiarity. or A a person's systemic . taken together. tudes tend to become more stereotyped and to cover a wider territory. has acquired a mental attitude toward certain As time goes on. When the same sort of experience is repeated over and over again. or intellect. by rep>etition of the same sort of experience. acting as butler. the trace may deepen into a more or less permanent set of the nerve substance. the chauffeur. traces are revived in the form of of the trail in the forest. in the structure of the nervous system. These fixed ways of perceiving and thinking are called cognitive attitudes. One can often guess rather accurately a man's occupation by the sort of words and phrases he applies to ordinary situations. and lead The pathfinder watches for signs to stereotyped behavior. Each trade has its own vocabulary and code. In the same way all the attitudes based on great quantity of attitudes are built life combine to form his affective chartemperament. — Experiences leave traces * These retention memories or imaginations. the experienced football player finds the gaps in the opposing line. parks the \ dishes on the serving table. The sailor tells you about the house on the starboard side of the road. Each one. These enduring traces affect our way of receiving stimuli. these attifeatures of the environment. his motor attitudes. The sumtotal of our cognitive attitudes make up our intellectual character.' Besides this. furnished up out of material by the external senses.CHAPTER XV K HUMAN CHARACTER Permanent Mental Conditions. retention has another and far more important eflFect on mental life. the pessimist always sees the dark side of things.

Character alters far more slowly than attitudes. is made up of a vast number of attitudes. and our charparticular and personality are not experiences. Your chum lands a fine job.832 HUMAN CHARACTER or skill. your attitude and your behavior are different. The several phases of an individual's character They interact upon one another. How do you take the news? Are you tickled to death. but permanent mental conditions which underlie Attitudes change very gradually. Attitude Nature and Classes of Attitudes. xv make up his motor character a man's social attitudes determine his moral character or morality. or by your intellect. Personality in- cludes our innate tendencies. Attitudes. A mental attitude is a permanent set of our mental and nervous system which modifies the effect of stimuli and determines how we shall respond. The growth of a man's personality covers the a citified attitude entire period of his lifetime. Character is a more permanent and fundamental condition than the attitude. [ch.' or do you envy him the good luck which has not come to you? The news is the same in either case. The countryman is bewildered and helpless on his first visit to the city. The city-bred man takes toward the world. is called personality. It are not Your temperament may be modified by your moral character. Personality undergoes a still more gradual development and transformation. character. Your mental nature is the sum-total of all the permanent mental conditions that have developed within you up to the present. our attitudes. once formed they alter only as the trend of experiences. * — . it is only after long experience with country life that he can change this attitude and see the world with the countryman's eye. They are molded slowly. experience takes another direction. This all-embracing result of mental organization acter. independent.

If you live in a certain environment you are likely to develop The popular meaning It * certain attitudes which belong to that environment. means a motor posture. experiences are strained out and others are concentrated. the notion sticks by you long after you are familiar with the principle of gravitation. a sullen attitude. tion with perceptions The attitude which grows up in connecand ideas is called interest. CH. Every attitude is the product of repeated experiences.^ exert a powerful influence These three primary attitudes dominate our mental life and on every particular experience of the corresponding type. of the word attitude emphasizes this. floating Attitudes are classed according to the sort of experience that develops them.. and our simple motor experiences develop the attitude of attention. An alert attitude. They may be studied through the motor expressions which they bring about. City life develops alertness. air. xv] CLASSES OF ATTITUDES 333 Because attitudes are not particular experiences we cannot examine them like perceptions and emotions. f . ^ Notice the two different uses of the word aUention. (1) it denotes the mental process of focusing an impression and making it more vivid (ch. sions of It may take years to eradicate certain impres- made by the tales of an ignorant nurse. a credulous attitude. Our feeling experiences develop a type of attitude called desire. country life promotes observation Our attitudes are sieves through which certain of nature. it includes the mental condition which governs the motor posture. street urchin acquires The a whole raft of attitudes from his surroundings which the farmer's lad could never develop. almost inevitably lead to different kinds of behavior. or of thunder can usually be traced to some experience in childhood.' In psychology attitude means this and more. vi) (2) it also means the motor type of attitude. You were told the man who was tossed so high that he stayed up in the about forever. Fear of the dark Attitudes begin to develop early in life.

334 In popular language the things which ATTITUDE we say we perceive arouse interest. arrogant. take on many different forms.] i — Human Attitudes Mental Basis Perception. they are our way of receiving incoming Interest is not something in the mind which is aroused by what sistent. you you will be able to distinguish between the domineering. pompous. Language attitudes are few in number and are not especially significant. Attitudes of thought and moral attitudes are more numerous. It is not difficult to dis- tinguish between a friendly. condescending. Table XIV. [ch. All these secondary attitudes give train yourself to study human nature diversity to human character. xv that feelings cause desire. a gracious. product of a life-time. and other secondary experiences develop differently from interest. Ideation Peeling Attitude Primary: Interest Desire Attention Secondary: Dispositions Appreciation Conscience Proclivities Conation Emotion. is it is a mental bias or set which causes certain perceptions or ideas to be especially vivid and per- Attention not really something that it is we turn toward an experience. an affable. but our muscles this a mental tendency to adjust way or that according to the situation. Instead of becoming uniform they desire. thought. and attention. The emotional attitudes are especially rich in their shading. and superior attitudes which men in authority almost inevitably assume. lordly. we see. overbearing. [Table XIV. that The truth is that the desire attitude and the interest attitude are the stimuli. if and a devoted attitude. Sentiment Thought Social situation Volition Language attitudes Ideal attitudes Language Ideab . The attitudes that grow out of emotion.

CH. titudes — interest. This confusion may be avoided if we practice careful observation of our own experiences. their influence is the game. and perhaps a in glove accidentally dropped on the turf. Desire. and other intense stimuli are likely to arouse attention. aU these are attention it is These three attitudes are so closely connected together that not easy to distinguish them. desire. making it more vivid and prominent. and Attention. mean interest. one of the teams. interest is our attitude toward the perception or idea. You attend You knit your brows. fix your eyes. DESIRE. As you watch the significant plays you look at the actions of the players with interest — with a very If different attitude from your cursory perception of the foul-line or the you are interested team shall win. clench your attitudes. critical points in the game this desire becomes strong and At causes violent heart-beating. Attention is our motor attitude. loud noises. deep breathing. but it helps you to per- Attention shows ceive the object better. Suppose you are watching a baseball game. you have a desire that this feeling of * goneness ' in the pit of your stomach. which enables us to receive impressions better. fists. itself in muscular adjustment or tension. the eye movement is the expression of your attention attitude. Your interest in the moving object is the attitude that makes this object * stand out prominent in consciousness. The chances are that you are there on account of your interest in together. The three primary atand attention generally work — — observed in almost every experience. In popular language they We speak of attention when we really are often confused. xv] INTEREST. . When you follow a moving object with the eye. This is called involuntary attention and it flashing signs. to each play through slight motor reactions. even though they lie outside our usual line of interest. It is not the significant response to the stimulus.' Moving objects. and in this way you are able to respond more suitably when the time comes. ATTENTION 535 Interest.

remembering this feeling or that. Satisfaction This attitude is called want. In discussing memory we found that definite systemic Instead of memories and systemic ideas rarely occur. our attitude pleasant and imagine is some pleasant dissatisfaction picture of and something more: it carries with it a removing the unpleasantness or transforming it is less into pleasantness. But in unpleasant situations the attitude of want tends to share ' ' the focus with the feeling of unpleasantness. In satisfactory situations the pleasantness of the experience itself dominates. The desire for honors. In general. which is an attitude due to many past feelings. so far as his subject-matter goes they up and take would prefer to and enjoy a nap. a person's interest follows certain definite lines. rests on Want leads to motor activity which tends similar grounds. success.336 usually carries with it ATTITUDE involuntary interest. Desire differs from interest and attention in having two opposite forms. we are experiencing something unalternative. [ch. a third man on mur- The and accidents. xv A prosy speaker pounds on the desk and makes relax his hearers sit notice. to remove the unpleasantness or to bring about the desired . morning paper one man spends most time on the stock quotations. You want a motor car because of imagined pleasure. it brings out the things he is most accustomed to observe and In reading the the ideas he is most accustomed to think. wealth. Our attitude toward pleasant experiences is ders If called satisfaction. and the attitude usually plays an unimportant part. corresponding to the two feelings of appetite and aversion. praise. but because you recall the satisfaction of eating breakfast on other occasions. distinctive than want. another on the sporting page. line of your general interest makes some particular part of the paper loom large in your mind and fixes your attention. we generally have a want. a fourth on the foreign news and editorials. or need. You want breakfast not merely on account of present hunger.

pleasantness. xv] INTEREST. But the emotional attitude is rarely washed out completely. unbridled displays of emotion. lized society. by something in his manner or tone. trol the course of and attention enable us to guide and conour experiences and actions. Interest." " Won't you listen to me?" Who cannot guess the emotional background of these phrases The jx)ker player trains himself to suppress or disguise even tell you can usually — the simplest manifestations of feeling. we become better able to do the right thing. In The emotion of joy simmers down into a cheerful disposition. ATTENTION 337 Our actions do not always succeed in accomBut it is characteristic of the want attitude As our mental adjustment bethat it spurs us to action. they furnish one In civiof the very best indications of a man's personality." rated with concentrated emotion. Often it becomes a contest between concealment and detection not unlike the struggle for supremacy between defen- — sive armor and penetrative shells. You can often tell that a certain man is worried or overburdened before he says a word. plishing this. comes perfected. only critical situations call forth — the motives of human life. DESIRE. and the business man endeavors to obliterate them with more or less success. whether he is well-disposed toward you or defers to you or considers himself a bit above you. desire. " In my humble opinion . Our most casual acts and words may be thoroughly satu" They left me out.! CH. You know at once if a stranger is distrustful or ready to accept you. repressed emotions of anger lead to a hostile disposition. If you cannot get rid of . if not by his words and actions. worthy of study than our emotional attitudes. When this is accom- plished the want gives way to satisfaction. In this respect they belong among No phase of human life is more Emotional Attitudes. emotional expression is usually repressed. talking with a person whether he is annoyed or pleased. or dispositions. To one who has learned to interpret them. which in this case is to fulfill the desire.

338 ATTITUDE least [ch. which is liable to frequent fluctuation. 215). The school histories of an earlier generation took a similar ' epaotional attitude toward the 1 Tories ' and ' red-coats ' Compare Table XV with Table VIII (p. you can at leam to detect the slight twitchings of certain muscles and inflections of the voice in other persons. Our emotional attitudes become established by slow degrees. — festing these emotional attitudes in writing plain history. It fairly startles us to find our own countrymen manioiu- Even tional bias. strong beUef mingled with strong disbelief produces a biased or prejudiced disposition. which will reveal to you their emotional dispositions. and a mood. Sentimental attitudes are closely related to emotional attitudes. with no emotional tinge whatever. as for instance the miserly and orderly dispositions. . it would be hopeless to include the numerous finer shades. Notice the written in the 'CO's or 70's adjectives appUed to Lee and Davis by Northern historians. which is a more or less permanent attitude. judgments of fact are usually tinged with emoRead any accoimt of the American Civil War or even the '80's. this probably accounts for the popular confusion between emotions and sentiments. Nearly every class of emotion develops a corresponding attitude or disposition. Grant. but it is of social rather than psychological importance. xv your own emotional display. or to Lincoln. Certain dispositions are derived directly from instinctive tendencies. The distinction seems valid.^ In Table XV only the most noticeable dispositions are given. and Sherman if the writer is a Southerner. The great wealth of emotional attitudes is in striking contrast with the one single form of the interest attitude. Doubt gives rise to a perplexed attitude. Popular psychology distinguishes between a disposition. and the border line between a passing mood and a permanent disposition is indefinite.

are imper- .CH. are still called ' regicides The judges who sentenced King Charies a by sturdy British royalists ' — suggestion of the word homicide. Where the narrative itself is unimpeachable the choice of adjectives will frequently betray to an acute observer the writer's emotional bias. with its moral stigma. 339 — Human Dispositions 2. Expressive Reproductive Attitude Cheerful Emotion Joy Grief Attitude Affectionate Emotion Love Lust Jealousy Tenderness Despondent Lascivious Jealous Dazed Frivolous Zealous Erratic Shock Mirth Ecstasy Restiveness Motherly Romantic Devout 8. XV] EMOTIONAL DISPOSITIONS Table XV. Aggressive Attitude Cowardly Courageous Aversion Cautious Reserved Servile 5. Emotion Fear " Attitude Hostile Vindictive Emotion Anger Hatred Disgust Timidity Malicious Envy Pride " Shame Awe Socicd Ambitious Arrogant Bold 6. Most of our dispositions. Exultation Instinctive and Sentimental Basis Acquiring instinct Cleanliness Attitude Emotion Affection Attitude Devoted Friendly Miserly (Avaricious) Cordiality Compassionate Attachment ? Loyal > Antagonistic Sullen Distrustful Pity 5 Gratitude ( Orderly Nomadic Credulous Skeptical Wandering Belief instinct Admiration Detestation Revenge Suspicion Disbelief Supercilious Scorn Perplexed Biased Doubt Belief and Disbelief in the American Revolution. Exuberance Wonder Defensive 4. The killing of the Austrian archduke has been described both as a dastardly assassination and as a sublime will emotionalize act of patriotism. and those of the next generation toward the several nations concerned in the World War. 1. like our emotions.

340 ATTITUDE life. Some persons constantly revert to the past. If xv fectly adjusted to the conditions of civilized we test our attitudes (or better experience. they tend to take the anticipatory attitude. One of the most important of these is the problem attitude. [ch. Others reach out toward the future. but the tendency to keep a definite prob- lem before us and direct our thoughts with reference to it. German equivalent Aufgabe . or this tendency may result in desultory thinking. they live in retrospection. — Of the remaining attitudes The in the most important are those which develop out of thought experiences and social situations. tions which Loyalty. A special group of attitudes develop in connection with our casual. The attitudes which grow out of rational thinking may be grouped together under the head of appreciation. but they all relate to this particular problem. The highly imaginative mind assumes an imaginative attitude. The servile dis- as disconcerting as the arrogant. still the attitudes of others) by social we find that the emotional element generally of hampers the intercourse position is man with man. motor Appreciation and Conscience. There are some exceptions. A succession of thoughts follow. together with certain prominent attitudes of other sorts. the problem is * Also called task or question attitude. the frequently used in English books. principal attitudes in these two spheres of life are shown Table XVI. and the like are disposipromote cooperation among men and assist the socializing trend of human development. From the peda- gogic standpoint the early training of emotions and dispositions seems even more important than the cultivation of habits. the problem thought was how to devise a flying-machine.' This means that when we are given a problem or a question to solve we tend to keep this problem before us as the basis of our thinking. The attitude is not the particular problem. In the case of Langley or the Wright brothers. ordinary thinking. compassion.

CONSCIENCE Table XVI. xv] APPRECIATION. Cooperative Volitional Attitudea (Proclivities): Contrary. The interpretive and evaluative attitudes permeate our perceptual life as well as our thoughts.CH. Attitude 341 — EboHER 1. An interpretive atti- . Condemning Laudatory. We become trained to observe differences in kind and quantitative differences their thinking among the objects that we perceive. Doubt BeUef (feeling marginal) ( Dogmatic " " ) Interpretive Meaning Value Esthetic sentiment (feeling marginal) Rational thought " " « « Evaluative Esthetic appreciation Logical appreciation Analytic Synthetic. " Social and Moral Attitudes 3 Other Secondary Attitudea (a) {Conscience) Conciliatory. so that was ever on the subject of human flight. or to return to repeatedly. Constructive Critical " . Self-satisfied Altruistic Penitent Suppliant Forgiving Prudish Irresponsible (c) Ideal Attitudes: Idealistic Practical Superstitious (fetish and tabu) Sensual Scientific Duty-boimd (moral obligation) Artistic attitude enabled them to maintain this central thought perit sistently year after year. Human Attitudes Basis Thought Attitudes (a) General: Retrospective Anticipatory Desultory. Obstinate Vacillating Language Attitudes: Receptive Expressive Voluble Reticent Self-centered. Competitive Inculpatory. Imaginative Memory coefficient vivid Purpose (volition marginal) Associative thought Naive (b) Rational Appreciation: Interrogative (Problem attitude) Impartial. Approving Judicial (b) Persevering.

because the emotions have been a powerful factor in developing our social ideals and conduct. The two attitudes of contrariness and condemnation illustrate the tendency of social and moral attitudes to become fixed and generalized. A satisfactory classification of these is difficult. In our relations to other men and to society at large a number of important social attitudes have arisen. whether we agree with the premises or not. Esthetic appreciation the attitude which approves a musical composition or a painting as artistically correct. but is tinged with a slight sense of obligation toward society. Midway between these is the accusatory attitude so frequently noticed in modern political and com- munity life. Logical appreciation is our thirst for logical accuracy and correct reasoning. and this is historically justified. because they shade from emotional or volitional experiences into the sphere of conduct by gradual degrees. to moral and an emotional tinge. on the other hand. It generally carries . Even the average reader acquires an attitude toward individual words. has scarcely any emotional tinge. If you propose a conscience is The term commonly applied social attitudes. xv tude toward thought is cultivated by modern education. the inculpatory attitude of a public prosecutor. or condemns it on account of faulty technique. But the notion of conscience may be extended to such unemotional phenomena as the judicial attitude and the sense of moral obligation (the duty-bound attitude). These are really instances of the appreciative attitude. but.S42 ATTITUDE [ch. Writers learn to appreciate subtle distinctions in the meaning of words. James speaks of the feeling that attaches to such minor words as and. The contrary-minded man raises objections to anything his friends suggest. and by. which leads us to interpret or evaluate the relations of words in a sentence with as much keenness as is we interpret scientific laws. if. Thus the fault-finding attitude contains a large element of emotion.

but the situations which evoke them vary greatly in different communities and stages of civilization." and. such as our own. For example. The prvdish attitude illustrates even more strikingly how social attitudes sight of depend on custom. A similar custom prevails to-day among the Eskimos." are typical of the condemning attitude. the same act or the same objective situ- may yield very different attitudes in various races It and depends upon the traditions and customs of the people whether the attitude of obligation is assumed in a given situation or not. He is forever picking flaws in the actions of others sphere. he orders If you suggest going to one theater he prefers another. " Any idiot — — would have known better. who do not recognize any obligation toward their offspring except to feed and clothe them. Social and moral attitudes evolve in much the same way in all races. When the fault-finder sees a break in the pavement the road commission is blamed. In other communities there is recognized an obligation on the culture-stages. In other societies.CH. in many communities the child is regarded as the slave of his parents. Any statement you make he is ready to challenge. part of the parents to educate their children and their life-work. fit them for Among the ancient Romans it was customary to expose deformed and weak children and let them die. CONSCIENCE 343 walk he wants to stay at home. If he sees newspapers scattered about the public parks he berates our lack of social breeding. xv] APPRECIATION. " Why did n't you . The fault-finder takes a somewhat similar attitude in the moral tea." and. In certain countries the a woman's unveiled face shocks the moral sense. these weaklings are especially cared for and protected. If you order coffee. This same attitude revels in denunciation of the flaws in our social organization. To put it the other ation way round. " Will you never learn . or in the social order of the community. .

in the other direction it may lead to vacillation. tribute something to — Our attitudes always conand sub- But usually the our experiences. xv Elsewhere the same shock ankle or the knee. Attitudes and Consciousness. which serve as motives of action and control the course of our lives. material they contribute is so obscure that it is not observed by the man himself at the time. Psychology studies duty only as a mental attitude it does not attempt to pass judgment on its particular applications. caused by a skirt revealing the Even the attitude toward fundamental social relations. conceptions of duty — obstinacy. The use of language results in receptive and expressive atti- tudes. while the voluble man insists that every one else shall listen to him. seldom definite. feelings. varies. the reticent man is inclined to listen. language.344 ATTITUDE is [ch. in the form of deepconcrete experiences. The attitudes which grow up in connection with volition. such as marriage. Volition develops the persevering attitude. Attitudes are generally But the question it arises. An ideal is made up of thoughts. and Because of this complexity our ideals are volitions. From the standpoint of ethics the question of monogamy and polygamy is of prime importance. Ch. and other types are distinguished on the basis of certain underlying attitudes which govern their behavior and conduct. The science of ethics seeks to determine which of these two is higher and better. with its extreme limit. though they exert a real and usually a powerful influence on our experiences. — consciousness. pp. In an earlier chapter ' we distinguished between subliminal subordinate liminal they are too faint to be noticed. the practical man. b not actually in use? 1 what becomes of an attitude when Does it act subconsciously (that vi. But they develop lying ideal attitudes. The idealistic man. 1S6-1S8. it is subconscious. and ideals are not especially prominent. . the scientist.

You may be wholly uninterested in Arabic or Russian. And just so with our Usually they are not active. — Character arises from the consoli- dation of attitudes into more permanent trends of life. The interworking life results of countless attitudes in each sphere of * ' that sphere. In fact all that persists between-times possible. Character Nature of Character. then the attitude appears as an element in our conscious experience. but not often. you are interested in the classics because biological terms are derived from Greek and Latin roots. An attitude is a retention trace. they are neither subattitudes. only it is cut far deeper than any single memory Memories are not stored away in the mind. impression. is the is trace which makes the attitude When the trace aroused. because they have only a slight bearing on your subject. this affects your attitude toward languages. so our attitudes tend to combine into deep-lying general tendencies. If your interest centers in the study of biology. leading one single life. or in German on account of the biological works written in that language. On the other hand if you are a * ' linguist you are interested to some degree in all languages.CH. A man's various thought attitudes are not independent. liminal nor are they constantly working in a subordinate conin a subordinate consciousness) — sciousness. RELATION TO CONSCIOUSNESS It 345 when it is not working conseems probable that our attitudes do work subsciously? consciously at times. because man is an integrated individual. xv] is. but they are inactive so long as they are not actually used. Just as the constant repetition of similar experiences leads to the development of fixed tendencies called attitudes. up a composite attitude Our thought and perception attitudes unite in building in to . the traces are there ready for use. its while your interest in biology may be limited to use of Greek and Latin mental roots.

and motor — the fourth social relations. It is the measure of his mental capacity and attainment in that phase of life. Each separate attitude may be regarded as a trait of character. xv form a composite attitude toward this kind of mental material. We begin to see the individual as a and we can compare one man with another. so that practically we rate a man's traits and his character through his responses. College examinations are a means for rating a student's intellectual character in certain definite lines. for such ratings are liable to error. There are four principal lines of character development. — correctly. Character is a combination of many particular attitudes. Strictly speak- a man's character ' is not the rating which his fellows actually give him. This composite attitude called our intellectual character. so that our memories and thoughts ^ of the external world play This practical rating is an important part a man's reputation. A soldier's behavior in battle enables us to rate ing. The impressions obtained through these senses are especially apt to be retained.346 CHARACTER is [ch. A man's is his general rating in one of the four chief phases of mental life. is Intellect the phase of character which grows up in connection with the information received through our external senses. Each attitude or trait character manifests itself in concrete actions. and in practice our measure of a man's character consists in rating each important trait. Character is really the rating which the man would receive if one could appraise him Intellect. three correspond to the three great varieties of sensation arises — from our These phases Temperament of character are: Intellect (or intellectuality) Skill (or skillf Illness) Morality The study whole. external. . him for courage. of character carries us beyond the examination of separate experiences. systemic.

The breadth of a man's intellect is measured by the number of different traits that he has developed. There are instances of mathemati- cal prodigies and memory geniuses who in other respects are below the average mental level. A man of high-grade intellect is one whose attainments are both broad and high. The breadth of your intellect depends essentially upon the complexity of your inherited nerve structure. while its height depends more largely upon your education. Various attempts have been made to measure intellectual attainment. involving various mental processes. There are also tests involving simple and series of numbers is tested mathematical problems.CH. by giving the child a statement which contains some absurdity. and asking him to point out what is wrong in it. and so graded that the child's success in eral intellectual level. INTELLECT 347 think. In rating a man's intellect. height means the amount of his growth in each independent attainment. is tested by his ability to repeat sentences of various lengths Rational thought and more figures.g. tests of practical judgment. Both breadth and height must be taken into account in rating a man's intellect. and remember counts more than accurate perception and vivid imagination. This scale consists of a large number of tests performing the tests will indicate his genFor example. the growth of memory of three. Intellectual development proceeds tions. their minds are too spread-out. And there are men of great mental versatility who fail to measure up to the average in any one particular.* * tests to E. four. in two distinct direcwhich correspond in a figurative way to breadth and height. The great difficulty has been to distinguish the far independent phases of intellect and to estimate their relative importance.. "What b the thing for you to do if a playmate hits jou without . xv] in our lives. An important step in this direction is the scale devised by Binet and Simon for measuring the mental growth of children. his ability to reason. five.

or temperament. This number is taken as the measure of the average intellectual level at ten years. It has not yet A man may be highly developed along certain lines and deficient in others. * Children of who only attain the nine-year standard are said to be one year retarded. their The same procedure is mental age ' is nine years. In applying mental tests to adults a difficulty arises owing to the great individual differences in breadth. The success of the Binet Scale as a measure of intellect is is development of children have not yet developed a great On examining all the variety of complex mental traits. been determined satisfactorily how to compare these different attainments with one another so as to represent fairly the individual's mental level. Binet. morality. War meaning to do it?" eight years. ten years is one year advanced. An animal maze test would measure motor intelligence. used in determining the standard for each age. A child of ten who succeeds in five more tests than the average child of his age.000 recruits and officers. xv show the extent and many others.848 CHARACTER of the child's vocabulary. Alpha. to be complete. should include It separate tests for each independent intellectual trait. The Army Alpha Tests were applied to about 1. The gence tests. [ch. and are believed to have successfully rated the intellectual standing of these men.' — . ^ This is answered correctly by the average child of ' and other tests of this sort are usually called intelliIn point of fact most of them measure only intelleotual development not skill. they succeed in a certain number of these tests.500. culty. The most satis- factory adult tests at present are those used during the World in the United States Army. children in a large school and comparing those of the same age. In practice the tests are arranged in order of increasing diffiFive tests cover each year of mental growth. or skill.' A mental scale for adults. it is found that fifty per cent of the ten-year-old children due to the fact that the intellectual relatively simple.

In applying mental tests special care should be taken that if An the results are truly representative. the results may indicate the intellect of the coach not the mental level of the testee.CH. A dull person will stand low no matter how much drill he has had in the subject. tests differ from school or college examinations in examination in any subject brings out merely the training which the student has had in that particular hue. supplied with the proper record. classics. Entrance examinations do not show whether the student is mentally fitted to pursue the college course. and those that grow up under the ordinary influences of latter social environment. but except in this crude way examinations do not indicate a person's general mental fitness. well selected. Mental just this. it indicates only in a general way his degree of mental development. might pass a very advanced test and give results indicating a superlative degree of intellect.' his — ' ' — Does training in any special line (mathematics. A question which interests psychologists at present is whether there is such a thing as general intellectual training: coached. A phonograph. Such a result would measure the intellectual not the grade of the individual who prepared the record Unless due care is taken intellect of the phonograph itself. xv] INTELLECT 349 should distinguish also between traits that have been developed by special training or schooling. in giving a mental test (or a college examination for that matter). * If the individual tested answer to a question supposed to has been involve reasoning may be really a feat of memory. Mere scholarship and information do not denote so high a degree of intellectual development as the less cultivable processes which underlie them. The seem to deserve a higher rating. science) result in all-round intellectual improvement? is Or is the improvement limited to the trait that being trained? . determine just this point. which is of prime importance in picking out suitable students. Entrance tests.

or any other particular internal condition will affect our systemic experiences. Temperament is possibly correlated with the modes of The heart-beat may be strong or weak. We rate a man's temperament in altogether from his intellect. Combining these pairs we get four it may choleric. xv The answer eral. Chronic indigestion. overwhich are not closely related. different terms The ancients recognized four kinds of temperament. The weight is ' of evidence at present seems to indicate that training specific. hear serve to develop our intellect.350 CHARACTER is [ch. temperament on stimuli which arise from the operation of our inner organs and glands. this may modify our temperamental character more or less profoundly. training in one does improve the other. This classiwas based upon a doctrine of internal secretions which. the and phlegmatic. but these experiences of the outer world affect our temperament only to a slight These two sides of human character develop each degree. To say that a man is phlegmatic about his intellectual capacity. eral intelligence is But there Gen- Temperament is the phase of character Temperament. fication . be rapid or slow. sanguine. contained a germ of truth. reason is tells us nothing at The why these two phases of character are inde- pendent not difficult to understand. development of one of the ductless glands. melancholic. These two sets of sensory nerves lead to different brain centers. It is the permanent cast of our systemic life. which develops out of our desires and emotional attitudes. but it exerts only a slight What we see and influence upon our intellectual growth.' not gen- To the extent that two mental traits have a common factor. Intellect depends on external stimuli. a combination of does not appear to be a factor of general intelligence. oversensitivity to pain. though in the main erroneous. In general a man's temperament develops quite independently of his intellect. in its own way. not yet clear. and heart action. all — many distinct traits.

Systemic stimuli come from the glands and from the internal organs controlled by the autonomic nervous system. active and passive. A more natural classification is based on both the type of activity and the quality of feeling. the feeling element three phases.] Table XVU. . should not be overlooked in our study of the mind. The autonomic system works somewhat independently of voluntary control. types. and indifferent. xv] varieties of TEMPERAMENT But 351 temperament. [Table XVII. Motor Phase — Classification Feeling Tone of Tempebamentb Temperament Sanguine Choleric Pleasant Unpleasant 5 Indifferent Mercurial Jovial Pleasant Passive •< Unpleasant Indifferent Melancholic Phlegmatic life While temperament intellect or the other is not so important a factor in it as phases of character. The choleric and to some extent the melancholic temperalife. Combining these two groups of characteristics we obtain six varieties of tempera- ment. The motor side has two phases. By deliberately cultivating cheerful attitudes. pleasant. Our thoughts affect our digestion and secretions. so far as education is capable of molding the temperament. but it has connections with the central nervous system. which correspond to the classic this does not take into account the distinction between pleasant and unpleasant feeling. which is really the most significant characteristic of systemic sensations. ment mate are a practical handicap in meeting the situations which confront us in social People do not relish having is inti- relations with a man who and sour. nor yet in education. hop)elessly addicted to violent emotions of the unpleasant type — nor yet with one to the parent who is perennially grim It is up and teacher to train the child away from these unsocial trends. unpleasant.CH.

dressing. and this rating is distinct from the measure of his intellect and temperament. playing ances. height the man's degree of success in performing any particular kind of act furnishes a more ade- — — . writing. breadth of skill is an important factor to consider. A man's motor character is rated according to the effectiveness of his muscular activity. and in fating the comparative development of various races. and a host of other performactivities each trade and its varied acts as eating. moving about. Its height is the degree of success in performSkill. it lies within his power to modify the temperament to a far greater extent is partly the task of the physician. keep the normal body in good working order and develop the temperament in the right direction. by the number of independent motor acts that the individual can perform. Besides these common technical profession has own particular motor program. These influences do not entirely solve the problem. than can be accomplished through the central nervous system. On the other hand. Skill is the phase of character which develops out motor attitudes and habits. xv we can develop a cheerful temperament. plenty of physical exercise. The real solution is to train our internal organs to work properly. eating. In comparing the motor character of individuals. a proper will amount of sleep. A similar influence is exerted by social example and systematic education. conversing. It is the permanent molding of our response life. drawing. — of our ' ' ance. Like intellect. The remarkable breadth of if motor development in civilized man mon will be realized acts of we attempt to make a list of the commodern life. This or Whether by drugs by diet or by baths and other agencies.352 CHARACTER [ch. The catalogue would include such games. The individual himself can cooperate here and in many Regular habits of cases can accomplish the results alone. skill develops in two dimenThe breadth of skill is measured sions: breadth and height.

or amount of inaccuracy. like the scale of intellect. should include a great variety of typical acts of various sorts. Boys should be taught to drive nails. In certain kinds of work accuracy or precision is of far greater importance thiin is speed. intellect Up to the present skill has not proof The importance seems to have been somewhat overemphasized in modern civilization. and perform the common motor activities of . xi). In a certain tapping test the individual in succession. In tests of skill we seek to determine (1) the time required to perform the act. But some progress can be made at home.CH. Sometimes the conditions are such that speed and accuracy are combined into a single factor. A ready-made garment on the other hand must be finished quickly. in order to reduce the cost of production. if it is to indicate breadth as well as height of attainment. regardless of time expended. If the subject misses the hole at first he must correct the error before proceeding to the next hole. and speed is the only variable to be measured. 858 quate index to In determining height of motor attain: ment two separate factors must usually be measured speed and accuracy (eh. irregularities in the cutting are taken as a matter of course. Here the inaccuracy factor is eliminated entirely. The education and of skill belongs largely to technical schools institutions for manual training. We are only beginning to recognize that skill is an essential phase of human character. xv] SKILL skill. in other cases the opposite true. A telescope lens must be ground to the utmost limit of accuracy. saw straight. the construction of a measuring scale for gressed so far as the scale for intellect. and (2) the mmiber of errors made. It is often difficult to estimate the relative value that should be assigned to these two factors. is required to insert a plug into a series of holes tion produces and to do it as rapidly as possible. A scale of skill. Each inseran electric contact and makes an audible click.

Games of skill. is the phase of character which con- cerns a man's relations to his fellows. our social relations develop social attitudes. and these attitudes develop a new phase of human character. All our information regarding our men is received through the external senses of sight. family and social fellow It depends upon our There are no separate receptors or senses for social stimuli. though it still leaves much to be desired. The home training of girls in the household arts is more advanced. called moral character or morality. touch. develops in two of social relaIt dimensions: breadth and height. : includes two separate fields the family. each of which involves a num- . In a word. such as baseball. or rescue a drowning man. Family relations include several sorts: marital. xv every-day life with accuracy. hearing. corresponding to the intellectual education of our primary and secondary schools. one of the great tasks of the — Morality life. billiards. Your plunge into the river to save a man is a different sort of act. Moral character. the act is due to a social feeling within you. parental. Our range tions extends gradually with the progress of civilization. golf. and the rest. furnish good training in the fundamentals of motor accuracy. though the muscular activity in the two cases may be similar. A general system of motor education. like intellect and skill. Morality. from the plunge you take for mere pleasure. and the tribe or social group. our perception of other persons arouses within us certain special kinds of emotions and senti- ments. So important is this side of our mental life that in popular language the word character is often equivalent to moral character. It is remains to be developed. present-day educator. fraternal.354 CHARACTER [ch. mentally speaking. or give If you soothe a sick a coin to a beggar. and leads to social responses. and filial. Owing to the peculiar relations in which human beings stand toward one another. and tennis. child.

The code of ethics differs from the religious code. gives rise to many relations with corresponding duties friendship. and senti- Social behavior is — ments. emotions. Religious rites and practices belong to the same phase of mental life as social conduct. It is this that makes the true rating of moral character particularly difficult. When you give a dollar to a beggar you may actually start him on a debauch or help to settle him in a life of idleness and uselessness. The height of a man's moral character is measured by the extent to which his social ideals and acts tend to benefit his fellows and avoid doing them injury. is As civilization devel- ops and the social organization perfected these relations are extended. and mankind. giving rise to broader relations and duties — toward rela- our country. general relationship of community to organization. More tions is significant than the range or breadth of social the degree to which an individual enters into these relations. A scale of morality must take into account not merely a man's explicit conduct. The rating is not determined by what one actually accomplishes but by what he intends to accomplish. xv] MORALITY Community : 355 life ber of separate duties. yet the motive of the gift may be thoroughly good. to commune with God.CH. our race. to be guided by an all-powerful and all-wise personality. not in terms of the motor result. and character are closely related to the man's nature is a striving to propitiate some higher being or beings. religious attitudes develop in much the same way as social attitudes. but the attitude underlying his actions. and this involves a determination of his social thoughts. is called conduct. business other economic dealings. A man's moral character measured practically by his conduct by what he does and what he neglects to do. Religious conduct social. and and the man man. The psychologist and moralist measure conduct in terms of the man's motives. but the mental basis of the religious side of The .

Character training in all Reward and Punishment. But this himself he is not all. Moral character is quite susceptible to social training. The child at the outset is quite ignorant as to what acts are moral and what are immoral. The responsibility for moral training rests largely with the parents. he also inherits very pronounced self-preservative tendencies which often conflict with social ideals. Left to out the fundamental distinctions in the course of time. The life with an inherited social tendency. Rightly handled these two instruments are very effective in speeding up the training. social customs. some of of situation. xv two the same. for the home and life presents a vastly greater variety more opportunities for moral or immoral conduct than are found at school. Man's religious character develops with intellect or his social growth rather than with his tempera- ment.856 CHARACTER is [ch. incentive of reward and the deterrent effect of punishment have always been extensively used in education. phases of character is partly a matter of natural mental The growth. The first duty of moral education is to foster the child's social trend and repress his selfchild starts seeking tendencies. A few instances are usually sufficient to teach the child what society expects of him in any given sort shorten the learning period. The function of moral education is to may work and to instill in the child many which rest on convention rather than on natural human relations. not to take the property of others. A word of praise when the child has masof social relations far — . The conventions of decency and politeness are pointed out to him concretely before he is old enough to appreciate their meaning or place in life. partly a matter of example and education. He is taught to speak the truth. to say he is sorry when he has unwittingly done wrong. The tendency of the human mind to generalize helps the learning process immensely.

The child has only limited experience. Psychologically this idea is all to fix the successful response. The question not shows that they are working for the symbol of success Rewards should perhaps for the mental attainment itself. If the child cannot make the proper nervous and mental adjustments without a pain incentive. An admonition or a whipping clinches the warnoften prevents a repetition of the same mistake. The old notion of punishment was that when a child makes a misstep he must pay a penalty for his error. in temperamental demeanor. a obviates a repetition of wrong. which is the This is true only psychological justification for rewards. in problems of skill. ing and The danger in applying this method too frequently is that the child may come to regard the parent and teacher as an agent for retribution instead of a guide. or he may strive for the reward itself. It is to be expected that he will fail more often than he will succeed. infrequently the college educator even in later life. serves word of disapprobation often some wrong-doing. If a — . the use of punishment is justified. not reprobation. The use of reward has its dangers also.CH. his mental powers are undeveloped. It may serve to make the child careless. But the inhibitive power of pain and discomfort is strong. To make him sufifer for these failures is wretched pedagogy. The danger in the use of reward and punishment as a method of training children lies in a wrong conception of their We must look upon them solely as psychological meaning. He needs assistance. instead of aiming for successful development. Not finds his students inquiring whether their grades are high enough to qualify them for Phi Beta Kappa. be used merely as a counterbalance to punishments. means for developing the child's character. or in moral acts. Punishment of any sort should be used sparingly and only when other means of training have failed. xv] REWARD AND PUNISHMENT 867 tered an intellectual problem or controlled his temper. whether in intellectual problems.

Practical Exercises: 75. motor attitudes skill. and comradeship on the part of his parents and teachers. desire. of some important congressional or legislative debate. xv no punishment he probably needs no reward except of course the expression of friendly sympathy. — Experiences leave traces. interest. accusatory. Attitudes consolidate into more general trends called phases of character. including its characteristic manifestations. based on our emotional life. and compare friend. which grow out of external. Examine the report 79. 78. 76. social relations build up a fourth phase of character. systemic. the dispositions. 77. Test children from four to twelve years old for the number of figures and words (syllables) which they can repeat successively after one hearing. Analyze the attitude of pique ('being peeved') in yourself and others. and except temperament they develop in two Mental scales serve to measure a person's mental development in comparison with in the case of dimensions: height and breadth. Compare the direct effect of the stimulus and the influence of your attitude in reading a novel. called morality. also the jealous and cautious attitudes. tend to consolidate into permanent mental conditions. due — The fundamental attitudes are interest. All these are subject to growth. experiences enter into our intellectual character or regulate our systemic attitudes build up our temperament. to the frequent repetition of similar experiences. Report the progress according to age. it with that of some intimate . The intellectual phase of character has been most successfully measured. and these traces Summary. in watching a ball game. The first step in this process is the development of attitudes. and judicial. are most significant. in discussing some question with a friend.358 child needs CHARACTER [ch. and attention. and motor experiences respectively. Among the complex attitudes. determine to what extent the attitude of the participants was conciliatory. Analyze your temperament. other individuals. The attitudes which grow out of external intellect.

M. Acad. Tests.CH. M. Manual of Mental and Physical Tests (2 vols. xv] 80. Yerkes (ed. References: On attention and interest: W. Terman. Attention. Arnold. Temperament and Character. 15). R. Jastrow. G. 'Psychological Examination in the U. SUMMARY 859 Examine what has been the effect of punishment and reward on your mental and moral development. Whipple. Pillsbury.). A Scale of Performance . F. vol. Attention and Interest. B.) Pintner and Patterson. Measurement of Intelligence. of Sci. On mental tests: L. .S. Nat. On temperament: J.. M. Army' {Trans.

We are very different persons at five. How do you * take them? Your behavior is the joint product of (1) the nerve impulses that penetrate to your centers and (2) your entire mental organization. ited. at and at twenty-five. It intellect. and every attitude that has been built up in the course of one's life. are all The difference is due to the fact is that we the time gathering in new experiences and inher- assimilating them. Our personality is broadened or heightened as normal being is human new sort of experience is acquired. Personality is not inborn and unchangeable. it continues to grow and expand throughout our lifetime. type. the power of speech and thought is developed through repeated experiences. Given the right sort of nervous system to start with. The ground-work of personality Every creature inherits a nervous system of a certain limitations. This second factor is your perment. skill. Stimuli are constantly pouring in upon you. and morality. It is more diflScult to rate a man's personality correctly than to measure any single trait or any phase of his chareach . situations are constantly affecting you. ' sonality. fifteen. The born with a complex and plastic brain.CHAPTER XVI PERSONALITY AND CONTROL Nature of Personality. It is a gradual growth. organization of a — Personality is the entire mental human being at any stage of his develop- embraces all four phases of human character: temperament. with certain possibilities and certain The brain and nervous system of the lower species are too simple to permit the development of language or thought. in a broader way. so that he is capable of learning to speak and think.

masterful man suddenly goes off the handle. There is an excellent reason for this.' were merely intellect or any other special would not be difficult to determine a man's future development at the age of twenty. OverdevelojMnent iA. . timid fellow shows a a perseverance. or deal merely with a few distinctive traits of character. V)r a combination of /ortainate Mrcumstauces may develop strength in every part of our equipment and malceiia conquerors. a boldness perhaps. But our contest with the environment often takes unexpected turns. They may work together or at cross-purpKJses. which call into play every side of character. his ' general self. NATURE OF PERSONALITY 861 You think you have sized up a certain friend of yours pretty accurately.CH. A well-rounded personalitj*}is one that ei^bles us to cope with If personality character — — it all the usual situations in life. The steady.spof«i our armor. ' wne' direction may be to^ as disastrous ab underdevelopment. skill. who have no appreciation of the real problems involved. Why? Because of some streak in his personality which has not hitherto been connected up with strength or weakness. They emmet with little success. phasize certain striking individiuil features.'^V^"'^ critical situation may find the ^^^t. This is a In a general measure of human mentality what proportion should be assigned to intellect? How much should temperament.^A. . scientifigally Attempts measure human jterspH^ity have Most of the essays aid books on personaUty ^re written by amateur psychologists. Our temperament influences our intellectual growth and our moral development. and morality count? The only satisfactory solution. ality Before we can measure person- we must determine the relative importance of the dis- make up personality. is to value each factor tinct phases of character that difficult task. A crisis brings to light some unsuspected The retiring. chologist is The trained psy- apt to shirk the problem altogether. grit. xvi] acter. apparently. with which you never credited him.

and mental organization to the external conditions of Personal Identity and Multiple Personality. a unity. But there are also cases Many of our subconscious mental processes in normal life. These are typi- cal cases of subordinate consciousness or secondary 'personality. they belong to you. . his mental Ufe. or knitting and talking. are * split-off ' experiences. the whole mental life is organized into one continuous chain of complex experiences. The feeling of personal identity arises from the fact though com- that ordinarily the whole mass of an individual's experiences belong to one continuous plex and intricate. In certain cases this unity of self is broken. The brought into relation with the present if the proper nerve connections are made. Groups of may be dissociated from the general mass and organized into a more or less definite personality of their own. Your conscious life stretches back as far as you can rememoer. Individuals susceptible to trance or hypnosis may be absorbed in conversation and at the same time may write automatically on some entirely When we have planned different topic without knowing it. This sense of the me and mine is your experience of personal your past experiences may be identity. acts at once. Your present thoughts and feelings and activities are tinged with a scarcely describable element which may be called a " sense of ownership ". the succession of actions is probably controlled by a subconscious organization.362 PERSONALITY AND CONTROL it assists [ch. — In normal greater part human of beings. out beforehand the itinerary of a walk and carry out our program without thought. such as hysteria. xvi according as in adapting our behavior life. the two activities are probably controlled by two separate systems of mental organization. such as eating dinner When you carry on two and making plans for the next day. and every event that you recall is felt to belong to one and the same self. This happens most noticeably in disorders of the central nervous system. experiences is series.

' or uses his own name: " Jack is hungry ". At first the child calls himseU * Baby. nate primary self. have studied cases sonalities — all and Morton Prince which three or more alternating perstrikingly different appear in the same in — person. as weird and uncanny — perhaps The casual observer regards them as demon-possession or manifestations of a mysterious spirit-world. Multiple personality is the exception. A may be remembered in state B. no memory or state of his experiences and doings in the other state.CH. xvi] PERSONAL IDENTITY 363 There are occasionally pathological instances where the secondary personality becomes so completely organized as to form a separate self. To the student of psychology all these instances. The patient leads two distinct lives. There is something fascinating to most of us in the study of these unusual phenomena. a name is attached to this self-feeling. All the sensations its activities — body and ence. with this unity of personality. character of the two personaliPierre Janet The temperament and moral ties may be quite different. serve to emphasize the general unity of the self. own body through the external senses. and he has a mass of organized systemic and motor sensations from within the body. one Sometimes in one state he has alternating with the other. but not the reverse. In most persons experiences are woven together and organized into one single personality. This is called co-consciousness or diud The secondary self has developed into a coordipersonality. Our self-notion arises in connection The Notion of Self. and ideas which refer to his own combine into a general self-perception This is not a notion but a sensory experi* ' As thought and language develop in the child. whether of secondary per- sonality or of dual personality." His own personality stands on the same footing . or self-feeling. It grows out of sensations The child perceives his esp)ecially connected with our body. " Show it to Baby.

Finally we investigate life ^ Self-consciousness in psychology ality.>if: 364 PERSONALITY AND CONTROL [ch. higher stage of mental development. In studying any science we necessarily proceed in a piecemeal way. this means consciousness of our own personmeaning should not be confused with the popular use of the term. This ejection of our self-experiences into others is a third stage in the growth of the self-notion. It develops constantly throughout life. then the various senses which furnish the material out of which our experiences are formed. the child has begun to recognize the special relation of own body and its activities to his own conscious experiThe true self-notion dates from this stage. reflective beings. as is commonly imagined. with experiences like his own. older people treat a he could reason. self ' becomes sharply distinguished from the general beings. he) When notion of notion of his the child learns to use pronouns (you. This first step toward may be called the objective stage. First we study the nervous system.' human This second step is the subjective stage. This is especially true of psychology. the child discovers a personality. Finally. The real study of mental dog as if ' — begins when we examine the succession of experiences and the principles of their connection. Then we examine one by one the various kinds of experiences and types of behavior. Each element and factor must be examined separately before we can attempt to study their mutual relations or their bearing on the whole subject. he even reads it into lower animals and inanimate objects. xvi the the as that of other self-notion human beings. General Problems of Personality. The notion of self is not a special. the naughty chair that tipped The child punishes him out. I. especially among civilized and ences. . in other human beings. Self-consciousness runs through all stages of mental growth. and the difference between I and you comes to be recognized. to denote embarrassment. but it only begins to acquire distinctness when language and thought appear.

A locomotive is an organization. In the course of this study several general problems have no doubt occurred to the reader which are of more than Every one of us asks himself at one theoretical interest. The term organization is applied any complicated structure whose several parts perform different operations but all work together to accomplish some definite result. is the joint product of an organism. constantly repeated. ' or mental organization. but all work together to maintain the life of the creature and perpetuate the species. its various parts do different things. time or another to what extent his personality is fixed by heredity. a government or an industrial concern includes many human beings who perform different duties. These three great problems of personality may be phases. Living creatures are organizations whose organs perform different vital processes. but they all cooperate to accompUsh certain general results. but all parts cooperate to make the machine go and to regulate its movements. The social organization of man has the same general characteristics. This particular kind of organization is called . xvi] i PROBLEMS OF PERSONALITY 365 the permanent mental conditions which mold our mental life into an enduring self. which includes our entire mental organization.Y CH. the consolidation of similar attitudes results in the organization of our several characteris our personality or self. to ' — Our mind. and how far it is molded by his special environment. Our attitudes grow up out of single experiences. The most practical question of all is how far we can mold our own lives and control our environment. We often wonder at the great differences that appear between different individuals. and the final outcome stated as follows: What are the factors in menial organization? What different types of mind are found in man? To what extent do we personally control our environment and the course of oiu: own lives? Mental Organization.

will interfere with a surprisingly large number of coordinated movements. joined together by chains of connecting neurons and intermediate centers. Notice what a number of muscles all that . The number of different sensations of we are cap- able of having depends on the degree development of our sense organs. color sensations Color blindness shows how the number of is lessened when the eye is imperfectly developed. Notice how a glove on the hand hampers many simple manual tasks. The wealth and hearing matter is of different sensations due to the complexity kinds of how many which we get in sight and ear. No stimuli existed in the environment of the eye they would all give us the same kind of sensation if the receptors were not constructed in such a way as to receive them differently. Terminal Organs and Conducting Nerves: The and effectors are the two terminals of the nervous These terminal organs. In the same way the variety of different motor responses we are capable of making depends on the multiplicity A game knee or a stiff finger-joint of muscles and glands.366 PERSONALITY AND CONTROL distinct sets of factors: (1) [ch. (2) receptors and Acquired experiences and modifications of this structure due to stimuH and other forces which act upon it. xvi two An inherited physical stnieits ture consisting of the nervous system with effectors. for the great diversity in our experiences. we can break these up into six separate factors: Inherited structure Terminal organs and conducting nerves Central nervous system Effects of external and internal forces Disorganizing influences Stimuli and general siurounding conditions Social influences Educational influences a. Examining more closely. are responsible receptors system.

Clear pronunciation and the varied intonations of the human voice require lips. But this motor substitution has definite limits. and the number of different responses that he can make. throat. If certain muscles are wanting we can often develop some other combination that will serve the same purpose. The blind and the deaf can think and reason as well as the normal person if their central system is unimpaired. The motor organs are more substitutive than the receptors. Even though our receptors are defective. or if some are entirely lacking. Central Nervous System: The central nervous system is the most important part of our mental endowment. They are part of the motor mechanism. tongue. accomplishing aerial Nothing in the lower animals as part of the quite takes the place of the The conducting receiving nerves human thumb. No group of human muscles has succeeded in flight. and thorax. It goes without saying that there can be no movement without muscles. 6. so that we can meet the ordinary situations of life effectively. It is the means by which we put together the mosaic of information and use it effectively in our actions. In the same way the motor nerves convey motor impulses from the centers to the effectors. If there is a break anywhere in the chain. may be regarded and reacting machinery. we can often get equivalent information from other senses. A man bom without arms may be trained to use his feet for hands and his toes for fingers. the information is not received. the inherited terminal organs and conducting nerves determine the number of different sensations that a man can have. XVI ] MENTAL ORGANIZATION 367 over the body are concerned in the movements of rising to your feet and in keeping your equilibrium. the cooperation of numerous muscles of the jaw. The same is true on the motor side. The sensory nerves convey the impulses from receptors to centers. but th« coordination and fine adjustment of muscular movements is * .' In short. cheeks.CH.

and adjust- ment of response to stimulation all nervous depend upon the central system and especially upon the cortical tracts.] This shows that the individuality of a man's handwriting is due to characteristics of the nerve impulses his from brain centers. wholly to his inheritance ^j ^ j^j^j^j^ ing center in the brain. xvi brought about by the central nervous system. This central us to system wrist enables ' The upper gers. coordination of responses. showing that individuality in handwriting is due to the coordinated motor impulse sent from the writ- grasp the environment and respond suitably to the situations presented Man's mental supremacy is due almost to us. keeping your wrist and fingers rigid and using only the elbow and shoulder. all These are inherited structures. A study of handwriting will demonstrate this. using only finger-movements. The specimen below was made with sweeping movements of elbow and shoulder on a large blackboard. The the reedu- cation of crippled soldiers demonstrates thing in same way. the writings are similar. made with and fin- ' (Slightly reduced in the cut.) Although entirely different muscles were used in the second and third. 80.368 PERSONALITY AND CONTROL [ch. (Much reduced in the cut. Integration of stimuli. not to the constitution of his muscles. 80. wrist and fingers rigid.) In the middle specimen only the fingers were used. In the two last cases entirely different muscles are used. finally write the same phrase in large letters on the blackboard. JMrTiK [Fig. are Fig. the organs of ad- — Handwriting with DiffebENT Muscles writing was justment. then write it in very small letters. yet there is a marked similarity between all three results. COmplcX CCyf- teXy furnished with a vast number of interconnecting neurons. another The brain. . First write a phrase in the ordinary way. and in a lesser way the lower reflex centers.

Injury to the brain by a fall or other accipression. since even the destructive agencies within the body may generally be traced to something harmful in the environment. shun infection.CH. and destruction. keep our body in good condition by regular living. and other drugs. persistent use of narcotics. Diseases which destroy the tissues may affect the nerve substance or some of the receptors or effectors. infantile paralysis impairs the power of locomotion. : But it liable to injury It is does not provide against every contingency. stimulants. avoid destructive weapons. This apparatus is admirably fitted to cope with all ordinary situations. Yet we can often cope suc- cessfully with these disorganizing factors in an indirect way. disorders of digestion or other vital functions. various ways outside our body. Deafness may be brought on by measles. We can look at the matter this way Nature. xvi] MENTAL ORGANIZATION S69 Disorganizing Influences: The inherited structure c. such as aphasia. dent often leads to serious disturbance of the adjustive functions. has furnished us with a splendid apparatus for using our environment to promote our life interests. may alter the course of mental activity to such an extent as to affect a man's character and personality profoundly. Cariyle's pessimistic attitude is Thomas attributed to his chronic dyspepsia. the body of certain to patho- Malnutri- tion. All such effects represent the destructive action of the environment on our inherited mental organization. There are also disorganizing influences within A tumor in the braiti affects the structure centers or their operation. Even when unfore- We can . and this may give rise logical mental manifestations. through our heredity. which governs mental processes is Hable to be impaired in by the destructive action of agencies that lie Our eyesight may be injured by overexposure to light or by some sharp body mutilating the The loss of a foot or hand cripples our motor exeyeball. itself.

surgery. Their nerve paths are not ready for use at the start. reflex Even the simplest path has to be joined up before it can be used. with the nervous system to guide it. improves continually by use. and it does not develop totally new uses. or such twitching reflex. or thought. "What we inherit is merely the capacity for certain reflexes and instinctive actions responses. and is education d. One can scarcely imagine a harvesting-machine being converted into a printing-press. The connections are established slowly. is used for tilling the soil. Our nervous organization. by repetition of the same stimuli. There is one striking difference between the nervous mechanism and man-made machines. The ability to perform the act is acquired and perfected gradually through the working of stimuli upon the special activities as house building in the same way that we inherit walking nervous system. xvi seen or unavoidable circumstances injure the apparatus. and automobile steering. The human hand. for feeding. our mental and social organization often provides a means of repairing the injmy. therapeutics. and the possibility of acquiring intelligent These possibilities become actual modes of behavior only when stimulation occurs. on the contrary. may cure the disorder or train some other organ to impaired. A machine may limber up and do better work after the first few trials. take the place of the one that Stimuli and General Surrounding Conditions: Mental organization becomes effective by use. and admits of most astonishing adaptations. and eye-movement.370 PERSONALITY AND CONTROL [ce. Medicine. as we find in the case of the earIntelligent actions are even more dependent on stimulation. Unless the proper stimuli occur at a certain period of life the connection may never be made. We do not inherit language. Our inherited nerve structure merely makes intelligent action possible. and for writing. but after that it does not improve. — .

no distinct social sense. but upon our using that structure. assist in determining what our life shall be. and the situations which they represent play a peculiar part in mental organization. though alternation of solitary and social conditions often stimulates rational thinking. Climate and temperature. He could never be raised above the condition of an imbecile. cut off from social * This may have been due to hereditary deficiencies.' But social forces differ important ways from other external forces. the course of our mental life and the progress of its organization depend not merely upon our inheriting a certain nervous structure. the presence of material for protection and defense. The direction of mental development is determined by the action of forces outside and inside the body. In short. and because their aims and interests There in is * many in life are of a piece with ours. xvi] MENTAL ORGANIZATION and relatively 871 life depends upon permanent conditions of the environment. intellectual development was irremediably stunted.CH. Our ability to speak and think clearly is apt to be impaired by constant seclusion from the world. Language and the whole process of communication depend upon the presence of a social environment. mental certain general the inherited nervous system. Social Influences Social situations are perceived by : the very same senses that inform us of things in general. The extent to which the development of mental life depends on social influences is shown by certain instances of In children brought up apart from human surroundings. e. . The development of thought is assisted by the fact that one man's mental processes are readily much like another's. abundance or scarcity of food. Because our fellow men have a nervous system similar to our own.' Helen Keller. the case of Kasper Hauser. social stimuli effect have a different from other stimuli. whose early years were apparently devoid of social intercourse. working upon In addition to particular stimuli.

but should aim to remedy their disabilities as far as possible. Educational Influences: Education in the sense of organized teaching is a separate factor in mental life. even apart from education. The student of human nature realizes how dependent a man is upon his parentage and surroundings. personaHty and mental organization depend upon They are all needed in a systematic explanation of what we are and why we think and act as we do. This sympathy should not take the form of mawkish sentiment. — By means of systematic training Human and is more inclined to sympathize with the dullard. not punishment. the and the criminal than to condemn them. stimuli through blindness vidual with a certain heredity may become is a notorious crimi- nal or a power for good. Beginning with home and church training it extends through the schools to the university and to technical institutions of every sort.872 PERSONALITY AND CONTROL [ch. according as he placed in an unfa- vorable or favorable social environment. * ' mental growth is forced mental organization develops at a rate far exceeding that attained through the mere influence of social example. It is the systematic effort of society to develop the mental organization of its members. Teaching occurs in a rudimentary form in primitive races. made no progress in mental growth till taken in hand by an expert teacher. . Education. If the social misfit. Much of our mental growth in childhood is due to subconscious absorption of ideas and imitation of customs from Our mental organization is molded after those about us. xvi and deafness. but its real significance is seen in the higher stages of civilization. every one of these six factors. /. is the means to use. The example set by others excites a molding influence on mental development. An indithe pattern of the community in which we live. where it exerts a tremendous influence in developing the mind.

ment or mental level are measured by mental Varieties in menial type are qualitative difiPerences between the minds of various men. When we compare human beings we find Mental Tjrpes. From a dangerous criminal he was transformed into a useful workman. If he is an author. In science his interest is in the microscope or in maps. classes for dull students.CH. He must see a thing before he can understand it. One person is is have been examined exfound to be preeminently a In his case the visual sensa- He eye-minded. He understands oral instructions readily. xvi] defect is MENTAL ORGANIZATION without remedy * 878 we can at least find an environment suited to the individual's limitations. He thinks in terms of the sound of words. The most significant differences are found in sensory types and types of character. his books abound in color terms and visual pictures.' training schools for the mentally defective. and form the most prominent part of his mental experiences. xv). Applied psychology has an important task before it in picking out suitable occupations for side — especially — A feeble-minded boy who had set fire to was committed to the Vineland institution. striking differences in both the degree and the type of their social misfits. He learns by reading better than by listening. so that he learns more easily from listening to lectures than from poring over text-books. The differences of sensory type perimentally. They assigned him the duty of tending the furnace. he ia tions and images are especially vivid . Another person is of the auditory type. He is ear-minded. The ' lunatic asylum ' has given place to the hospital for the insane. visualist. several houses — mental development. Each type of mind represents a predominance of some phase of mental life. size the educational There are and special The prison system should empha- moral education instead of the penal side. The variations in degree of developtests (ch.

374
quick at
average.
*

PERSONALITY AND CONTROL
mental
'

[ch.

xvi

arithmetic.

most cases

his appreciation of

His auditory imagery and in music are developed above the

A third

belongs to the motor type.
is

He

is

muscle-minded.

With him language

primarily a motor phenomenon; he

thinks in terms of sensations from the vocal muscles, and his imagery is largely of muscular movements. He is quick at memorizing speeches; his interest is in motor activity. A deaf-blind person is probably of the tactile type. It is a mistake to assume that every one belongs distinctively to one of these types. In some cases the mental organization is rather evenly balanced. In many persons certain activities are preeminently of the visual type while other activities are based upon motor or auditory data. A man may be an auditory linguist in one tongue and a visual linguist in another. He may be a visualist in geometry and of the motor type in physics. The growth of types depends partly on inherited brain structure and partly on circumstances of training. In the earlier stages of education it is important to train the type of imagery and thought along the lines best suited to each particular topic. Later, when we find out the type to which the child naturally be' '

*

'

longs, it is wiser to

fit

the educational method so far as
:

possible to the individual teach the visuaHst through books,

the audile person by oral instruction.

The growth of character brings out another set of types. In certain persons the intellectual side is dominant, in others temperament, in others skill. When we speak of a temperamental personality, we mean that the person referred to is subject to frequent sweeping changes of temperament; this An is usually accompanied by deep emotional displays. intellectual man looks at the world from an unemotional,
and so on. There are individuals in whom the various phases character are mingled, but with a decided bent of mind
logical point of view;

of in

CH. xvi]

MENTAL TYPES
You have no

375
difficulty in distin-

some

definite direction.

guishing a timid mind, a nasty mind, a schemer, an aggressive personality, a snobbish nature.
traits of

Some

persons develop

manner, voice, and thought such that they are known to every one as having an attractive personality; others seem to be inherently iminteresting.' Various other types might be added to the list: the slobbery man, the
*
'

'

*

'

*

bellyacher,' the dreamer.

The development

of these types depends largely

on

in-

herited nervous structure; certain brain centers

may be more

highly developed, or some of the connective nerve tracts.

But use and systematic

training can foster certain phases of

character and check the growth of others.

John Stuart Mill

seems to have been by nature of the esthetic type. Under his father's rigid intellectual schooling he grew into a pronounced intellectualist. His case is somewhat exceptional Usually the in that the drastic training was successful. attempt to divert a person's mental life into entirely new channels is disastrous. In the interests of the man's happiness it is wiser to mold his character, from childhood onward,
along the lines of his natural propensities, taking care only
to eliminate any overdevelopment of one side which might

hamper
is

his social or

Control.

— A question of great practical importance
to

moral welfare.

in life

how and

what extent a person can control

his
is

own
con-

actions
fronted.

and cope with the situations with which he

The
*

subject has unfortunately been coupled in

the popular

mind with speculative theories concerning human freedom to think and act. Om* study of mental processes has shown that men do not think and act in an
'

arbitrary manner.

The

succession of thoughts depends

on

definite principles of association

derly

way

— new thoughts are not spontaneously generated.

and proceeds

in

an

or-

Psychology assumes that voluntary decisions are definitely determined by principles of mental activity, and not by

876
chance.

PERSONALITY AND CONTROL

[ch. xvi

We never pull ourselves completely away from our own character and personality by sheer will, any more than we can pull ourselves off the earth by tugging at our own
boots.

The

psychological problem of control has no relation to
It is concerned with the man's mental organization. There are two

these philosophical gymnastics.
eflSciency of

questions involved: (1) What are the processes by means of which a human being controls, directs, guides his own life?
(2)

(1)

What does this control accomplish? Means of Control: Every response
The reflex wink protects

is

control.

Reflex actions show this control in

its

an exercise of most rudi-

mentary form.

the eye; swallowing

reflexes which taken by themselves have no special significance, are essential parts of organized actions. The autonomic processes of

carries food to the digestive organs.

Many

digestion, circulation, etc., are splendid instances of control

and

regulation, but they are mainly concerned with the maintenance of the body substance and not with our re-

sponses to external situations.

The

three most important

actions, intelligent actions,

means of control are and the special type

instinctive

of intelli-

gence called rational actions.
Instinctive behavior is especially effective in controlling the permanent, stable features of the environment. The bee's honey-gathering actions are useful because there are honeygiving flowers in every bee's environment at certain seasons

of the year.

The

nest-building instinct of birds

is

effective

because there are trees and materials for constructing nests in the bird's environment. The preying activities of some animals and the grazing activities of others are due to certain

permanent features of the world
able situations.

in

which these animals

live.

Intelligent behavior is effective in controlling

more change-

tions that are at least partly new.

Voluntary actions usually deal with situaWhen you catch a ball,

CH. xvi]

MEANS OF CONTROL

377

your movements depend on the speed and angle of the ball, both of which factors are open to all sorts of variation. Speaking and writing bring about useful results because we
utter or write different words according to circumstances. Inventions and social customs spring up from time to time and change continually; we learn to operate machines and to

follow social customs

by

intelligent responses.
is

Rational behavior

form
ples;

— that
but
it

is

based on the fact that nature
chemical,
biological,

uni-

physical,

and mental

events take place according to permanent, enduring princi-

depends quite as much on the fact that the from time to time. The airplane inventor and the pilot who runs the plane must take into consideration both the general principles of aeronautics and the varying conditions which a plane will encounter.
situation varies
(2)

Objects of Control: What
is

is

it

that

The

simplest sort of control

control of our

we control? own responses.

In the case of reflex and instinctive behavior this control is Inherited nerve paths enable the creature to make the proper movements from the start. In the case of intelligent and rational actions we learn to control our movements by slow degrees. At first the motor outcome is generally wrong. Step by step we acquire control of our muscles and do what we have planned to do. The process is one of central adjustment. We learn to improve our motor
practically complete.

coordinations
is

by means

of our higher brain centers.

There

apparently no limit to the improvement.

Another variety,
ourselves.
is

slightly different

from

this, is control of

man and due to the development of higher brain centers. Man learns to inhibit or modify his own systemic and motor processes. This is illustrated in the repression of emotion and less obviously in the regulation of our daily work. The
Self-control is confined

almost wholly to

special significance of this kind of control lies in the fact that
it

enables us to govern the course of our

own

life.

This

378

PERSONALITY AND CONTROL

[ch.

xvi

means a distinct advance in efficiency. To master the tongue and the fist is a mark of high mental development. The man who can control himself can usually con-

trol others.

A more significant type of control, so far as outward results
are concerned,
is

the ability to modify the environment

itself

by our actions

in such a

way

as to assist our

life

processes.

When
them ward

primitive
to clothe

man

prepared skins of animals and used
himself, he

and protect

advanced a step

to-

control of his environment.

The making
fields,

of forest trails, of

building of huts, sowing of

and domestication

animals are other early instances of man's active influence
Ships, railroads, harvesters, upon the physical world. lighting plants, and all the products of modern industry may be regarded as instruments for the control of nature by man. Along the same line is the improvement of our receptors and effectors by artificial devices. Man has succeeded in

overcoming to a large extent the natural limitations of his senses and motor organs. He has devised spectacles, the microscope, and the telescope to supplement his eyes. The telephone extends the range of the human ear. Weighing scales take the place of hefting with our hands; the thermometer adds precision to our temperature senses. Our motor organs are supplemented in the same way. The hammer takes the place of the human fist; the bicycle and railroad train increase man's locomotor ability; the plow, crane, and countless other tools supplement his arms and hands. These measuring instruments and tools may be treated as artificial receptors and effectors, developed by human intellect and skill instead of through biological evolution. They are added means for controlling our environment.
Still

another type
being
is

is social control.

By means

of language

a
is

human

able to guide the actions of his fellows and

guided in turn by them.

Your

control of other

men may

CH. xvi]

OBJECTS OF CONTROL

379

be regarded as part of your control of your environment. But when you yourself are governed by social influences a new phase of control arises. Your own mind is no longer the supreme director of your behavior. The center of control is

some other mind or to the collective influence of The soldier and the hired servant are conThe office holder in a demotrolled by other human minds. cratic nation is subject to control by the group. The actions of individuals in any community are determined largely by custom and tradition; to this extent we are all subject to
shifted to

the community.

group control. The growth of our mental organization may be either promoted or impeded by social control. The training of children and systematic education of every sort illustrate the
useful side.

One

is

often inspired to better things

by the

example of others. Psychotherapy is the improvement of bodily and mental conditions by suggestion. The discipline of the workshop and the army are useful on the economic side, though they tend to diminish a man's independence and
self-reliance.

Social control

is

distinctly

bad when one individual comes

so fully under the domination of another that his mental

growth
social

is

seriously thwarted.

The
here
is

slave

and the

profes-

sional hypnotic subject illustrate the harmful working of
control.

The

result

mental deterioration

instead of mental development.

Control

is

the most significant feature of behavior.

Our
Civi-

motor
lized

activities are effective just so far as

they serve to

control our environment or our bodily organization.

man, through the enormous development of his brain, by means of his acquired information and motor habits, and with the aid of measuring instruments and tools of his own
devising,
is

able to guide his

own

destiny.

He

learns to

govern himself and others. He directs his motor acts and is able to alter his environment to a large extent to change

880

PERSONALITY AND CONTROL
He
is

[ch. xvi

the face of nature.

at once " master of his fate "

and
this

" captain of his soul."
Conclusion: Practical Bearings of Psychology.

— In

book we have been attempting
the characteristics of
experiences

to study in a systematic

human

nature.

Man

is

way a being who

His experiences, we have found, are built up out of sensations obtained through the receptors and nervous system, which inform him concerning his environment. These separate sensations are organized into perceptions, memories, emotions, thoughts, volitions, language, and

and

acts.

other definite sorts of experience.
experiences builds

The

repetition of similar
attitudes,

up

special

and general

and these

mold the

different sides of his character.

The

final

summa-

tion of our entire experience

life is personality.

On the active side, mental life starts with isolated responses
These separate reflexes are organized and by the learning process they develop into intelligent acts, of which rational action is a specialized form. By means of these various forms of behavior we come more and more to control our movements, our bodily organs, our fellow men, and the world about us. The final outcome
to isolated stimuli.
into instinctive acts,
of this progressive organization of behavior
control of the whole situation.
is

our personal

a special glamour surrounding the mysterious. who extracts eggs from your mouth and The spell rabbits from your pocket attracts your interest. The is gone when you discover how the trick is performed. mysterious workings of the human mind arouse our wonder Will this feeling be dispelled altoin much the same way. gether when we discover the orderly way in which mental life proceeds? Let us hope not. The study of psychology gives us a clue to the workings of the most wonderful contrivance in existence a mechanism which has enabled man to collect a tremendous mass of information about the world in which he lives, to use this information for furthering his aims

There

is

The

conjurer

CH. xvi]
in
life,

APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY

381

not
all

and to transform the face of nature itself. Should we admiration and awe when we realize that this is accomplished by means of the same orderly processes
feel greater

that operate throughout nature?

Our present study has necessarily been limited to fundamental facts and principles. When these are mastered, we are in a position to branch out into more practical fields. If we understand how the grown-up human mind works, we can compare its processes with those of the child mind and with the mental processes of animals. A knowledge of psychological principles will assist us in our own mental training in our efforts to form new habits or break bad ones, to govern our passions, to become socially fit, to judge men, to understand their faihngs. Psychology has many practical applications. One of its fields is to assist in selecting the most suitable man for any

given position

industrial, scholastic, or political.
it will

If

we

know our own type of mind career. The judge and the
significance of

help us in choosing our
*
'

physician must appreciate the

mental deficiency in order to treat their cases correctly. The lawyer and the preacher must understand the workings of the human mind in order to make their pleas effective. In these and other directions a knowledge of scientific psychology is of the utmost value. Every one has some inkling of how the mind works, just as every one has a smattering of chemical and physical facts. But amateur knowledge is a long way behind accurate knowledge. Which of us would undertake, without training, to run a locomotive? Yet the human mind is far more complex than any man-made contrivance. It is true that
the mind
is

to a large extent self-acting.

We

are capable

of meeting situations

adjustment.
if

But if we would cope successfully with the minds

by our own native power of mental we wish to use our mind effectively, and
of others, our
suflScient.

untutored insight and judgment are not

We must

1. Baldwin. 85. On applications of psychology: H. systematic study. Practical Exercises: 81. Dissociation of a Personality. Determine so far as possible to what sensory type or types you belong. life XVI as understand the fundamental principles of mental formulated by psychology. Analyze how far your personality appears to be due to heredity and how far to your social environment.CONCLUSION [CH. References: On the self-notion: J. What is your present idea of mind ? Give instances from your own observation of notably good and bad effects arising from social control of one person by another. Describe instances you have observed of the growth of control in various directions 84. On multiple personality: M. sketching. Miinsterberg. moral conduct. bk. Prince. Social and Ethical Interpretations. 82. — emotional expression. General and Applied. Psychology. if possible take your own case as one instance. iii. ch. . 83. M.

the basal ganglia. Where are the centers for moving various parts of the body located in the cortex? Describe the position of the several lobes of the brain in relation to one another and to the fissures.) Dehne human psychology. Chapter Mention six different n human body. Describe the autonomic system. Distinguish between projection centers and association areas. nerves. Distinguish between sensory Distinguish between spinal and motor jjeripheral and cranial nerves.REVIEW QUESTIONS 883 REVIEW QUESTIONS Chaptbb I the distinction between mental and biological life? In what way does interplay occur between the creature and his environment? What kinds of questions do we consider in human psychology? What is meant by (1) self-study. What are the five successive steps in every case of nervous activity? . the cortex. How are neiu-ons connected together? Name the parts of the cerebrospinal system. How is the autonomic system related to the cerebrospinal system? Chapter HI Describe a simple nervous arc. kinds of cells in the How does a neuron differ from a muscle cell? Describe the axon. the cerebellimi. the pons Varolii. How do sensory cord? nerves enter the cord? How do motor nerves go out nerves join? of the Where do sensory and motor What is the gray matter in the spinal cord? How do you account for the H shape of the gray matter? How does a nerve impulse pass from the left side of the body to the right side of the brain? Describe the medulla oblongata. and describe the method of study used in this book. (2) behavior study. How may observation and experiment be used in behavior study? is What meant by mental life? What is Describe the various branches of psychology. and (3) nerve study? Distinguish between observation and experiment. What branches of psychology might undertake a study of play? (Give reasons why each should be included.

Describe the various motor functions concerned in sight. How is a nerve impulse started. What is color blindness? Describe its most common form and how it may be tested. What differences in the stimuli for hearing produce (1) deep tones. and what determines its intensity and quality? (Illustrate in the case of a sound. What is meant by (1) integration. How are overtones produced? What is timbre? Explain how beats and difference tones are produced. and (3) adjustment? Describe the adjustment process at any moment in the case of some one reading music and playing it on the piano or violin. How are color relations shown on the color spindle? What are the primal colors and how do we determine WTiat is this fact? meant by complementary colors? Distinguish between positive and negative after-sensations. How do near-sight and far-sight affect this process? Explain the relations between changes in hue.384 REVIEW QUESTIONS Describe the course of the nerve impulse in the nervous arc when an insect Ughts upon your hand and you turn your eyes to look at it. (2) coordination. Describe the relation of the various sorts of odors. Chapter IV Give a classification of the senses. How does the Ladd-Franklin theory of sight reconcile the three fundamental colors with the four primal colors? Chapter V Describe the arrangement of the middle ear and cochlea. (5) noises? Distinguish between absolute pitch and relative pitch. and tint.) What is meant by excitation? What is the peculiarity of conduction along a nerve fiber? Point out the difference between retention and fatigue in the nervous system. How do you account for differences in the flavor of foods. if there are only four qualities of taste? . Describe the receptor and stimuli for smell. What are the properties of collection and distribution? Why are our actions called responses? Distinguish between muscular and glandular responses. (3) loud tones. Describe the receptor and stimuli for taste. (4) faint tones. giving an example of each. and describe just what occurs in each. shade. Describe the structure of the eye. (2) shrill tones. Describe the process of focusing light on the retina.

Chaptek VII What Why Why the relation of perception to sensation? do perceptions sometimes fail to indicate the real relations of external is is objects? the difference between 64 lbs. lbs. What light does it throw on space perception? How . warmth. and motor senses. What evidence have we that touch. less noticeable than the between 4 Explain Weber's Law. Describe an experience occurring in the subordinate 6eld of consciousness. How does the difference between the two eyes assist in our perception of depth? Why does the stereoscope give the illusion of depth? What is meant by projection? does the space perception of the blind differ from that of normal persons? Describe Stratton's experiment on reversing the field of vision. Chapter VI not a concrete thing. Discuss the relative importance of the different senses.REVIEW QUESTIONS 385 Describe the receptors for cutaneous sensations. cold. What is the stimulus for pain. Name some of the qualh> ties of touch sensation. What kinds of experiences are composed of a single class of sensations? is is What three faults are found in the writings of psychoanalysts? Give an example of subliminal consciousness. and what is the pain receptor? What information is furnished by the muscle sense? Describe the receptor for the static sense. Describe conditions of anesthesia and hyperesthesia. and pain are distinct senses? Mention some of the principal organic sensations and discuss the sensation ot hunger.? What factors are involved in the perception of surfaces? Describe the chief factors in the visual perception of depth with one eye. difference and 2 lbs. how can it be studied? What is meant by impression and suggestion? Show the relation between retention and revivaL If consciousness is What What What meant by attention? meant by fusion and colligation? is meant by discrimination? Distinguish between a sensation and an erperience. and 62 lbs. systemic. What evidence have we that the semicircular canals are receptors for static sensations? Distinguish between the external.

How does the intensity of feeling vary with increased mtensity of stimulation? Distinguish between feeling and emotion. How far can observations of emotions in animals be used in the study of human emotions? Describe the most primitive emotions. with examples of each. Why do we overlook misprints and misread printed words? How do you account for the Bering (or the Miiller-Lyer) illusion? What activities of the central nervous system are involved What sort of training is useful to improve perception? Chapter VIII in perception? Why do we seldom have images of systemic and motor sensations? What What What Distinguish between memory and imagination. Explain the James-Lange theory of emotion. How does the rate of forgetting change with the length of time elapsed? Give three reasons why you forget. nervous conditions and processes are essential to memory? is meant by projection of memory images. Discuss the classification of emotions given in this chapter. and mention some of the evi- dence for and against it. and what does this projection accomplish? is meant by the feeling of familiarity? Explain the laws of association. and doubt. disbelief. How is the special quality of a systemic sensation related to its feeling tone? Under what conditions can we experience two conflicting feelings at once? If feelings are experiences in which the systemic sensations are the main elements.386 Explain REVIEW QUESTIONS how we perceive motion and actions. Why cult to classify emotions? To what extent are the emotions unsuited to civilized conditions? Are beauty and power in the objects or in the mind? Describe the sentiments of belief. how do oiu* perceptions of external things come to have a feeling tone? Distinguish between appetite and aversion. How do general images differ from memory images? How do we distinguish mental images from perceptions? Chapter IX Distinguish between intellectual and affective experiences. is it diflS* Why are sentiments generally unimportant in mental life? . Why does the strength of memory depend on the training of perception? Why do children confuse their fancies with their recollections? Distinguish between fancies and anticipation images.

recency. Why has man very few pure instincts and many modified instincts? Distinguish between the clothing instinct and the modesty instinct. Discuss the theory that all ideomotor actions are the result of learning. . and conflict on the fixation process. In what respects do the autonomic functions belong to psychology? Distinguish between lower and higher reflexes. (6) in How may habits detrimental to our welfare be broken? Chapter XII In what important respect do motor experiences experiences? differ from other sorts of Describe the sensations found in conations. Distinguish between conations and volitions. Show by two examples how complex habits are made up of simpler habits. Describe reflex conations. with examples of each. How is acquisition related to fixation? Explain the nervous processes involved in acquisition. and habit conations. and compare notion. Distinguish between diffused movements and reflexes. How may the laws of speed and accuracy in habit-formation be demonstrated experimentally? Criticize the theory that habits are lapses of intelligence. Describe the method of learning through associative memory. To what extent are instincts present at birth? To what extent does your present behavior rest on an instinctive basis? Chapter XI Distinguish between the effects of fatigue and adaptation. giving an example of each. instinctive conations. Describe an instance of trial-and-error learning. intensity. (a) in the case of an animal. Describe the transition from instinctive to intelligent behavior. Discuss imitation.REVIEW QUESTIONS Chaptek 387 X in the What is the relation between a motor experience and a response? Demonstrate the fact that every stimulus tends end to bring about some response. man. Explain the scientific notion of instinct. Describe the various relations that may occur between different muscles concerned in compound reflexes. Distinguish between sensorimotor and ideomotor actions. Discuss the effect of repetition. Describe the way in which a conditioned reflex is acquired. it with the popular How do instincts originate in any species. according to the theory of natural selection? Discuss the classification of instincts given in this chapter.

together with certain muscle sensations of effort or memories of such sensations.S88 Explain what is REVIEW QUESTIONS meant by deliberation and choice. Describe the prominent disorders of language. What is the relation of judgment to thought? Why is rational behavior superior to trial and error behavior? Contrast the evolution of emotion and thought. What are the special characteristics of language and thought? are language and thought called symbolic experiences? Explain why language is especially adapted for communication. Why are dreams incongruous and absurd? Describe the characteristics of hypnotic experiences. is the significance of a delayed response? Explain the statement that when we vxill to do a certain thing. What factors determine the flow of perceptions? What are the principal factors that determine the flow of thought? What secondary influences determine the flow of thought? In what ways is the flow of thought subject to personal control? Describe the chief characteristics of dreams and dreaming. What Discuss the natiu« of ideals. Show the relation of meaning to rational thought. we have a thought of the action. In what respect does a purpose differ from other thoughts? Show how volition assists us to control ourselves and our environment. Why is speech superior to gesture as a means of communication? Why is mirror-script difficult to read and write? Point out how the social environment is a factor in the acts of reading and Why speaking. Chapter XIV In what ways are our present experiences influenced by our past? To what extent is the simile of the stream of consciousness correct? How is the speed of perception measured? Describe the method of determining the reaction time of an association. Distinguish between meaning and value. How does reasoning differ from ordinary thinking? Why do our inferences tend to agree with real events and general truths? Why Why do we commit logical fallacies? are our inferences sometimes wrong when we reason correctly? . with examples of each. What is the educational significance of the training of thought and language? Discuss the various levels of the nervous arc and their relation to experience and behavior. Chapter XIII Show how a word may tend to replace an image. Discuss the special brain centers for language and thought.

how the various sorts of experiences enter into the general stream of mental life. What are the characteristics of multiple personality? Trace the growth of the notion of self. How far does a moral attitude depend on mental development. Distinguish between the visual and auditory types of mind. To what extent are stimuli helpful in building up mental organization? Distinguish between social and eduoational influences on mental growth. What is included in mental organization? Why is the central nervous system more important in mental life than the receptors and muscles? Mention some of the disorganizing influences that hinder mental growth. What is meant by a temperamental personality? How does intelligent behavior assist us in exercising control? Distinguish between control of our own responses and control of the environment. desire. What classes of experiences arouse interest? Distinguish between want and satisfaction. and attention. How are emotional dispositions related to emotion? Describe the problem attitude. How are the phases of hmnan character related to the several classes of sensations? Distinguish between height and breadth of intellect. How is temp)erament related to feeling and activity? Why is it desirable to have ratings of skill? Distinguish between motives and the actual results of moral conduct. How does psychology help the lawyer and the judge? the physician? the employer? the educator? . Chapter XV What is meant by a permanent mental condition? How are mental attitudes built up? Discuss the relation between interest. Chapter XVI Why is it diflScult to measure personality? Describe the experience of personal identity.REVIEW QUESTIONS Explain what Describe is 389 meant by rationalization. Point out the benefits and dangers of social control. Describe the principle of the Binet-Simon tests. Discuss the psychological theory of reward and punishment. and how far on social tradition? Point out the relation of character to attitudes and to experiences.

.

The References at the end of the chapters are limited to special topics of general interest. The exercises should be handed in regularly and promptly.) nection with chapter own courses. The chapters generally cover about the same amount of material. The author has found them to be the most useful part of his vii (illusions..g..g. iii). 2). another may week. iv. Their usefulness is greatly diminished if they are performed weeks after the topic has been under discussion. For a briefer course the sections on the structure of the eye and ear (chs. it would not be advisable to omit or curtail the discussion of the structure and operation of the nervous system (chs. To equalize assignments the latter part of chapter might be postponed and taken up in conxii.SUGGESTIONS IN USING THE BOOK This text course. it is not advisable to grade the exercises. about which the student might wish to seek further information on his own initiative. 21). one of the alternative exercises is within the experience of every student (e. The is deal with some special topic and be available to certain students only (e. Exercises 4. the longer ones being somewhat easier. Aside from a deduction of credit for tardiness or obvious carelessness. If an exercise is pep- . and the shorter ones more difficult. The Practical Exercises are intended to train the student in first-hand observation of mental phenomena. Exercises 1. it is intended for use in a full-year introductory may be used in a half-year course with certain omissions. v) may be omitted. ii. They should not be assigned for required reading. One class exercise is required of the student every given an option between two or three exercises. etc.

he — "The movements in my . with its artistic tempting to most students. so that (2) (3) Careless observation — especially of familiar experiences. The point to insist upon constantly is that the student shall make each observation for himself. or mingling an account of what (probably) occurs in the nervous system with the account of himself actually observes. It is well to caution the class at the outset against the following sources of error in the exercises: (1) Careless read- ing of the problem. instead of report- ing them. with a few suggestive comments. it should be accepted and given full credit. it will be found that after two or three attempts most stubellishments. but it is rarely as If the exercises are satisfactory as a plain description. The length of the report need not be prescribed. The Review Questions following chapter They prevent casual reading. The " instructor should discounte- nance such expressions — When one says the word man em- . what the individual an experiCasual observation in place of is its real meaning is not understood. instead of (6) Substi- observing and reporting their actual behavior. The form of the report should embody this idea. Often a brief report of two hundred words is more satisfactory than a long essay. dents get the right idea. tuting traditional and popular notions of mental for the student's phenomena xvi are in- own personal observation. tended to assist the student in mastering the contents of the text." is The short-story style. handed back within a week." as. by challenging the stu- . It should be in the first person: " I saw so-and-so ". Attempting to explain the experiences.392 SUGGESTIONS formed seriously and handed in on time. (4) measurements where the exercise in the nature of ment or test. face and head were aloud. however amateurish the result. (5) Describing the action of children or others in terms of the observer's own personal experience. or repeat the descriptions contained in the book. and not rely on his general information or on popular tradition.

the popular use of certain terms is contrasted with their special meaning adopted in this book. omitting certain significant terms with a blank in their place. The wording is in many cases more precise than that of the text. Those interested in the finer meanings of terms are advised to consult Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology. abundant material can be readily drawn from the glossary at the end of the book. ful doubt- on psychological grounds whether a student should memorize a mere list of terms. if the meaning is not entirely clear.SUGGESTIONS 393 dent to explain the meaning of what he has read. The set of questions given It is here do not include classifications or definitions. Carrying out this idea. such as the table of Emotions. The principles of psychology have many practical and per- . Where the reference covers several pages. it aims to bring out the distinction between cognate words. It is suggested that the student consult the glossary for terms which come up constantly in class discussions. The page references include only the principal treatment of a term. psychology materially. in the word — The Glossary includes definitions of the principal terms used in this book. This feat of memory will not advance his knowledge of Definitions are distinctly useful. or from the text itself. The student has merely to fill in each blank with the proper word a great saving of time. A few useful technical terms not found in the text are included. An excellent way of treating definitions in a written exami- nation for is by the completion method Print the : definition word examination paper. though a word-for-word reproduction ought not to be inThis type of question is omitted here because sisted on. *n' after a number refers to a footnote. The student who has read the assignment but cannot answer the questions is still unprepared. the number is followed by *f or (where a ' large section is involved) 'ff'.

Many other demonstrations. SUGGESTIONS Both in examinations it and in the oral quizzes the instructor will find useful to ask questions which bring home to the student the intimate relation of psychology to every-day life: " Describe the emotions you experience at a ball game ". one of the standard laboratory manuals For experiments requiring practically no apparatus. A human brain or a model (as in Fig. A great variety of experiments and demonstrations are collected in Sanford's Course in Experimental Psychology. . A simple experiment in habit formation or memorizing can readily be made in class. The most complete laboratory manual (4 in English is Titchener's Experimental Psychology Volumes). with the course. Models of the eye and ear are almost essential to an understanding of the structure of these complex organs. Where funds are available for special Apparatus. optical illusions. also microscope slides showing sections of the brain and spinal cord. Association experiments can be made with two or three volunteers and their results compared.394 sonal Applications. The chain reaction (Exercise 71) can be performed in groups of ten to twenty persons even without a stop-watch. color-mixing. such as outfit. stereoscopic vision. Psychology. can be arranged without an elaborate and the schedule allows time for experimental work in connection should be consulted. " How does the nerve impulse travel in your body when you hear a sound and turn your head toward it? " if Interest in the course will be greatly increased frequent Class-room Demonstrations are introduced. see Seashore's Elementary Experiments in Excellent experiments with a few special apparatus are found in Langfeld and Allport's Elementary Laboratory Course in Psychology.. overtones. 1) should be exhibited if possible. etc. and of different types of neurons.

120. 255 visual = change in shape of the havior due to acquisition of a better neural adjustment by the in- — visual = the changes which occur in the visual receptors when we pass from bright to dim illumination or vice versa. 203. 250.e. Conation the complement of the — positive = an after-sensation similar to the original sensation. whether inherited or acquired.GLOSSARY AND INDEX [For attggestions as to use. 348 = . 77 Ageusia = loss of the sense of taste Agraphia = a phase of mental dis- original sensation. 2 f stream of = the succession of responses which constitute the motor or expressive life of an individual. resulting in a new response to a given stimulus. Feeling Afferent (or Centripetal) = sensory. i.63 tion. used in the United States Army. opening up a new path in the nervous system. 76 lens as we focus for a different distance. 247 instinctive the evolution of instincts in the animal series. 153 f Accuracy. cf. = — negative which is 77 = an after-sensation 328 Active (or Activity) experience = an experience derived mainly from the motor senses. resiilting in more suitable forms of response. 236 294 Algesthesia. 262 characterized by inability to make — decisions. 52 f sensations = sensations stimulated by tension of the accommoda. neural = the formation of new synaptic connections. see Pain sense = Alpha tests intellectual a scale for measuring ability. cf. produced by motor nerve impulses affecting the muscles. to the systemic senses or to feeling. 59. 261 Action = in psychology: movement of a living creature. which promotes the = — creature's life processes. 253 f relation to fixation.Affective (or Hedonic) = pertaining . whereby the response becomes adapted (appromuscle) = a muscle which regupriate) to the stimulus a combinalates the curvature of the eye-lens. 65 Accommodation muscle (or Ciliary — Adjustment = the systematic collection and distribution of nerve impulses in the brain. stimuli. 120. 280 Accommodation. 253. tion of integration and coordina59. — — tion muscle. 294 to the situation presented by the Alexia = a phase of mental disorder characterized by inability to read. 77 Adaptation (or Adaptive response) order characterized by inability any response. 228. — experience = an 120 experience derived mainly from the systemic senses. see page S9S\ be- Aboulia = a phase of mental disorder — intelligent = improvement of dividual. leading from a receptor toward the center After-sensation (or Afterimage) a sensation which continues or appears after the stimulus has ceased. see Elimination Acquisition = the formation of a new nervous arc. which is appropriate to express thought in writing.

33 Association time = the duration of that portion of a nervous process which is concerned in association of one idea with another. e. 51. (b) association of one Awareness. 331. understand spoken words. 311 Associative memory. ment. 21 Arc. 289. 118 = chemical changes Anabolism which build up the bodily tissues. see Hearing — . see Consciousness word with another through mere Axon (or Axone) = the long projectsimilarity in sound. 332 3 emotional. 338 Audition. lasting traces left in the nervous structure by frequent repetition of experiences of the same fundamental type. cre- commonly: tude. 340 f. 293 n Apopathetic instincts = instinctive behavior determined by the presence of others in the individual's environment. 213 Anosmia = loss of the sense of smell Antagonists (or Antagonistic muscles) = a pair of muscles which move the same member in opposite directions. etc. 240 Appetite = feeling characterized by pleasantness.g. 163 Attitude = the manner in which an individual receives experiences. of the crossed fingers. 182. 341 the evaluative atti- Aufgabe. (b) = an attitude which embodies the permanent effects of sentimental experiences.. — Conscience — 334 — evolution. 128. arising from belief. 164 Association = the succession of one thought or image after another.. 321 Anger emotion. S96 Ampulla GLOSSARY AND INDEX composed of nerve tissue connecting projection centers in the same hemisphere.Aversion = feeling characterized by thing perceived or imagined. 21 — — Arborization = the ramification of fibrils at the end of a neuron. motor = a phase of mental — — of — disorder characterized by inability to speak. see Disposition ideal. 65 n Attention = (a) the mental process of focusing certain parts of an experience so that they become more cortex = an enlargement at the base of the semicircular canals. see Learning Astigmatism = a condition of the eye-lens in which the vertical and horizontal curvatures differ. 335 f span = the number of objects distinctly perceived at a single movivid. 344 classification. circulation. see Nervous arc Aristotle's experiment. 112 Analgesia = loss of the pain sense Anesthesia = (a) a condition of the receptors or sensory nerves in which stimuli fail to arouse sensation. which actuate the bodily processes of di185. or of an idea after a perception. unpleasantness. 226 verbal = (a) the association of a system. so far as this is determined by the deep. see Problem attitude Automatic response. 313 laws = a formulation of the manner in which successive ideas arise. (b) an attitude embodying the permanent effects motor experiences. 232 Aphasia. 293 sensory = a phase of mental disorder characterized by inability to 333 n. 324 ing fiber of the neuron or nerve Association area = a region of the cell. see bodying the permanent effects of thought and memory. 206 Appreciation = (a) an attitude em- — — 344 — sentimental social. 343 — subconscious factors. 313 gestion. dulity. 206 192. see Nervous system name (verbal symbol) with some. 139 (b) loss of the sense of touch in hypnosis. see Response Autonomic function = a coordinated chain or group of reflexes in the autonomic nervous system.

cortex. etc. the unit rational of organic structure. 3. 117 ment of the inherited neural con. a specialized type Cell-body = the compact body of a of intelligent behavior. 298 neuron. 233 ff = a coordinated set of Canals. language {or speech) and thought — — — — presenting a single visual field in which objects stand out in relief. the ganism. 292 f . 250 ff = the motor result of raplasm in the living body. 34. 30 397 the optic nerve enters the eyeball. 60 — Beat a quaver effect which arises when two nearly similar tones are sounded together. which connects the right and left hemispheres. 302 f priety applied to the organized Behavior study = the study of the subconscious life. 33 227. 124 Brain-stem = all the brain except the cerebellum and cortex" with connecting tracts. that certain ideas represent real 122 facts or relations. 31. see Reflex 21 classification. 347 ters are collected or distributed. 96. they form the adjustment center of the highest nervous arc. 29 f relation to consciousness.GLOSSARY AND INDEX Basal ganglia {or Basal masses) = masses of nerve tissue in the cerebrum beneath the cortex. exclusive of the branches. corpora corpora quadrigemina. 219 visual sensations. i. 225 ff word-speaking center instinctive = a coordinated chain or group of diverse reflexes which Callosum {or Corpus callosum) = a work together systematically. Cell = an organized mass of proto228. striata. 8 Belief = the sentiment or conviction system where sensory impulses pass over into motor impulses.Catabolism = destructive chemical changes in the bodily tissues.e. 69. Difference tone = = that part of the nervous system which lies within the head. Tl. 31. they include the optic thalami. Binocular {or Stereoscopic) vision 33 = perception with the two eyes. 134 manner in which organisms reCenters = regions in the nervous spond to stimulation. 82 Blind spot = a break in the retina to the nasal side of the fovea. above the spinal cord. 32. 112 nections by individual acquisition. 222 cortical {or control.. 225 Censor = a term of doubtful prolevels. 87. semicircular = an organ in intelligent responses whose cooperation is due the inner ear which serves as rein part to alteration and improveceptor for the static sense. where thought and language activities occur and where motor impulses for communicative expression originate. 32. reflex. cf. Shade Behavior = action or activity of any Broca convolution {or area) = the sort which results from the operaposterior (dorsal) part of the intion of the nervous arc in an orferior frontal convolution. 220. 156 f Black = a visual sensation which arises without the usual light-wave stimulation. owmass of nerve tissue beneath the ing to inherited neural conditions. projection) = Binet-Simon scale = a graded series regions in the cortex where imof mental tests for measuring pulses from or to the primary cenintellectual growth in children. cf. where = special regions in the cortex (usually confined to the left hemisphere). 29 n Brain Brightness {or Value) = intensity of — — — — Beauty sentiment. 19 f tional thought. crura cerebri.

95. 87 Co-consciousness. 120. see Nervous system Cerebrum = the upper part of the brain. 75 pure = a sensation due to stimulation of the eye by light of uniform wave-length. divided into two hemispheres. — — — — — Morality training. which are believed to be the original colors seen by man's ancestors. 78 f Color mixer an apparatus for combining two or more different visual stimuli on the same points of the retina. including all portions above the medulla and cerebellum. 34. Knowledge) = an experience derived mainly from the external senses. Hipp = a clockwork with dials and hands for measuring short intervals of time. 356 Chiasm. 70 f Color-tone. see Personality. 33 spinal = a connecting-point between sensory and motor nerves in the spinal cord. 46 Colligation = a species of mental composition in which the elementary sensations maintain their identity. 277 Choroid coat = the intermediate coating of the eyeball. 346. 331. see Organic senses Cognitive experience (or Cognition. between the sen that every other hue can be produced by combining them. 106 f — primary = the terminal — of sensory or motor paths in the lower part of the brain. (b) any charac- — phase cf. 69 f Collection of = any one of the four great divisions of personality. 31. Imagination Cold sense. see Hue . 69 Color-shades = the series of changes in a single hue produced by combining it successively with each = gray-shade. 81 Color blindness fect of a congenital decolor vision in which cer- = sclerotic and retina. forming part of the brain. 65 Choice. 308 f Clang. 72 Color spindle (or Color pyramid) = a schematic representation of all the colors and grays in their observed relations. 96 simple = the auditory effect of a tone with its overtones. Skill. compound = the total auditory effect of two or more tones sounded together. teristic — complementary. Memory. 11. cf. Intellect. Overtone Cochlea = a spiral structure in the inner ear containing the receptors for hearing.898 GLOSSARY AND INDEX Coenesthesia. (accent on first syllable) Character = (a) the organized effect of all attitudes derived from the same fundamental type of experience. 75 2one = the region of the retina in which any given hue is distinguishable. 69 wave-lengths. 345 ff. see Saturation — Chronoscope. Perception. 60 n Chroma. 30 f. 37 Cerebellum = a large mass of nerve tissue back of the medulla and above it. 80. 21 30 Cerebrospinal system. Complementaries — fundamental = three hues so chosee Summation) = the (or gathering together of separate nerve impulses into a single neuron or path. cf. 129 Color = a visual sensation in which some hue predominates. Temperament. dual tain hues appear gray or are indistinguishable from certain other widely distant hues. voluntary = discharge of the motor impulse into the least resistant path in voluntary action. optic = the point of juncture of right and left optic nerves. Collateral = an offshoot of the nerve fiber or axon. 74 primal = four specific hues.

attitude. see Spinal cord Cornea = the transparent coat on the front suriace of the eye. 141. law. 77 Complex = (a) a composite experience. which connect corresponding cen- two sides of the brain or 257 Communicatioii = any act of social intercourse. 78 Control = the effect of nervous and mental adjustment whereby a man or other creature is able to make responses suitable to the situation in which he is placed. Conscious sciousness into subconsciousness fixa- which takes place with the Comprehension = (a) understanding spoken words. — center. 186 Contrast a complementary color effect seen on a white surface close beside a given color and induced = = things. Figs. 156 Convolution (or Gyre) lar an irreguin the surface of the cerebrum. scious Conflicting associations. 284 Communicative tendency = an innate tendency to social intercourse. the fact that a being has experiences. 297 Concha 85 Conduct = the outer shell of the ear. 327 Contiguity. 185. (b) in psychoanalysis: a subconscious (or repressed) emotional . pathological in nature.GLOSSARY AND INDEX Commissure ters in the cord. see Mental process : ' see Experience. sensitive to both light and color. 341 f Conscious when a living being is receiving sensations and having experiences. 10-13 = rounded ridge Co&rdination = two or more responses involving partly similar = the systematic distribution of nerve impulses through various motor paths. which thereby interfere with the fixation of a habit. 272 Concept a special type of thought which tends to represent truly the characteristics and relations of motor = tion of habits. 243 Complementaries (or Complements) = two hues which when combined produce gray. 33 399 fibers = nerve fibers neural connections. resulting in an orderly response. he is conscious. 53 f Cord. social behavior. con(or Consciousness Awareness) = a characteristic of mental life. 59 . 262 marginal. in learning see Center Convergence = fixating the foveas of the two eyes upon a single point. 307 Cones. 123 operation. = behavior which is di- rected toward other human beings. law. (b) understanding Conation (or Expressive state) experience — — = an of made up largely sensations. — — phenomena. 76 f black and white are considered complementaries.' 5. 372 ff — — ron to propagate a nerve impulse from the receiving end through its entire length and collateral branches. field of c/. 315. which influences one's thoughts and actions Composition = the mental process of uniting sensations into larger experiences. see Experience stream of the general succession of experiences. subliminal. 129 — = an individual's experiences at a given moment. 306. retinal = small bodies in the retina of the eye. 224. 275. 22 rate. 188 Conscience = an attitude arising out of social relations and social experiences. 138 — lapsed = the passage of contotal 122. 44 line = the path traversed by any nerve impulse in the nervous system. 291 n. 355 Conduction = the capacity of a neu- by the latter. 60 Conflict.

95 back of the body. 106 Diffused response (.400 Corpus callosum. in class exercises. applied to many specific Discrimination = the mental process motor tendencies.g. 239 cold stimuli. such as reaching.Dorsal (or Posterior) = toward the bration rates. 119 together. Depth. warmth. Dextrality = an innate tendency to fore us. 256 ter which forms the outer surface Digestive sensations. 369 taken for reality. \'isual exploraperceptual. so that it Least observable difference passes into two or more different Difference tone = a third tone which paths simultaneously. — — — .Distance apart (or Linear distance) = apparent distance of objects cur during the individual's lifetime. mental = a reversal of the process of systematic tion in which imaginations are mismental organization. biting. or distance away from the prefer one hand. as indicated by muscle sencochlea of the ear. cf. 337 f Depth. see Experience. retinal = any see Response. Disposition = an attitude which embodies the permanent effects of 394 emotional experiences. 360 f. sense stimulus with reference to cf. Touch. see single nerve impulse. 159 tion or spreading of the nerve imCortex = the thin layer of gray matpulse. Evolution from one another in the plane becontrasted with 150. over the other observer in performing actions. Nerve the observer. 370 f. mental = changes and scious improvements in mental operations and organization which oc. manipulation of objects. 152.Disorganization. subconscious. as indicated by musCuriosity = (a) an innate tendency cle sensations in turning the eye to seek information. (b) the the receptor for hearing. due to their different vi. see Perception of diftion. etc. 200. 146 Warmth. 242 Difference. and conditions. rightDistribution = the splitting up of a handedness. which occurs in tion. cf. 87. 242 (b) a genor otherwise eral term. believed to be sations or otherwise. 27 . organ of = a system of cells or contour perceived by sight or within the cochlear duct in the touch. 277 Delusion = a pathological condi. Corresponding points.or movements). 335 f Dissociation (or Dissociated experience). which serve as restimulated by general systemic ceptors for touch. 315 JDemonstrations. 129 grasping. GLOSSARY AND INDEX see Callosum Diffused expression = imperfectly Corpuscles = small bodies embedcoordinated instinctive behavior ded in the skin. ference Cutaneous senses. 110 of the cerebrum. 89 position of a visual or other distantCranial = pertaining to the head. subconDevelopment. accompawhich is concerned in discriminanied by thinking. least observable. Cold Discrimination time = the duration of that portion of a neural process Deliberation = the delay. 339 Desire = an attitude embodying the permanent effects of feelings. 310 voluntary activity.. diffused pair of points in the two retinas Diffusion = an indefinite distribuwhich jdeld a single sensation. of separating or distinguishing the parts of an experience. e. 107. see Perception classification. etc. 31 Direction = (a) the angle of a line Corti. 47 arises when two tones are sounded Dizziness sensation.

5. see emotional attitude in narrating. 272 43 Element.g. = — 367 Efferent (or Centrifugal) = motor. 2 5. a perception. 86 Evolution. 130) Elimination.. of occurs in sleep. 3. 5 n. leading from the center toward an — sensation. see Static sense Esthetic expression = an innate or acquired tendency to esthetic behavior. — — fundamental — 126 (or 117 End-organs (a) (or Terminal organs) = the receptors and effectors at the terminals of the nervous arc. elementary mental opElectrolytic stimulus. 207 Exercises. any moment of mental life as it appears to the individual himself. Receptors. mental = a simple or unanalyzed component of experience. 342. or thinking about objective facts. 243 sentiment = an experience which combines a feeling with an idea of beauty or ugliness. an organized subjective occurrence. directions in using. emotion. 130 conscious = an experience which forms part of one's personal mental life. c/. 344 Euphoria = a feeling of well-being. 44 Excitement = a feeling whose tone is neither preeminently pleasant nor unpleasant. 204 Eustachian tube = the passage extending from the back of the mouth to the middle ear behind the eardrum. relation training. made up and motor sen- Equilibrium sense. or of ideas.e. feeling of. e. relation to psychology.g. type 168 f expeff 317 see Personality Duty. 116 effector Effort experience. commonly see Control. systemic. due to present stimulation or to revival of former impressions or to both. 221 Ethics. 209 ff classification.GLOSSARY AND INDEX Double interpretation illusion. (b) limited to the sense organs or receptors Environment = everything that acts from outside upon an organism. State of — — 214 — tone 216 — to glands. 221 Ear. relation to mental growth. 401 Dream = a special rience which Dual personality. to produce some work of art which arouses esthetic sentiment in others. discussing. elementary sensation (57. 21 Endolymph = a liquid which fills the semicircular canals and sacs. 126). 9. mental = changes in mental operations. 391 Experience (or Mental state. 211 — 216 Emotional Disposition — bias = a tendency to assume an f mind) = any definite impression. eration (127 f. 85 ff Education. which combines a feeling with an idea of power. which take place in organic species from generation to generation Excitation = the capacity of neurons to receive nerve impulses. 372 Effectors (or Motor organs) the organs at the end of the nervous arc into which the nerve impulse is finally discharged. Effectors. sense of (or Duty attitude). 355 Dynamic sentiment = an experience — control. e. f attitude. primary) = an experience composed largely of one single class of sensations (external. 122. 2. 258 Emotion = an experience chiefly of systemic sations. memory. law. 339 End-brush = the fine branching of fibrils at the end of the axon. muscles and glands. i. or motor). in taste. 50 relation to mental organization. 130 f general stream of = the succession of various sorts of experiences . 296. etc.

63 of habit = the process of strengthFacial expression. 247 Fear emotion. see Imagination Focus of attention = the clearest portion of a perception or idea. 131 (or subordinate. 203 n curve and law.. Visual = = — — — — — — . about the level of the ear. perience before. 67 perceptions. 224 Experiment an observation of nature in which certain significant conditions are arranged before- used for to touch. see Conation vides the cerebrum into right and External senses.. see Sense left hemispheres. which indicates that the observer has had a similar ex.' to believe. (b) bodily brain. is (d) popularly: ' ' ' to feel' — subliminal = the produced by a — — — mental effect slight stimulus (or — — — a depth. 58 f Fixation. (c) feeling tone. 137. see Nerve fiber Field. probably due to metabolic changes in the bodily tissues. law 248 the nervous system. 31 medial = a deep cleft which dipulses. 140. while near-by obclear picture on the retina. 203 ff. = a faint or scarcely observed conscious experience. 326 f of work or toxic conditions.Forgetting^ 187 f Fissure cleft in difference of stimuli) which is too faint to be consciously observed. 132. 188 Familiarity feeling = a quality atthat a given object lies directly in front of the center of the pupil taching to memories and to certain and fovea. 31 hand. 136. 206 intensity. which starts near the ear. 203 n. 65 jects are blurred. 204.402 GLOSSARY AND INDEX life — marginal which make up the mental an individual. taste. so as to make a objects clearly.Flavor = a mingled experience of odor. 31 Eye. 46. 344 classification. 116. 326 f — secondary = an — subconscious 138 experience com- posed of two or more classes of sensations or ideas. 10 f central (or Rolandic) = a furrow Expression = (a) the sending out of on the right and left sides of the a motor impulse. binocular. Focusing the eye = changing the shape of the lens by the accommoetc. 195 Fancy.' etc. 253. 256 ff visual = turning the eyeball so Faintness. etc. long furrow or the cortical surface of the brain. 111. 207 f influence on thought. Facial. 128. or receptor due to over. (b) often used to denote any sensation. 31 Sylvian = a horizontal furrow on Exteroceptor = an external-sense receptor the right an d left sides of the brain. see Convergence nerve. law. Expressive experience. see Convergence muscles. see Response. 183. 212 Feeling = (a) an experience in which systemic sensations predominate. whereby one can see distant dation muscle. 275. dissociated) = any detached experience which does not enter into the individual's mental life. Fatigue = impairment of muscle. 258 ening an acquired connection in Facilitation. 64 n binocular. Far-sight (or Presbyopia) = a fo327 cusing defect of the eye due to flattening or rigidity of the lens. 304 relation to response. 131. etc. 161. see Consciousness. 216 Fiber. 207 Feeling tone = a systemic sensation which accompanies other sensations. 120. and changes produced by motor imruns to the top of the head. 112.

see Response — = sensory neuLanguage rons terminating in the skin and unattached to any receptor. Graphic language = communication by means of durable impressions in some material substance. called secre.Gray matter = grayish-looking massanalysis es of nerve tissue. law. 253 bodily process which serves some mental = an acquired and defibiological purpose. . Frequency. Shade Freudian psychology. c/. 254 relation to intelligence. 62 Form-board Free nerve-endings 403 tions. 366 f (b) the charpounds in solution. or (in case of endocrine or ductless glands) into the blood or lymph. etc. 262 f set of impressions which results from stimulation of the two eyes training. 96 Hallucination = confusion of images Ganglion = a small collection of or thoughts with perceptions. 311 Hemispheres. 85 ff Sympathetic Heat sensation = a mingled imGenerative {or Sex) sensations = pression of warmth and cold. contrasted with individually acquired Hiibit = an Structure and stereotyped series of responses biological = a general type of or thoughts. 39 ff. 267 Habit conation = a sensory expe(ears). these secretions being either discharged directly on the surface of the body. see Cerements of the hands. see Mental process manner of thinking. cerebral. 289 f cf. they Gray = a sensation resulting from mixed light stimuli in which no serve for the reception of pain stimuli. 288 brum Gland = a cell.. used to test perception of shape or form. or through ducts to the outside. 71. 159 tonal = the modified effect of rience which accompanies the pertwo or more tones when sounded formance of an habitual act. 174 f Fovea centralis {or Fovea) = a depression in the retina near the rear midpoint of the eyeball. 51 Glandular response. 113 single wave-length predominates. .GLOSSARY AND INDEX = a board with depressions of various shapes into which solid blocks of the same shapes are to be inserted. 253 Fusion = a species of mental commotor = an acquired and defiposition in which the elementary nitely fixed complex motor resensations merge together. the way in which something is accom. 107 organic sensations whose receptors Hedonlc = pertaining to feeling Heft = to receive a muscle sensaare in the generative organs. where sight is clearest. 199 nerve cell-bodies. tissue. Hearing sense {or Audition). 111 Gesture = communication by movetion from lifting. marginal Gustation. or organ which separates materials from Heredity {or Inheritance. 162. Spinal. 186 69. see Learning together. 237 f nitely fixed train of thoughts or mental. 31 rience. — — — — — — — . 129 binocular (binaural) = the single sponse. see Basal. 273 Habit formation. Process) = Gustatory nerve = the sensory nerve for taste the 'working' of anything. see Taste Function {or Operation. Heritage) = (a) any effect of the parental the blood or lymph and therewith germ cell upon the nature of the produces certain chemical comnew creature.Gyre {or Gyrus) see Convolution plished. see Expeof cell-bodies. consisting largely Fringe of consciousness. see Psycho.

144. 200 traces left in the brain by former nerve impulses. 179 classification. which decreature or whose results resemble notes a sound and forms part of a a given pattern or model. 277 Impulse = (a) a special sort of acIllusion = the misinterpretation of tivity propagated along a neuron certain factors or elements in an (sensory. 127. 110 imagination = a condition of which has a lively reference to Hyperesthesia heightened sensitivity of certain one's future actions or experiences. retinal (or picture) Idea an experience or element of experience due to training. 144 f. central. 199 f effects of retinal — composite experience 194 f.g. 167 f ed. 154. 198 Ideal = — — . &. feelings. 155 systemic. = — — — — stimulation by any single object. 69 f 178 ff anticipation = an Hunger sensation. Imagination — memory. motor. 139 — general to the Hypnosis a special condition of the nervous system in which the individual is peculiarly susceptible to verbal stimuli. 321 f Hypnotic suggestion = an effective verbal stimulus given to a hypnotized individual by another person. 281 f reality Ideational = pertaining to ideas or relation to perception. 321 = same object or person. or motor) as a experience. contrasted with Environment Image (or Imagery) = a group of Hering illusion. 199 result of stimulation. 200 to ideation Ideograph = a graphic symbol which Imitation = behavior which reprodenotes a word or idea. 170 Hue (or Color-tone) = a color sensaelementary ideas which are comtion so far as determined by the bined into a single experience. 196 receptors or sensory paths. (b) popularly: a thought a which includes ideas. contrasted with age made up of elements from two Sensation or more different past experiences. (b) a a response generated not merely by sensory stimuli but by their ideasensation or idea. 2. of memory = the misinterpreta(b) popularly: a tendency to act.404 acteristics of GLOSSARY AND INDEX — an organism so far as of perception = a perception determined by characteristics of which in some respects does not the germ cell from which it startcorrespond to the actual situation in the environment. an imagination or Imagination (or Fancy) = (a) an imthought. 39. (or Ideation) . duces the responses of another contrasted with Letter. 241 spoken word. 3. 322 composite (or free) = an image = Hypesthesia (or Undersensitivity) resulting from the revival and fusion of several past experiences due a condition of diminished sensitiv- — — — ity of certain receptors or sensory paths. 178. 200 training. rate of light vibration. e. and which does not correspond to motor sensations. 121 tional effects in the brain. 289 n Impression = (a) the mental process Ideomotor activity (or behavior) = of arousing a sensation or idea or complex experience. 179. 178 relation to perception. 44 f. 138 in hypnosis. 196 = an image resulting from the revival and fusion of past — imagination. Memory — = the Retinal see experiences of 187 see many similar things. 274. 131. which originates in the brain ittion of some factor in a memory self experience.

see Behavior. see Behavior embodies the permanent effects of modified = a mode of behavior in perceptions and ideas. 92. 266 — relation to 278 see intelligent behavior is veloped in an individual or species. especially on = — center. 285. Center — development. see Muscle sense to Knee-jerk reflex. cf. 243 terval used in music. 107 Integration = James-Lange theory Jastrow of emotion. Kinesthesis). 146 Judgment = a thought in which two concepts are combined. racial origin. see Catabolism Kinesthetic sense (or Kinesthesia. 80.Intelligence test = a mental test. 94 experience which accompanies an Introspection. 236 as measured by the relation of their variability. 297 = ment. Q. 43 the nerve impulse is checked. 323 Inhibition = the blocking of a neu. 348 n (a) = the degree which — animal. (b) which the inherited nervous bathe feeling tone which accompanies the interest attitude sis has been altered by the formation of new conduction paths dur. Intelligence quotient (or I. 108 law. which regulates as to produce a certain type of rethe amount of light admitted to the sult. 86 Ladd-Franklin theory of sight. 236. 136 f. ring-shaped muscle in instinctive response. see Self-observation Iris = a flat. 299 — types. 346 ff scale any graded series of mental tests designed to measure an individual's intellectual develop- cylinders = an apparatus for investigating pressure and muscle sensations. 347 reached by reasoning. 237 ceptor Interval. used as a measure of mentality. the colored ring which surnate conditions while the behavior rounds the pupil. = an experience com- posed of ideas and motor sensa- volition. 238 development. lapsed — development. Mental age which one living being (' individIntelligence scale = (a) a measure ual') differs from another. 96. 241 f the systematic assembling of sensory nerve impulses in the brain centers. (b) popularly: a synonym for Intellect. Consciousness. 248 Labyrinth = the inner ear.Interoceptor = a systemic-sense reing the individual's life-time. of nerve impulse. 287 3 f Learning (or Habit formation) => . 348 n Katabolism.) ratio of an individual's ' mental age' to his chronological age. — — be acquired. 255 of sensation. 347 Intelligence f. 83 Language tions. 251 — lapsed. 60. musical = any pitch inclassification. the tendency being due to ineye. 63 — — . (b) a measure or scale of intellect. 52 f Intellect = that phase of character which develops as a result of an itself may Itching sensation. 248 deconditioned. 210 — individual's perceptions and ideas of the outer world. 189 Interest = (a) the attitude which Innate = inherited see Heredity Instinct. 104. 287 see sults in whose motor expression recommunication. 93 pitch = the relation of two tones. 361 Inference = a thought which is of mental development. 244 Instinctive conation = the sensory vibration-rates. 37. ral pathway so that the progress of 348 n Intensity. 101. 273 tendency = a tendency to act so front of the lens. 335 f.GLOSSARY AND INDEX Individuality 405 — — — — — = the characteristics in the intellectual side.

62 life = the stream of experiences Marginal (or Margin of) consciousness. 81. which accompany Least observable difference. external = the passageway into the ear. 181 nent) = any arrangement of nerve Loudness = intensity of sound. 263 f in long and short periods. c/. 213 inherited or acquired. 116. 265 by trial and error = a method of learning characterized by persistent. or of any other intimate relation. Threshold of sensation Lens of eye. 180 fif tex. 119. 253 ff ing blind alleys. 67 ory image. see Organization tion consisting of an intricate set of branching (walled) paths. Value of the use an object. marginal and nervous activity in any orMaze (or Labyrinth) = a construcganism. children's. 55. cf. 29. 85 Medulla oblongata Light waves = very minute transverse vibrations in the ether. which molds or modifies one's experiences and Macula lutea (or Yellow spot) = the responses. 30 Memory = (a) a synonym for revival. 147 c/. 108. 259. with only one route leading to the goal. which give rise to sensations of — — — — — — — . the renewal of a former Lobe = a large division of the corexperience. 105. which development. includprocess (or operation) = (a) any sensation. 406 GLOSSARY AND INDEX them through repeti- the process of forming new connections in the nervous arc and perfecting tion. 96. Revival. 295 f — attitude. with an inner con.. 96 structure or connections. used to measure the learning ability of animals or human beings. 327 organization. (b) more broadly. 127. 261 measurement of. 251 f Meaning = a group of marginal elements in a cognitive experience. 341 — in perception = ideas of cf. 193 cealed cortical region. 348 receptor. 31 Local sign = a slight modification any of its factors. which conveys sound waves to the drum. which have reference to the corresponding external situation. local the resulting conscious experiences age = degree of mental developsigns are due not to the stimulus ment expressed in terms of the age but to the receptor. 173 (or Bulb) = the lowest part of the brain. 101.Memory system = an artificial device to assist recollection. either Love emotion. 35. 191 frontal. 150 condition (underlying or permaLocation of memories. 295 f Meatus. 59 Lies. see Development has a yellowish tinge. (b) a memsight. 195. just above the spinal cord. 331 central region of the retina. 296 faint images of objects which accompany verbal thinking. 260 f. 323 — in thought = the perception. used to characterize the organized of sensation which serves to indi-' activities of the nervous system or cate what particular point in the retina or skin is stimulated. parietal. each hemisphere includes a training. and are similar for all sensations from a given at which the average of mankind attain that degree. the island Mental = (a) pertaining to mind or of Reil. and occipital lobe. temporal. varied responses ending accidentally with a successful or appropriate response. see Experience. Threshold of discrimination — in reasoning. — by associative memory = a meth— — — od of learning characterized by a flow of ideas ending with the idea of the appropriate response.

(b) often used to denote the succession of experiences . 16 n its activities as bearing on mental Motive = a conscious or subconlife. 64 n the body. or performing prescribed Nausea sensation. cf. Conation neurons (nerve cells) in the body. see see 347 = a contractile tissue operated by the motor nerves. character. 151 swering questions. 407 of — senses. cf. peripheral = a nerve connecting 48 f the spinal cord or brain with a reMonocular. see Uniocular ceptor or effector. Behavior. see Sense Movement = motion an organ- ism or its parts. and serving to conperiences and personality in an duct nerve impulses. uring an individual's mental development by his success in an- whose receptors lie in the muscles and other organs of move- — — — — — . 124 n. 3. produced by nerve impulses acting upon the muscles. 26 nerve impulse to change its form. see Morality 26 sentiment = an experience which spinal = a nerve which passes combines a feeling with the idea of from the body (below the head) right-and-wrong. 349.GLOSSARY AND INDEX change in the elementary sensations when they reach the higher centers. Catabolism Nerve = a bundle of neurons lying Mind = the total organization of exside by side. Motor experience {or Motor con23. 26. 120. 29 Morality = that phase of character Nerve fiber = the main stem of a which concerns man's relations to neuron. 15. see Effectors 3. 271 c/. whereby distant objects are blurred. Response Miiller-Lyer illusion.scale = a graded series of mental tests. 119 acts. 110 n. 50 f antagonistic. see Antagonists (or ELinesthetic) sense = a test — — — organs. 9 scious condition which plays a part Nervous arc {or circuit) = the comin determining one's behavior or plete path traversed by any nerve conduct.Near-sight {or Myopia) = a focusing defect of the eye. 26 individual. 130. 111. 302 f tion concerning one's own move. see Disposition sensory = a nerve leading from Moral attitude. 380 cranial = a nerve connecting with Mirror-writing (or Mirror-script). 112. see Conscience some receptor to the cord or brain.39 sciousness) = organized informalevels. 21 his fellows and is developed by Nerve impulse. Succession Muscle — = a practical device for meas. 39 S . some receptor or effector in the head. 222 into the spinal cord. solving prob. 127 f. see Near-sight lems.Nervous system = the sum-total of ments. 290 Mnemonic = pertaining to memory motor = a nerve leading from the Modification = the capacity of a cord or brain to some efifector. 17. 224. Anabolism. 354 f Nerve-study = in psychology: the Moron = a slightly retarded human study of the nervous system and being. ment. 112. resulting in the formation of definite experiences. 6. 337.sense state. 347 f Mentality = the degree of an in. 26 Mood. 115 f. 26. 361 Metabolism = chemical changes in curvature of the lens. 283. 170 — Muscle — — Experience — succession. 19 £f. 365. see Impulse social experiences. 29 163. 355 impulse from receptor to effector.Myopia. due to too much dividual's mental development.

44 f is sounded. 19. 39 ff relation to mental organizacentral tion. axon. reproductive. 247 f. Neural = pertaining to the nervous system or to neurons Neuron {or Neurone) = a single nerve cell. 351 = the brain and cord cerebrospinal = the main part of the nervous system. nerve cells in the cord or brain 162. 21 f secondary = a neuron which does not connect directly with a receptor or effector. 164. 101 Olfactory nerve = the sensory nerve for smell. — errors — depth see Binocular Vision of.408 • GLOSSARY AND INDEX Optic nerve autonomic {or sympathetic) = a semi-dependent system of nerves and ganglia distributed through the body. see Functioa of {or Projection) = perception of the distance of objects from the observer's body. and all branches. 99 Operation. contrasted with Perception of surface . 162 perception. 7 Odor = a sensation of smell. 118 = whose receptors — . 153 ff. respiratory. 90. 365 ff Otoliths = small solid particles within the utricle and saccule. 249 Perception = an experience (usunal world Observation = attentive study of ally complex) due chiefly to direct impressions from the external events as they occur. including the cell-body. 101 Olfaction. receptors. which controls the bodily functions. 204 n. = the sensory nerve for 65 f chiasm. see Chiasm thalamus. 365 n Organization = any group or system of interworking parts. for measuring tion. see Thalami Organ = an associated mass of cells in the body which performs some sight. excluding the autonomic nerves. 26 n peripheral = the spinal and cranial nerves operation. including man. 19 — — — — prism. 99 senses. definite process or function Organic sense 367 ff structure. 113 f stimuli. see Perception the strength of a conditioned reObjective = pertaining to the extersponse by the flow of saliva. yielding a more or less 253 ff complicated but unified percepPawlow's experiment. 96 Nucleus = (a) a small spherical mass of organized protoplasm within Pain sense. (b) in neurology: a small group of Palp = to receive a touch sensation. see Smell Olfactometer = an apparatus for — binocular. which (in connection with stimuli) determines the individual's experiences and responses. 39. 55. 365 mental = the entire central nervous structure. 311 Path {or Pathway) = the line along which a nerve impulse proceeds Object = in psychology: a physical through the chain of neurons in a mass which stimulates a bunch of nervous arc. 94 sound waves. 110 f Organism = a living plant or animal. and other bodily organs. essential to its life. — — 34 f. 28 tone accompanying the tone which properties. but only through Overtone {or Harmonic) = a JFaint another neuron. 143 ff — the sense or senses lie in the digestive. 42 each cell. see Illusion testing the sense of smell. due to subsidiary vibrations of the instrument in some Noise = an auditory sensation due multiple rate of the main or fundato a general mixture of different mental tone. 226 f 235.

Proclivity = an attitude embodsdng ness) = a mental disorder in the permanent effects of volitions. ity. taking no account of their distance — secondary = an of split-off experiences. see Function dual. 63. aa in agreement with the external sithumming a tune. 265. etc. Personaldistance from the observer's body.Poggendorff illusion. 310 with bodily or mental welfare. 161 temporal = memory of the relative distance in time of various past experiences from the present away from the observer's body. 344 sonalities occur in the same indi. 167 standards. moment. 173 form acts not directly concerned Perception time. 164 of surface perception of the shape. as Perimeter = an apparatus for inan outlet for nervous energy. into a pattern. 362. 362. comprising all his perthe attitude which enables one to manent mental conditions and orkeep a given question or problem ganized experiences at any period in the foreground. law. 261 Play = an innate tendency to perrelation to brain. 143. 161 f. 171 f Pons Varolii = a broad band of neuthest from the fovea. 146 progress of learning.Problem attitude {or Aufgabe) » ganization. 362 all together.GLOSSARY AND INDEX 409 organized group cf.or Co-conscious. 166 of space = perception of depth or of surface. 149.. 91 stream of = a succession of perabsolute = ability to recognize ceptions uninterrupted by other or identify any given tone. 91 by the blind. qf. 92 uation. 360 ff Process. now another beception of objects as situated at a ing dominant. direction. 83 Personal equation. 364 — 360 rating. = 155. perceptual = a short period (b) the feeling that all one's past of time during which a succession experiences belong to the same inof experiences seem to be before UB dividual. 183 149 ff contrasted with Perception Pitch = quality of tone as deterof depth mined by the rate of sound-wave of time and events. 340 of life. — — — — — — — Perspective. four. 332. and apartness of objects in a Sat field before us. perceptual the pervidual. 29 ity of one's entire mental life. etc. secondaxy see Perception of depth of difference.. Present. sonality. 107 come of an individual's mental or. spatial = perception of the relative distance of objects (or their parts) from the observer. 363. 163 reproduce pitch intervals. dual — . multiple (. — — — — — — — — — — — = . 165 Personality {or Self) = the total out. emphasizing one tone in each group of three. 74 Periphery of retina = the region far. 315 rons which extends laterally across Personal identity = (a) the continuthe medulla. 134. 146 of direction. Per- — problems. 91 experiences. 165 vibration. 311 f relative = ability to recognize or affected by habit. 80. which two or more distinct per341. 171 training. 161 Plateau = a temporary halt in the classification. capable of = becoming dominant.Pressure sensation. 242 vestigating sensations received Pleasantness = a feeling tone probably due to anabolism. now one. 111 from the periphery of the retina.Projection. 152 of objects. 165 of rhythm the grouping of a succession of tones.

biological = the prolongaits environment by means of retion^of life or perpetuation of the ceptors. 12 f methods of research. Function Proposition = the language equivalent of a judgment. 237 abnormal = the study of disor. 16 branches. 13 comparative = the comparative study of mental life in various animal species. educative effects. numbers. 380 — problems. the nervous system and termi- 326 . 13 age or thought of what one is goanimal = the study of the mental ing to accomplish by his own motor Psychiatry disorders (' an organism = the study of mental Purkinje phenomenon — — animals. 298 Proprioceptor = a motor-sense receptor Protoplasm = a name given to the chemical substances which comix>se — — — practical bearings. Structure. 110. and efspecies so far as this depends upon fectors. 15. 12 physiological (or neurological) = Projection center (or area). control. the study of the nervous system in its relations to mental life. 13 experimental = the experimental study of human mental life in the laboratory. 5 the creature's bodily processes. see Behavior. thought. 70. together with the accompanying mental events. Thought Rationalization = the mental process of constructing artificial reasons to justify an inference which is actually based on other grounds. see Cen- Proof-reader's illusion. 116. 76 bring subconscious impressions Purple hues = a series of colors not into the foreground. 394 child = the study of mental development in the human young. 73 action between an organism and Purpose. odors. 168 Property = a characteristic of anything. expressible f. 99. 275. not quantitative nor diin 90.Purpose idea = an anticipation imdered or undeveloiJed minds. produced by Psychology = the systematic study combining red and violet lightof events arising out of the interwaves. 394 Psychophysics the experimental study of the relation between stimuli and sensations. 134 found in the spectrum. 5.410 of GLOSSARY AND INDEX temperatures. 43 of of kind 104. 14 social = the study of mental life as influenced by the interaction of individuals upon one another. nervous system. 365 5. cf. 14 general = psychology of the normal adult human being. cortical — — nal organs. 44 f. 119 and his environment by means of its Rational behavior. — stimulus. 12 human = the science which deals with the interaction between man any characteristic of stimsensations. either as regards its makeup (structure) or in its capacity to act in certain ways (function). 356 f Pupil = a circular opening in the iris through which light is admitted to the eye. — — — — — the affairs of life. 60 = = a variation psychoses ') in the relative brightness of differPsychoanalysis = a method ement hues in brilliant and dim ilployed by Freud and others to lumination. 15 Punishment. 160 — sounds. 380 f. f ter. 8 f f. 1. 280 Quality uli. 113. 68 107. f — in touch. 159 — 158 visual. and experiences is = which rectly sort. exclusive — applied = the practical life man. Control. — sensation. 13 application of psj'chological principles to of of initiative.

248 ff reflex whose center lies within the head. 292 which accompanies a reflex. 37. 50 antagonistic = a pair of reflexes social = a response which diwhich involve antagonistic muscles. Reason = the ability to think or act 155. sponse. 3. 233 f Reading aloud = the translation of Reflex conation = an experience graphic symbols into speech.GLOSSARY AND INDEX Reaction. 40. 184 f implicit adjustment of the vocal Reflex = a definite response to a muscles without actual utterance. 85.Respiratory sensations. 324 lation. 49 f cf. 279 and excites a sensory neuron. 9. 103. see Response Reaction time = the time interval between stimulation and response. Be. — cranial = a have been altered by use. 214. which receives stimuli liberation. with the retion of a casual association for a sulting bodily movements and rational inference in a train of reachanges. Thought. 354 225 volves two or more related muscles. Recognition = the identification of 239 the present memory or perception glandular = a response which with a previous experience. 107. 117 spreads to several muscles and the in muscles. some higher — — — . law. 291 classification. 231 conditioned = a reflex in which the inherited nervous connections classification. muscular = a response which in229 ff 40. so that the redelayed. 220 object or scene from the observer. 45 . 298. 51 memory image. 273 Reality feeling = the sentiment or Relief = perception of the relative conviction that the perceived exdistance of different parts of an ternal objects are real. 411 — higher = a — — sponse is — seeing and understanding written words or any graphic 40 expression. 366 to the stimulating situation. 322 ff ity of muscles or glands due to error = an unobserved substitumotor nerve impulses. — — — — — — — — — — compound = a — reflex which in- social relation. cf. due to an inher295 n ited arrangement of nerve paths. in which the motor impulse 99. 230 spinal = a reflex which involves nothing above the spinal cord. mental = stunted mental growth. 180 sions produced by excitation.Religious character and conduct. definite stimulus. Behavior Recency. 272 thoughts in which all the connec. c/. 14 Retention = the capacity of neurons to preserve traces of the impres- — in memory. 231 Retardation. 111 tions correspond to actual relations Response {or Reaction) = any activor processes of nature. 184 involves activity of the glands Recollection = the arousing of a (secretion). 68 f. 225 f. 226. 16. 187 adaptive. havior 355 Reasoning = a succession of rational Resistance experience. the end-result of stimusoning. 51 action bears no significant relation relation to mental growth. 67. Perspective rationally. see Adaptation Receptor {or Sense organ) = a speautomatic = any response which cial organ at the beginning of the takes place without delay or denervous arc. volves muscular contraction. rectly concerns other beings of the 232 species and tends to bring about a 307 f Reading = reflex which involves center. leaddiffused = an uncodrdinated reing to sensation.

93 Sclerotic Sclera) the outer coating of the eyeball. 116. 57. 57. 73. 364 Self-preservation instinct = a general term used to denote the usefulness of instinctive behavior to preserve the creature's life. 180 Reward. see Fissure sonality.Sense = a mechanism for receiving information through stimulation. 168 Review questions. 99. 127. 119 motor = any sense which is stimmusical = a group of tones com- — Self-observation (or Introspection) = the systematic study and reporting of one's own individual experiences. see Mental scale body. touch. Sight. directions. 118 Sacs. 336 receive impressions to = to Saturation (or Chroma) = the relathrough the senses. 60 Rolando. the white of (or ' = — systemic = any — 120 the eye. 143 n. ulated by movement or position of the body or its members. 102 external = any sense which is ble tones from deepest to shrillest. 8. 272 Satisfaction = a type of desire attitude which embodies the perma. 203 n tive amount of pure hue to gray in contiguous = a sense which is a given color sensation. (appetites). see Deztrality Rods. stimulated by objects in immediate Tints contact with the body. 120 classification. see Self-observation Semicircular canals. 103. auditory = the series of audifrom the body. retinal = minute bodies in the retina of the eye. 363 Saccule = a spherical hollow or sac near the semicircular canals. nent effects of pleasant experiences 57 ff. general a general feel- Sense organ. stimulated by objects outside the 91 mental. 119 f Self-consciousness = (a) consciousness or experience of our own personality. 57. 90. cf. 57. Scala vestibuli = two distant = a sense whose stimuli tubes running side by side within originate in objects at a distance the cochlea. cf. 68. 57. see Receptor Sensibility. 364 n Self-control (a) ability to modify or direct one's own behavior. 102 Scala tympani. 58. 87 Scale. 364. 243 Self-study. see Canals Sensation = an impression due to stimulation of the receptors. 356 f Right-handedness. 72. educative effects. 57. etc.412 GLOSSARY AND INDEX (b) inhibition of one's emotional expression Self-notion (or Notion of self) = the total experience of one's own per- Retina = a thin coat which covers the inner surface of the eyeball except in front and contains minute rods and cones sensitive to light. 377. used in musical composition. 114. = ing tone pervading the whole body. cf. see Utricle. 112 Sensitivity (or Irritability) city of the receptors to = = capa- receive . etc. which assists one in the perception of his own — — — — — — — prising certain definite pitch intervals. 109. fissure of. 249 movements. Sense secondary motor = any sensation of sight. (b) popular use: embarrassment. Hearing. part of the static-sense receptor. 125 Self-perception. see Personality sense which is stimulated by conditions and changes within the body.' 69 Self. Saccule Salivary reflex. 392 Revival = the mental operation of renewing or repeating a former experience. 60 Reversible perspective illusion. covering all but the front surface. sensitive to light but not to color.

103. 88 Space perception. etc. 171. 68 Speech (or Vocal language) = communication by production of sounds with the mouth. seen by the two eyes. Subconscious. cf. see Trace Sex sensations. 218 ff 220 Set. neural. not controlled by the higher brain centers. Control Somesthetic sense. see Generative senclassification. 360. 117 f tions. 169 263. 157 f Stereoscopic vision. see Perception Span. 185. secondary stimuli at a given moment. Situation = the entire aggregate of Personality. see Binocular vision Stilling test an apparatus for investigating color blindness. in which the synapses are highly resistant to the passage of nerve impulses. 274 Sentiment = an experience made up chiefly of ideas 413 the different waves are separated by passing through a prism. — — — — ment of skill in an individual. cf. 370 Strain sensation. containing cell-bodies of color sensation. Split-off experience = an experience 71. 80 Stimulation (a) an effect produced means = = and the adjacent neuron by some object or force outside the nervous system. 9. when Smell sense of which two slightly dissimilar pictures.Speed. 107. 139 f c/. and sacs of the inner ear. 116 . Sight. 317. 58 ff which is not connected with the Similarity and contiguity. Excitation Sensorimotor activity = a response due chiefly to sensory stimuli and not to ideational effects in the brain. GLOSSARY AND INDEX stimulation or of the sensory nerves to transmit nerve impulses. which give rise to sensations of hearing. 288. see Experience Skill = that phase of character Static sense = a sense whose recepwhich develops out of the individtors lie in the semicircular canals ual's motor attitudes and habits.. Staircase illusion. 75 Spectrum = the entire series of visible light waves. law. main stream of the individual's ex186 periences. c/. and 352 f which furnishes information of one's scale = any graded series of tests position and changes of position in designed to measure the developspace. Color-shades Sight sense (or Vision). forming paths of conduction. cf. 39. 362. cf. 26 f sations ganglion = an enlargement of the Shade = the relative brightness or sensory nerve just outside the . etc. see Nerve ries of grays from white to black. etc. 71 sensory neurons. cf.darkness of a gray sensation or of a cord. mental. 41 f (b) often used for Excitation Stimulus = anything which causes stimulation and starts a nerve imin a receptor . 371. 99. see Touch Somnambulism = sleep-walking. — pulse. 98 f Social factors. 353 Sleep = a special condition of the nervous system. are perceived as one and stand out in relief. 380 State. see Facilitation — Spinal = pertaining to the spinal cord cord (or Cord) = a mass of neurons within the back-bone. 318 Sound waves = longitudinal vibrations of the air or of solid bodies or their particles. Stereoscope = an apparatus by Dreams (or Olfaction). 27 Shades (or Gray-shades) = the senerve. see Attention Spectral lines = certain bright lines observed in sun-light.. 42. Hearing. Language and systemic sensa. relation to mental organization.

254 f Synesthesia = persistent association of a certain color with a certain sound. 285. 306 ff or acquired conditions in the nervous system. chologists to exist between human beings. favoring certain parcf. bines a feeling with the idea of both — attitudes. 176. or any other arbitrary grouping of sensations Systemic senses. of versed visual field. (b) conscious or subconscious Sublimation = a term used by some psychologists to denote the purification or elevation of motives from primitive instinctive tendencies : centers in the autonomic system. (b) popular use: Term = the language equivalent of a words or actions of another person concept. autonomic the human species. to view for a fraction of a second used in investigating visual perception Taste sense (or Gustation). of etc. 304. 245. cf. 121. see Nervous tends to supplant pure imagery in system. 221 Temperature senses. 34 Sympathy emotion. 281 Test. 111 ence which does not resemble or Thought = a type of experience akin correspond to the situation which to language. 294 ff classification. see Experience Cold Succession. Dreams Subconsciousness = the fact of having subconscious impressions or experiences. 222. Subliminal.. Attitude. see Warmth. 165 — ganglia = distributing Stream etc. neath the cortex. 30 = belief in a concept or Thinking = a train or succession of Superstition judgment which has been shown thoughts. in which the receptors are not concerned.' 123. 286 ideas and motor sensations. see Reasoning Symbolic experience = an experi. 325 abstract. picture. which Sympathetic system. Structure = the shape or composition or arrangement of parts of anything. 127. 324 Sylvius. fissure of = see Fissure rational. Association Suggestion = (a) the mental process ticular modes of behavior. 269. see Sense ' Tachistoscope = an instrument for exposing a word. 282. which contain 358 the primary sensory centers. the effect is called subconscious.. see Mental test Suggestions.. contrasted with Function Subconscious when an impression is received but does not enter into the individual's conscious experience. 213 Synapse = the place of connection between two neurons. 350 f — — . 103 f Telepathy = a direct means of communication supposed by some psy. 391 ff Thalami. thought. 284 Temperament = that phase of character which develops out of the individual's desires and emotional Sublime = a sentiment which com- 351 beauty and power. Thought. mental = the sequence Tendency = the effect of inherited of experiences or responses. 23 f.Thirst sensation. of nerve tracts (basal ganglia) be201. composed of symbolic it represents. 65. see consciousness. 19 ff. 141. optic = an important pair Summaries. see End-organs or behavior. Inby which one idea passes over into stinctive tendency another. where their end-fibrils intermesh. Experience. 298 which serve to guide one's thinking Terminal organs. Consciousness. 16. in using this book. 133 Subjective = (a) experienced or sensed by an individual. 36. cf. 312 ff not to correspond to nature. 414 GLOSSARY AND INDEX the re- Stratton's experiment. 329. etc.

312. 291 gray. 288 (or human muscles lan- — relation to pain. see Appreciation center. see Perspective Understanding = the arousal in one Tingling sensation.g. 295. cf. 294 reflex which occurs in lower organdevelopment. auditory. 153 f vibrations of uniform wave-length. Least observable sensaover others. see Perception Undersensitivity. cf. 300 no nervous system "threshold (or Limen) of sensation = Tympanum = the ear-drum. e. intellectual. 331. 66 Trait = a rather generalized attitude. 307 isms. 45. see Learning Thinking Tropism = a response resembling a classification. etc. 118 (or Idea of value) = the idea of the actual intensity or quantita- Valae manent mark of former nerve impulses preser\'ed in the nerve substance. auditory = a sensation due to stimulation of the ear by sound one eye is concerned. Least observable difall appearances) ference are taking place. 130 n by other experiences. 219. 108 sleep often used for SubconsciousTimbre. see Hypesthesia perspective. 346 Transformation (or Mental chemis297 f try) = the mental operation by succession of stream of = a which the nature or quality of an thoughts and images uninterrupted experience becomes altered. . Trial and error. — Tongues = the various guages. part of the static-sense receptor. the sum-total of traits in any one phase of experience make up the corresponding phase of charac- — — — — ter. 95 ness Time perception. 72 Uniocular (or Monocular) perception = visual perception in which only Tone.g. 114 Utricle Tonus Tone) of = a condition of tension or stretch in the muscles which exists apart from specific stimulation Touch (or Tactile) sense. dreamless Tickle sensation. 300 rapidity. Meaning . Unpleasantness = a feeling tone prob90 ably due to catabolism. one sense or one phase of character 136 f. = f — — — — 313 attitude. — . situations. ef.. especially those which have training. motor tion type. events. see Center rational a thought in = wlych the Tract = a bundle of nerve fibers in the spinal cord or brain. which accompanies verbal thinking. a sensation just begins to be observed. cf. Unconsciousness = a condition of their difference just begins to be the living organism in which (to no impressions observed cf. 106 Trace (or Set) = a more or less per- = a spherical hollow or sac near the semicircular canals. mental = differences among individuals in the prominence of intensity of stimulation. with increasing difference of intensity between two stimuli. 107 individual of an experience corTints = the series of changes in any responding to some experience of given hue produced by combining another individual through the latit in various proportions with a ter's speech or writing. temperamental of discrimination = the point at type. Retention tive properties of objects. e. with increasing Types. 373 ff which. 85 the point at which. 114 is meaning or value prominent.GLOSSARY AND INDEX 415 — Control the directing of a succession of thoughts along a given line. 111.

see Ideomotor Walking which effects = a modified instinct. oval (Fenestra ovalis) and round (F. see Graphic language ZSllner illusion. see Organic senses — automatic expression. 279 its Voluntary activity activity. 40 er due to intensity of stimulation Word. 171 276 fl . 106 Weber's law = a statement of the and to account for visual phe- nomena generally. see Sight embodies the permanent — Visual field = the entire range of visual sensations at any moment. a unit of thought or language. 120. 275 n. 162 in — perception. 148. wheth. 82 f Vividness (or Attention. 86 lation. external (or outer). 149 Whirl experience. 162 — law. or to a central process. 158 theory = an attempt to explain how the eye furnishes color sensations of unpleasant experiences (aversions). 336 Warmth sense. Mental focusing) = (a) the mental operation by which sensations or experiences quantitative relations between stimuli and sensations. 186 and ideas. Vocal language. 87 Visceral sense. 272 Will. 341 Vascular sensations. (b) the prominence of some part of an experience. rotunda) = two winbecome distinct or noticeable irredows in the wall between the midspective of the intensity of stimudle ear and inner ear. 244 of desire Want = a type attitude Vision. see Speech Volition = a complex experience made up chiefly of motor sensations 285 World. 27 Vestibule = the midportion of the inner ear. see Environment Writing. 128.Wink reflex. 279 — training. see Volition Windows.416 GLOSSARY AND INDEX — attitude. 111 Ventral (or Anterior) = toward the front of the body.

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