DIFFERENTIATION - I
Let us take the graph of a function f . We know that the point ( x,f(x) ) is a point on the graph. What line, if any, should be the tangent to the graph at this point?
We can take another point on ( x+h, f(x+h) ) on the graph and draw a secant line through these two points. Keeping ( x,f(x) ) fixed, we move the other point closer to it (h tends to zero from the left or from the right). The secant line tends to a limiting position. This is “the tangent to the graph at the point ( x,f(x) )”. If this limit exists, that is defined to be the slope of the tangent line at that fixed point ( x,f(x) ) on the graph of y = f (x).
DIFFERENTIABILITY & THE DERIVATIVE OF A FUNCTION
Differentiation is the process of finding the derivative of a function. A function f is said to be differentiable at x if and only if
ffff+fffffffff x fh @f x ffffffffffff ffffffffffff ffffffffffff lim exists. hQ0 h
` a ` a
If this limit exists, it is called the derivative of f at x and is denoted by f. x .
ffffffffffffff x + f fff f fffffffffffff ffffffffffxff ffffhf@ f fff Therefore, f. x = lim . hQ 0 h
` a ` a ` a
If we draw a tangent to the graph at this point, the slope of the tangent is equal to f. x .
The derivative of a function y = f(x) with respect to x at a point x = x 0 is given by ffffffhf@ffffff x 0 + f ff x 0 f ` a fffffffffffff ffffffff fffff f. x 0 = lim ffffffffffffff provided that this limit exists. hQ0 h
b c ` a
This limit is also called the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x at x = x 0 .
` a ff ` a dyf dff ff ff ff ff f f x = ff The d/dx notation : If y = f(x), then we can write f. x = dx dx
The derivative of the function y =f(x) with respect to x may be indicated by any one of
` a dyf ff ff ff f y , , y. , f. x , Dx , Dx f, the symbols dx dx
dff ff` a ff ff
dfffff fffff ffx f ffff f . We can use any of these, dx
while solving problems.
A function is said to be differentiable at a point x = x 0 if the derivative of the function exists at that point.
Also, if a function is differentiable at every point in an interval, the function is said to be differentiable on that interval. If we say “a function (of x) is differentiable” without mentioning the interval, we mean that it is differentiable for every value of x in its domain.
1. The function
f x = x 3 @ 3x
is differentiable on the interval (-1,1) as it is
differentiable at every point in that interval. 2. The function f x = |x @ 2| is not differentiable on the interval (1,3) as it is not differentiable at x = 2 which lies in that interval. Example : Find f’(x) for the function f x = x 2 + 4 . Solution :
` a ` a
We formthe difference quotient
B` C B C a2 ` a ` a xfffffffffffxfffff +fffffffffffff4 f hff+fffffffffff 4ffff fffff @ f2 + f ffff+fffffffff fffffffff x fh @f x ffffffffffff fff f f ffffffffffff fff ffffffffffff f
= h h 2 2 2 + 2xh + h + 4 @ x 2 @ 4 xfffffffffffffffffffff 2xhfffff fffffffffffffffffffff fffffff fffffffffffffffffffff fffffff ffffffffffffffffffff ffffff ff+ h = = = 2x + h h h
` a ` a ` a
fffffffffffff x + h @f x ` a ffffffffffff ffffffffffff Therefore f. x = lim fffffffffffff lim 2x + h = 2x = hQ0 hQ0 h Example : Find f. @ 3 and f. @ 1 given that f x = x 2 Solution :
` a ` a ` a
ffff3 ffff@fffffff @ f + h fff @ 3 fffffffffffffff ffffffffff fffff By definition f. @ 3 = lim ffffffffffffffff hQ0 h ` a2 ` a2 @ffffffffffffff fffffffffffffff ffffffffffffff ffffffffffffff f3 + h @ @ 3 = lim hQ0 h c b 2 9 fffffffff@ff @ 6h + h ff 9 ffffffffffffff ffffffffffffff fffffffffff f f = lim hQ0 h 2 @fffffff 6h + h ffffffff fffffff = lim ffffffff hQ0 h a ` = lim @ 6 + h
` a ` a ` a
ffff1 ffff@fffffff @ f + h fff @ 3 fffffffffffffff ffffffffff fffff f. @ 1 = lim ffffffffffffffff hQ0 h ` a2 ` a2 @fffffffffffff fffffhffff@ffff ffffffffffffff ffffffffff 1 ff f1 + f @ fff = lim hQ0 h ` a = lim @ 2 + h
` a ` a ` a
Alternative method : Find f. x from f(x) first, and to put x=-3 and x=-1 in f. x to get f. @ 3 and f. @ 1 as shown below
ffff+fffffffff x fh @f x ffffffffffff ffffffffffff ffffffffffff f. x = lim hQ0 h ` a2 2 xf+ffffffff ffffffffff ffffffffff ffffffffff fh @x = lim hQ0 h b c 2 2 xfffffffffffffxff +fffffffffffff 2xhfffffffff +fffffff h @ f2 fffffff f fffffff fff f = lim hQ0 h 2 2xhfffff fffffff fffffff ffffff ff+ h = lim hQ0 h ` a = lim 2x + h
` a ` a ` a
Therefore f. @ 3 = 2 A @ 3 = @ 6 ` a ` a and f. @ 1 = 2 A @ 1 = @ 2
` ` a
Example : Find the derivative of f x = x 3 + 5 at the point (2,13).
f x = x3 + 5 f. x
` a ` a
= = = = =
fffffffffffff x + h @f x ffffffffffff ffffffffffff lim fffffffffffff hQ0 h B` C B C a3 xfffffffffffxfffff +fffffffffffff5 f hff+fffffffffff 5ffff fffff @ f3 + f fff f f fff f lim fffffffff hQ0 h b c 2 3 3 2 xfffffffffffffffffff5fffffff5f +fffffff3xhfffhffffffffffff 3xffffffffffffffff@ffffff hfffffffffffffff x 3 @ f + fff + f + f fffffff fffff fff f lim ffffffff hQ0 h 2 3 2 3xfffffffffffff fffffffffffff fffffffffffff f h + 3xh + h lim ffffffffffffff hQ0 h b c 2 2 lim 3x + 3xh + h
` a ` a
Therefore f. 2 = 3.2
` a b c
Hence the derivative of f x = x 3 + 5 at the point 2,13 is 12 A
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENTIABILITY AND CONTINUITY
If a function f is differentiable x, it is continuous at x.
But if a function is continuous at x, it may or may not be differentiable at x. Example : 1. The function f x = x 3 @ 3x is differentiable on its whole domain (which is R). As differentiability implies continuity, it is continuous at every point. 2. f(x) = |x| is continuous at any real value of x. But as continuity does not imply differentiability, we have to check its differentiability at every at every point. We find that at x=0, it is not differentiable though continuous. 3. The function
2 ` a xfffff @4 fffff ffff f x = fffff is not continuous at x @2
x = 2 . As continuity is
necessary for differentiability, it is not differentiable at that point.
dyf ff ff f If y is a function of x that satisfies the equation x 3 y @ 4y + 2 = 0 and we are to find ff, dx
2 f fffff fffff ffff one way is to first solve it for y and write y = ffff3f and then differentiate it to get 4@x
c@ 1 c@ 2 b c ` ab dyf ff fffff dfb 6x 2 2 ff ff d f fffff ff ff fffff f ff fffff f ff ff ff f ffffffff fffffff fffffff fffffff = =2 4 @ x3 = 2 @ 1 4 @ x3 @ 3x 2 = b c2 . dx dx dx 4 @ x 3 3 4@x f g
But had the equation been x 3 y @ 4 y 3 + 2 = 0 , we could not solve it for y. In that case dyf ff ff f how would we get the expression for ff ? dx Here, we use Implicit Differentiation method which mainly uses the chain rule. Till now dyf dyf ff ff f ff ff f we always got ff in terms of x only. But in the cases like this, ff involves y too apart dx dx from x. Writing the equation again,
x 3 y @ 4 y 3 + 2 = 0 differentiating both sides fo the equation with respect to x, we get b dff c ffb 3c ff` a ff` a dff dff dff ff 3 ff ff ff ff ff x y @ ff 4 y + ff 2 = ff 0 dx dx dx dx b c b c F G ffb ` dff dff a dff c dyf ff ff ff ff ff ff ff f y A ff x 3 + x 3 A ff y @ ff 4 y 3 A ff+ 0 = 0 using chain rule wherever required dx dx dy dx dyf dyf ff ff f ff ff f y A 3x 2 + x 3 A ff @ 12 y 2 A ff = 0 dx dx 2 dyf 3x f ff ff ff f ffffffff ffffffff ffffy fff = ffffffff dx 12 y 2 @ x 3
dyf ff ff f Having y in ff is no disadvantage. This is quite common in practical problems. Many a dx cases equation of the curve is such that the slope of the tangent on it at any point may depend on the y value at that point too. dyf dxf ff ff ff f ff ff f . In that case, we can use the relation Sometimes, finding ff is easier than finding dx dy
dyf ff ff ff ff 1 f f ff f f = dxf ff ff ff ff f dx
dyf w w w w w w w ff ff f Example : Find ff given that x = p y @ 2 dx
First method : x =py @2 w w w w w w w py =x + 2
` a2 w w w w w w w
y = x + 2 = x 2 + 4x + 4 dyf ff ff ff f = 2x + 4 dx Second method : w w w w w w w x = py @2 dxf 1 fffff ffff ffff ff ff ff f = fffff w w w w w w w py 2 dy dyf w w w w w w w w w w w w w w ff ff ff f = 2 p y putting p y = x + 2 we get dx = 2x + 4
Example : Find the slope of the curve x 2 + y 2 = 25 at the point (3,4). Solution :
x 2 + y 2 = 25 differentiating both sides with respect to x we get b c b c d ` a dff dff ff 2 ff ff ff 2 ff ff ff ff ff ff x + y = 25 using chain rule we get dx dx dx b dff c ff ff 2 dyf ff ff ff ff f 2x + y A =0 dy dx dyf ff ff ff f 2x + 2y A =0 dx dyf yf ff ff ff f ff f f =@ dx x b c 4f f f f Slope of the curve at 3,4 = @ 3