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M.Karthick AE12M009 3rd Group
The aim of the experiment is to find the Euler buckling load of an Aluminium column using south well plot method. Description: Buckling is an elastic instability problem. When a structural member like column is subjected to an axial compressive load (along its length axis) as shown in figure -1 and if a small lateral disturbance is introduced and removed the column will back to its equilibrium position (aligned to its length axis) until the value of axial load reaches a critical value. At the critical value of axial load (Pcr) the lateral deflection of column will increase and it collapses due to the elastic instability.
Figure -1, Elastic Stability In practical due to uncertainties in the column geometry, axis of loading (eccentricity) and boundary conditions the column will start deflect laterally at the start of application of load. The critical buckling load can be obtained from the plot of lateral deflection / compressive load – vs – lateral deflection. The slope of the curve will be the critical buckling load of the column. The method is found by southwell, the plot is called as southwell plot. The advantage of the southwell plot is that the test specimen (column) need not to be loaded till the critical load. Test Specimen: The Aluminium column used for the experiment is shown in figure -2. It has the dimensions of (555mm X 10mm X 6.2mm – Length X Width X Depth). The youngs modulus (E) of the aluminium column is 70000 N/mm2. The moment of Inertia of the column (Ixx) is
10 × 6.23 12
= 198.61 𝑚𝑚4 .
Figure -2 Column Dimensions 1
A base channel (table) is placed below the moving platform and it is fixed. A fixed scale is mounted side by of the spring with the pointer. By turning the screw rod the whole setup moves up and down and the scale shows how much the spring got deflected under loading. The midpoint lateral deflection of the column (test specimen) is measured using a dial gauge with magnetic base. The end conditions of the column (boundary conditions) can be simulated by appropriate end condition bushes shown in figure -3. A calibrated spring is inserted in the screw which stiffness is (1 Kgf/mm). 2 . The dial gauge with the magnetic base is placed side by the test specimen on the base channel. The plunger of the dial gauge is located at the middle of the column and using the magnetic base the dial gauge is locked. The spring stiffness X the deflection measured in the scale will give the applied load. A platform is mounted between the rods on the top and it can move up and down along the rods by turning a screw rod.01mm. The least count of the dial gauge is (1 division on the dial) . The specimen will be mounted between the movable and fixed platforms using bushes. Figure -3 Test Setup Measuring Instruments: The fixed scale mounted along with the calibrated spring is used to measure the applied compressive load.Karthick AE12M009 3rd Group The test setup is shown in the figure -3. Two rigid rods of length 1300mm are placed apart by 498mm and they are grounded.Name: Roll No: Test Equipment: M.
The simply supported end condition bushes are used for the experiment. If the spring moves by 1mm the applied load is 1kgf. perfectly straight (no geometrical imperfections). Euler’s classical buckling theory predicts the critical buckling load of the slender column based on the following assumptions. The unloading also done in 6 load steps again the lateral deflection readings from the dial indicator are noted. The dial gauge plunger is located at the mid span of the test specimen and locked.Name: Roll No: Test Procedure: M. but they are very much weaker when subjected to compressive loadings. The slender structures suffer from elastic instability problem (buckling). The theoretical derivation to find the critical buckling load for a column with simply supported ends using equilibrium approach is as follows Figure -4 Euler Column nomenclatures M = Bending Moment.Karthick AE12M009 3rd Group The test specimen along with the end condition bushes (Aluminium column) is with the placed between the moving and fixed platform slots by adjusting the moving platform. Theoretical Analysis: The aircraft structures are designed to achieve high strength to weight ratio. The long slender structures are good when subjected to tensile loading. longerons). they fail (form failure) much before the yield stress of the material is reached. which lead to long slender structures (spars. The column is homogenous. and there is no lateral deflection of the column till it reaches the critical buckling load. I = Moment of Inertia v = Lateral deflection d2 v M = −EI 2 dx 3 . the loading axis is perfectly coincides with the centroid axis of the column’s cross section. 30Kgf load is applied (6 load steps). The screw rod is rotated slowly to apply the compressive load to the aluminium column. Buckling of columns will happen along it’s minor principal axis. isotropic. The load is applied in steps of 5kgf and the lateral deflections are noted at every 5kgf of compressive load.
the general solution to the v = 0 (@ x = 0) = (A × sin 0) + (B × cos 0) = B = 0 v = 0 (@ x = l) = A × sin kl = 0 If A = 0 then it is a trivial solution. It is not practical to have column with perfectly straight (geometrical imperfections) and the loading axis exactly coincides with the centre of gravity axis of the column.Lateral Deflection In practical the first critical buckling load is important and the column will collapse for the first load itself. so Sin kl = 0. the second mode is not possible for columns in practise. The Critical buckling load Pcr and the deflected shape is given by EI P = Compressive load dx2 d2 v + Pv = 0 M = − Pv M. The eccentricity of the load can be modelled mathematically as follows. n = 2 corresponds to second critical buckling load (figure -5) and so on. The presence of the moment due to eccentricity of the load at one end will cause the horizontal reactions at the both end as shown in figure -7. l2 v = A sin nπx l n=1 n=2 n=3 Figure -5 Buckling Mode shapes Figure – 6 Compressive Load .2. n = 1.x = Length Axis d2 v dx2 Name: Roll No: problem is v = A sin kx + B cos kx + k 2 v = 0 . we need non trivial solution for critical buckling load.Karthick AE12M009 3rd Group ----Where A & B constants to be evaluated from boundary conditions.3 …. kl = nπ. k 2 = P/EI-----linear homogeneous differential equation. n2 π2 EI Pcr = . 4 .vs . n =1 corresponds to first critical buckling load and first mode shape (figure -4).
v = 0 (@ x = 0) = (A × sin 0) + (B × cos 0) − sin kx sin kl x l ---Where A & B constants to be evaluated from boundary conditions. v = ∞ (0 < x < l) for kl = π. Spring Position on the scale (mm) Initial Position 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 Dial Indicator readings (divisions) Loading Un Loading 15 17 22 19 28 25 37 34 46 42 57 54 72 72 Table -1 Experimental Readings v=e � Pcr − 1� the equation can be re arranged as vmid = Pcr � − � . Experiment Readings & Calculation: Table -1 presents the readings taken from the scale attached to spring (spring deflection) and the dial indicator readings (mid span deflection).Name: Roll No: M.Spring Position on the scale) mm 5 . and the intercept (b) of the curve represents the eccentricity of the load. A = e/ sin kl. l e straight line equation y = mx + b. the solution is a trivial solution and the deflection is given by vmid = e / � The midpoint deflection (x =l/2) of the beam with relation to critical buckling load can be written as P vmid v = A sin kx + B cos kx − x e l e = Eccentricity of loading (figure -5). The slope of the curve ( − vs − vmid ) gives the critical buckling load P of the column. (first mode) p 0=B=0 vmid � − e which is in form of a Applied Load (kgf) = Spring Stiffness (kgf /mm) X (Initial Position of the spring .Karthick AE12M009 3rd Group d2 v Pe EI 2 + Pv = − x dx l Figure -7 Description of Eccentricity in Load v = 0 (@ x = l) = (A × sin kl) − e = 0.
395 0.Karthick AE12M009 3rd Group Mid Span Deflection (mm) = (Initial Position on dial indicator – dial reader) X least count of the dial indicator (mm) Average = (loading deflection + unloading deflection) / 2 Table .44E-07 2. mid span deflection from the experimental readings and mid span v deflection / applied load � mid �.00047412 3.045 0.009 0.105 0.032kgf 6 .28 0.68E-05 6.263333 (x .00030356 0.013 0.002306 0.395 0.0187 𝑣𝑚𝑖𝑑 𝑝 � Point Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Straight line equation from the experimental readings is obtained using the formula below y = mx + b.045 0.32E-06 2.00049 0.000506 0. Mid Span Deflection (mm) (Y-axis) 0.4658 e = 0.03177 -0.296667 (x .21833 -0.M.00153443 0.00098129 0.4259E-06 0.00299 -0.56E-07 5.3787E-05 8.0158 0.00449 -0. -----.56 -0.02E-05 8.0158 0.x)2 � 2.x) × (y .97E-06 2.280 0.560 p Name: Roll No: Applied Load (kgf) 5 10 15 20 25 30 Deflection / load � (X-axis) 0.0090 0.0140 0.Exp = 54.17E-05 0.105 0.984678 m 54.195 0.013494 y-y � x � x 0.131667 0.The goodness of fit Table -3 presents the straight line equation calculation x-x � 0.466mm Pcr.0105 0.15833 -0.0105 0.014 0.00333561 r2 y � 0.016667 0.0130 0.005172 Sum b & -0.2 gives calculated applied load.195 0.y) � � 0.06833 0.018667 y 0.
The curve fitting method used for fitting the data into a linear curve is an approximation method. The southwell plot will get affected by the imperfections in the test setup and readings. the imperfection in the geometry of the column should be measured using advanced techniques (laser measurements) to improve the theoretical calculation by taking the initial geometric imperfection into account. Dial indicator is used for lateral deflection measurement of the column.032 Buckling Load of the Column (Kgf) Observations & Conclusion: Theory 45. some precision techniques like hydraulic pistons can be used for better control in the eccentricity of loading. LVDT sensors along with the digital output can be employed to get better lateral deflection readings. some other methods like hydraulic devices can be employed for better control of rate of loading.61 5552 = 445.Name: Roll No: M. 7 . The loading device uses the spring to estimate the applied force.Theory = 45.408 The critical buckling load of the aluminium column estimated from the southwell plot method is 20% more than the theoretical calculated value. and it can be automated.Karthick AE12M009 3rd Group The Euler’s classical buckling load = Pcr = Pcr.40775kgf. which is not so reliable. The screw rod controls the direction of loading. π2 EI l2 = Graph -1 π2 × 70e3 × 198. The imperfection is only thought of due to loading (eccentric loading).45N Experiment 54.
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