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1.1 Introduction Bridge is a structure that allows the movement of highway and railway traffic over natural or artificial gaps in the topology of the area such as canals,rivers,gap between hills and difference of level in crossing roads etc. “A structure that spans an opening or gap, 6m or larger, such as: a water way (river, canal, etc) a valley, another roadway or railway lines are called bridge. Further the term bridge is used for the structure built to continue the traffic load, pedestrian traffic or utility lines across a gap in a road way 1.2SELECTION OF A BRIDGE Selection of type of bridge mainly depends upon following factors Local condition Availability and cost of materials Volume of traffic Site requirement Geographical Condition0 Aesthetics Expected economic return
1.3 DESIGN DIFFERENCE Bridges are different to building design in following ways Bridges are designed for heavy and concentrated moving loads whereas buildings are designed for static distributed loads Impact of moving load is Considerable as with residential and official buildings Fatigue may become a problem and hence may reduce the strength due to large number of loading cycles. Greater part of structure is exposed to atmosphere. Controlling specifications for bridges are by AASHTO while for building ACI and AISC codes are used.
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1 Concrete Bridges
The bridges are broadly classified depending upon their use, in following categories: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Foot or pedestrian bridges Highway bridges Railway bridges Combined railway and highway bridges Over-bridge (enable one form of land communication to other).
Deck of-Bridge: A deck is the actual carriageway of the bridge consisting of concrete or orthotropic slab and wearing surface; longitudinal and transverse beams may also be present for larger deck in addition to the slab. Deck Bridge: A deck bridge is a bridge built at or near the top level of the main supporting members of the superstructure, which hang below the deck and are not visible from the bridge. Through Bridge: In this case the carriage way supported at the bottom of the main supporting member that are visible while traveling on the bridge.
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1 Concrete Bridges
1.4PARTS OF A CONCRETE BRIDGE Super-Structure: The structure of bridge above the bearings. It include slabs,beams,wearing surfaces,expansion joints,and guardrails. Sub-Structure: It includes the bridge bearing and all the components below the bearing is used to support the super-structure. It includes piers,abutments,piles,pile-cape and caissons. Abutment: This is the bridge support provided at the end of bridge, where the opening starts. The abutment simultaneously acts as a retaining wall to retain material at end of the gap. It typically consists of breast wall, wing wall and footing.
Wing Wall Breast Wall
Figure 1-BAbutment diagram
Approach Road: A road constructed at two ends of the bridge for smooth flow of traffic between the bridges and to protect the bridge structure from accidental damages. Bridge deck: Bridge deck that supports slabs,beams,guardrails and wearing surfaces. vehicular traffic including
Stringers: Longitudinal beams directly supporting the bridge deck slab are called stringers. Their orientation is parallel to the traffic flow. Floors Beams: Transverse beam that supports stringers and transfer load to side trusses, plate girders or stiffening girders of suspension cables. Wearing surface: Wearing surfaces is a layer of concrete or asphalt material provided over decks. Diaphragm: A short beam used between adjacent parallel stringers to provide them lateral stability and to distribute loads among them.
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1 Concrete Bridges
Figure 1-CLongitudinal Section of a slab beam bridge
Figure 1-D Cross Section of slab beam bridge-Model
Piers: Intermediate supports provides to bridges between the abutments are called piers. Cession: This type of bridge foundation consists of a hollow shell that is sunk into position to carry the foundation to a considerable depth in order to reach a suitable bearing stratum. Piles: These are columns that transfer the super-structure load to a greater soil depth. Pile cap: This is a rigid flexible member provided above the ground to connect a group of pile together. Its function is to make the pile stable. Transom: This is a transverse beam provided over the piers to support the load from the longitudinal girders from one or from both sides. Scour depth: This is the depth up to which the foundation material may be eroded due to flowing water.
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or hinges. i) Material of construction ii) Length of span iii) Structural forms iv) Type of span v) Load paths vi) Usage vii) Position Page | 5 .6TYPES OF CONCRETE BRIDGES Bridges are classified based on following characteristics. provision must be made at the bearing to allow rotation due to vertical bending of the girders.1 Concrete Bridges D (in meter) =0. Usually one end is made hinged while the other end slides.473(Q/f) 1/3 1.5 Bridge Bearing The bridge bearing must be designed to allow length changes due to temperature variation. rockers and curved bearing plates. curved surfaces. TFE surface is made to slide against a stainless steel surface and the assembly reduces the friction against sliding. expansion support may be provided only by steel plates sliding against one another. For span greater than 15m. Figure 1-ETypical of Elastomeric pad 1. For span less than 15m. For larger span. rotation and sliding may be provided by the sophisticated arrangement of pier. The rotation is provided by simultaneous presence of elastomeric pads. rollers.
Steel bridges Reinforced concrete bridges Pre-stressed concrete bridges Timber bridges Advanced composite materials 1. d. Pre-Stressed pre-cast Girder Bridge: Where the erection of temporary formwork is prohibited and working periods are limited. c. The slab is supported directly on embankment or substructure. Figure 1-FSlab bridge diagram b.1 Concrete Bridges 1. e. b.6.Although the thickness of slab is considerable the construction of this type of bridge works out to be economical because of simple arrangement and less expensive formwork. Slab Bridges: This is the simplest type of bridge where the deck slab serves as a main load carrying member.6.2 BASED ON SPAN LENGTH i) Short span bridges 6-38m ii) Medium span bridges 38-125m iii) Large span bridges >125m 1.6.1 BASED ON THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL Following are the main types of bridges according to the material of construction a.3 BASED ON STRUCTURAL FORMS a. This type of construction is considered suitable for culverts and small bridges up to span of about 8m. pre-cast concrete can be used Page | 6 .
all beams in a truss bridge are straight. Truss Bridges: The truss is a simple skeletal structure. The piers and abutments are constructed first and pre-cast concrete beam (or in some case pre-cast concrete arch ribs) which are generally Ibeams are erected upon these. Thus for the most part. once assembled trusses take up a greater amount of space in more complex structures. the individual members of a simple truss are only subjected to tension and compression forces and not bending moment forces. Generally this type of bridge is not found economical for span less then 10m. However. fabrication.1 Concrete Bridges with advantages. d. Figure 1-HRigid frame bridge Page | 7 . The decking and the supporting substructure are normally cast together monolithically. These I-beams are lifted by the help of heavy cranes. Rigid Frames Bridges: This type of bridge consists of number of parallel longitudinal girders (or solid slab) which is rigidly connected to the supporting columns or piers. In design theory. Trusses are comprised of many small beams that together can support a large amount of weight and span great distances. In most cases the design. upto 20m span it can be used. Figure 1-GDiagram of precast girder bridge c. and erection of trusses is relatively simple.
This type of construction offers advantage of large head rooms for navigation and is considered to be an aesthetically pleasing bridge form. Thus this bridge provides obstruction free large spans and high clearances permitting navigation of large ships. Since the cables supporting the deck are provided above the deck. For very large span the use of Girder Bridge becomes uneconomical and arch bridges can be economically used.1 Concrete Bridges e.2. This bridge can be economically used up to span of about 200m. In this type of bridge the deck is supported by a number of cable (provided in two parallel planes) connected to the towers. Arch Bridge: For this type of bridge abutment should be strong enough to resist the thrust of the bridge arch. The cable can be arranged to meet in the form of bunch at tower or they may meet tower at different levels. this type of bridge needs no intermediate piers to support the decks. The main components of bridge are: Towers A number of high tensile steel cables Deck made out of concrete or steel spanning across the stiffened bridges. Generally the ratio is taken 0. The aim of using multiple cables is to provide support to deck at closer interval thereby resulting in closer spacing of deck girder and hence achieving reduced depth of the decking. Cable Stayed Bridges: This type of bridge considered suitable for span varying from 200m to 600m. Page | 8 . Figure 1-IArch bridge f.
the cable acquire more or less parabolic shape. when the bridge is completed .1 Concrete Bridges Figure 1-JCable stayed bridge g. Suspension Bridge: This type of bridge is considered to be most suitable for span varying between 400m to 1200m. Box Girder Bridges: This type of bridge constructed for long span where the use of ordinary pre-stressed concrete girders results in an excessive depth and the area of the main reinforcement becomes so large that it can become difficult to accommodate the bars in main girder. In these types of bridges the cable are supported on towers and each cable is anchored to anchorage blocks at both ends. The main components of suspension bridge are: Towers High tensile steel flexible cable Anchorage Suspenders made up high steel wires Deck of concrete or steel spanning across the stiffened girders. Depending upon the width of carriage way and the loading conditions. the bridge can have a single box girder or two or more box girders. Figure 1-KSuspension bridge h. The deck is attached to steel suspenders which transfer the load from the deck to the cable supported on towers. Page | 9 .
6. 1.4 BASED ON SPAN TYPE With respect to span type bridges may be classified as: Simple span Bridges Continuous span Bridges 1.6. There are three types of moveable bridges. Bascule Bridge Lift Bridge Swing Bridge Page | 10 . pipelines and conveyors.6. according to this classification system. runways.7 BASED ON POSITION Moveable bridges are used for road where the bridge level is not sufficiently higher than the water level to allow navigation through the water course. may be of following types: One dimensional system Tow dimensional system 1.6.5 BASED ON LOAD TYPE Bridges.6 BASED ON USAGE These are the bridges which are constructed for airport.1 Concrete Bridges Figure 1-LBox girder bridge 1.
wires. or bars. The slender members that result may permit deflections that are functionally or visually unacceptable. The use of high strength materials is further limited by deflection considerations. Thus. Such developments are particularly important in the field of reinforced concrete. achieved through prestressing. Significant savings can be achieved by using high strength concrete and steel in conjunction with present-day design methods. Page | 11 . Deflection and crack control. Equivalent loads c. Concrete is basically a compressive material.1 Pre-stressing Modern structural engineering tends to progress toward more economical structures through gradually improved methods of design and the use of higher strength materials. which reduces the flexural stiffness of members. This is further aggravated by cracking. where the dead load represents a substantial part of the total load. 2.Chapter 2 Prestressed Concrete 2. with its strength in tension being relatively low. in conjunction with concrete of much higher strength than normal. Special variation of reinforced concrete Each of these are useful in the analysis and design of prestressed concrete structure. Concrete stress control b. This result in a reduction of cross-sectional dimensions and consequent weight savings. These limiting features of ordinary reinforced concrete have been largely overcome by the development of prestressed concrete. A prestressed concrete member can be defined as one in which there have been introduced internal stresses of such magnitude and distribution that the stresses resulting from the given external loading are counteracted to a desired degree.2 Effects of prestressing There are three ways to look t the prestressing of concrete: a. prestressing results in the overall improvement in performance of structural concrete used for ordinary loads. permit the engineer to make use of efficient and economical high strength steels in the form of strands. particularly when refined analysis is used.
2 Prestressed Concrete a. fr fcfc2fc fcft=fc 2fc 2fc 2fc 2ft=2fc 2fc 2fc 2fc2ft=2fc fcfcfc 2fc fc Figure 2-AAlternative schemes for prestressing a rectangular concrete beams fcfc Page | 12 . where Ac is the cross-sctioal area of the concrete. Concrete stress control Now conside an identical beam in which a longitudinal axial force P is introduced prior to the vertical loading. when the transverse load Q is applied. The longitudinal prestressing force will produce a uniform axial compression fc = P/Ac. the superposition of stress due to P and Q will result in zero tensile stress at the beam. Tensile stress in the concrete may be eliminated in this way or reduced to specified amount. The force can be adjusted in magnitude so that.
Figure 2-B Equivalent loads and moments produced by prestressing tendons Page | 13 . iii. That force. ii. Variable eccentricity is usually preferable to constant eccentricity. Prestressing can control or even eliminate concrete tensile stress for specified loads. Equivalent loads The effect of a change in the vertical alignment of a prestreeing tendon is to produce a vertical force on the concrete beam.2 Prestressed Concrete Some important conclusions can be drawn from these examples are: i. Eccentric prestress is usually much more efficient than concrete prestress. can be looked upon as a system of external loads. together with the prestressing force acting at the ends of the beam through the tendon anchorages. from the view point of both stress control and deflection control. b.
The behavior at this stage is almost identical to that of an ordinary reinforce concrete beam at overload. 2.3 Advantages of prestressed concrete a. Prestressed concrete as a variation of reinforced concrete It is implied that the prestress force remained constant as the vertical load was introduced. Page | 14 . Less depth compared to RC member. Increase in shear capacity. otherwise the high steel stresses would produce excessive concrete cracking and large beam deflections. that the concrete responded elastically. but if the loads should be increased much beyond that. More economical sections. Increase in durability. These conditions may prevail up to about the service load level. The main difference is that the very high strength steel used must be prestrained before loads are applied to the beam. Reduction of steel corrosion ii.2 Prestressed Concrete It may be evident that for any arrangement of applied loads. Improved performance (resilience) under dynamic and fatigue loading. i. Reduction in self weight ii. iv. An advantage of the equivalent load concept is that it leads the designer to select to select what is probably the best tendon profile for a particular loading. a tendon profile can be selected so that the equivalent loads acting on the beam from the tendon are just equal and opposite to the applied load. b. Less deformations (improved serviceability). iii. Section remains uncracked under service loads i. flexural tensile stresses will eventually exceed the modulus of rupture and cracks will form. v. More aesthetic appeal due to slender sections iii. c. and that no concrete cracking occurred.
Suitable for precast construction i. The cured concrete adheres and bonds to the bars and when the tension is released it is transferred to the concrete as compression by static friction.4 Limitations of Prestressing Although prestressing has advantages. The use of high strength materials is costly.6 Methods of presstressing a. 2. However. f. iii. There is need for quality control and inspection. i. g. Deflection can be limited to an acceptable value. Availability of standard shapes. This method produces a good bond between the tendon and concrete. which both protects the tendon from corrosion and allows for direct transfer of tension. Post-tensioning by jacking against abutments Post-tensioning with jacks reacting against beams Pretensioning with tendon stressed between fixed external anchorages 2. The prestressing produces negative moments in simply supported beams causing upward camber. Better quality control because The quality of the materials is tested during the prestressing. Prestressing needs skilled technology.5 Sources of prestress force Prestress can be applied to a concrete member in many ways. it requires stout anchoring points between which the tendon is to be stretched and the tendons are usually in a straight line. Reduction of formwork iv. Larger spans possible with prestressing (bridges. the service loads first balance these upward deflection and then cause reduced downward deformations. Thus. Rapid construction ii. most pretensioned concrete elements are prefabricated in a factory and Page | 15 . Pre-tensioned Pre-tensioned concrete is cast around already tensioned tendons. Tension in the cross-section is either reduced or is completely eliminated. h.2 Prestressed Concrete c. A crack free prestressed member behaves as a homogenous and elastic material. some aspects need to be carefully addressed. 2. e. There is additional cost in auxiliary equipments. buildings with large column-free spaces) d. it is not as common as reinforced concrete. Reduced maintenance and have longer life. Hence.
Once the concrete has hardened. the tendons are tensioned by hydraulic jacks that react (push) against the concrete member itself. Bonded post-tensioned Bonded post-tensioned concrete is the descriptive term for a method of applying compression after pouring concrete and the curing process (in situ). The ability to individually adjust cables based on poor field conditions (For example: shifting a group of 4 cables around an opening by placing 2 to either side).2 Prestressed Concrete must be transported to the construction site. b. A set of tendons are fished through the duct and the concrete is poured. Post-tensioning is also used in the construction of various bridges. Pre-tensioned elements may be balcony elements. The duct is then grouted to protect the tendons from corrosion. When the tendons have stretched sufficiently. which limits their size. The ability to de-stress the tendons before attempting repair work. Among the advantages of this system over unbounded post-tensioning are: Large reduction in traditional reinforcement requirements as tendons cannot distress in accidents. lintels. Page | 16 . to follow the area where otherwise tension would occur in the concrete element. each individual tendon is coated with grease and covered by a plastic sheathing formed in an extrusion process. they are wedged in position and maintain tension after the jacks are removed. 2. The main disadvantage over bonded post-tensioning is the fact that a cable can distress itself and burst out of the slab if damaged (such as during repair on the slab). The advantages of this system over bonded post-tensioning are: 1. steel or aluminum curved duct. c. Unbounded post-tensioned Unbounded post-tensioned concrete differs from bonded post-tensioning by providing each individual cable permanent freedom of movement relative to the concrete. The procedure of post-stress grouting is eliminated. No long term issues with maintaining the integrity of the anchor/dead end. 3. according to the design specifications (see Hooke's law). Higher ultimate strength due to bond generated between the strand and concrete. Tendons can be easily "woven" allowing a more efficient design approach. To achieve this. The concrete is cast around plastic. floor slabs. transferring pressure to the concrete. The transfer of tension to the concrete is achieved by the steel cable acting against steel anchors embedded in the perimeter of the slab. beams or foundation piles.
during operation. 2.7 Stages of Loading The analysis of prestressed members can be different for the different stages of loading. 6. Total loss of prestress consists of those losses which are instantaneous at the transfer stage as well as those which are time dependent. Smaller quantities of reinforcement required A prestressed structure is „pre-tested‟ since a significant load is applied during post tensioning. there is a drop of the prestressing force from the recorded value in the jack gauge. 7. 3. If the prestressing force reduces with time. Instantaneous losses Time dependent losses Page | 17 . 2. At ultimate. A loss of prestress will affect the stress distribution on a section of the member. Initial During tensioning of steel At transfer of prestress to concrete. The stages of loading are as follows. Reduction in depth of slab (common depth/span ratios of 1:40) Reduction of depth of beams (common depth/span ratio of 1:20) Controlled cracking – beneficial in car parks. 4. Various reductions of the prestressing force are termed as the losses in prestress. Very economic and structurally efficient over 6m spans Flexibility in planning & design Deflection can be controlled and is reduced compared to r. Final At service.8 Loss of prestress In prestressed concrete the most important parameter is the prestressing force. iii.c. during extreme events. It is therefore necessary to estimate the probable loss of prestress that may be incurred in a prestressed member. 2. i. prestresses also get reduced.2 Prestressed Concrete Advantages of Post Tensioning Concrete 1. 8. 5. Even at the time of the transfer of prestress to the concrete member. Intermediate This includes the loads during transportation of the prestressed members. i. ii. ii.
The accurate estimation of losses requires more precise knowledge of material properties as well as the interaction between creep.9 Prestress Loss Prediction Methods Several loss prediction methods have been developed over the years. These losses are: ΔfPE = Loss of Prestress Due to Elastic Shortening ΔfPF = Loss of Prestress during the Tensioning Process Due to Friction ΔfPA = Loss of Prestress Due to Anchorage Slip Time dependent losses These losses occure after the concrete has gained its specified cylindrical compressive stress (fc‟) ΔfPCR = Loss of Prestress Due to Creep of Concrete ΔfPSR = Loss of Prestess Due to Shrinkage of Concrete ΔfPR = Loss of Prestress Due to Relaxation of Steel 2. but simple practical solutions for accurate estimation of prestress loss have proved difficult.2 Prestressed Concrete Instantaneous losses These losses take place immediately after the application of jacking force. shrinkage of concrete and the relaxation of steel.The result may be smaller tension at the top and larger compression at the bottom. The current methods for the prediction of losses can be classified according to their approach for the calculation of losses. The force Pi produces a uniform compression and the moment Pi x e produces tension at the top and compression at the bottom for beam of fig………….10 Stresses on Different Stages STRESSES AT STAGE-1 (a) Only Pi Is Acting: The prestress force (Pi) acting at an eccentricity (e) from the centroid of the section is equivalent to a concentric force Pi and a moment Pi x e. Page | 18 . They are listed according to their descending order of perceived accuracy: i) Time-Step methods ii) Refined methods iii) Lump-Sum methods 2.
[ ] ] (b) Prestress Pi and self weight are acting: The self-weight moment modifies the above stress diagram and is given in fig.[ ]– ]+ Page | 19 .+ f1 - f2 f1 = f2 = - + – =.[ ]– f1 Pi * e .[ ] + f2 f1 = .2 Prestressed Concrete .[ =.[ f2 = . .
2 Prestressed Concrete STRESSES AT STAGE-2( Pe + Self weight) The shapes of stress diagrams are the same as those of stage-1b but the ordinates are changed due to replacement of Pi with Pe. as shown in fig. The top and bottom stresses are given as under: f1 = f2 = - [ [ ]– ]+ STRESSES AT STAGE-3 (Pe + Self weight + Service load) Producing larger tensile stresses at the bottom and compressive stresses at the top. - f1 Pe * e + f2 The resultant stresses at this stage of loading are given by the following expressions: f1 = f2 = - [ [ ]– ]+ Page | 20 .
long term deformations due to creep and shrinkage are also reduced. having fc „ > 35 MPa . Hence. by the use of high strength concrete. the prestress losses are significantly reduced increasing the efficiency of such construction. Fcl‟ = the minimum cylinder compressive strength of concrete at the time of initial transfer of prestressing force Page | 21 . e) Higher strengthare easy to achieve in case of prestressed precast construction in factories where batching. The advantages of high strength concrete in prestressed construction are as follows: a) With larger compressive strength of concrete. which may require lesser contact area of anchorage fittings. c) Bearing strength is better for high strength concrete. d) The bond between steel and concrete is improved when high strength concrete is used. creep and shrinkage. mixing.1 Concrete for prestressed construction Higher strength concrete . is usually used for prestressed members for quick and efficient construction with lesser loss of prestressing force due to elastic shortening. The speed of construction is increased when high strength concrete is used. placing and curing is carried out under controlled conditions.Chapter 3 PRESTRESSING MATERIALS 3. b) The concrete gains high early strength and hence the prestress may be applied to the concrete earlier. its modulus of elasticity is increased reducing the elastic shortening due to prestress force. Further. This makes it easy to transfer the prestress forces at the anchorages. Following notation is used to specify strength of concrete for prestressed construction: Fc‟ = the specified minimum 28-day cylinder compressive strength of concrete.
Page | 22 .2 ACI PERMISSIBLE CONCRETE STRESSES The allowable stresses in concrete are different at various stages of loading and for different categories of flexural members. For this class. is greater than 1.3 Prestressing Materials 3. Prestressed flexural members are classified into three classes depending upon their behavior. Effective prestress force (Pe) It is the amount of prestress force left after instantaneous and time dependant losses. Class T Members These are transition members between uncracked and cracked cases. Deflections are calculated by bilinear curve for cracked section. The computed extreme fiber stress. Class U Members These members behave as uncracked members and computed extreme fiber tensile stress at service loads (ft) is lesser than or equal to 0. ft. Prestressed two- 3.3 Prestress Forces Jacking force (Pj) It is the force required to pull the tendon to required stress level.62√ <ft ≤ 1. Class C Members These are cracked members whose behavior at service loads must be studied using cracked section.62 √ way slab systems are also considered in this category. Initial prestress force (Pi) It is the force after transfer and is equal to jacking force reduced due to the instantaneous shortening of the concrete. the stresses at service loads are allowed to be computed using the uncracked section as for class U.0√ Deflections are to be calculated by bilinear curve for cracked section. The computed extreme fiber stress is within the limits: 0.0 √ . .
11 12.53 11.54 8.298 2.548 0.35 7. Plain (Grade 1035.46 2.24 9.28 Page | 23 .94 9.70 15. the losses in terms of strains remain nearly the same and very high effective strains and stresses are left within the member.88 4.4 Prestressing steel In prestressing.11 12.68 92.405 0.1725) Prestressing Bars.22 4.1 19 22 25 29 32 35 15 20 26 32 36 Nominal Area (mm2) 23.42 51.98 6.04 3. 1100) Prestressing Bars.582 0.71 140.7 19.35 54.775 1. high strength steels are used.19 98.1655. Type Seven Wire strands (Grade 1725) Seven Wire strands (Grade 1860) Prestressing Wire (Grade 1620.253 0. Deformed (Grade 1035.97 5.24 4.70 15.730 1. 1100) Nominal Diameter (mm) 6035 7.432 0.3 Prestressing Materials Effectiveness ratio (R) The effectiveness ratio (R) is defined as the ratio of effective prestress to the initial prestress.294 0.094 0.53 11.4 32 39 284 387 503 639 794 955 181 271 548 806 1019 Nominal Weight (kg/m) 0.149 0.21 7.61 69.00 18. 3.22 37.52 1.0182 0.23 3. R=Pe/Pi A usually conservative value of R=0.03 6.90 139.146 0.85 may be used in place of detailed actual calculations.102 0.48 6.84 74.
3. ASTM A421-Standard specification for uncoated stress-relieved steel wire for prestressed concrete.74fpu and 0.78 fpu 0. At anchorage device for post tensioning tendons. 2.76 fpu 0. Various types of available prestressing steel are given in table………. 3. It should not exceed a stress smaller of 0.75 fpu 0. ASTM A416-Standard specification for steel strand (uncoated seven wire stress-relieved) for prestressed concrete. A seven-wire strand is shown in fig…….70fpu Loading Stages At Jacking (fpj): i) Pre-tenioning ii) Post-tensioning After transfer (fpt): i) Pre-tenioning ii) Post-tensioning.70 fpu 0. 1. Maximum Stress level It should not exceed a stress smaller of 0.80 fpy Page | 24 . general iii) Post-tensioning at anchorages and couplers immediately after anchor set At Service State (fpe): i) After losses Stress Relived Strand and Plain High Strength bars 0. 2.74 fpu 0. ASTM A722-Standard specification for uncoated high-strength steel bar for prestressed concrete. 3..82fpy. a strand or a group of strands used together.and the following standards are used to check the prestressing steel requirements: 1.80fpu and 0. No.94fpy. relatively large diameter alloy steel bars or in the form of strands.72 fpu 0.70 fpu 0.The term tendon is used for one group of reinforcement consisting of a single wire.80 fpu 0.5Maximum Permissible Prestressing Steel Stresses S.70 fpu 0.66 fpu 0.74 fpu 0. Description Stress due to jacking force. The term strand is used for a group of wires helically wounded.80 fpy 0. immediately after anchorage.80 fpy 0.66 fpu 0.3 Prestressing Materials The prestressing steel may be in the form of smaller diameter wires. Stress immediately after prestress transfer.70 fpu Tendon type Low Relaxation Strand Deformed High Strength Bars 0. 0.
3 Prestressing Materials 3. After the development of tensile stresses in concrete due to increase of load on prestressed beam. However. straight tendons are easy to be placed. Curved tendon profiles approximately following the shape of bending moment diagram are better and are easy to be placed in case of post-tensioning. in case of pre-tensioning especially for large prestressing beds having a number of units to be cast together. Positive moment requires prestressing force below the section centroid. The situation is reverse in case of prestressed concrete beam where the forces in steel and concrete remain nearly constant and the resisting moment increases by the increase in lever arm. its behavior is almost similar to ordinary reinforced concrete beams.6 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEHAVIOR OF PRESTRESSED AND ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETES The external bending moment in a beam is resisted by a couple formed by internal tensile force in steel and compressive force in concrete. the increase in lever arm by the increase of loading is lesser and the resisting moment basically increases by the increase in steel tensile force and compression in the concrete. Page | 25 . negative moment requires it above the centroid and desired eccentricity of prestressing force increases with the increase of applied bending moment. In ordinary reinforced concrete beam.7 TENDON PROFILES The path of prestressing tendon along the length of prestressed member is called Tendon profile and it is decided based on the shape of bending moment. 3.
3 Prestressing Materials Page | 26 .
Force Effect: It is defined as a deformation. Skew Angle: It is defined as the angle between the centerline of a bridge support and a line normal to the roadway centerline. normal beam theory does not apply. Equivalent Strip: It is defined as an isolated predefined width of the deck in the longitudinal or transverse direction which when designed individually represents the full design of the deck and the same design is used throughout. 4.Chapter 4 LOADINGS OF HIGHWAYS 4. Lever Rule: It means the statically summation of moments about any point to calculate the reaction at some other point. Deck: Deck is the bridge slab supporting the load directly or through the wearing surface. due to the structural or load discontinuity.2 Classical Force Method of Analysis: In this method the structure is sub divided into statically determinate element and equilibrium of the interface force is than satisfied to get the complete solution.3 TRAFFIC LOADINGS: The traffic loading is considered in this project work are given in the following sections. Frame Action: It is said to be in large bridges. Tandem: Two closely spaced and interconnected axles of equal weight are together called Tandems. Before discussing the traffic loading for high way bridges.1 Classical Deformations Method of Analysis: In this method stiffness equations of components of a structure are separately formulated and equilibrium and compatibility conditions are satisfied at the interfaces to get the complete section. imposed deformation or volumetric changes. Foot Print: It is the specified wheel contact area over the roadway. End Zone: It is the part of the structure where. 4. there are some basic definitions which are necessary to highlight in context with the traffic loadings. Page | 27 . stress or stress resultant caused by the applied loads.
Number loaded Lanes 1 2 3 >3 Multiple Presence factor Table 4.4 Loadings of Highways 4. The load shall occupy a width of 3000 mm transversely within a design lane and all design lanes must be loaded simultaneously by a truck or tandem and the lane loads (without any gap for the truck except when such gap increases the force effect) If the lanes are more than one.65 0. The number of design lane is taken as the integer part of the result when the clear roadway width in mm between the curb is divided by 3600mm. Page | 28 . Dynamic load allowance of 33℅ is to be applied on these loads.3 to 9 m from the truck rear axle (the spacing producing the maximum force effect must be used). The axle load and transverse clearances are shown in the fig.4 DESIGN LANE The design lane has a width equal to the lesser of 3600 mm or width of the traffic lane. The design truck and tandem shall be placed transversely at 300 mm from the face of curb pr railing for the design of bridge overhang and 600 mm from the edge of the lane for the design of all other components.6 DESIGN TRUCK A standard truck consists of front axle of 35kn.5 AASHTO STANDARD AASHTO Highway Loading (HL-93) Considered for analysis of bridge super structures consists of following three types of loads.3 m spacing from the front axle and trailer axel of 145 KN having a variable spacing of 4.65 4.20 1. HL-93 Truck Loading Tandem Loading Lane Loading of Multiple presence Factor(m) 1.rear axle of 145kn at 4. reduction factor of table is applied on the live load force effect called MULTIPLE PRESENCE FACTOR denoted by (m). Roadway width from 6000 to 7200 mm has two design lanes each equal to one-half the roadway width.00 0.
For negative moment and reaction at the interior supports.7 DESIGN TANDEM: The design tandem consists of a pair of 110 KN at a longitudinal spacing of 1200 mm with the transverse c/c spacing of the wheels being 1800 mm as shown in fig.4 Loadings of Highways (a) Longitudinal view of truck diagram (b) Back view of truck 4. Page | 29 .8 DESIGN LANE LOAD: The design lane load is 9.3 KN/m along the length and having the width of 300 mm as shown in fig. Dynamic load allowance of 33 percent is to be applied on these loads. pair of tandem may be considered at a spacing of 8 to 12m. 4.
9 Predestrian Loads: A pedestrian load of 3600 N/m2 is used on all sidewalks simultaneously with the vehicular design live load.The dynamic load allowance is not considered for these loads.10Pakistan code of practice for Highway Bridge (1967) loading The highway loading according to the Pakistan code of Pakistan code of practice for highway bridges consists of Class A. (Lane loading) 4. 4.6 Longitude Tire contact Length BL (mm) 255 205 150 150 125 Transverse Tires Contact with BT (mm) 510 380 205 305 180 Page | 30 .0 27.4 . Separate bridges for pedestrian and bicycle traffic should be designed for a live load of 4100 N/m 2 .4 Loadings of Highways The load intensity becomes 3100 N/m2 Dynamic load allowance is not to be applied on lane loading. Class Band Class AA loadings. Some local truck loading NLC loadings Standard Truck/Train Class A Class B Military Tank Weight of Truck/Tank – W (kN) 276 166 698 Axle Load 110.4 66.5 16. 69.6 41.
0) 400 + 450 (Rw – 5.3 Distance-J for most critical Design condition(mm) 0 800 (Rw-5.5) 1210 Page | 31 .5 to 7.0 to 5.5 5.0 or lass 5.4 Loadings of Highways Clear Road Width Rw (m) 5.3 Above 7.
3 (KG/Lts3)0.1 CONDITIONS FOR APPROXIMATE METHOD TO BE APPLICABLE i. Thickness of deck slab. ts. Nb. iv. Length of beam should be 6. vii.36 + (S/7600) Page | 32 .9 m. ii. The width of deck should be constant. The curvature in plan is less than the specified AASHTO limits. de shall be taken as positive if the exterior web is within the roadway and negative if it is outside the roadways. xi. should be between 110 and 300 mm. Number of longitudinal beams in the cross-section. S. The deck cross-section should be one of the standard types given in the AASHTO specification. should be greater than equal to 4. ix. vi. should be between 1. If beam spacing exceeds 4.9m. Spacing of beams.06 + (S/4300)0. it is always to be considered if the lever rule is used to the fined the force effects. Beams should be parallel and should have approximately the same stiffness.1 For shear g = 0.1 and 4. the live load on each beam shall be the reaction of the loaded lanes based on thr lever rule. v. dc. One Design Lane Loaded For moment: g = 0.Chapter 5 PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF GIRDER 5.0 and 73.2 LATERAL DISTRIBUTION FACTORS FOR INTERIOR GIRDER The distance. does not exceed 9110mm. viii. The roadway part of the overhang. Multiple presence factors are not to be applied when using the given expression. 5. The given expressions are only applicable to concrete deck on steel or concrete beams. iii. However. x.4 (S/L) 0.0 m.
2 (kg/Lts3)0.75m Md=520 kN/m Ml=700 kN/m Fc‟= 40 MPa Fci‟= 29 MPa CLASS-U member Fpu= 1725 MPa Page | 33 .3 LATERAL DISTRIBUTION FACTORS FOR EXTERIOR GIRDER One Design Lane Loaded For moment: Using lever rule For shear: Using lever rule Two or More Design Lanes Loaded For Moment: g = e* gin For shear: g = e x gint where e = 0.075 + (S/2900)0.77 + de/2800 ≥ 1 where e = 0.6 + de/3000 ≥ 1 Design of Prestressed Girder Design a bridge of 3 spans. require data is given below.2+(S/3600) – (S/10700)2] 5. GIVEN DATA L=13.65x [0.6(S/L) 0.1 For shear g = 0.4 Loadings of Highways Two or More Design Lane Loaded For moment g = 0. the length of girder in each span is 13750mm.
06√ Page | 34 .4 Loadings of Highways Fpy= 1550 MPa R=0.007 x 11502 /1000 = 9.6 x 29 Fti = 0.6 fci‟ = -0.007h2 N/m = 0.4 MPa = 1.92 MPa = 0.25 √ ci‟ = -17. the stress limits are: Fci = -0.60 x 40 Fts = 0.62√ c‟ = 0.8 mm While Approximate Self Weight wg = 0.60 fc‟ = -0.26 KN/m Mg = wgl2/8 Mg = 9.26 x 13.35 MPa = -24 MPa = 3.75 x 1000/17 = 331√ For Class U-Member.85 for 15% time dependent losses SOLUTION MD + ML= 1220 kN-m Depth of Girder h ≈ 33√ h = 1152.85 KN-m = 13.752/8 = 218.25√ Fcs = -0.006 h2 to 0.64mm Also h ≈ L/ 17 h = 808.
304 (If b/h is in between 0.82 x 106 mm3 S2 ≥ S2 = 66.15 h = 172.96 x 106 mm3 Thickness t ≈ 0.56 mm Check b/h = 350/1150 = ≈ 350 mm = 0. S= 66.15 x 1150 ≈ 175mm = [ ] = [ ] b= b = 345.6 then) OK Selected section of Girder Page | 35 .4 Loadings of Highways Select Section S1 ≥ S1 = 49.5 mm = 0.2 to 0.96 x 106 mm3 For symmetrical section.
66*13.5*115*87.8* 2400 kg/m = 157.5 (1.752)/8 < Mg Assumed OK = 0.283 *9.90 Page | 36 .90 mm2 Number of strands Ns= Aps / 92.74fpu and 0.90 = 1785/92.4) = 282625 x 8.4 Loadings of Highways Area of section Ac = 2(175*350) +4 (0.5 MPa and 1271 MPa Take fps =1271 Mpa Area of Strands Aps = Pi / fps = 2268.025 Mpa Initial prestress force Pi = Ac * |fcci| = 2268.5) + (800*175) = 282625 mm2 Actual Self weight wg = 6.066 x 1000 / 1271 = 1784. fps = lesser of 0.35 – 0.5 mm2 ≈ 1785mm2 Area of 12.70 mm diameter strand = 92.6562 kN/m Mg =wgl2/8 = (6.066 kN = 1.82fpy = lesser of 1276.35 + 17.fci) = -8.40 kN-m Strands Fcci= fti – c1/ h (fti .025 / 1000 Allowable steel stress just after transfer.
fcci) em = 346.40 kN-m Eccentricity em = (fti .11 x 103 mm3 Mg = 1/8 x 6.63 x 104/575 S = 67699.18 mm + = (1.025) < 372.4 Loadings of Highways = 19.214 say 20 strands Initial force in each strand = Pi /Ns = 2268.66 x 13.35+8.752 = 157.40 KN Provide 3 Tendons having 21 Strands in each Tendons “Maximum eccentricity. we need the actual values of S1 and Mg” I= – – = 3892698. Page | 37 .63 x 104 mm4 S = I/y = 3892698.5 mm OK + The detail of the eccentricity is shown in figure.066/20 =113.
4 Loadings of Highways Location of Tendons Tendon Profile Calculations for Tendon Profile X (mm) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 6875 Tendon 1 Y Z (mm) (mm) 0 0 3 1 13 3 28 6 50 11 79 16 114 23 149 30 X (mm) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 6875 Tendon 2 Y Z (mm) (mm) 0 0 7 0 30 0 66 0 118 0 185 0 266 0 349 0 X (mm) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 6875 Tendon 3 Y Z (mm) (mm) 0 0 12 -1 46 -3 105 -6 186 -11 290 -16 418 -23 549 -30 Drawings 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Plan view of Girder Cross-section of Girder: Section A-A and B-B Longitudinal view of Girder End Block detail of Girder Plan view of bridge Longitudinal view of bridge (section 1-1) Cross-section of bridge (section 2-2) Design a bridge using AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. In which we take the factor load of dead and live loads Page | 38 . The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications will be adopted by the Department for the design of new bridges and retaining walls.
The length of girder in each span is 13.75m. Help Civil Engineering Publisher. Design a 3 spans bridge using the HL-93 Loading. This project helps to understand the behavior of prestressed girder and give a detail study and design of prestressed girder bridge for the readers. the total number of girders is 21. Factor load resists the maximum expected and make the structure safe. TATA McGraw-Hill. Concrete Structure. 13th edition. Zahid Ahmad Siddiqi. Lahore. Part-2. Charles W. Use the prestressed girder of high strength materials that make the structure economical by reducing the dead load of structure. David Darwin. The Bridge Design manual is being updated and will be available to meet the specification.4 Loadings of Highways and easy to understand. There are 7 girders in each span so. The bridge standard drawings and design data sheets are also being updated. 2005 Page | 39 . 2009 Arthur H. in prestressed girder only service used. Design of Concrete Structures.Dolan. Nilson. And drawings show the dimensions of bridge which is easily understandable.
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