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PROJECT REPORT

ON

Analysis of the Square Ring Micro-Strip Antenna for Circular Polarisation with Different Height of Di-electric Substrate

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of degree


Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGG. SHOBHIT UNIVERSITY

Submitted by: Dhananjay Kr. Dubey (MRT09UGBEC019) Sumit Kumar Singh (MRT09UGBEC074)

Project guide: Mr.Manoj Sharma


Assistant Professor

DECELERATION

We hereby declare that the project entitled Stimulation Of Soft Starting Of dc Motor Using MATLAB submitted for the award of B.Tech Degree in Electronics And Instrumentation Engineering to SHOBHIT UNIVERSITY, the project has not formed the basis for the award of any degree.

Date: Nov. 30, 2012.

Submitted by:

Name
VINYASH CHANDRA (MRT09UGBEI010) ANKIT (MRT09UGBEI002) GAURAV MISHRA (MRT09UGBEI004)

signature

CERTIFICATE
This is to certified that the project and entitled Stimulation Of Soft Starting Of dc Motor Using MATLAB is the work carried out by the members name students of B.Tech, Shobhit University, MEERUT during the year 2012 in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor Of Technology (E&I Department).

(Mr.DEEPAK KUMAR) Internal Examiner

(Dr.D.V.RAI) HOD E&I, Department

(Mrs.Shweta Choudhary) Project Guide External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during this project. We would like to express the deepest appreciation to Mrs. Shweta

Choudhary asst. prof. department of

Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Shobhit University; the guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of ours with attention and care; who has the substance of a genius; he continually and convincingly conveyed a spirit of adventure to our project, and an excitement in regard to teaching. Without his guidance and persistent help this project would not have been possible. We express our thanks to the Head of Department, Dr. D.B.RAI, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Shobhit University, for extending his support. We would also thank our Institution Shobhit University and our faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. We also extend our thanks to ours family and well wishers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS ChapterNo.


1. 2. 3.

Title
Objective Introduction DC motor starter Matlabsimulink model

Page No.
7 7

8 10

4. 5.

DC motor Motor model and problem definition

11 14 16 17 21 23 25 26 27 28 30

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Starting means of the motor Thyristor Full wave rectifier Simulation of separately excited DC motor Switching circuit Circuit breaker Controlling circuit Scope Conclusion Bibliography

1. Abbreviations and Symbols.

Ra La Rf Lf Kf

Armature winding resistance Armature winding inductance Field winding resistance Field winding inductance Constant of proportionality between motor flux ( ) and field current (if).

J TL ia if

Inertia of Motor Applied mechanical/ Load Torque Armature current Field current Motor speed (radian per sec)

rpm revolution per minute

Stimulation Of Soft Starting Of DC Motor Using MATLAB.

1. Objective:Starting of dc motor with the variation of the applied voltage gradually in equal steps from zero to the rated value limiting the starting current and giving sufficient time for the back emf, Eb to build up. This voltage variation is achieved by varying the firing angle delay of the power electronic device (Thyristor, GTO, IGBT, etc), used as building blocks of the converter circuit that feeds the line, supplying the motor.

2. Introduction:Starting of a motor is the most important aspect in the control and operation of a machine. It becomes the utmost responsibility of a control engineer to take care of the starting of any motor so as to reduce the starting current that would rush into the motor. Many techniques can be adopted for achieving effective and smooth starting of a motor. This project highlights the soft starting of a dc machine. Soft starting of a dc machine deals with the variation of the applied voltage gradually in equal steps from zero to the rated value limiting the starting current and giving sufficient time for the back emf, Eb to build up. This voltage variation is achieved by varying the firing angle delay of the power electronic device (Thyristor, GTO, IGBT, etc), used as building blocks of the converter circuit that feeds the line, supplying the motor.

For certain industrial applications, it becomes essential to run an electric machine used to drive a job, at adjustable but constant speed. Such a requirement results in an urge to control the speed of the drive in an accurate and efficient manner. One of the best suited methods of speed control of a DC motor is the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) method of control. This is an efficient method of voltage control method of speed. As the name indicates, this method uses pulse width modulated voltage signals to achieve a smooth speed control technique.

3. DC Motor Starter, MatLab/Simulink Models.


Three possible conventional means may usually be used to control or monitor the level of the armature current when starting a dc motor. The three possible means are: 1. Use of a gradually decreasing tapped resistance between the supply voltage and the motor armature circuit. 2. Use of a chopper circuit between the supply voltage and the motor armature circuit. 3. Use of a variable DC voltage source.The third mean seems to own certainly superiority when compared to the two first means.

It is well known that when starting a dc motor and that is by connecting its armature circuit directly to a DC voltage source, a high value of the armature current is expected. Such high value is primarily due to the lack of the back electromotive force (emf) of the motor. The back electromotive force is known to be proportional to the motor speed. The high value of the armature current may

cause troubles to the DC motor ( like reduction of its life time, creation of false operation of the protective devices associated with the motor, etc).

One of the classical remedies to such problem is to insert a starting resistor in series with the motor armature circuit. The starting resistor should be gradually removed as the motor speeds up. A careful glance at such method is that even though there will be a control or monitor of the level of the armature current, there will be a waste of energy at each start-up maneuver.

To overcome the last disadvantage, power electronics circuitry can be introduced. This is possible through the insertion of achopper circuit. The chopper circuit should be controlled by a hysterisis controller. The duty of the hysterisis controller is to monitor or keep the motor armature current between certain two pre-set threshold values. Unfortunately, theinsertion of chopper circuit results in a new drawback which consists of creating ripples in the armature current.

Another alternative of starting the DC motor is to use a variable DC voltage source. The level of source voltage should be minimum at start-up and should increase gradually as the motor speeds up. Increasing the level of the voltage source should be done automatically. This alternative is realized through the use of a controlled full wave rectifier (AC-DC converter). The position of firing angle of the rectifier should be decided by a closed loop controller. The input to the controller should be the motor speed. The job of the controller is to have a high value of firing angle at start-up and decreasing it gradually as the motor speeds up. The firing angle should reach and stick to zero value as the motor reaches steady state conditions.

A softstarter consists of only a few main components. These are the thyristors that can regulate the voltage to the motor and the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) that is used to control the thyristors. In addition to this, there are the heatsink and fans to dissipate the heat, current transformers to measure the current and sometimes display and keypad and then the housing itself. It is more and morecommon to offer integrated by-pass contacts in the main circuit minimizing the power loss in normal operation.Depending on the model of the softstarter, it can be equipped with a built-in electronic overload relay (EOL) eliminating the need for an external relay, PTC input, fieldbus communication possibilities etc.

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4. DC motor:A direct-current (DC) motor is a device for converting dc electrical energy into rotating mechanical energy. All motors have several basic characteristics in common. They include: A stator, which is the frame and other stationary components (provides the fixed magnetic field, could be a permanent magnet or an electromagnet); a rotor or armature, which is the rotating shaft and its associated parts (many coils of wire are wound on a cylindrical shaft); auxiliary equipment, such as a brush/commutator assembly for DC motors and a starting circuit for AC motors.Possible operation modes

Description

The DC Machine block implements a separately excited DC machine.

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An access is provided to the field terminals (F+, F-) so that the machine model can be used as a shunt-connected or a series-connected DC machine. The torque applied to the shaft is provided at the Simulink input TL. The armature circuit (A+, A-) consists of an inductor La and resistor Ra in series with a counter-electromotive force (CEMF) E. The CEMF is proportional to the machine speed.

KE is the voltage constant and is the machine speed. In a separately excited DC machine model, the voltage constant KE is proportional to the field current If:

whereLaf is the field-armature mutual inductance. The electromechanical torque developed by the DC machine is proportional to the armature current Ia.

where KT is the torque constant. The sign convention for Teand TL is

The torque constant is equal to the voltage constant.

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The armature circuit is connected between the A+ and A- ports of the DC Machine block. It is represented by a series Ra La branch in series with a Controlled Voltage Source and a Current Measurement block.

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5. MOTOR

MODEL

AND

PROBLEM

DEFINITION:Figure shows a schematic diagram of a DC shunt motor connected to a DC voltage supply. The field winding is usually represented by an inductance (Lf) in series with the rotor resistance (Rf). Similarly, the armature is usually represented by a back electromotive force (Ea) in series with the rotor winding resistance (Ra) and the winding self inductance (La). As it is known from any design textbox in electric machines like , field winding resistance (Rf) has usually a high value while armature winding resistance (Ra) has a small value.

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The back electromotive force (Ea) is proportional to the flux ( ) created by the stator winding and the motor speed ( ).Assuming, that there is a linear relationship between and the flux ( ) and the field current (if), that is the saturation effect is neglected, the dynamic model that can be used to represent the shunt DC motor can be easily derived. It will be of the following form:

Operation called constant torque At constant excitation, the motors speed depends on the voltage appliedto its armature. Speed can be varied from standstill

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to the rated voltage ofthe motor chosen according to the AC voltage supply.The motor torque is proportional to the armature current, and the ratedtorque of the machine can be obtained continuously at all speeds. Operation called constant power When a machine is powered with rated voltage, it is still possible to increase its speed by reducing the excitation current. In this case the speed controller must have a controlled rectifier bridge powering the excitation circuit. The armature voltage therefore remains fixed and equal to the rated voltage and the excitation current is adjusted to obtain the requisite speed. Power is expressed as: P = E . I with E as its armature voltage, and I the armature current. The power, for a given armature current, is therefore constant in all speed ranges, but the maximum speed is limited by two parameters: - the mechanical limit linked to the armature and in particular the maximum centrifugal force a collector can support, - the switching possibilities of the machine are generally more restrictive. The motor manufacturer must therefore be consulted to make a good choice of motor, particularly with regard to speed range at a constant horsepower.

By connecting the motor terminals directly to full supply voltage, the expected waveforms of the armature current , the field current, and the motor speed are depicted in figure

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6. STARTING MEANS OF THE MOTOR:Using Starting Resistance

One way of limiting the armature current level is to insert a starting resistance in series with the armature circuit as shown in figure 3. The starting resistance should gradually be removed as the motor speeds-up. The times of moving from one tap to another tap are usually calculated from steady state analysis.The starting resistance

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was assumed to be of five parts. The parts were gradually short-circuited and that is by pretending the existence of a circuit breaker poles across each part terminals. Figure shows the Matlab/Simulink block of the starting resistance.

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Using Starting Chopper Circuit

Using Chopper circuit Mean. a) Circuit Topology b) Hysteresis Controller Function The second possibility of controlling the armature current is to use a step-up converter. The step-up converter is usually attributed the name chopper in the literature.

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Results when Using Chopper Circuit.a) Armature current b) Field current. c) Motor speed

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As it can been seen, the chopper circuit did perform its duty as intended but that was at the expense of delaying the motor from reaching its steady state (rated value) in a short time. The motor reaches its rated speed at time = 8 seconds. The ratio between the maximum and rated values of the armature current is 1.23 but the armature current has a lot of ripples which might be harmful to the armature circuitry.

Using Starting AC/DC Converter

An indirect way of controlling the armature current is to have a variable DC voltage source. The level of the voltage source should be of minimum level at start-up and should increase gradually as the motor back electromotive force builds up. This is possible through the use of a controlled full wave rectifier similar to the one shown in figure

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Using AC/DC Converter Mean.

At standstill the Back induced Emf in a DC motor is zero. Moreover, resistance of the armature is as low as ~0.4ohm. Hence on direct application of line voltage very high current rushes into the armature circuit. This may lead to damage the coil by overheating. This makes it necessary to control the inrush current.

As the rotor starts running, back emf(Eb) gets induced and gradually builds up to oppose the line voltage. Due to the building up of the back emf (Eb) in the armature coil, the effective voltage at no load, is considerably reduced to 2-3V which automatically limits the armature current. This limiting of armature current to approximately 10% of the rated current helps to achieve safer and smoother starting of a motor.

The role of a starter is to limit the armature current till the back emf (Eb) is built up. Traditionally this has been achieved by adding resistance in series with the armature at the starting stage and then gradually reducing it to zero. This resistance reduces the initial current then as Ebgradually builds up; this resistance becomes unnecessary and hence can be cut off from the circuit. This method can be either manual or automatic but the heat dissipation across the resistance gives the alarm about the need for sophisticated methods of starting. For a more reliable and automated starting of a machine, the soft starting technique is gaining importance now-a-days. The disadvantage of the previous method can be over come in soft starting. Thus soft starting is more efficient than the resistance method.

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7. Thyristor:This is a controlled semiconductor made up of four alternating layers:P-N-P-N. Itacts like a diode by transmission of an electric pulse on an electrode control called gate. This closing (or ignition) is only possible if the anode has a more positive voltage than the cathode. The thyristor locks itself when the current crossing it cancels itself out. The ignition energy to supply on the gate is not linked to the current to switch over. And it is not necessary to maintain a current in the gate during thyristor conduction. The thyristor has the main following characteristics: in a closed state: - avotage drop composed of a threshold voltage and an internal resistance, - a maximum admissible permanent current (up to about 5000A RMS for the most powerful components). in an off-state: - an invert and direct maximum admissible voltage, (able to exceed5000 V), - in general the direct and invert voltages are identical, - an recovery time which is the minimum time a positive anode cathode voltage cannot be applied to in the close state, - a gate current to ignite the component. There are some thyristors which are destined to operate at mains frequency, others called fast, able to operate with a few kilohertz, and with an auxiliary extinction circuit. Fast thyristors sometimes have dissymmetrical direct and invert locking voltage. In the usual arrangements, they are often linked to a connected antiparallel diode and the manufacturers of semiconductors use this feature to increase the the component, otherwise it will spontaneouslyrestart itself

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direct voltage that the component can support in an off-state. Fast thyristor are now completely superseded by the GTO, power transistors and especially by the IBGT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor).

8. Full wave rectifier:Electronic speed controllers are supplied from a constant voltage from an AC network and feed the motor with DC variable voltage. A diode or thyristor bridge, usually single-phase, powers the excitation circuit. The power circuit is a rectifier. Since the voltage has to be variable,the rectifier must be controllable, i.e. have power components whoseconduction can be controlled (thyristors). The variation of the output voltage is obtained by limiting more or less the conduction time of thecomponents.

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The more the ignition of the thyristor is delayed compared to zero of the half cycle, the more the average value of the voltage is reduced, reducing the motor speed (remember that extinction of the thyristor steps in automatically when the current passes by zero). For low power controllers, or controllers supplied by a storage battery, the power circuit, sometimes made up of power transistors (chopper), varies the continuous output voltage by adjusting the conduction time. This operation mode is called PWM (Pulse Width Modulation).

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Output of the fullwave rectifier

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9. Simulation of separately exited dc motor


Figure sows the circuit arrangement of soft starting of separately exited dc motor. There is a switching circuit which converts the ac input into dc output and dc goes to the dc machine. Field is exited by external voltage. Circuit breaker is used to change the supply from ac link to dc link after reaching the rated speed. Here comparator is used to give the signal to circuit breaker. Soft starting of a dc machine deals with the variation of the applied voltage gradually in equal steps from zero to the rated value limiting the starting current and giving sufficient time for the back emf, Eb to build up. This voltage variation is achieved by varying the firing angle delay of the power electronic device (Thyristor, GTO, IGBT, etc), used as building blocks of the converter circuit that feeds the line, supplying the motor.

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Here we can change the specification of dc machine by double click ondc machine block.

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10.

Switching circuit:-

A Subsystem block represents a subsystem of the system that contains it. The Subsystem block can represent a virtual subsystem or a nonvirtual subsystem. The primary difference is that nonvirtual subsystems provide the ability to control when the contents of the subsystem are evaluated. Nonvirtual subsystems are executed as a single unit (atomic execution) by the Simulink engine. A subsystem is virtual unless the block is conditionally executed and/or you have selected the block Treat as atomic unit check box.You can create a subsystem in these ways:

Copy the Subsystem (or Atomic Subsystem) block from the Ports & Subsystems library into your model. You can then add blocks to the subsystem by opening the Subsystem block and copying blocks into its window.

Select the blocks and lines that are to make up the subsystem using a bounding box, then choose Create Subsystem from the Edit menu. Simulink software replaces the blocks with a Subsystem block. When you open the block, the window displays the blocks you selected, adding Inport and Outport blocks to reflect signals entering and leaving the subsystem.

Now we want to change the switching circuit then we double click on the swithing circuit and we find the dialog box shown in figure

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Now we have to change the firing angle then we double click on the pulse generater and find dioalogboxshown in figure

We put the value of firing angle and frequency in the given expression :-

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Phase delay(sec) = (*1/f)/360 Where in degree.

For the second pulse generater we use the following expression:Phase delay(seec) =1/2f+(*1/f)/360 The number of input ports drawn on the Subsystem block's icon corresponds to the number of Inport blocks in the subsystem. Similarly, the number of output ports drawn on the block corresponds to the number of Outport blocks in the subsystem.

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We put the value of firing angle and frequency in the given expression :Phase delay(sec) = (*1/f)/360 Where in degree.

For the second pulse generater we use the following expression:Phase delay(seec) =1/2f+(*1/f)/360

We match the minimum voltage to start the moter using firing angle, we fix the firing angle in sec at which the starting voltage is found.

11.

Circuit breaker :-

The Breaker block implements a circuit breaker where the opening and closing times can be controlled either from an external Simulink signal (external control mode), or from an internal control timer (internal control mode).A series Rs-Cs snubber circuit is included in the model. It can be connected to the circuit breaker. If the Breaker block happens to be in series with an inductive circuit, an open circuit or a current source, you must use a snubber.When the Breaker block is set in external control mode, a Simulink input appears on the block icon. The control signal connected to the Simulink input must be either 0 or 1 (0 to open the breaker, 1 to close it).

When the Breaker block is set in internal control mode, the switching times are specified in the dialog box of the block.When the breaker is closed, it is

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represented by a resistance Ron. The Ron value can be set as small as necessary in order to be negligible compared with external components (a typical value is 10 mohms). When the breaker is open, it has an infinite resistance. When we double click on the circuit breaker then we find a dialogue box as shown in figure

12.

Controlling circuit

After reaching the rated speed of the moter we change the supply from ac to dc using logic gate and circuit breaker. We fix a rated speed in constant block there after we compare the running speed of the motor to the rated speed using substractor. Output of the substractor goes to the comparator and give the output in

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form of 0 and 1. Output of the comparator is given to circuit breaker as input for the breaker as shown in the figure below.

Circuit breaker 2 is on untill the decision is 1, when our rated speed is found then decision becomes 0 and circuit breaker 3 is on which allows the dc supply to the machine.We have to give the vallue in constant block. We double click on constant and find the dialoge box as shown in figure.

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13.

Scope

The Scope block displays its input with respect to simulation time. The Scope block can have multiple axes (one per port) and all axes have a common time range with independent y-axes. The Scope block allows you to adjust the amount of time and the range of input values displayed. You can move and resize the Scope window and you can modify the Scope's parameter values during the simulation.The Scope provides toolbar buttons that enable you to zoom in on displayed data, display all the data input to the Scope, preserve axis settings from one simulation to the next, limit data displayed, and save data to the workspace.

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The toolbar buttons are labeled in this figure, which shows the Scope window as it appears when you open a Scope block.You can zoom in on data in both the x and y directions at the same time, or in either direction separately. The zoom feature is not active while the simulation is running. To zoom in on data in both directions at the same time, make sure you select the leftmost Zoom toolbar button. Then, define the zoom region using a bounding box. When you release the mouse button, the Scope displays the data in that area. You can also click a point in the area you want to zoom in on. If the scope has multiple y-axes, and you zoom in on one set of x-y axes, the xlimits on all sets of x-y axes are changed so that they match, because all x-y axes must share the same time base (x-axis).

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14.

Conclusion

Three conventional means are usually used in the control of the level of the armature current encountered at start-upconditions. These means are attributed in this paper thenames: - starting resistance mean, - chopper circuit mean, and AC-DC converter mean.

Development of Matlab/Simulink models for the previousmeans is the main contribution of this paper. Based on thesimulation results of the developed models, the last mean seems to: - control the peak of the armature current to some extent - have less ripples in the motor armature current - avoid the waste of energy fact encountered usually in thecase of using starting resistance.

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15.
1. M.

Bibliography :S. Sarma, Electric Machines: Steady-state Theory and

DynamicPerformance, 2nd Edition, PWS publishing Company, Boston, 1996. 2. M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices, and

ApplicationsPrentice Hall, New Jersey, 1988. 3. Matlab Software, Version 6.5, The Math Works, Inc., 2002. 4. J. J. Cathey, ,Electric Machine: Analysis and Design Applying MatlabMcGraw Hill Company, New York 2001. 5. P. C. Sen, Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics,John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1989

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