CARS Model of Research Introductions for Genre Analysis

Move 1: Establishing a Territory
1. Claiming Centrality In the last 30 years, researchers studying genre in both academic and workplace contexts have come to some agreement that we should see genre as more than “formal categories” or types (Miller, Berkenkotter & Hucken, Devitt, Bawarshi & Reiff). 2. Making Topic Generalizations While much of this work stems from an understanding of genres as “typified responses to recurring situations” (Bitzer), recent scholarship also urges us to recognize that genres,

3. Reviewing Previous Items of Research (Synthesis) as Carolyn Miller points outs, accomplish “social actions” in our everyday lives. Genres are not simply ways of achieving specific aims, they represent “what ends we may have” – the socio-material structures that govern our lives and co-constitute our social realities. Miller’s work has been fundamental to the work of later researchers, especially Carol Berkenkotter and Thomas Huckin’s article “Rethinking Genre From a Sociocognitive Perspective” which describe genres as subject to constant change, situated in specific social dynamics, and both reflecting and creating social norms, ideologies, and epistemologies of particular (discourse) communities—whether they are academic or vocational. The relationship of genre to discourse community is further explored by Devitt, Bawarshi, & Reiff who, in an analysis genres such as the Patient Medical History Form (PMHF) and jury instructions, demonstrate that genres may often have different implications for the different communities and groups of people involved. Extending the research of Miller by providing specific examples and analysis, Devitt, Bawarshi, & Reiff also emphasize the material consequences genres have on individual lives. The attention to the interplay of discourse community and genre is also something emphasized by Beaufort, who analyzes the acquisition of different workplace genres by workerwriters. One of Beaufort’s ultimate findings is that writers need to be both immersed

in the discourse community as well be trained in number of complex rhetorical and lexical features to completely master a genre.

Move 2: Establishing a Niche
Indicating a Gap / Continuing a Tradition While much has been learned about the implications of genre within professional communities in recent years, further opportunities remain for the study of genre as “situated” (Berkenkotter & Hucken) “social action” (Miller).

Move 3: Occupying a Niche
State Purpose; forecast analysis, findings, implications In the following , I analyze two specific genres primary school teachers use often in order to be successful in the workplace: the grant proposal and syllabus. My analysis of these genres seeks to contextualize them within specific social dynamics common to situations many public school teachers face. In performing this analysis, I hope to provide further evidence of Miller’s theories on genres as “social action,” while also providing a more in-depth look at specific textual features (and their purposes) of these genres. Preview ultimate findings/structure of the essay (In other words, you need to come back to this point)

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