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STEPDOWN TRANSFORMER

INPUT DATA
Peak primary voltage Vpeak(v):
Supply frequency F(Hz) :
Secondary voltage Vs(V)
Secondary current Is(A)
OUTPUT DATA
Time required (T) to complete one cycle:

Circular frequency
in rad/sec
314.1592654

Amplitude (Vp)

Change in time t
(sec)
220
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.0022
0.0025
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.01
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014

Turns ratio
Primary current Ip(A)
Vrms(V)
Vavg (V)

18.33333333
0.027272727
155.54
140.14

Core material

Grade

CRGO silicon steel

35JGH115

Thickness (mm)
0.35

ASSUMED PARAMETERS:
%Voltage regulation
%Efficiency
Operating flux density Bac (Tesla)
Window utilization factor Ku

5
0.95
1.88
0.5

CORE SELECTION FROM CORE GEOMETRY APPROACH


Output power Po (W)
Tr.apparent power Pt (w)

6
12.31578947

CORE TYPE
EI-625
CROSS SECTION OF THE CORE
Length L

Width W

(cm)

(Inches)

cm

1.588

0.625

1.588

2.521744

Effective cross section of the core Ac (m )

0.000252174

Effective cross section of the core Ac (cm )


2

Window area Wa (cm )

1.89

Area product Ap (cm )

4.525
2

Surface area of the transformer At (cm )

83.2

Core geometry coefficient Kg (cm )

0.459

CALCULATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TURNS


Number of primary turns Np
Number of turns per volt
Number of secondary turns Ns

20903107.83
95014.12651
1140169.518

SELECTED WIRE GAUGE FOR WINDINGS


SWG FOR PRIMARY WINDING
SWG
#42

Wire diameter (Inches)


0.004

Current (A)
0.024

SWG FOR SECONDARY WINDING


SWG

Wire diameter (Inches)

Current (A)

#26

0.018

0.5

CALCULATION FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CONDUCTOR AREA


2

Primary conductor area ap (mm )

0.00810732
2

Primary conductor area ap (Inches )

1.25664E-05
2

Total copper area in window Ac (mm )

262.6762

CALCULATION FOR CURRENT DENSITY ( J)


Current density J (A/Inches2) of primary winding

2170.294679

CALCULATION FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESISTANCE


Length of pri. turns (m)
1985795.244
Primary res. Rp ()
4289317.727
Primary cu loss Pp(watts)
3190.401615
Total pri. and sec. cu loss Pcu (watts)
3190.401615
Inductance of primary winding
1457501.387
PERMEABILITY ()
permeability of vaccum o (H/m)
1.25664E-06
Relative permeability of the material r
40000
Permeability (H/m)
0.050265482
Max.value of flux m (Weber)
4.74088E-08
LAYERS FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDINGS
Number of Turns per layer for primary winding
Number of layers for primary winding
FLUX vs TIME CURVE
Change in Time t (sec)

Time(sec)
0.001

0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.01
0.011
0.012
0.013

130
160793.1372

Flux (weber)
-3.35013E-08
-3.18617E-08
-2.71031E-08
-1.96916E-08
-1.03525E-08
-2.0522E-24
1.03525E-08
1.96916E-08
2.71031E-08
3.18617E-08
3.35013E-08
3.18617E-08
2.71031E-08
1.96916E-08

0.014
0.015
0.016
0.017
0.018
0.019
0.02
B-H CURVE
Magnetic field intensity H(A/m)
0
1854377.671
3527235.936
4854823.772
5707187.631
6000892.2
5707187.631
4854823.772
3527235.936
1854377.671
-4.59466E-09
-1854377.671
-3527235.936
-4854823.772
-5707187.631
-6000892.2
-5707187.631
-4854823.772
-3527235.936
-1854377.671
1.98491E-08

Magnetic flux density B


0
93211.18831
177298.2161
244030.0591
286874.5397
301637.7416
286874.5397
244030.0591
177298.2161
93211.18831
-2.30953E-10
-93211.18831
-177298.2161
-244030.0591
-286874.5397
-301637.7416
-286874.5397
-244030.0591
-177298.2161
-93211.18831
9.97722E-10

1.03525E-08
-5.33537E-23
-1.03525E-08
-1.96916E-08
-2.71031E-08
-3.18617E-08
-3.35013E-08

220
50 (50 cycles/sec.)
12
0.5
0.02 sec

Time(sec)

sinwave function
0
0.001
0.002
0.0022
0.0025
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.01
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014
0.015
0.016
0.017
0.0175
0.018
0.019
0.02

Peak primary current


Ipeak(A)
0
67.98373876
129.3127555
140.2332777
155.5634919
177.9837388
209.2324336
220
209.2324336
177.9837388
129.3127555
67.98373876
-1.68446E-13
-67.98373876
-129.3127555
-177.9837388
-209.2324336
-220
-209.2324336
-177.9837388
-155.5634919
-129.3127555
-67.98373876
7.2769E-13

Irms (A)
Iavg (A)

0.027272727

0.019281818
0.017372727

Assumed density (Kg/mm )

Mag. field intensity H(A/m)

Min lamination factor

800

96

7.65

Electrical conditions Ke

2.525745859

0.487610004

Core geometry Kg (cm )

Width W

Ac
2

(Inches)

Cm

Inches2

0.625

2.521744

0.390625

Magnetic path length MPL(cm)

9.5

Magnetic path length MPL(m)

0.095

Mean length turn MLT(m)

0.095

Wa /Ac

0.418

Iron weight Wtfe (grams)

170

Copper weight Wtcu (grams)

63.5

SWG FOR PRIMARY WINDING


Turns per layer
208

Turns per square inch

Wire diameter (mm)

43000

0.1016

SWG FOR SECONDARY WINDING


Turns per layer

Turns per square inch

50

Wire diameter (mm)

2500

0.457

OR AREA
2

0.164029621

Secon. Cond. area as (Inches )

0.000254469

Ct density J (A/mm2) of sec.wdg

3.048229929

Length of sec. turns (m)


Secon.res. Rp ()
Secon.cu loss Ps(watts)

108316.1042
11481.50705
2870.376762

Secon. conductor area as (mm )


2

H/m
2.8943E+12

2.8943E+12

No.of turns per layer for sec.wdg


No.of layers for secon. winding

31.25
36485.42458

4E-08
3E-08
2E-08
1E-08
0
-1E-08 0
-2E-08
-3E-08
-4E-08

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Series1
0.025

400000
200000
0
-10000000

-5000000
-200000
-400000

5000000

Series1
10000000

sinwave function
0
0.008427736
0.016030507
0.017384291
0.01928473
0.0220641
0.025937905
0.027272727
0.025937905
0.0220641
0.016030507
0.008427736
-2.08817E-17
-0.008427736
-0.016030507
-0.0220641
-0.025937905
-0.027272727
-0.025937905
-0.0220641
-0.01928473
-0.016030507
-0.008427736
9.02096E-17

Mag.flux density B ( Tesla or w/m )


1.7

Resis. /m (20c)
2.16

Max.core loss@1.7T (W/Kg)


0.9

Resis. /m (20c)
0.106

300
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Series1
0.025

Min.induction (T) @ 800A/M

Min. lamination factor

1.88

94.5

Amplitude of primary voltage (v)


220
Secondary voltage Vs(V)
12
Secondary current Is(A)
0.5
Turns ratio
18
Number of primary turns Np
2202
Circular frequency Peak primary current
Frequency (Hz)
in rad/sec
Ipeak(A)
50

314.15927

0.027273

Change in time t
(sec)
0.001

0.008
0.009
0.01
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014
0.015
0.016
0.017
0.018
0.019
0.02

Time(sec) sinwave function

0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.01
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014
0.015
0.016
0.017
0.018
0.019
0.02

0
0.008427736
0.016030507
0.0220641
0.025937905
0.027272727
0.025937905
0.0220641
0.016030507
0.008427736
-2.08817E-17
-0.008427736
-0.016030507
-0.0220641
-0.025937905
-0.027272727
-0.025937905
-0.0220641
-0.016030507
-0.008427736
9.02096E-17

0.04
0.02
0
0
-0.02
-0.04

0.01

0.02

Series1
0.03