Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop................................................................................ 10-1 10.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................ 10-1 10.1.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 10-1 10.1.2 Formula for Call drop .......................................................................................... 10-4 10.2 Causes........................................................................................................................... 10-5 10.2.1 Coverage............................................................................................................. 10-5 10.2.2 Handover............................................................................................................. 10-8 10.2.3 Interference ....................................................................................................... 10-10 10.2.4 Uplink/downlink Unbalance Caused by Antenna & Feeder System ................. 10-12 10.2.5 Transmission Failure......................................................................................... 10-13 10.2.6 Unreasonable Parameter Settings .................................................................... 10-14 10.2.7 Others................................................................................................................ 10-15 10.3 Examples ..................................................................................................................... 10-15 10.3.1 Reducing Call Drop by Optimizing Handover Related Parameter .................... 10-15 10.3.2 Call Drop Caused by Interference..................................................................... 10-16 10.3.3 Call Drop Caused by Interference..................................................................... 10-18 10.3.4 Uplink/downlink Unbalance ............................................................................... 10-19 10.3.5 Call Drop Caused by Interference from Repeater............................................. 10-20 10.3.6 Call Drop Caused by Isolated Island Effect ...................................................... 10-20 10.3.7 Settings of Version Related Parameters........................................................... 10-21

Huawei Technologies Proprietary i

Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop

Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop
10.1 Overview
For GSM network, call-dropping failure rate is an important index measuring the quality of radio network. This chapter analyzes the causes resulting in call drop and describes the methods of troubleshooting for the purpose of reducing call-dropping failure rate, thus improving the quality of network. In addition, it also introduces the measures of dealing with worst cells caused by high call-dropping failure rate, reducing worst cell ratio, thus decreasing call-dropping failure rate. Definitions of worst cell ratio indices that are calculated according to different network sizes are given below: Worst cell ratio in super network: Number of worst cells/number of cells where the busy time average traffic per channel exceeds 0.15Erl. Worst cell ratio in large network: Number of worst cells/number of cells where the busy time average traffic per channel exceeds 0.12Erl. Worst cell ratio in medium network: Number of worst cells/number of cells where the busy time average traffic per channel exceeds 0.1Erl. Definition of worst cell: The cell where the busy time TCH congestion rate (not including handover) is greater than 5%, or the TCH call-dropping failure rate is greater than 3%. Definition of call-dropping failure rate: Call-dropping failure rate = [Busy time total TCH traffic * 60]/total number of busy time TCH call drops, in which the number of call drops indicates the number of Clear Request messages.

10.1.1 Description
There are two types of call drops given below. Call drop over SDCCH: Indicating the call drop occurs in the course during which BSC assigns a SDCCH to an MS but a TCH has not been successfully assigned yet Call drop over TCH: Indicating the call drop occurs after BSC assigns a TCH to MS successfully. There are three causes resulting in call drop, which are given below.
Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-1

when the voice quality of a MS is too bad to be accepted and cannot be improved via radio frequency power control or handover. System failure. thus radio link timeout is caused. The Signaling procedure is shown in Figure 10-1. It indicates the MS cannot occupy a channel of the destination cell or return to the original channel. As soon as a conversation starts. BTS will report the message Connection Failure. In addition. SACCH multiframe number (namely. while step (3) cannot decode the SACCH message block (uplink/downlink). the MS will consider the radio link gets faulty and forcedly release the link. When S is 0. The system judges whether a connection fails by the BER of uplink or by checking whether SACCH can correctly decode. As stated by GSM protocol. there is a counter S in the MS. the counter is assigned an initial value. which is the parameter “Radio Link Timeout”. Contrarily. as shown in step (3) in Figure 10-1. BTS layer 2 radio interface will report the message Error Indication to BSC. when the uplink BERs in N continuous SACCH multiframe periods are greater than the set threshold. the MS reports radio link failure. 1 will be subtracted from S. If the MS fails to decode a SACCH message with period of 120 ms. which occurs in the course of communication and causes the situation that messages cannot be received. if the BER of SACCH is used to judge whether a connection fails. has been set during data configuration. but the value of S cannot be greater than the initial value. radio link failure is the main factor During a conversation. As stated in GSM specification. BTS will report the message Connection Failure to BSC. SACCH multiframe period with a unit of 480 ms) in the cell attributes table defines uplink connection failure time. N. the number of SACCH multiframe periods. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-2 . and at this time. such as equipment failure etc. which thus causes call drop. Steps (1) and (2) shows SDCCH/TCH have been established. BSC will release the radio link and report the message Clear REQ. T3103 timeout. The cause is T200 timeout. 1) Among the three causes. with a unit of 480 ms. When detecting an activated connection on the radio link is broken. every time when the MS receives a SACCH message successfully.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop Radio link failure. which is no other than the SACCH multiframe number in the cell attributes table. 2 is added to S. in case that the layer 2 frame cannot interwork with MS normally.

the timer starts to perform the timing function. Nevertheless.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop MSC BSC BTS (1) MS Measurement Result (2) Connection Failure (3) Clear REQ (Radio Interface Failure) Figure 10-1 Signaling flow of radio link failure 2) T3103 (a) Definition: In the course of an intra-BSS or inter-BSS handover. The Signaling flow is shown in Figure 10-2. it will be used to release the channel. and then release the channel of the source cell. BSC will consider radio link failure occurs to the source cell. or Clear Command (for inter-BSS handover). the timer will be reset. After BSC receives a Handover Complete message from the destination cell or a Handover Failure message from the source cell. and is cleared after receiving Handover Complete (for intra-BSS handover). If MS lost. This timer is activated as soon as BSC sends the message Handover Command. When BSS sends a handover command to MS. (b) This timer is used to reserve a channel for a long time so that MS can return to the channel. Following BSC sending a Handover Command message to BTS. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-3 . BSC reserves TCHs of the cell initiating the handover and the destination cell in terms of T3103. if no messages are received after T3103 expires.

2 Formula for Call drop 1) 2) 3) TCH call-dropping failure rate = number of TCH call drops/times when TCH is occupied successfully % 100% TCH call drop measurement point: The channel currently occupied is of TCH type when BSC sends a Clear Request message to MSC.1. The cause values for sending Clear Request are as follows: Radio Interface Message Failure O&M Intervention Equipment Failure Protocol Error Between BSS and MSC Preemption The Signaling flow is shown in Figure 10-3. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-4 .Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem MS BTS2 BTS1 Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop BSC MSC Handover Indication Channel Activate Channel ACK Handover Command Handover Access Physical Info (TA) SABM UA Handover Complete Handover Complete Reset T3103 Establish Indication Handover Command Set T3103 Handover Detection Figure 10-2 Call drop resulting from T3103 timeout 3) See example 8 for detailed descriptions of call drop resulting from the causes such as equipment failure. 10.

Connection Failure Error Indication Figure 10-3 Signaling flow for TCH call drop Formula of SDCCH call-dropping failure rate: SDCCH call-dropping failure rate = number of SDCCH call drops/total times when SDCCH is occupied successfully % 100% SDCCH call-dropping failure rate (%) = [number of radio link failures when SDCCH is occupied (connection failure) + number of radio link failures when SDCCH is occupied (error indication) + number of terrestrial link failures when SDCCH is occupied (Abis)]/total times when SDCCH is occupied successfully % 100% SDCCH call drop measurement point: The channel currently occupied is of SDCCH type when the messages Clear REQ and Error Indication are sent to MSC.2. If BTS lies in the place where the landform is intricate and radio propagation environment is complicated (e. As the signal is of weak strength and poor quality at the edge of an isolated BTS. Handover Procedure Signaling Handover Complete Or. 2) Poor indoor coverage Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-5 . handover to other cells cannot be implemented. a mountainous area). it may cause call drop owing to discontinuous coverage. Or.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem MS BTS Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop BSC Call Assignment Procedure Signaling Connection or Connection Acknowledge Or.g.2 Causes 10. 10. and thus call drop occurs..1 Coverage I. Analysis 1) Discontinuous coverage (blind area) Call drop is caused by isolated BTS.

the power in cell A is so high that a MS still occupies the signals of cell A after it moves out of the coverage of the adjacent cell B that has been defined by cell A and reaches cell C. The related traffic measurement tasks and items are listed below: 1) In power control performance measurement. For example. the antenna is obstructed or the carrier taking BCCH (power amplifier) gets faulty. whether the handover is normal and whether call drop occurs. Observe the signal level. so at this time the MS cannot find a proper cell when it tries to perform a handover according to the adjacent cell B provided by cell A. facilitating the location. the coverage of a serving cell is beyond the defined coverage. as shown in Figure 10-4.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop In the place where many buildings are located. 3) Beyond coverage (isolated island) Owing to some reasons. by means of OMC traffic measurements check the BSC call-dropping failure rates to find the cells with high call-dropping failure rates and other relevant statistics. see whether the average uplink/downlink signal strength is too low. thus call drop occurs. cell A has not defined cell C as an adjacent cell yet. However. In addition. II. low indoor level and great penetrate loss. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-6 . For example. Can't find next cell cause call drop Cell C Cell A Expected Coverage Cell B Actual Coverage Figure 10-4 Call drop resulting from overlarge coverage 4) Shortage of coverage It may be caused by some equipment failure in a cell. Location Get familiar with the area that is not covered enough and perform a large-scope test. call drop easily occurs due to high transmission attenuation.

define its all potential adjacent cells to reduce call drops resulting from lack of proper cell for handover. adjusting azimuth. 4) 5) In call drop performance measurement. keeps abnormal in multiple continuous time segments. If indoor communication quality can not be improved greatly by enhancing the maximum transmit power of BTS. check whether the adjacent cells work normally. Analyze whether the trouble is caused by surroundings. 3) For the cell where beyond coverage may occur. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-7 . Defined adjacent cell performance measurement. see whether the proportion of number of low receive signal levels is too large. mall. and whether TA is abnormal prior to call drop. Generally. see whether the maximum distance between MS and BTS. the indoor distribution system could be applicable. In cell/inter-cell handover performance measurement. e. downtilt and height of antenna. call drop easily occurs at these places. continuous coverage can be formed by adding BTSs or expanding the original coverage via other ways. downtilt and height of antenna etc. To build up indoor coverage of main publics such as office buildings and hotels. see whether the level class and the average receive signal level are too low when a handover is initiated. Such trouble may be caused by failure of the downlink. such as improving the maximum transmit power of BTS. and micro cells can be used to handle the trouble. III. namely TA. Based on the statistics of adjacent cells defined in the cell adjacent relationship table and reported by MS.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop 2) 3) In receive signal level performance measurement. the signals going outside must be strong enough. see whether the undefined adjacent cells in which the average level is too high exist.g. subway entry. For the isolated BTS or the BTS in a mountainous area. If the call-dropping failure rate of a BTS rises abruptly and all other indices remain normal. underground parking lot and depression. In power control performance measurement. adjusting azimuth. see whether the level is too low when call drop occurs. such as failure of TRX. Perform tests to judge whether hardware failure occurs and causes short of coverage.. 2) To guarantee indoor communication quality. The problem of beyond coverage can be solved by lessening the antenna’s downtilt of the BTS. 6) 7) In undefined adjacent cell performance measurement. tunnel. Solution 1) Find the area that is short of coverage Perform tests to find the areas that are short of coverage. you may locate in which adjacent cell the average level is too low. 4) Removing hardware failure. adding BTSs can be helpful.

if the level of the handover candidate cell is set to be too low and the handover threshold is set to be too little. and optimize handover parameters to reduce call-dropping failure rate. Location According to traffic measurement indices analyze whether there are cells with low handover success rate. 10. See example 6 for call drop resulting from improper settings of handover parameters. uplink/downlink receive quality.2. such as uplink/downlink receive signal level. But after a while. and it happens no proper cell is available for handover. Perform a road test to find the cell in which handover is abnormal. Observe whether there are BTS related clock alarms and whether BTS clock runs normally. call drop could occur. multiple handover and reestablishment failures. which can cause handover failure and call drop. MS will keep communicating in the serving cell until it goes out of its coverage. At this time. Analysis 1) Unreasonable parameters For example. call directed retry and traffic. 5) 6) BTS clock out of synchronization and frequency offset beyond limits. power budget (PBGT). because faults of the uplink will cause high handover failure rate of the original cell. By ways of traffic measurement analyze the causes resulting in handover.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop diversity unit or antenna.2 Handover I. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-8 . Perform multiple road tests near the problem cell to find handover related call drop. 2) Adjacent cell undefined If an adjacent cell has not been defined yet. some MSs will be handed over to the adjacent cell when the level of the adjacent is a little stronger than that of the serving cell for a time. T3103 timeout II. When reestablishment of handover channel fails too. call drop shall occur since MS cannot be handed over to a cell with stronger signals. 3) 4) Existence of adjacent cells with the same BSIC and BCCH frequency. Check BTS clock and remove clock fault if necessary. Traffic congestion Unbalance of traffic may cause handover failure due to lack of handover channel available for the destination BTS. call drop occurs. if the signal of the adjacent cell faint. high call-dropping failure rate.

handover duration and minimum access level of handover candidate cell. That is. control the coverage of cell by adjusting the engineering parameters such as downtilt and azimuth of antenna. handover hystereses. 2) Traffic adjustment is to handle the call drop resulting from no handover channel available for the destination BTS due to unbalance of traffic. or balance traffic by adopting load handover or directly expand the carrier. and further search the cause in the destination cell. Example 6 introduces how to reduce call drop by adjusting handover parameters. Find the adjacent cell to which the handover success rate is low. The number of measurement reports including undefined adjacent levels in undefined adjacent cell performance measurement is beyond limits. For example. e. Too many handovers and successful re-establishments in inter-cell handover performance measurement. (number of handovers/number of calls >3) III. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-9 . which is the maximum retransmission times of physical information” could be set greater. when handover is slow or handover success rate is low owing to clock problem or poor transmission. it is changed from grade 10 to grade 15.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop The following problems might be detected during traffic measurement: 1) 2) 3) 4) Too many handover failures and reestablishment failures in inter-cell handover performance measurement. handover thresholds. the minimum access level of the handover candidate cell can be improved from -100dBm to -95dBm. For instance.. In a word. 3) Calibrate the BTS clock that is faulty until clock synchronization. the value of the parameter “NY1. 5) 6) Low incoming handover success rate and unreasonable settings of handover parameters of the opposite cell.g. or lead MS in conversation to hand over to an idle cell by setting stratum level priority. Low outgoing handover success rate (for a cell) in outgoing handover performance measurement. See it for details. handover measurement time. Also. to decrease call drop resulting from handover. or lead MS to stay in an idle cell via network parameters such as CRO. Solution 1) Check the parameters impacting handover. Number of handovers in disproportion with number of successful TCH occupancies and too much handover in TCH performance measurement. settings of stratum levels. handover optimization should be based on the actual conditions.

If interference still remains. while out-network interference has nothing to do with it. List below the traffic measurement indices used for interference analysis. See examples for detailed analysis of interference. 1) 2) Find the position that may be interfered by analyzing traffic measurement. When MS receives signals in the serving cell with strong co-channel or adjacent-channel interference. When the interference index is so bad that it exceeds the threshold. The interference threshold is set as co-channel carrier-to-interference ratio C/Iƒ9dB and adjacent-channel carrier-to-interference ratio C/Aƒ9dB. Or use a test MS to perform dialing tests at a locked frequency to observe whether interference occurs at the frequency. generally it indicates there is interference. Note that interference band is reported to BSC by the BTS carrier channel in an idle state via radio frequency resource indication. Remove the interference caused by equipment failure. it may aggravate BER and make MS cannot accurately demodulate BSIC of the adjacent cell or BTS cannot correctly receive measurement reports of MS. 4 and 5. 1) Interference band for observing uplink interference If an idle channel appears in interference bands 3. Adjust the frequencies that might be interfered to try to reduce even avoid interference.3 Interference I. Perform road tests at the position that may be interfered according to complaints of the users and search downlink interference. it indicates the uplink characteristics of the radio channel occupied by MS.2. With road test tools check whether the position where the receive signal level is strong but the conversation quality is poor exists. Analysis There are co-channel interference. 3) 4) 5) 6) Check whether there is co-channel interference caused by improper frequency planning.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop 10. thus conversation of poor quality and call drop might occur. the interference may increase with the augmentation of traffic. adjacent-channel interference and inter-modulation interference. For intra-network interference. II. perform frequency scan with a spectrum analyzer to search the frequency that is interfered and to further find the interference sources. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-10 . conversations in network shall be interfered. Location Interference may be from inside or outside of the network and exists in uplink or downlink signals. The following methods can be used to locate interference.

2) Application of discontinuous transmission (DTX). handover attempts due to various reasons are measured. frequency hopping. 5) Call drop performance measurement Record average level and quality in case of call drop. If the channel is busy. Furthermore. the measurement of interference band should be comprehensive. and vice versa. serving as a reference. it means there could be interference.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop namely interference severity of uplink signals. 2) Receive signal level performance measurement (denoting the matrix relationship of level and quality) This is a measurement item used for carrier. which serves as a reference. power control and diversity These technologies can help to reduce system noise and improve anti-interference capability. it is difficult for it to report resource indication. 3) Handover ratio on poor quality communication In cell performance measurement/inter-cell handover or outgoing handover performance measurement. if there is lots of handover resulting from uplink communication of poor quality. If there are too many times when level is high but quality is poor for a carrier board. while intra-network interference can be handled by adjusting network planning. adjust the related BTS transmit power. it indicates co-channel or adjacent-channel or out-network interference occurs to the frequency of the board. Nevertheless DTX should be adjusted properly considering the actual radio surroundings and relationships with the Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-11 . III. check the places where interference occurs and distribution of signal quality and analyze the coverage overlap of which cells causes the interference. which serves as a reference. downtilt/azimuth of antenna or frequency planning to prevent interference. thus to decrease the interference level of the system. 4) Receive quality performance measurement Measure average received quality level for carrier. If there is too much handover caused by poor quality communication. 6) Too many handover failures and reestablishment failures It might be caused by interference in destination cell. therefore. 1) Perform actual road tests. which can help to reduce the effective time for transmission. Solution Out-network interference could be solved with the help of operators. DTX is classified into uplink DTX and downlink DTX. Then according to the actual condition.

Mar. but on the other hand. consequently. II. As a result. 2) If single polarization antenna is adopted. antenna inter-modulation interference). it cannot occupy SDCCH sent by another antenna when originating a call. Because after MS sets up a conversation. debasement of conversation quality even call drop may easily occur at the position where the receive signal level is low but interference signal is strong. If their azimuths are different. it may reduce the interference to other BTSs. a cell has two sets of such antennas. Different azimuths will cause different coverage. A directional cell has a main antenna and a diversity antenna. while in the interval of conversations. When MS receives signals of poor quality. 10. DTX of downlink signals may aggravate the quality of conversation. the BTS transmit power will be stronger during the conversation due to the activation of DTX downlink function. so it is possible that BCCH and SDCCH of this cell come from the two different antennas.g. if interference exists around the BTS. which shall make the uplink signal level is much poorer than the downlink one. For example. single pass or difficult connection occurring far from the BTS. thus cause call drop. which can be confirmed via standing wave ratio. thus call drop occurs. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-12 . tower top amplifier and standing wave ratio alarms. Different azimuths of two antennas will cause the situation that the user can receive SDCCH. watering. the power will decrease. In this manner. 4) Antenna problem also can cause call drop. although the user can receive BCCH signal. when the BTS transmit power decreases.. Location 1) Check whether there are combiner.4 Uplink/downlink Unbalance Caused by Antenna & Feeder System I. Analysis 1) Improper installation of antenna and/or feeder. but call drop shall occur once it is assigned to TCH transmitted by another antenna. 3) Different azimuths of two antennas may cause call drop. the application of DTX might cause call drop.2. thus cause serious call drop. CDU. carrier board self-excitation. bend and connector of poor contact all can reduce Tx power and Rx sensitivity. call drop might occur. 3) Remove the interference caused by equipment itself (e. the Tx antenna between two cells is installed just reversedly.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop adjacent cells.

4) Perform road tests and dialing tests. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-13 . analyze whether transmission is intermittent or whether there are faulty boards (e. Once a part is found in a faulty state. List below some traffic measurement items used for analysis of uplink/downlink balance: 1) 2) 3) From “Up-Down Link Balance Measurement”. Based on alarm data. 5) After full remote analysis.2. 6) Judge whether BTS hardware failure causes the uplink/downlink unbalance.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop 2) 3) View whether all boards of BTS work normally via remote maintenance. Further observe whether uplink/downlink signals are balanced from the measurement report about Signaling messages.5 Transmission Failure As there are Abis interface and A interface link. CUI/FPU alarm). block the faulty board first lest call drop should occur to impact the running quality of the network. LAPD link break alarm. If no alternative part is available. HPA alarm. poor quality transmission and unstable transmission link also may cause call drop. For hardware failure.g. analyze the average uplink/downlink levels and qualities in case of call drop. Analyze whether uplink/downlink unbalance appears from traffic measurement. From “Power-Control Measurement”. Test whether the standing wave ratio is normal. Check whether the azimuth and the downtilt of the antenna are designed normatively and whether the feeder and jumper are connected accurately. thus decrease call drops by ensuring stable transmission quality. 2) Check transmission paths. I. From “Call Drop Measurement”. analyze uplink/downlink average receive signal levels.. power amplifier alarm. analyze whether uplink/downlink unbalance exists. it should be replaced in time. the carrier board is faulty or in poor contact). TRX alarm.g. test BER and check whether E1 connector or grounding of equipment is reasonable. replace the part that might be faulty or disable other carriers in the cell before performing dialing test on the doubtful carrier to locate the fault point. 10. Trace relevant Abis interfaces by performing Abis interface tracing function or with a Signaling analyzer. Analysis and solution: 1) Observe transmission and board alarms (e. A interface PCM out of sync alarm. Make sure the BCCH frequency of the serving cell is consistent with the expected one and the Tx antenna is installed correctly prior to road tests.. perform on-site inspections and tests. Make sure the antenna & feeder connector is in good contact and the feeder is in good condition. FTC failure alarm.

the downlink signal is weaker at the edge of the cell and can be “submerged” easily by stronger signals from other cells. MS shall have to stay in the strong signal. RACH busy threshold. MS cannot originate a call owing to weak uplink signal.6 Unreasonable Parameter Settings Check relevant parameter configurations and make sure they are configured reasonably. if the coverage of the downlink signal is larger than that of the uplink coverage. or signal pass even call drop may occur. this value should be set greater for the area with low than that for the area with high traffic.2. In virtue of existence of uplink/downlink signals. Contrarily. If the value of this parameter in a cell is too little. only when the radio link expires can the network release the related resource although the quality of voices is too bad to tolerate. or although it can set up a call. 10. If in a cell the coverage of the uplink signal is larger than that of the downlink signal. Therefore. RACH minimum receive signal level. and the coverage is large. c) In TCH performance measurement observe whether there are too many call drops caused by interruption of terrestrial link. the voice quality is very poor. If it is too great. call drop may occur easily when the receive signal level of MS declines greatly and abruptly due to some reasons such as fluky landform. Generally. MS minimum received signal grade: It indicates the minimum receive signal level required for MS accessing the system. which thus reduces the resource utilization. However. MS in the cell can access network easily. b)In TCH performance measurement observe whether the TCH availability rate is abnormal. it is necessary to ensure the uplink/downlink balance as possibly as you can.0529 or newer) 3) System message data table: MS minimum received signal grade. which is for the downlink signal.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop 3) Observe whether there are too many call drops caused by transmission problem via traffic measurement. 2) Cell attribute table: SACCH multiframe number Recommended value: BTS3X BTS2X 31 14 (31 for version 05. a) in TCH performance measurement of traffic measurement observe whether there are too many A interface failures when TCH is occupied. the actual coverage is subject to the weaker signal. which are as follows: 1) System message data table: Radio link failure counter If the value is too little. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-14 .

If it is too great. which caused the situation that call drop occurred before the measurement ended. it may increase the number of call drops occurring to the whole network. which shall cause greater load on the cell and increase the possibility of call drop. Handover cannot be triggered since the downlink power of the two cells was good enough. Or. 10. 10. but the signal power of the serving cell rapidly declined to be less than –100dBm.3. For example.1 Reducing Call Drop by Optimizing Handover Related Parameter I. II. which helps to reduce call-dropping failure rate but lessens the coverage. Both coverage and call-dropping failure rate should be fully considered for setting of this parameter. RACH minimum receive signal level It indicates the minimum receive signal level required for MSs’ uplink access to the system (RACH busy threshold used in BTS20 is similar to “MS minimum receive signal level”.7 Others There are many other reasons causing call drop. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-15 . the power of the destination cell can be about 80dBm. Therefore. Call-dropping failure rate cannot be reduced at the cost of lessening of coverage.3 Examples 10. the MS with low receive signal level cannot access network.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop But MS at the edge of the cell tries to stay in the cell. when the version of TRX in a BTS is inconsistent with that of FPU.) See M900/M1800 Base Station Controller Data Configuration Reference Network Planning Parameters for details. In the cave.2. but the signal level of the serving cell decreased rapidly in the cave. as shown in example 7. both coverage and call-dropping failure rate should be taken into account for setting of this parameter. improper use of BTS version related parameters also causes call drop. Description Too many call drops that occurred at the mouth of the cave near the BTS and were caused by the situation that handover cannot be executed immediately were found during road tests from place A to place B. Analysis The mouth of the cave lay just near the BTS.

10.2 Call Drop Caused by Interference I. (The reason that hardware failure could cause such trouble has been excluded. As shown in the figure. Table 10-1 Modification table of parameters Parameter name PBGT handover measurement time PBGT handover duration PBGT handover threshold Emergency handover uplink quality threshold Candidate cell minimum downlink power Value before modification 5 4 72 70 10 Value after modification 3 2 68 60 15 Optimizing handover related parameters could help to reduce the call-dropping failure rate. 1) Make PBGT handover occur easily so as to achieve anti-interference and reduce call-dropping failure rate on the premise of no toggle handover that may cause too much voice discontinuity.) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-16 . DTX is adopted without frequency hopping).3. 2) Reasonably set the emergency handover trigger threshold so that emergency handover can be triggered in time before call drop occurs. Description The BTSs distribution of an area is shown in Figure 10-5.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop III. thus to reduce the call-dropping failure rate. it could be seen that there were too many call drops occurring in cell 2 of BTS C. (The red digits indicate BCCH frequencies. Handling process The related parameters shown in Table 10-1 should be modified.

85 4. the interference bands of the cells of BTS C are shown in Table 10-2.03 0.85 4. it was found that the conversation quality had been very poor when the receive signal level become high. Analysis 1) 2) By analyzing the BTS topology map.00 0.14 13.25 12. 5) By analyzing traffic measurement and the results of road tests.00 3) 4) By performing actual road tests. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-17 .27 0.00 0. By viewing traffic measurement.00 0.54 0.01 0.57 2. By observing traffic measurement.28 2.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop Figure 10-5 BTS distribution II.27 Interferenc e band 3 0.09 0.89 2.00 0. Table 10-2 Traffic measurement interference band (09:00~10:00) Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 (03:00~04:00) Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Interferenc e band 1 2.14 3.25 Interferenc e band 4 0.92 Interferenc e band 2 4.00 Interferenc e band 4 0.00 Interferenc e band 5 0.37 Interferenc e band 5 0.00 Interferenc e band 2 14. it could be concluded that there was interference. it was found that handover was mainly caused by poor quality conversation and the channel assignment failure rate rose with the augmentation of call drops.12 Interferenc e band 3 1. it could be concluded that the frequency planning was reasonable.00 0.09 0 Interferenc e band 1 2.00 0.

and MAIO of the newly added carrier was found the same as that of another carrier during the check of parameters. it is almost impossible that the carrier carrying BCCH frequency and BCCH frequency itself were interfered. The frequency or time slot occupied for this conversation was interfered or unstable. 10.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop 6) A repeater was found through the on-site inspection. Handling process No faults were found during the check of equipment. The repeater was a set of broadband equipment. the high call-dropping failure rate at BTS C was solved. amplifying the signals of a remote analog BTS sent to the near end via optical fiber and transmitting them. Analysis Considering high call-dropping rate and high handover failure rate accompanied high assignment failure rate. As the SDCCH call-dropping rate remained normal. Fault point: The hopping frequencies collided. II.3 Call Drop Caused by Interference I. accompanied with high TCH call-dropping failure rate and high handover failure rate. antenna & feeder and transmission stability. the digital signals were amplified by the repeater and then the cell 2 of BTS C was interfered. III. TCH assignment failure rate kept high owing to radio link failure. Consequently. 1) 2) TCH was assigned incorrectly. After it was expanded.3. It was found that the situation of high level with poor quality was serious during road tests. Description A BTS adopted 1%3 RF hopping. Nevertheless the SDCCH call-dropping failure rate remained normal. it could be caused by two reasons as follows. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-18 . Handling process The maintenance personnel reduced the transmit power of the repeater so that the interference level could degrade from bands 2 and 3 to band 1. But the carriers carrying non-BCCH frequencies and hopping frequencies might be interfered. Also. III. Through an on-site dialing test the voice quality was found very poor.

Description The MS occupied a cell but cannot originate a call. which can cause call drop easily.3.4 Uplink/downlink Unbalance I. Figure 10-6 Explanation of measurement report MA10 As shown in Figure 10-6. III.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop 10. it means the signal is too weak. Call drop always occurred at the place away from the cell. Call drop could occur after frequency handover. Single pass occurred. Handling process Perform on-site tests. If the level is lower than –98dBm. Analysis The unbalance between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level might cause such trouble. Make the MS move to the edge of the cell during the test and trace data with a Signaling analyzer at BTS so as to observe the receive signal levels of the BTS and the MS. the uplink signal level is –98dBm (highlighted with a red circle) and is much lower than the downlink signal level that is –66dBm. II. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-19 .

and those in cells 2 and 3 were –40dBm and –60dBm respectively. Handling process 1) 2) High congestion rate always existed no matter how to block the carrier channel of the cell. when traffic was high at days. II. The maintenance personnel located the trouble was caused by external interference. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-20 .Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop 10. 7) The strength of the interference signal at the mouth of the divider in cell 1 was –27dBm. and the interference disappeared. while the call-dropping failure rates and congestion rates in cells 1 and 2 kept normal. but the trouble still existed.5 Call Drop Caused by Interference from Repeater I.3. He interrupted the signal test of the repeater. Then he performed all tests at the roof and found the interference came from the little antenna of a repeater. it can be located that the trouble was caused by the external interference source of 904 MHz. 3) The maintenance personnel set the frequency of cell 3 to be over 1 MHz higher/lower than the original one. Description The user complained call drop always occurred at the fifth floor or above of a building. 8) The maintenance personnel couldn’t locate the interference source by performing road tests with a spectrum analyzer. inter-modulation occurs at days more easily than at nights.6 Call Drop Caused by Isolated Island Effect I.3. The maintenance personnel found the interference band was regular by viewing and analyzing traffic measurement data. Therefore. co-and adjacent-channel interference could be excluded. Since traffic at days is higher than that at nights. And the signal existed continuously and stably. Therefore.14MHz and broadband of 300KHz. and vice versa. The maintenance personnel performed the frequency scan test with a spectrum analyzer and found a suspicious signal that was similar to a spectrum with the central frequency of 904. interference become high. 4) 5) 6) The maintenance personnel checked the equipment and excluded the possibility of equipment fault. Description The call-dropping failure rate in cell 3 of a BTS reached 10%. 10. Generally it was high at days but low at nights. That is to say.

In addition. 2) The cell belongs to BTS B that is 3~4km away from the building. And from the test MS. thus handover to another BTS (e. the maintenance personnel found call drop and noise existed. All these troubles were the RF call drop.g. when the signal from BTS B received by the MS weakens abruptly owing to a certain reason. the call-dropping failure rates of five BTSs in an area reached 5%. III. hence call drop occurs. the call-dropping failure rate of a cell that was not expanded rose too. Define new adjacent cells for the isolated cell. 10. However.3. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-21 .Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop II.. Therefore. But the maintenance personnel had no idea what’s the cause since no interference and no hardware faults were found. consequently a coverage equivalent to an isolated island was formed. 3) By viewing the data configuration. the signal of cell 3 of BTS A is stronger but no adjacent relationship has been defined for cell 2 of BTS B and cell 3 of BTS A. When a MS adopts the signal of cell 2 of BTS B in the area. the maintenance personnel set cell 3 of BTS A as an adjacent cell of cell 2 of BTS B and further optimized the network engineering parameters to eliminate the isolated island effect. Analysis There are two ways for eliminating isolated island effect. he concluded that the signal received here was the signal reflected by an interrupter. 4) As the signal of cell 2 of BTS B has been reflected for many times. handover cannot be implemented. he found the MS had always stayed in a serving cell not belonging to the local BTS A before call drop occurred. Description After an expansion. for cell 2 of BTS B cells 2 and 3 of BTS A are not the most ideal candidate cells. 1) 2) Adjust the antenna of the isolated cell. the MS cannot receive the signal from BTS C at this time. As a result. Nevertheless. the maintenance personnel found that only cell 2 of BTS A had been configured in adjacent relationship between A and B of BSC data configuration. BTS C) might occur. Handling process 1) After the on-site test. an emergency handover might occur. [BA2(SACCH) Table] and [Adjacent cell relationship table] in BSC data configuration. 5) By modifying the data in [BA1(BCCH) Table].7 Settings of Version Related Parameters I. 6) Solving the trouble was confirmed after tests. and the number of call drops in each cell reached 100.

He observed the traffic measurement and found that the interference band kept normal and no interference occurred. III. 5) He checked the data again and found that the BTS after expansion was in 15:1 multiplexing and enabled the measurement report pre-processing function for all BTSs of 2. especially the adjacent cell relationship. frequency interference.g. which hence caused the increasing of the call-dropping failure rate. And the version of BTS should be fully taken into account as well. expansion of BTS. Handling process 1) 2) 3) 4) The maintenance personnel checked data. Summary After the system is adjusted greatly. re-planning of frequency. Then he upgraded them to make them consistent.. upgrading and patching etc. the related parameters should be checked and adjusted correspondingly.. frequency hopping and cell parameters etc. frequency planning and BSIC planning. He checked the versions of all TRXs and FPUs of the BTS and found the version of TRX was inconsistent with that of FPU after the expansion. but parts of older versions didn’t support the function.Troubleshooting Manual M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 10 Troubleshooting for Call Drop II. The handover success rate remained above 93%. e. But the trouble still remained. cut-over access of new BTS. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 10-22 .0 versions.

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