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There are two fundamental processes of Calculus, Differentiation and Integration. These processes are applied to functions. To carry them out, one has to be familiar with functions. A function is a Rule. Usually we use small letters f, g, h ...... to denote different functions ` a ` a ` a or different rules, such as f x = x @ 1, g x = 10x 2 , h x = x 2 + 3x @ 2 etc.
Definition: Let A and B be two non-empty sets. A function f from A to B is a rule that associates, with each value of x in set A, exactly one value f(x) in set B. The function is indicated by the notation f :A Q B. f(x) is read “f of x”. We usually consider functions for which sets A and B are sets of real numbers.
f(a) is the value of f(x) when x=a. ` a ` a If f x = 2x @ 3 then f 2 = 2.2 @ 3 = @ 1
The set A, which contains all possible values of the variable x is called the Domain, and the set B which contains the corresponding values of f(x) or y is called the Range of the function (Range consists only of those elements of B which are actually paired with elements of A). We call x the independent variable because we choose it first, and from that we calculate y, which is called dependent variable. Example: Find the Domain & Range of the`function. a (a) f(x) = Sin x. (b) f x = 2x 2 @ 8x + 2 Solution : a) Here xQ can be any real number, so the Domain is the set of real numbers R or P x 2 R . All values of Sin x lie between -1 and 1. So, Range is @ 1 ≤ y ≤ 1 or
b) It can be rewritten as
y 2 R :@ 1 ≤ y ≤ 1 .
y = f x = 2x 2 @ 8x + 2 = 2 x 2 @ 4x + 2
= 2 x 2 @ 4x + 4 @ 8 + 2 = 2 x @ 2 @ 6
b c ` a2
Here x can be any real number, so the Domain is the set of real numbers R or As the value of square of any real number cannot be negative therefore, B c R S Thus y ≥ @ 6. So, Range is the interval @ 6, 1 or y 2 R : y ≥ @ 6 .
x @ 2 ≥ 0.
x 2R .
g w w w w w w 1f b w c ff1ffff@fffff f fffffffffff fffffff f fff f + h fff 1 Example : Let f x = 2x @ 5x + 3. Evaluate f 2 , f @ f , f p a , ffffffffffff 2 h ` a f ` a ` a
Solution : Substituting the values of x in f(x) we get ` a 2 f 2 = 2 A2 @ 5.2 + 3 = 8 @ 10 + 3 = 1
f g f g2 f g
1f 1f 1f 1f 5f f f f f f f @ f = 2 A @ f @ 5 @ f + 3 = f+ f+ 3 = 6 2 2 2 2 2
bwc b w c2 bwc w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w f p a = 2 p a @ 5 p a + 3 = 2a @ 5 p a + 3
B ` C B C a2 ` a 2 ` a ` a 5 ffffffffff fffff5.1fffff h + f fffff ffff + f 2f1fffff@ffff+fffffffffffffffffffff +ffffffffffffff3f@f2fff@fffffff hfff ff1 fffffffffffA1 fffffff3 f fffffffffffff ffffffffff f f f1ffff@fffff ffff f ff fffffffffff ffff ff+ffff f fff f f h fff 1 f
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff = fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff h C B 2 2fffff+fffffffff5hffffff0f + 4h f 2h @ 5 @ ff + 3 @ f ffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffff = fffffffffffffffffffffffff h 2 @fffffff h + ff ffffffff ffff2hf = ffffffff= @ 1 + 2h h
2 1 + 2h + h @ 5 1 + h + 3 @ 2 @ 5 + 3
A function can also be defined differently for different sets of values of x. Example : Find f @ 1 and f 2 where the function f(x) is defined as follows : X for x<0 ` a \2x + 1 f x =Z 2 for x ≥ 0 1 @ 2x Solution : ` a Since @ 1<0, using f x = 2x + 1 we get f @ 1 = 2 @ 1 + 1 = @ 1
` a ` a
Since 2 ≥ 0, using f x = 1 @ 2x 2
we get f 2 = 1 @2.2 = 1 @ 8 = @ 7
GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS
The graph of f is the set of all points (x,y) such that y = f(x) Or The graph of f is the graph of the equation y =f(x) To draw the graph of y = f x we make a table consisting two columns : one for x and one for y [or f(x)]. We take different values of x and calculate the corresponding values of y [or f(x)]. Then we plot the points on a graph paper and join them with a smooth curve to get the graph of the function .
Example : Draw the the graph of f x = x 3
Solution : We first make a table. We take different values of x and calculate the corresponding values of y [or f(x)]. Then we plot the points on a graph paper and join them with a smooth curve to get the graph x: y or f(x) : -2
-8 3f f @ f 2 27f ff f f @ ff 8 -1 -1 1f f @ f 2 1f f @ f 8 0 0 1f f f 2 1f f f 8 1 2 3f f f 2 27f ff ff f f 8 2 8
The absolute value of a real number x, written Therefore, | 5 | = 5,
LM as LxM= V
if x ≥ 0 if x < 0 A
| -5 | = -(-5) = 5.
The concept of intervals is very useful in calculus. An uninterrupted portion of a number line is called an interval. The interval represents the collection of all the infinite number of points in that portion. We may write an interval like [-3,2] which means all the real numbers on the number line from -3 to 2 or all real numbers x where @ 3 ≤ x ≤ 2 A The interval (-3,2) means @ 3<x<2 .
(a,b) is called an open interval
[a,b] is called an closed interval
Some more commonly used intervals are : S @ a R a, + 1 = x | x 2 R and x ≥ a
` ` `
[a,b) is an interval open at one end and closed atc Rother, where the B S a,b = x | x 2 R and a ≤ x<b
a,b = x | x 2 R and a<x<b
C R c R
a,b = x | x 2 R and a ≤ x ≤ b
a, + 1 = x | x 2 R and x>a
a R A R a R
@1 ,a = x | x 2 R and x ≤ a
@1 ,a = x | x 2 R and x<a
Interval @ 2,1 = x | x 2 R and @ 2<x<1
B b c c R R
Interval @ 2, + 1 = x | x 2 R and @ 2 ≤ x
SLOPE OF A LINE
The slope of a line is a number which indicates the direction or the slant of the line. It is generally represented by “m”. For a non-vertical line passing through ` a ` a P x1 , y1 and Q x 2 , y 2 the slope of the line segment PQ is
yffffff Δff y ffffff fffff ff ff 2 @ y1 Slope = m = ffffff = fff = x 2 @ x1 Δx Changefffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffcoordinatef fffffffffffffffffff fffff in y @ fffffffff Change in x @ coordinate
The slope of a horizontal line is 0, because as we move along the line the x-coordinate Δyf 0f ff ff ff ff f = f= changes, but the y coordinate does not change. Δy = 0 here A So, m = fff fff 0 A Δx Δx
The slope of a vertical line is not defined, because as we move along the line the xΔyf Δyf ff ff ff ff f coordinate does not change, but the y coordinate changes. Δx = 0 here A So, m = fff fff = f Δx 0 which is not defined (a symbol with denominator 0 does not signify a number).
For other lines, if the slope is positive, then it slopes up i.e. with increase in xcoordinate, the y-coordinate increases. If the slope is negative, then it slopes down i.e. with increase in x-coordinate, the y-coordinate decreases.
Parallel & Perpendicular lines:
If two lines l 1 and l 2 have slopes m1 and m2 : The lines are parallel or l1 || l 2 if and only if m1 = m2 The lines are perpendicular or l1 ? l 2 if and only if m1 Bm2 = @ 1
In the above picture the lines l 3 ? l 4 as their slopes are 1 and -1 and ` a m1 B m2 = 1 A @ 1 = @ 1
Example : Find the slope of the line joining points A (1,-3) and B (-2,1). Solution : Taking x1 = 1, y1 = @ 3, x 2 = @ 2, y 2 = 1 ` a yffffff 1fff@fff fff @ fff 4f ffffff fffffff fff ffffff fffffff 4ff fffff ffff3 f ff f f f f 2 @ y1 =` a = =@ Slope of AB = m = 3 x 2 @ x1 @2 @1 @3 Example : Find the slope of a line perpendicular to the line joining A(-3,1) and B(2,3).
Slope of AB = m1 = 2@ @3 5 If the slope of the line perpendicular to it is m2 then m1 Bm2 = @ 1 5f 2f f f f f multiply both sides with [ Bm2 = @ 1 2 5 5f 5f f f f f [ m2 = @ A # Slope of a line perpendicular to AB is @ A 2 2 3@1 fffffff 2f fffffff f fffffff f fffffff ` a=
DIFFERENT FORMS OF EQUATIONS FOR STRAIGHT LINES
General or Standard form:
A linear equation of x and y represents a straight line and is called the general form or the standard form of the equation of the line. This is written as
Ax + By + C = 0 where A,B,C are real numbers and both A and B are not 0 at the same time
Thus 2x @ 3y @ 5 = 0, p3 x + y = 0, 3x @ 2 = 0, y @ 4 = 0 are equations of straight lines. In 2x @ 3y @ 5 = 0, A = 2, B = @ 3, C = @ 5 A w w w w w w w w w w w w In p3 x + y = 0, A = p3 , B = 1, C = 0 A
Many a times we are required to find the general form of equation of a line from its slope, a few known points on the line or its intercepts on the axes. There we take help of the following forms :
Point-Slope form : ` a If the line passes through the point x1 , y1 and its slope is m , then the equation of the line can be written in the form ` a y @ y1 = m x @ x1 Intercept Form : If a line intersects the x-axis at A(a,0) and the y-axis at B(0,b) then a is called the xintercept and b the y-intercept. Then the equation of the line can be written in the form
w w w w w w
xf yf f ff f f f f + = 1 where a ≠ 0, b ≠ 0 a b
Slope-Intercept form : If the slope of a line is m and it intersects the y-axis at B(0,b) ( i.e. the y-intercept is b ), then the equation is y = mx + b
Example : Find the equation of the straight line which (a) passes through the point (3,4) and has a slope -2. 2f f (b) has a slope f and crosses y–axis at -3. 3 Solution : ` a ` a a Using the point @ slope form y @ y1 = m x @ x1 we get ` a y @4 =@2 x @3 y @ 4 = @ 2x + 6 2x + y @ 10 = 0 this is the required equation A ` a b Using the slope @ intercept form y = mx + b we get 2f f y = fx @ 3 3 3y = 2x @ 9 2x @ 3y @ 9 = 0 this is the required equation A
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