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It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. Applied Research it is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a new market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. Exploratory Research It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts. Descriptive Study It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. Diagnostic Study It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance. Evaluation Studies It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned also with change over time. 1
According to the methods of study. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data. “All progress is born of inquiry. although in itself it is not a part of research. Government budget formulation.VII. and the availability of revenues. research may be classified as: Experimental Research: It is designed to assess the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. for it leads to inquiry. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation. in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives. Analytical Study: It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. 2 . It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample thereof at particular time. and post experimental evaluation. depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of the people. planning. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. It brings out the significance of research. initiation of organizational change. Action Research It is a type of evaluation study. increase amounts of which makes progress possible. Historical Research: It is a study of past records and other information sources with a view to reconstructing the origin and development of an institution or a movement or a system and discovering the trends in the past.. Research helps to formulate alternative policies. Research also helps in the proper allocation of a country’s scare resources. to make comparisons and concerned with cause and effect relationships can be useful for making predications. Doubt is often better than overconfidence. besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. Question 1. implementation of participation and communication process. developing change programme. Hence it is also known as the Statistical Method. sharing of diagnostic information. which requires research. It includes six major steps: diagnosis. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking. What is the significance of research in social and business sciences? Significance of research in social and business sciences According to a famous Hudson Maxim. and inquiry leads to invention”. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. Its purpose is to provide information.b. explain phenomena. ……End…. for example. Survey: It is a fact-finding study. Research also facilitates the decision making of policy-makers.
Market research is refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases. That is. but the reverse is not true. a) Face validity . However. and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profit maximization. Content validity: This type of validity may be of two types. the limitation of this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions.Sampling validity refers to how representative the content of the measuring instrument is. a researcher may develop a scale to measure consumer attitudes towards a brand and pre-test the scale among a few experts. rather than through a statistical method.What is meant by validity? How does it differ from reliability and what are its types? Validity is a measurement scale. the researcher may conclude that the scale has face validity. However. based on the association between the results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual outcome. may be considered to be valid if it effectively measures a specific property or characteristic that it intends to measure. market research. an instrument that is not valid may or may not be reliable and an instrument that is not reliable is never valid. which are responsible for business decision making. an instrument that is reliable is not always valid. mathematical. b) Sampling validity . It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. A measuring instrument that is valid is always reliable. or the optimization problems. Predictive validity: This type of validity refers to the extent to which one behaviour can be predicted based on another.Face validity is determined through a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale. If the experts are satisfied with the scale. production and sales. Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. For example. Reliability and validity are closely interlinked. ……End…. All these researches are very useful for business and industry. operations research. 3 . as described below 1.. the measuring instrument’s content must be representative of the content universe of the characteristic being measured. Research is equally important to social scientist for analysing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. Operational research relates to the application of logical. Question 2. It also possesses practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to do something better or in a more efficient manner. Validity may be classified into different types. In several ways. In other words. 2.
50. In addition to these general sources.. 3. all the three types of validity discussed above should be determined. This is where literature review comes in.a. Thus. economic reviews. hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers. However. There are many reasons why literature review is rendered as a significant part of any research or dissertation paper. an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. Frequently. 4 . it is not to be expected that everybody would willingly believe on the research made. This will prove that research is not just writing about any random subject but that many others have also poured their thoughts on the topic. Question 3 . research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields. Why literature survey is important in research? A literature review is a compilation. Predictive validity would be strong if the coefficient is greater than . Construct validity: A construct is a conceptual equation that is developed by the researcher based on theoretical reasoning. Sociological journals. Literature review is a part of the researcher as it will give the opportunity to strengthen the research. A statistical measure of this association – the correlation coefficient – could be computed to determine the predictive validity of the admission test. classification. These relationships must be tested in order to determine the construct validity of a measuring instrument. Professional organizations. to make the research more credible it should be supported with facts. the predictive validity of the test would be determined by the association between the scores on the test and the grade point average secured by students during the first semester of study. The instrument may be considered to have construct validity only if the expected relationships are found to be true. ……End…. The researcher’s task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. Various kinds of relationships may be perceived by the researcher between a variable under study and other variables. some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service. In some areas of the subject matter. A literature review normally forms part of a research thesis but it can also stand alone as a self-contained review of writings on a subject.Example – In the case of an admission test designed for prospective MBA students. Research is made in order to inform people with new knowledge or discovery. the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research. When determining the validity of a particular measurement instrument. directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. and evaluation of what other researchers have written on a particular topic.
Making a Formal Statement The step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (H) and also of the alternative hypothesis (H). the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry. b. In brief.. in practice. 6. ……End…. The formulation of hypothesis is an important step which must be accomplished with due care in accordance with the object and nature of the problem under consideration.b.Question 3 . Objectivity: That is free being from all biases and vested interests. Systematization: That is attempting to find all the relevant data. Controlling conditions: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting to examine what happens when that variable is varied. What are the criteria of good research problem? Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research: 1. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below: a. To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid. means). Whether the hypothesis is directional or non – directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between say.Explain the procedure for Testing Hypothesis. but when H is of the type “whether greater or smaller” then we use a two-tailed test. A hypothesis is an assumption about relations between variables. 8. 7. This means that hypothesis should clearly state. 4. 2. Precision: That is making it as exact as necessary. considering the nature of the research problem. Generally. or giving exact number or measurement. Recording: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Training investigators: That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for. how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection. Accuracy: That is describing what really exists. The size of the sample. It also indicates whether we should use a tailed test or a two tailed test. It is a tentative explanation of the research problem or a guess about the research outcome. Selecting a Significant Level The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. Verifiable evidence: That is factual observations which other observers can see and check. either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. If H is of the type greater than. or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. 5 . The factors that affect the level of significance are: The magnitude of the difference between samples. 5. Question 4 . we use alone tailed test. The variability of measurements within samples. 3.
The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated earlier in the context of estimation. then we run some risk of committing error type II. In case we reject H we run a risk of (at most level of significance) committing an error of type I. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. Calculation of the Probability One has then to calculate the probability that the sample result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations. For example. but if the probability is greater then accept the null hypothesis. accept the alternative hypothesis). since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher.c. assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts. then reject the null hypothesis (i. Explain the components of a research design. d. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables.. the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. 6 . but if we accept H0. Comparing the Probability Yet another step consists in comparing the probability thus calculated with the specified value for a. while price is the independent variable. If the calculated probability is equal to smaller than a value in case of one tailed test (and a/2 in case of two-tailed test). e. However. if demand depends upon price. the dependent variable. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. draw a sample to furnish empirical data. if the null hypothesis were in fact true. ……End…. In this context. Question 5 – a. Deciding the Distribution to Use After deciding the level of significance. The components of research design: Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. Selecting A Random Sample & Computing An Appropriate Value Another step is to select a random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. For instance. then demand is a dependent variable. the significance level. intelligence may also influence the school performance. f. it would be known as an extraneous variable. The choice generally remains between distribution and the t distribution.e. In other words.
3. Case study would depend upon wit. when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. there are different perspectives from which any given study can be viewed. laboratory experiment) 4. a family. pre-experimental. Experimental. True experimental. Briefly explain the different types of research designs. common sense and imagination of the person doing the case study. quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). The mode of data collection (observational or survey) 6. descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) 8. The investigator makes up his procedure as he goes along. Exploratory. They are: 1. They are 1. historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association). Different type of research designs. an institution or a community. quasi-experimental designs and Survey Research Kidder and Judd). 9. What are the assumptions of Case Study Method? Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit or entity. Historical method. and laboratory experiments (Festinger and Katz) 6. descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) 7. The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost facto) 7. Sample surveys. Exploratory. Experimental. The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. Question 5 – b. ……End…. descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz. The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized) 2. The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal). field studies. Experimental and expost fact (Kerlinger) 4. Deutsch and Cook). Jahoda. Question 6 – a. Exploratory. Experimental. The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical study) 3. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable. and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) 5.. The time dimension (one-time or longitudinal) 5. be it a person. 2. 10. 7 . experiments in field settings. Assumptions of case study are – 1. „quasi-experimental designs‟ (Nachmias and Nachmias). In fact.
single stage probability sampling methods could be used. 9. statistical and historical data since these provide standards for assessing the reliability and consistency of the case material. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. Question 6 – b. But if the area and the size of the population are small. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise. 4. 8. If the life history has been written in the first person. it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. If the population is heterogeneous. stratified random sampling is appropriate. 6. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large. Explain the Sampling process? Sampling Process The decision process of sampling is complicated one. 5. Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. 7. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available.2. Life histories should have been written for knowledgeable persons. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. it must be as complete and coherent as possible. Where the finance is not a constraint. A judicious combination of techniques of data collection is a prerequisite for securing data that are culturally meaningful and scientifically significant. 4. 3. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. Efforts should be made to ascertain the reliability of life history data through examining the internal consistency of the material. or even rough results could serve the purpose? The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. 6. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. It is advisable to supplement case data by observational. is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. 8 . 3. Financial resources: If the available finance is limited. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: 1. 5. 2. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied.
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