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SESSION 2012-2013
Submitted to submitted by



SubmitTION date - 18/02/2013

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This is to certificate that the project work in title study of activities and it is submitted by [palash kutare] of class 11 `A physics vidya jyoti school jagdalpur under the guidance and supervision of (pawan sir and jagganath sir) during the academic year of 2012- 2013.

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I place my sincere thanks to my chemistry teacher pawan sir and jagganath sir for her guidance and advice to complete my work successfully. I also thanks principal Santosh father for providing me all facility to finish the project. I also take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to lord almighty for the countless bless showered upon me. I thank my parents for their encouragement and support in my humble virtue.

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Page no.

Activity no 1 Activity no 2 Activity no 3 Activity no 4 Activity no 5 Activity no 6

05 08 13 18 22 26

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AIM To make a paper scale of least count 0.2 cm. APPARATUS A sheet of cm-graph paper,razor blade ,set square,a flat wooden strip and gum. THEORY While performing experiments in the laboratory, the measuring instruments such as metre scale, vernier scale, vernier calipers. screw gauge, stopwatch thermometer,etc are used.the accuracy of an instrument is limited by its least count.

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The least count of a measuring instrument is defined as the least quantity,which can be measured accurately with that instrument. For example,an ordinary metre scale graduated in millimeters can measure accurately uuup to a millimeter and hence least count of such amitre scale is 1mm or 0.1 cm PROCEDURE 1. Cut a stip (1 cm wide and 25 cm long) from the sheet of cm-graph paper. On a cm-graph paper,the bold markings are at equal intervals of 1cm is divided into 10 equal parts 2. to prepare a scale of least count 0.2cm,mark divisions at alternate small squares of the cm-graph paper strip using a set square and a sharp ball-pen. 3. Label this marked cm-graph paper strip showing

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4.paste the paper scale so prepared on the flat wooden strip.the paper scale so obtain possesses least count of 0.2cm.

PROCEDURE 1. The divisions should be marked with a sharp pen. 2. The divisions should be marked exactly over the lines of the graph paper.

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AIM TO DETERMINE MASS OF A GIVEN BODY APPARATUS A metre scale,two weight hangers,a body of unknown mass,thread a sharp wedge and a wooden block. THEORY

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The moment of aforce about a point is its turning effect about that point and it is measured as the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between the point of rotation and the line of action of the applied force. The principle of moments states that if abody is in equilibrium under the action of a number of forces, the algebraic sum of the moments of the force is always zero. FORMULA USED M = MPC+MQC PC PROCEDURE 1. Place the metre scale on the wedge and find its C.G by balancing it over the wedge.mark the C.G of the metre scale as C.

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2. Make three loops of the thread and slide two loops on the right side of the C.G of the metre scale. 3. With the help of hangers,suspend the masses from the thread loops adjust the position of the body ,soj that the scale becomes horizontal. 4. Note the positions of the P,Qand R and measures the distances. 5. Repeat the experiment at least three times more by changing the massas and their positions. 6. Record the observations in the tabular form. Observations and calculations. Position of the C.G of the metre scale = cm OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS. NO. MASSES POSITIONS DISTANCES UNKNOWN OF MASS

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RESULT The mass of the given body,M= PRECUTIONS 1. The wedge should be sharp. 2. The metre scale should be precisely supported. 3. The metre scale should be suspended away. g

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4. The final adjustment for balancing the metre scale should be done with the smallest mass. 5. While performing the experiment ,the air currents due to electric fans and windows should be avoided. 6. The metre scale should be balanced accurately. SOURCES OF ERROR 1. The metre scale may not have been balanced accurately. 2. The values marked on the slotted masses of the hangers may not be correct. 3. The C.G of the metre scale may not have been determined accurately. 4. The metre scale may not have been precisely supported at its C.G.

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AIM TO STUDY THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY OF A BALL ROLLING DOWN AN INCLINED PLANE. APPARATUS Double inclined tracks,two wooden blocks,steel ball,a half metre scale,plumb line,a spirit level and a paper scale. THEORY The principle of conservation of energy states that energy can never be created nor be destroyed but can be converted from one form to another.

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The total energy of an isolated system always remains constant. FORMULA USED Potential energy of the ball at the point on track AB,from which its rolls down = potential energy of the ball at the point on track CD,upto which it reaches before it stops. PROCEDURE 1. Clean the double inclined track thoroughly using cotton so that the friction between the steel ball and the surface of the track becomes minimum. 2. Paste the paper scale on the vertical edge of each of the two tracks. 3. Place the double inclined track on the table and place some heavy weights at the ends B and C of the tracks .

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4. Set the middle part BC of the apparatus horizontal by using the spirit level . 5. Place the wooden block below the two tracks,so as to incline them with horizontal. 6. Mark a point P on the left track AB. 7. Release the ball gently from this point. 8. Using a plumb line and half metre scale, measure the vertical heights 9. Repeat the experiment at least five times by changing the inclination of the tracks. 10. Record the observations in the tabular form.

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RESULT Since the vertical heights of the points on the two tracks are same,when a spherical ball rolls down an inclined plane,the law of conservation of energy is verified.

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PRECAUTIONS 1. The double inclined track should be stable. 2. The two tracks should be free from dirt and grease spots. 3. The two tracks should bein the same vertical plane. 4. the vertical heights of the points P and Q should be noted accurately. SOURCES OF ERROR 1. The friction between the ball and the surfaceof the tracks may be appreciable. 2. The part BC of the double inclined track apparatus may not be horizontal. 3. The two tracks may not be in the same vertical plane. 4. The position of the point Q may not have been noted correctly.

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AIM TO FIND THE FORCE CONSTANT OF A HELICAL SPRING FROM THE LOAD-EXTENSION GRAPH. APPARATUS A helical spring,a half metre scale,a stand to mount the metre scale vertically,a pointer having a fine tip,a 50g hanger and a number of slotted weights,each of 50g. THEORY The spring constant of a spring may be defined as the restoring force set up per unit extension in the spring. FORMULA USED According to hookes law,

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Restoring force extensionie., PROCEDURE

f l or f = -kl

1. Suspend the helical spring from the rigid support and attach the pointer at its lower end. 2. Suspend the hanger H from the lower end of the spring. 3. Mount the half metre scale vertically 4. Note the zero value and the reading of position of the pointer on the scale 5. Note the position of the pointer in five steps. 6. Remove the 50g slotted weight from the hanger and record the reading. 7. Find the mean of the readings. 8. Plot the graph between the applied force and the extension.

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RESULT The spring constant of the given spring = dyne cm.

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PRECAUTIONS 1. The vertical oscilatory motion of the loaded spring should not be jerky and shaky. 2. The oscilatory motion of the spring should be strictly along vertical. 3. The amplitude of oscillatory motion of the loaded spring ,the pointer should not touch the half metre scale. 4. the half metre scaleshould be held parallel to the suspended spring. 5. The mass should be attached to the spring gently. 6. The initial position of the pointer shouled be noted only when the oscillations in the spring get completely subsised. SOURCES OF ERROR 1. The supporet may not be rigid.

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2. The amplitude of oscillations may not be small. 3. The spring may have been loaded beyond its elastic limit.

AIM TO DETERMINE THE SURFACE TENSION OF WATER BY CAPILLARY RISE METHOD APPARATUS A travelling microscope,two capillary tubes different bores,a capillary stand provided with a tipped needle of adjustable height,clamp stand,a glass dish,a wooden block standfor the glass dish,water in a beaker and thermometer. THEORY A tube of very fine bore is called a capillary tube.

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This rise or fall of liquid in a tube of very very fine bore is called capillarity.

FORMULA USED The surface tension of water, T= PRECAUTIONS 1. Check that the two capillary tubes are of different but uniform bores. 2. Mount the in the capillary the glass on the wooden block. 3. Raise the microscope tube and direct it along horizontal axis 4. Focus the microscope on the meniscus of water. 5. Set the horizontal cross- wire tangential to the meniscus of the water.

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6. Lower the microscope tube,so as to bring it in front of the second tube. 7. Record all the observations in the tabular form. 8. Note the temperature of the water in the glass dish. OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS

RESULT The value of surface tension of water at t C = dyne/cm. PRECAUTIONS

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1. The capillary tubes and water shold be free from grease and dirt. 2. The capillary tube should be vertical. 3. The tip of the needle should just touch the surface of the water. SOURCES OF ERROR 1. The capillary tube may not be of uniform bores. 2. While focusing the microscope, the screw may not have been turned in one direction only.

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THEORY The coefficient of linear expansion of the material of a solid rod is defined as the change in the length per unit length per unit change in its temperature. PROCEDURE 1. Take a brass-iron bimetallic strip. 2. Hold the bimetallic strip horizontally by clamping its one end firmly in a clamp stand. 3. Heat the brass-iron bimetallic strip uniformly over whole of the length. 4. Note the amount of bending as the temperature of the bimetallic strip increases. RESULT 1. The coefficient of linear expansion of the metal A/b is greater than that of the metal B/A.

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2. The amount of bending of the bimetallic strip is directly proportional to its increase in temperature. PRECAUTIONS 1. The length of the bimetallic strip should be large as compared to its cross-section. 2. The two metal strips should be riveted together firmly. 3. While heating,one end of the bimetallic strip should be heated uniformly over whole of its length. SOURCES OF ERROR 1. The two metallic strips may not have been riverted firmly. 2. The heating of the bimetallic strip may not be uniform over whole of its length.