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esistible : tak dapat menahan inefficiency : tak terpakai onsensus : mufakat enforce : menjalankan/menyelenggarakan ongestion : kemacetan powerless

: tak berdaya

Be, Do, Have and Modal Be, Do, Have Bentuk tenses lain seperti present, progress dan Perfect dibentuk dengan menggabungkan present participle (-ing) atau past participle dengan Auxiliary (kata bantu kerja). Sejauh ini, hanya tiga kata bantu be, do, have yang telah didiskusikan. Kata-kata be, do, have adalah kata kerja bahkan kata bantu dan terkadang mereka bisa digunakan secara bersamaan di dalam satu kalimat. e.g: Modal Jenis kata bantu yang lain adalah modal auxiliary. Mereka hanya digunakan sebagai kata bantu dalam klimat dan tidak merubah bentuk gramatikal seperti penggunaan be, do, have. Modal tidak hanya memiliki makna gramatikal tapi juga makna leksikal, misalnya; must bisa memiliki makna kewajiban. Tidak seperti be, do, have tidak benar-benar memiliki arti seperti modal manakala mereka digunakan sebagai kata bantu. Compare: She is speaking English vs She can speak English. He does not come here right now vs He must come here right now. I have had breakfast vs I will have breakfast. Find some Modal Auxiliaries in the following text What can be done about the problems of urban living? How should we approach the congestion, pollution, and and inefficiency that seem to be characteristic of the modern city? We say that this or that should be done. The government ought to pass laws to control pollution. The city should enforce laws to improve traffic patterns. People should buy fewer cars and smaller ones. They should refuse to buy cars. Cars could be made nonpolluting. Why couldn’t they be powered by electricity? Why can’t the pollution caused by manufactures must be too profit-conscious. These complaints can be heard the world over. Usually we talk about what others ought to do, should be required to do and should be kept from doing. The average person may feel powerless to do anything at all. Change does come about, however, when enough people have the same opinion about an important matter. A public consensus may develop quitely, but it can prove irresistible. Vocabulary: Rano is being difficult. He does not do his job I have had many interesting experience.

keinginan. I may go but I don’t really want to. I shall at your house at 5 pm Must (have to) Keharusan. We shall go to Mataram Mall Permintaan atau tawaran melakukan sesuatu untuk orang lain.S+Modal+V1 Modal Present Modals Will Functions Menyatakan peristiwa yang akan datang Examples I will buy some toys tomorrow. I will act in the play if you will. Kesimpulan logis Larangan (dalam bentuk negatif) The door is locked. you shall be punished. janji ringan. sopan dalam bentuk kalimat tanya. I will eat a bowl of porridge. Shall I answer the phone for you? Ancaman dan janji Don not speak so again. kewajiban yang tak dapat dihindari atau keadaan I must eat to live yang tak dapat tergantikan. you must study harder. permintaan I will do what you think best. Will you please bring me the bag? Menyatakan keputusan yang kuat dan peolakan (will not). Menyatakan persetujuan. Shall Menyatakan peristiwa yang akan datang I will past this course I will not be there tonight. he must have gone out. You must not walk on the grass. May Kemungkinan . The time is up. we must go If you want to pass the exam.

S+Modal+V1 Permission (izin) Can Kemampuan. Larangan atau keharusan untuk tidak melakukan sesuatu No. mengajak sesorang untuk melakukan Would you be interested with the show? sesuatu. menanyakan I would do what you think best. you should not eat the meal because it will be danger . kemungkinan Permission (dalam kalimat tanya) Ought to Tugas (tanggung jawab) Kewajiban yang tak terhindarkan Keinginan (hasrat) May I smoke in the class? I can do the task my self. preferensi sesorang. Modal Past Modals Would Functions Menyatakan permintaan sopan Examples Would you please tell me about it? Hasrat seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu. Would you like to join us for coffee tomorrow? Should Kewajiban yang tak terhindarkan We should worship Allah 5 times a day as good moslems. It can rain on may Can I take your exam early? You ought to study more She ought to be here now I ought to go there some other times.

Might Ungkapan yang lebih sopan pada waktu sekarang. kewajiban yang tak dapat dihindari atau keadaan I had to work last week. Could Kemampuan pada waktu lampau I could speak japanese when I was senior high school. tidak ada. He has left about a half an hour ago. but he does not appear until “kemungkinan yang menggunakan may” now. She could dance all night if she is here. Miranda was absent yesterday. Permintaan atau izin yang lebih sopan (dalam kalimat tanya) Could you please tell me story again? Could I borrow your pen? Modal Perfect . he migt do the exam well. He had to go home after having the course. Kemungkinan pada waktu lampau Bob looks very calm. she might be sick Kemungkinan pada waktu sekarang namun ia lebih lemah dari Sule might accompany you. Had to Keharusan. yang tak dapat tergantikan pada waktu lampau. Kemampuan pada waktu sekarang namun ia kemungkinan I could kill you if I want to.S+Modal+Have+V3 (dalam bentuk negative) Kesimpulan yang kurang jelas for you to eat. he should be arrive on the beach.

Faktanya berlawanan arti. mengindikasikan sesuatu yang lebih baik dari yang Would rather lain. Andre did not pass the exam. he should have studied. he didn’t study. Kesimpulan sekarang Kemampuan yang tak digunakan pada waktu lampau. Kebiasaan pada waktu lampau Mengindikasikan rencana Examples I am going to the office at 7 am. he should have spoken English well Abu could have done the work himself. he might have got a prize from his father.Modal past Must have Might have Should have Kesimpulan lampau Kemungkinan lampau Function Examples Andre passes the exam. He has been living in England for 5 years. I used to come late when I was senior high school. Ajiz was happy. Faktanya berlawanan arti: he didn’t do the wotk himself. I am to look for my litle brother. I am wonder where he is now. She was going to escort her mother. Could have Other / Additional Auxiliary Auxiliaries Be going to Used to Be to Functions Menyatakan kegiatan yang akan terjadi pada waktu akan datang. We had better stay here than go there Had better Saran. Keharusan yang tidak dikerjakan pada waktu lampau. . he must have studied hard.

He would rather take a chance than do nothing. .