Infrastructure

FEBRUARY 2013 Vol. 35 No. 2
33 The Gold Line Bridge
CI_2_12
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Concrete international february 2013 3
FEbruary 2013 Vol. 35 No. 2
INFraSTruCTurE
33 The Gold Line bridge
Overcoming design, seismic, and safety challenges to build
California’s newest landmark
37 The aCI 562 repair Code
New document flls a major gap in the concrete repair industry
by Keith Kesner
41 use of Precast Slabs in rapid Construction
Pavement rehabilitation on I-66 in Virginia
by M. Shabbir Hossain and H. Celik Ozyildirim
47 Modeling Corrosion Effects
An examination of chloride-induced deterioration of a bridge
deck with epoxy-coated reinforcement
by Soundar Balakumaran, Richard E. Weyers, and
Michael C. Brown
55 aCPa 23rd annual Excellence in Concrete Pavements
awards
aLSO FEaTurING
23 Forming the Future
Highlights of the ACI Fall 2012 Convention in Toronto
73 Concrete Q&a
Evaluation of strength results
59
36
4 february 2013 Concrete international
February
Concrete international
departments
6 educational Seminars
7 President’s Memo
11 News
14 Calls for Papers
16 aCI Committee
Document abstracts
18 On the Move
20 Industry focus
60 What’s New, What’s Coming
61 Products & Practice
64 Product Showcase
66 Public Discussion
68 Meetings
69 Spanish Translation Synopses
70 bookshelf
71 bulletin board
71 advertisers’ Index
72 Membership application
42
aMErICaN CONCrETE INSTITuTE
http://www.concrete.org
Tel. (248) 848-3700
fax. (248) 848-3150
The recently completed Gold Line
Bridge, northeast of Los Angeles,
is the largest public art/transit
infrastructure project in California.
The bridge design was inspired by
the indigenous peoples and wildlife
of the San Gabriel Valley. Formed
grooves and hatch-marks on the
curved underbelly of the superstructure
simulate the patterns of the Western
Diamondback snake. For more on
this landmark project, see the article
on p. 33. (Photo courtesy of the
Metro Gold Line Foothill Extension
Construction Authority.)
PubLIShEr
John C. Glumb, Cae
(John.Glumb@concrete.org)
EdITOr-IN-ChIEF
rex C. Donahey, Pe, LeeD aP
(rex.Donahey@concrete.org)
ENGINEErING EdITOr
W. agata Pyc
(agata.Pyc@concrete.org)
MaNaGING EdITOr
Keith a. Tosolt
(Keith.Tosolt@concrete.org)
EdITOrIaL aSSISTaNT
Kaitlyn J. Hinman
(Kaitlyn.Hinman@concrete.org)
adVErTISING
Jeff rhodes
Network Media Partners, Inc.
(jrhodes@networkmediapartners.com)
Publishing services
MaNaGEr
barry M. bergin
EdITOrS
Carl r. bischof (Senior Editor),
Karen Czedik, Kelli r. Slayden,
Denise e. Wolber
GraPhIC dESIGNErS
Gail L. Tatum (Senior Designer),
Susan K. esper, ryan M. Jay,
Joshua J. Morrow
EdITOrIaL aSSISTaNT
ashley a. Poirier
Copyright © 2013 American Concrete Institute. Printed in the United States of America. All correspondence should be directed to the
headquarters offce: 38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331. Telephone: (248) 848-3700. Facsimile (FAX): (248) 848-3701.
Concrete International (US ISSN 0162-4075) is published monthly by the American Concrete Institute, 38800 Country Club Drive,
Farmington Hills, MI 48331. Periodicals postage paid at Farmington, MI, and at additional mailing offices. Concrete
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prepaid. POSTMASTER: send address changes to Concrete International, 38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331.
The Institute is not responsible for the statements or opinions expressed in its publications. Institute publications are not able to,
nor intended to supplant individual training, responsibility, or judgment of the user, or the supplier, of the information presented.
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should be addressed to the Publisher, Concrete International, American Concrete Institute. Canadian GST #126213149RT
Concrete international february 2013 5
IN Ci
board of direction
Neal S. Anderson
Khaled W. Awad
Roger J. Becker
Jefrey W. Coleman
Robert J. Frosch
James R. Harris
President
James K. Wight
Vice Presidents
technical actiVities
committee
chair
David A. Lange
secretary
Daniel W. Falconer
JoAnn P. Bowning
Chiara F. Ferraris
Catherine E. French
Trey Hamilton
Ronald J. Janowiak
Kevin A. MacDonald
Antonio Nanni
Jan Olek
Michael M. Sprinkel
Pericles C. Stivaros
Andrew W. Taylor
Eldon G. Tipping
Luis E. García
Florian G. Barth
Kenneth C. Hover
Anne M. Ellis William E. Rushing Jr.
directors
Past President
Board memBers
american Concrete Institute
educational actiVities
committee
chair
David M. Suchorski
staff liaison
Michael L. Tholen
Alejandro Duran-Herrera
Mary Beth Hueste
Frances T. Grifth
Tarek S. Kahn
Kimberly E. Kurtis
Thomas O. Malerk
John J. Myers
William D. Palmer Jr.
Lawrence L. Sutter
Lawrence H. Taber
David W. Whitmore
certification Programs
committee
chair
George R. Wargo
staff liaison
John W. Nehasil
Khaled W. Awad
Roger J. Becker
Heather J. Brown
Cesar A. Constantino
Alejandro Duran-Herrera
J. Mitchell Englestead
Brian Green
Frances T. Grifth
Charles S. Hanskat
Joe Hug
Thomas O. Malerk
Ed T. McGuire
William D. Palmer Jr.
John J. Schemmel
Vinicio Suarez
Eldon Tipping
Cecil L. Jones
Steven H. Kosmatka
David A. Lange
Denis Mitchell
Jack Moehle
David H. Sanders
Certifcation and chapters:
John W. Nehasil,
Managing Director
(John.Nehasil@concrete.org)
Customer and member support:
Melinda G. Reynolds, Manager
(Melinda.Reynolds@concrete.org)
Engineering:
Daniel W. Falconer,
Managing Director
(Daniel.Falconer@concrete.org)
Finance and administration:
Donna G. Halstead,
Managing Director
(Donna.Halstead@concrete.org)
Publishing and event services:
Renée J. Lewis, Director
(Renee.Lewis@concrete.org)
aci staff
Professional development:
Michael L. Tholen,
Managing Director
(Mike.Tholen@concrete.org)
Sales and membership:
Diane L. Baloh, Director
(Diane.Baloh@concrete.org)
Strategic Development Council/
Marketing, sales, and
industry relations:
Douglas J. Sordyl,
Managing Director
(Douglas.Sordyl@concrete.org)
Sustainability:
Kevin P. Mlutkowski, Director
(Kevin.Mlutkowski@concrete.org)
Website strategy and content:
Christopher J. Darnell, Director
(Chris.Darnell@concrete.org)
Executive Vice President: Ronald Burg (Ron.Burg@concrete.org)
Senior Managing Director: John C. Glumb (John.Glumb@concrete.org)
Ronald Burg
executiVe Vice President
See pages 8-9 for a list of aCI’s Sustaining Members.
To learn more about our sustaining members, go to the aCI website at
www.concrete.org/members/mem_sustaining.htm.
sustaining memBers
Get In, Get Out, and
Stay Out!
I
n their article on pavement rehabili-
tation in Virginia (p. 41), M. Shabbir
Hossain and H. Celik Ozyildirim
use this statement to capture the eforts
of transportation agencies to serve their
public. Are these the imperatives for all
infrastructure maintenance projects?
Probably so, yet the initial and most
crucial requirement has to be, “Get the
funding!” If poorly targeted austerity
measures limit maintenance and repair,
unchecked decay could lead to complete
reconstruction or even abandonment.
This editor was tempted to insert “(You
can pay me now, or you can pay me
later)” before the exclamation mark.
The American Concrete Pavement
Association has named the recipients of
its 23rd Annual “Excellence in Concrete
Pavements” awards, recognizing quality
concrete pavements constructed in the
United States and Canada (p. 55). My
quick analysis shows that the majority
of the winning projects involved
reconstruction or repaving. It also
shows that the awards are concentrated
in geographic clusters, with the states
of Colorado, Oklahoma, and Kansas
capturing over 43% of the total. Within
those states, four contractors collected
more than 76% of the awards. While
it’s not clear what can be learned from
the clustering of the awards, it’s clear
that, at least for the U.S. highway
transportation network, maintenance
and repair dominate over expansion.
Given current economic and
environmental factors, maintenance
and repair can also be expected to
dominate over new construction in the
building industry. A new code document,
ACI 562, will soon help engineers and
contractors with that work (p. 37). As
with any consensus document, the
ACI 562 Code should be expected to
evolve, and you’re invited to participate.
Rex C. Donahey
Continuing EduCation CrEdit
Seminar attendees will receive 0.75 Continuing Education Units (CEUs) worth 7.5 Professional Development Hours (PDHs) for each day of
the seminar. Professional engineers can convert CEUs to PDHs to fulfill their continuing education requirements. ACI is a Registered
Provider with the American Institute of Architects and several state licensing boards.
new! adhesive anchors: their Behavior and
Code design requirements
This new one-day seminar will cover the design requirements for adhesive
anchors that were frst introduced in the 2011 version of ACI 318. A
complimentary copy of the newly published Volume 2 of SP-17(11), “ACI
Design Handbook,” containing 19 worked anchor design example problems, is
included with your registration. In addition to the design equations and their
application, topics covered include material properties of common adhesives,
tension and shear failure modes, capacity reduction factors, design of supple-
mental reinforcement, and tension and shear interaction. Also covered are
anchor qualifcation requirements, certifcation of anchor installers, and sev-
eral design examples. Complimentary publications include Appendix D of ACI
318, ACI 355.4, ACI SP-17 Volume 2, ACI SP-283, and seminar lecture notes.
Concrete repair Basics
One-day seminar for engineers, repair contractors, material suppliers,
maintenance personnel, and public works engineers. Attendees will learn the
best methods and materials for economical and effective concrete repairs.
The seminar will cover causes and evaluation of problems in deteriorating
concrete, repair techniques, repair materials, cracks and joints, protec-
tion systems, overlays, and specifcations for structures. Complimentary
publications include ACI 201.1R, ACI 224.1R, ACI 364.1R, ACI 437R, ACI
546R, and seminar lecture notes.
Concrete Slabs-on-ground
One-day seminar for designers, specifers, architects, engineers, contractors,
building owners, and government agencies. Participants will learn about
setting expectations for serviceability; sustainability; engineering consid-
erations, loads, soil support systems, and low-shrinkage concrete mixtures with
good fnishability; minimizing problems with curling, shrinkage, joints, and
surface tolerances; placing and fnishing equipment; thickness design;
designing for shrinkage, joints, details, and reinforcing; curing; surface
treatments including polishing; requirements for plans and specifcations;
preconstruction meetings; and problem recognition and remediation.
Complimentary publications include: ACI 302.1R-04, ACI 302.2R-06,
ACI 360R-10, industry-related articles, and seminar lecture notes.
updated! Simplifed design of Concrete
Buildings of Moderate Size and Height, an
aCi/PCa Seminar
This ACI/PCA one-day seminar and the complimentary PCA publication
EB204, “Simplifed Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” have been
updated to cover ACI 318-11, “Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete.” The seminar will focus on the design of concrete buildings of
moderate size and height, in accordance with 2009 IBC. The purpose
of this seminar is to provide structural, civil, and architectural engineers
with ways to simplify design procedures, thus reducing time required to
analyze, proportion, and detail small-to-moderate-size projects while still
complying with ACI 318-11. Various design considerations that need to
be addressed in the structural design and detailing of reinforced concrete
buildings will be discussed. Numerous shortcuts and design aids that can
increase design effciency and reduce the time it takes to design small-to-
moderate-size buildings will be introduced. Complimentary publications
include PCA EB204 and seminar lecture notes.
troubleshooting Concrete Construction
This one-day seminar is for contractors, design engineers, specifers,
government agencies, and material suppliers. This seminar will provide
attendees with solutions to many of the most common problems
encountered in concrete construction, including: placing reinforcement,
preventing most cracks, making functional construction joints, vibrating
concrete properly, detecting delaminations, and identifying causes of de-
teriorating concrete. Complimentary publications include: ACI 301, ACI
302.1R, ACI 303R, ACI 303.1, ACI 308R, ACI 309.2R, and seminar
lecture notes.
NOTE: ACI is not responsible for the statements or opinions expressed by the faculty. If it is necessary to substitute an instructor, an individual with similar
qualifcations will be used.
seminars at-a-glance
Spring 2013 ACI Educational Seminars
For more information on ACI seminars, visit www.concreteseminars.com
Concrete international february 2013 7
President’s
Memo
James K. Wight,
aCI President
The reorganized Code
The reoganized Code
I
’m sure that all of you have
been hearing “rumors”
about the reorganized
ACI 318-14 Building Code that
will be published in the second
half of 2014 afer undergoing
Technical Activities Committee
review later this year and a
public comment period next
winter. The reorganization
process was initiated in 2006
and has proceeded steadily—
although not always smoothly,
given the rigors of the ACI
consensus process—under the
direction of Committee 318 Chair Randy Poston.
The primary goal of the reorganizational efort is to
make the code more user-friendly by changing from the
current behavior-based chapter format to member-based
design chapters. The current format causes a designer to
jump from chapter to chapter during the member design
process without being sure that all of the design steps have
been completed. The new code format will have all of the
design and detailing requirements for a specifc member
type (for example, beams) in a single chapter, so when the
provisions of a chapter are satisfed, all of the member design
requirements will be satisfed. A user survey conducted
following the release of the 2005 edition of the code
indicated a desire for this type of format and it is believed
that students, young engineers, and even seasoned professionals
will be able to complete their designs more efciently using
the reorganized code.
Of course, a comprehensive member-by-member set of
design chapters could result in considerable lengthening of
the code if design equations are repeated in every chapter.
Thus, a decision was made to develop “toolbox” chapters
that contain common design and detailing requirements,
which can be referred to from several member chapters.
A balanced approach was required to avoid too many
references to the toolbox chapters. Thus, member design
chapters will have some references to the toolbox chapters
and will also contain some design and detailing information
that may be repeated in other member chapters.
Critics of the reorganization process have said that the
code committee is simply reshufing the design and
detailing requirements into a new arrangement. However, a
major beneft is that every code provision is being thoroughly
reevaluated as it is moved to its new location. This process
has led to the elimination of redundant provisions and the
replacement of vague provisions with tables and fgures that
are easier to interpret. Also, where gaps were identifed, the
committee is writing new provisions and even new chapters
to fll those gaps.
The ACI Building Code is one of the most infuential
design codes in the world and a primary basis for ACI’s
reputation as a leading source of technical knowledge and
information for the best use of concrete. Thus, the Institute
is concerned about the user-community reaction to the
reorganized code. Because change is counter to human
nature, even changes that result in increased efciency and
productivity ofen receive an initial negative reaction.
I have been around long enough to recall when the
building code made the “drastic” change from working-
stress to strength design concepts. Many negative opinions
were expressed, but few structural engineers today would
advocate a move back to working-stress design, especially
afer all of the other structural material codes have followed
ACI’s lead and adopted a strength design approach.
With this memo, I am urging all of you to get actively
engaged in the rollout of the ACI 318-14 Building Code.
There is a 318-14 portal on the ACI homepage that contains
the latest information on the reorganized code. Inside the
portal, you will fnd background information, a listing of
code chapters and chapter content, a sample chapter, and a
short PowerPoint presentation that can be downloaded and
used to explain the new code to others. ACI is also planning
to have a series of seminars on the reorganized code that
will be presented in major cities across the United States, as
well as international locations where the ACI Building
Code is adopted.
So, you should get informed regarding the what, why,
and how of the reorganized code and become a leader in
your design ofce or company for fostering the under-
standing and acceptance of ACI 318-14.
James K. Wight
To learn more about our sustaining members, visit our Web site at www.concrete.org/members/mem_sustaining.htm
are the foundation of our success.
To provide additional exposure to ACI Sustaining Members,
Concrete International includes a 1/3-page member profile and a listing
of all Sustaining Member organizations. All Sustaining Members receive
the 1/3-page profile section on a rotating basis.
Lafarge North America
Lehigh Hanson, Inc.
Lithko Contracting, Inc.
Meadow Burke
W. R. Meadows, Inc.
Metromont Corporation
MTL
Municipal Testing
North S.Tarr Concrete Consulting PC
Operating Engineers Training Trust
Oztec Industries, Inc.
Pacifc Structures
Penetron International Ltd.
PGESCo
Portland Cement Association
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute
Schmitt Technical Services, Inc.
Sika Corp.
S.K. Ghosh Associates, Inc.
STRUCTURAL
Structural Services, Inc.
Triad Engineering, Inc.
TWC Concrete Services
Wacker Neuson
Westroc, Inc.
ACS Manufacturing Corporation
Advanced Construction Technology
Services
Ash Grove Cement Company
Ashford Formula
Baker Concrete Construction, Inc.
Barrier One, Inc.
BASF Corporation
BCS
Buzzi Unicem USA
Cantera Concrete Company
CECO Concrete Construction
Changzhou Jianlian Reinforcing Bar
Conjunction Co., Ltd.
CHRySO, Inc.
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
CTLGroup
Dayton Superior
The Euclid Chemical Co.
Fibercon International, Inc.
Future Tech Consultants
W.R. Grace & Co.
Headwaters Resources, Inc.
Holcim (US) Inc.
Keystone Structural Concrete, LLC
Kleinfelder
ACS Manufacturing Corporation
has been manufacturing and supplying
concrete admixtures since 1979.
Among the big projects supplied
are the Magat Multipurpose Hydro-
electric Dam in Isabela, Philippines,
with a volume of 1 million m
3
, and the
San Roque Hydroelectric Dam in
Pangasinan, Philippines, with a
volume of 480,000 m
3
. Our customers
are mostly ready mixed concrete
companies and contractors, and we are
the market leader in the Philippines.
ACS offers a complete line of
concrete admixtures based on
polynapthalene sulfonate for low-to-
medium-strength concrete and
polycarboxylate for high-strength
concrete. As a service to our customers,
we provide storage tanks and
dispensers free of charge.
Our technicians do the installation
and regular follow-up servicing of
dispensers to ensure smooth and
efficient operation. Our services are
free of charge. We also do trial mix
free of charge as needed by our
customers.
For more information about ACS
Manufacturing Corporation, please
visit www.acs-manufacturing.com/
admix/or call: +63-2-6383414.
To learn more about our sustaining members, visit our Web site at www.concrete.org/members/mem_sustaining.htm
are the foundation of our success.
Celebrating 130 years of operations
in 2012, the Ash Grove Cement
Company (www.ashgrove.com) has
distinguished itself in the cement
industry with a strong and long-
standing tradition of service, reliability
and quality. As the largest American-
owned cement company, Ash Grove
has the capacity to produce more
than 8 million tons of cement annually
from eight cement plants located
across the country and to distribute
through more than 20 cement
terminals, ready-mixed concrete,
aggregates, packaged products and
paving operations.
The Sunderland family has led
the privately-held Ash Grove
Cement Company for four generations.
The company’s commitment to
environmental stewardship, social
responsibility and economic
prosperity are at the core of the
company leaders’ values. Ash Grove
has strong ties to the communities
in which it operates.
For more information about Ash
Grove, visit www.ashgrove.com or
call 800-545-1882.
Since its founding in 1916, the
Portland Cement Association (PCA)
has had the same mission: “Improve
and expand the uses of portland
cement and concrete.”
Where cement and concrete are
concerned, so is the Portland Cement
Association: in cement manufacturing,
in raising the quality of concrete
construction, in improving its
product and its uses, in contributing
to a better environment. In practice,
this mandate means well-rounded
programs of market development,
education, research, technical
services, and government affairs on
behalf of PCA members—cement
companies in the U.S. and Canada.
Concrete’s versatility and use in
many green building applications
makes it an excellent material for
sustainable designs. As part of its
ongoing commitment to sustainability,
PCA sponsored the Sustainable
Leadership Awards, which honor
government leaders who advance
sustainable development in their
communities through the use of
concrete. It continues sponsorship of
its Environment & Energy Awards
that recognize manufacturing
facilities that exemplify the spirit
of continuous environmental
improvement by going beyond
government regulations and local
laws to ensure that their processes
and policies contribute to making
their communities better places to
live and work.
To learn more about Portland
Cement Association, please visit their
website at www.cement.org or call
847-966-6200.
W. R. MEADOWS, INC., designs,
manufactures, and markets high-
quality products and systems for
today’s construction professionals.
Products are sold through our
authorized distribution network. We
have multiple branch locations
located throughout North America,
and our products are available in
overseas markets as well. Our products
cover every facet of the construction
industry—from protecting and
sealing concrete, expansion joints,
and concrete restoration, to blocking
the ingress of moisture through the
building envelope, we’re there.
From highway construction and
restoration, to waterproofing,
vaporproofing, air barrier products,
and more, we’ve been satisfying the
needs of the public and private
sectors of the building construction
industry since 1926. All of our quality
W. R. MEADOWS products are
available worldwide through an
authorized distributor network.
We remain committed to producing
environmentally friendly products
and systems that meet or exceed
the latest EPA standards and
guidelines. Our GREEN LINE
®
of
environmentally friendly products
has been a cornerstone of our
product line for over 25 years.
For more information about W. R.
MEADOWS, visit www.wrmeadows.com.
Technical Sessions | Commitee Meetngs | Networking Events | Concrete
View the commitee meetng schedule and register at www.aciconventon.org
Impact Industry Codes and Standards at the
ACI Spring 2013 Convention
Hilton & Minneapolis Convention Center | April 14-18, 2013 | Minneapolis, MN
ACI Committees provide the concrete industry with unbiased,
consensus-based standards, guides, and technical documents.
Contribute your knowledge and expertise during any of the 300+
committee meetings that will be held in Minneapolis at the
ACI Spring 2013 Convention.
Concrete international february 2013 11
News
Bridge Design Competition
for Undergrads at 7NSC
Undergraduate student teams are
encouraged to participate in a new
bridge design competition that will
take place during the 7th National
Seismic Conference (7NSC) on
Bridges and Highways, held in
Oakland, CA, May 20-22, 2013.
This dynamic competition will
involve designing a bridge to
resist shaking from an earthquake-
simulating shake table. The competition
is intended for undergraduate
engineering student teams from
2- and 4-year colleges.
The challenge is to design and
construct a bridge as part of a new
highway system to enhance the
transportation network in the
San Francisco Bay Area. The objective
is to design the safest bridge model
with K’NEX using the least amount of
materials. The new bridge will be an
essential element of the lifeline system
used to assist the Bay Area in the event
of an earthquake. For this reason, the
bridge must withstand a combination
of static and earthquake loads with
minimal damage. In addition, the
bridge should be constructed in
minimal time to reduce costs to and
disruption of the Bay Area population.
Teams will have free access to design
and analysis tools.
Teams are required to submit a poster
documenting their scaled bridge design
by March 31, 2013. The posters will be
judged, and the top fve teams will be
invited to test their scaled bridge
designs on an earthquake simulator.
Visit the 7NSC website for more
details about the conference and
competition: http://nees.org/
7nscbridgedesignhome.
MSJC Applications
Being Accepted
As the current Masonry Standards
Joint Committee (MSJC) continues
working to complete the 2013 MSJC
provisions, the sponsors of the MSJC
are preparing for the next cycle of the
committee. Richard Bennett was
recently named as the new Chair to
succeed Diane Throop in late 2013.
The application process is now
open for the 2016 MSJC. Everyone
interested in serving on the new
committee, including current MSJC
members, is invited to complete the
12 february 2013 Concrete international
News
application. Reapplication by existing members is needed to
confrm interest and willingness to serve. Opening the
application process to new members allows new people to
join the committee and contribute to its success via new
ideas and perspectives.
To be considered for membership on the new MSJC,
apply by February 15, 2013, using the form at www.
masonrysociety.org/html/committees/tech/msjc/
msjc2016application.htm. Applications will be considered
in March 2013 to balance requests of applicants and needs
of the committee. A roster for the new committee is
expected to be released in April 2013.
2013 Fazlur Rahman Khan Distinguished
Lecture Series
The lecture series in Khan’s honor, held at Lehigh
University, is organized by Dan M. Frangopol, the university’s
frst holder of the Fazlur Rahman Khan Endowed Chair of
Structural Engineering and Architecture, and sponsored by
the Departments of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
and Art, Architecture & Design. Lecture dates and speakers
in the series include:

February 15, 2013—“The Evolution of the Skyscraper” by
R. Shankar Nair, Senior Vice President, exp US Services
Inc., and Past Chairman, CTBUH, Chicago, IL;

March 22, 2013—“Observations on AASHTO Bridge
Design” by John M. Kulicki, Chairman/CEO, Modjeski
and Masters Inc., Mechanicsburg, PA; and

April 19, 2013—“Minimizing the Efects of Uncertainties
in Developing Reliability-Based Design Criteria” by
Alfredo H-S. Ang, Research Professor, University of
California, Irvine, CA.
Presentations start at 4:30 p.m. in the Sinclair Laboratory
Auditorium, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA. Go to
www.lehigh.edu/~infrk for more information.
National Engineers Week Foundation’s
Annual Global Marathon
“Women in Engineering and Technology: Inspire.
Inform. Change the World” is the theme of the National
Engineers Week Foundation’s annual Global Marathon. Set
for March 6-8, 2013, the marathon is a free, worldwide
online forum for women in engineering and technology to
meet virtually and share stories of personal, educational,
and professional challenges and successes. It is the only
global event for women in engineering and technology
ofered in conjunction with International Women’s Day,
March 8. For more information, interested participants
should visit www.inxpo.com/events/globalmarathon.
They can also e-mail the marathon team at engineering
women@eweek.org.
Topics for the 3-day event are:

March 6—Leadership: Never Underestimate the Power
of Example;

March 7—Emerging Leaders and Entrepreneurs: Inspiration
at Work and University; and

March 8—One Woman at a Time: Change the World.
This year’s Global Marathon Chair is Gayle J. Gibson,
Director for Corporate Operations for DuPont. “Women
remain underrepresented in engineering in most parts of
the world,” she said. “The Global Marathon creates a
community that connects women engineers of all ages with
a platform for collaboration across borders and employment
sectors. It is powerful to be part of a large group, and I
always tell women ‘never underestimate the power of
example.’ I have met so many women in all stages of their
careers who underestimate what they have to share. The
Global Marathon is about empowering women both
personally and professionally—it is an experience that
stays with attendees long afer its conclusion.”
Concrete international february 2013 13
News
To register for the 2013 main event,
visit www.inxpo.com/events/
globalmarathon. Join the Facebook
community at www.facebook.com/
globalmarathon.
Indexes for ACI Journals
Available Online
The paper index, along with author
and keyword indexes, for Volume 109,
January to December 2012, of the
ACI Materials Journal and the
ACI Structural Journal can now be
accessed online by ACI members at
www.concrete.org/PUBS/JOURNALS/
MJHOME.ASP and www.concrete.
org/PUBS/JOURNALS/SJHOME.
ASP, respectively.
IGGA Celebrates 40 Years
of Serving the Concrete
Pavement Preservation
Industry
The International Grooving &
Grinding Association (IGGA)—a
nonproft organization that serves
as the leading promotional and
technical resource for acceptance of
diamond grinding and grooving, as
well as pavement preservation and
restoration—recently kicked-of its
40th anniversary. On November 26,
2012, in conjunction with the IGGA
annual conference, several veteran
members and long-time supporters
celebrated IGGA’s history.
IGGA was incorporated in Lake-
wood, CA, in June 1972. IGGA’s
inception was largely due to the
driving force of Lester Kuzmick, who
envisioned an organization that could
advance the collective interest of
contractor members.
In 1995, IGGA joined with the
American Concrete Pavement Associa-
tion (ACPA) to form the Concrete
Pavement Restoration Division. The
IGGA/ACPA Concrete Pavement
Preservation Partnership (IGGA/ACPA
CP3) serves as the technical resource
and industry representative in the
marketing of concrete pavement
restoration to state departments of
transportation, municipalities, and
engineers around the world.
For more information, visit www.
igga.net.
Oztec Industries, Inc. Tel: 1.800.533.9055 . 1.516.883.8857
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14 february 2013 Concrete international
Calls for
Papers
Earthquake Resistant Engineering
Meeting: 9th International Conference on Earthquake
Resistant Engineering Structures (ERES 2013), July 8-10,
2013, A Coruña, Spain; sponsored by Wessex Institute of
Technology.
Solicited: Papers are invited on topics within the scope
of the meeting. Topics include, but are not limited to,
seismic codes, seismic isolation and energy dissipation,
structural dynamics, building performance, retroftting,
performance-based design, experimental studies, forensic
analysis, and innovative technologies. The language of the
conference will be English.
Requirements: Abstracts of no more than 300 words
should clearly state the purpose, results, and conclusions of
the work to be described in the published paper. Final
acceptance will be based on the full-length paper which, if
approved for publication, must be presented at the conference.
Submit abstracts online at wessex.ac.uk/eres2013 or by
e-mail. Submit your abstract with ERES 2013 in the subject
line; include name, full address, and conference topic.
Deadlines: Submit abstracts as soon as possible. The paper
deadline will be announced afer submission of abstracts.
Send to: Irene Moreno Millan, Conference Coordinator,
e-mail: imoreno@wessex.ac.uk.
Electrical Methods for Monitoring Concrete
Meeting: Two sessions on “Electrical Methods for
Characterization and Monitoring of Concrete Materials and
Structures” at the ACI Fall 2013 Convention, October 20-24,
2013, in Phoenix, AZ; cosponsored by ACI Committees
222, Corrosion of Metals in Concrete; 228, Nondestructive
Testing of Concrete; and Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 444,
Reinforced Concrete Columns.
Solicited: Electrically based test methods to monitor
plain and reinforced concrete in laboratory and feld
applications are becoming more prominent. Presentations
are invited on recent advances in the use of electrical
methods for nondestructive testing and in-place monitoring
of concrete materials and structures.
Requirements: Abstracts of no more than 250 words
should adequately describe the topic of the presentation.
Provide the contact information for the corresponding
authors at the bottom of the abstract page.
Deadline: Abstracts are due by March 1, 2013.
Send to: Mohammad Pour-Ghaz, North Carolina State
University; e-mail: mpourghaz@ncsu.edu.
Advances in Structural Engineering
Meeting: Advances in Structural Engineering and
Mechanics 2013 (ASEM13), September 8-12, 2013, Jeju Island,
Korea; organized by the Korea Advanced Institute of
Science and Technology.
Solicited: The ASEM13 Congress combines several
international conferences into a single event focused on
the theme of “Frontier Technologies in Structural
Engineering and Mechanics.” The ASEM13 Congress
comprises conferences on “Innovative Structural
Engineering and Mechanics,” “Steel and Composite
Structures,” “Computational Technologies in Concrete
Structures,” “Advances in Interaction and Multiscale
Mechanics,” “Smart Structures and Systems,” “Earthquakes
and Structures,” and “Ocean System Engineering.” Those
who have interests in emerging technologies in a wide
range of topics of the ASEM13 Congress are invited to
submit abstracts.
Requirements: Instructions on preparing 300-word
abstracts and proceeding papers are available at http://asem.
cti3.com/Instructions-to-Authors.doc.
Deadline: Abstracts are due by March 31, 2013.
Contact: Secretariat, ASEM13, c/o TP Conference
Consultants, P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600, Korea;
telephone: +82-42-350-8451; fax: +82-42-350-8450; e-mail:
asem13@kaist.ac.kr.
ASTM International Symposium on Masonry
Meeting: Masonry 2014, to be held June 24, 2014, at the
Sheraton Centre Toronto in Toronto, ON, Canada. The
symposium is being co-sponsored by ASTM International
Committees C01, Cement; C07, Lime; C12, Mortars and
Grouts for Unit Masonry; and C15, Manufactured Masonry
Units, and will be held in conjunction with the standards
development meetings of the committees.
Solicited: Masonry 2014 will emphasize the application
of ASTM standards to those areas and their coordination
with building codes, project specifcations, and international
standards. Papers are sought on the following topics:
anchors and ties; building codes; cements (portland,
blended, hydraulic, masonry, plastic); fexural bond strength;
limes (hydrated, hydraulic, putty); masonry inspection;
mortars; plaster/stucco; structural masonry; sustainability;
veneers; water penetration; and more. See the full list of
topics at www.astm.org/C07callforpapers.
Requirements: To participate in the symposium,
presenters/authors must submit a 250- to 300-word
preliminary abstract online at www.astm.org/C07callforpapers.
The presentation and manuscript must not be of a commercial
nature nor can it have been previously published.
Deadlines: Abstracts are due by April 4, 2013; notifcation
of acceptance by June 1, 2013; manuscripts to be peer
reviewed are due online no later than September 8, 2013.
Concrete international february 2013 15
Calls for Papers
Contact: Symposium Chairman
Mike Tate, Graymont Dolime (OH) Inc.,
Genoa, OH; telephone: (419) 855-8662;
e-mail: mtate@graymont.com.
Symposium on Concrete
Roads
Meeting: 12th International
Symposium on Concrete Roads,
September 23-26, 2014, in Prague,
Czech Republic; sponsored by the
European Concrete Paving Association
and the Czech Research Institute of
Binding Materials, in collaboration
with the World Road Association.
Solicited: The theme of the sympo-
sium is “Innovative Solutions—Beneft-
ing Society.” The four main themes of
the technical program are “Sustainable
Pavements” (economic aspects, surface
characteristics, energy efciency, and
recycling); “Solutions for Urban Areas”
(architectural aspects, public transport
infrastructure, pedestrian and cycling
paths, and roundabouts); “Design and
Construction” (new developments,
standards, concrete bridge pavements,
and long life pavements); and “Mainten-
ance and Rehabilitation” (rapid repair;
concrete recycling; surface restoration;
and monitoring, diagnostics, and test
methods). More information on the
conference topics can be found at www.
concreteroads2014.org.
Requirements: Interested parties
are invited to submit an abstract
related to the conference themes.
Abstracts of proposed papers for
presentation must be 300 words or less
and written in English. Abstracts must
be sent on the abstracts submission
form (available on the conference
website) via e-mail: info@eupave.eu.
Deadline: Abstracts are due by
May 15, 2013.
Contact: Guarant International,
Symposium Secretariat, e-mail:
concreteroads@guarant.cz.
History of Concrete
Construction
Meeting: Education/technical session
at the ACI Spring 2014 Convention,
March 23-27, 2014, in Reno, NV;
Calls for Papers:
Submission Guidelines
We recommend that notices of calls for
papers be submitted to Concrete International
at least 9 months (or sooner) prior to the
prospective sessions. This timetable generally
allows publishing of the notifcation in three
issues of the magazine. Please send meeting
information, papers/presentations being
solicited, abstract requirements, and deadline,
along with full contact information to: Keith A.
Tosolt, Managing Editor, Concrete International,
38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills,
MI 48331; fax: (248) 848-3150; e-mail: Keith.
Tosolt@concrete.org. Visit www.callforpapers.
concrete.org for more information.
sponsored by ACI Committees E702,
Designing Concrete Structures; 120,
History of Concrete; and the
International Advisory Committee.
Solicited: Presentations are invited
on design, construction, safety, and
concrete practices used before modern
equipment and testing laboratories
became available. These presentations
will be made available on ACI’s website.
Requirements: 1) Presentation title;
2) author/speaker name(s), job title,
afliation, and contact information;
and 3) a one-page abstract.
Deadline: Abstracts are due by
September 1, 2013.
Send to: Luke M. Snell, Western
Technologies, Inc., e-mail: l.snell@
wt-us.com.
Mala Geoscience USA, Inc.
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Phone: (843) 852-5021 • Fax: (843) 284-0684 • www.malags.com • sales.usa@malags.com
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16 february 2013 Concrete international
The following ACI documents will soon be available:
“Specifcations for Environmental
Concrete Structures (ACI 350.5-12)”
Reported by ACI Committee 350, Environmental
Engineering Concrete Structures
Satish K. Sachdev
*
, Chair; Jon B. Ardahl

, Vice Chair;
John W. Baker
*
, Secretary; Iyad M. Alsamsam, Steven R.
Close
*
, Robert E. Doyle, Anthony L. Felder
*
, Carl A. Gentry,
Charles S. Hanskat
*
, Kenneth R. Harvey, Paul Hedli,
Keith W. Jacobson, M. Reza Kianoush, Ramon E. Lucero,
Daniel J. McCarthy, Andrew R. Minogue, Khalid Motiwala,
Javeed Munshi, Jerry Parnes, Risto Protic, William C.
Sherman
*
, Lawrence M. Tabat
*
, and William A. Wallace.
Subcommittee Members: Erik Lederman, Kyle S. Loyd,
Edwin (Ed) W. Neely, Victor M. Pavon, David R. Poole,
Shashiprakash Surali, and Bryan T. Wood.
Consulting Members: William H. Backous, Walter N.
Bennett, Patrick J. Creegan, Jerry A. Holand, William J.
Irwin, Dov Kaminetzky, David G. Kittridge, Dennis C. Kohl,
Nicholas A. Legatos, Carl H. Moon, Lawrence G. Mrazek,
Terry Patzias, and Andrew R. Philip.
*Subcommittee members who developed this document.

Subcommittee Chair during development of this document.
Special acknowledgment to Paul St. John and Larry Kaiser for their
contributions to this document.
Abstract: This document covers materials and proportion-
ing of concrete; reinforcement and prestressing reinforcement;
production, placing, fnishing, and curing of concrete;
formwork design and construction; and shotcrete.
Methods of treatment of joints and embedded items, repair
of surface defects, and fnishing of formed and unformed
surfaces are specifed. Separate sections are devoted to
architectural concrete, mass concrete, and internal and
external post-tensioned prestressed concrete. Provisions
governing testing, evaluation, and acceptance of concrete, as
well as acceptance of the structure, are included.
“Report on Torsion in Structural
Concrete (ACI 445.1R-12)”
Reported by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445, Shear
and Torsion
Daniel A. Kuchma, Chair; Robert W. Barnes Jr.,
Secretary; Perry Adebar, Neal S. Anderson, Robert B.
Anderson, Mark A. Ascheim, Oguzhan Bayrak, Zdenĕk P.
Bažant, Abdeldjelil Belarbi
*
, Evan C. Bentz, John F. Bonacci,
Hakim Bouadi, Michael D. Brown, Michael P. Collins,
David Darwin, Walter H. Dilger
*
, Marc O. Eberhard,
Catherine E. French, Robert J. Frosch, Gary G. Greene
*
,
Neil M. Hawkins, Thomas T.C. Hsu
*
, Gary J. Klein,
Zhongguo John Ma, Adolfo B. Matamoros, Denis Mitchell,
Yi-Lung Mo
*
, Lawrence C. Novak, Carlos E. Ospina,
Stavroula J. Pantazopoulou, Maria A. Polak, Julio A.
Ramirez, Karl-Heinz Reineck, David H. Sanders
*
,
Raj Valluvan, and James K. Wight.
*
Subcommittee members who produced this report.
The committee would like to thank the following individuals for their
contributions to this report: Mohammad Ali, Shri Bhide, Maria Cristina de
Lima, Leonard Elfgren, Christos Karayannis, Liang-Jenq Leu, Mohammad
Mansour, Basile Rabbat, Khaldoun Rahal, and Paul Zia.
Abstract: A clear understanding of the efects of torsion
on concrete members is essential to the safe, economical
design of reinforced and prestressed concrete members.
This report emphasizes that it is essential to the analysis of
torsion in reinforced concrete that members should satisfy
the equilibrium condition (Mohr’s stress circle); obey the
compatibility condition (Mohr’s strain circle); and establish
the constitutive relationships of materials, such as the
“sofened” stress-strain relationship of concrete and
“smeared” stress-strain relationship of steel bars.
The behavior of members subjected to torsion combined
with bending moment, axial load, and shear is discussed.
This report deals with design issues, including compatibil-
ity torsion, spandrel beams, torsional limit design, open
sections, and size efects. The fnal two chapters are devoted
to the detailing requirements of transverse and longitudinal
reinforcement in torsional members. Two design examples
are given to illustrate the steps involved in torsion design.
Upcoming
Themes
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May—Concrete in
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June—Formwork
July—Floors & Foundations
aCI Committee Document
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18 february 2013 Concrete international
Urban Engineers, Inc., promoted Thomas E. Mitchell
to Director of National Construction Consulting Services,
where he will be responsible for all of the frm’s business
activities in this market. Mitchell has more than three
decades of experience in construction and project
management, including providing consulting services for
public agencies such as the U.S. Department of Justice.
He received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in civil
engineering from Loyola Marymount University and
Villanova University, respectively; and is a member of
several associations, including the Society of American
Military Engineers and the Construction Management
Association of America.
Kim Lum was appointed as Chief Executive Ofcer of
Charles Pankow Builders, Ltd., in addition to his role as
President. Lum replaces Richard M. Kunnath, who
served as CEO for the past 12 years and will remain
Pankow’s Executive Chairman of the Board. Lum received
his BS in civil engineering from Stanford University and
joined Pankow in 1980. He has held leadership roles
in Pankow’s Honolulu, HI, and Northern California
regional ofces and was appointed President of the frm
in 2009. He also serves on the Boards of the Design-Build
Institute of America and the California Center for
Construction Education.
Precast Specialties Corp. brought on Brandon Dufel as
Senior Project Manager. Dufel will be responsible for
managing and supporting projects for Precast Specialties’
growing Architectural Group. Most recently, he was the
Engineering Manager for Coreslab Structures, and previously
held positions as a Project Engineer and Project Manager
with Precast Specialties. He received his BS in engineering
from The Cooper Union.
Honors and Awards
Karthik H. Obla, FACI, Vice President, Technical
Resources for the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association
(NRMCA), has been honored by ASTM International for
his leadership on developing standards for pervious
concrete, specifcally with ASTM Subcommittee C09.49,
Pervious Concrete. Under Obla’s leadership, four standards
for pervious concrete have been developed since June 2007.
Obla joined NRMCA in 2003, became Vice President in
2009, and oversees their concrete laboratory and research
program. Prior to joining NRMCA, he was a Technical
Manager at Boral Material Technologies and Vice President
and President of the ACI San Antonio Chapter. He received
his PhD in civil engineering from the University of Michigan.
Margaret Thomson was also honored by ASTM
International as the recipient of the 2012 Walter C. Voss
Award. The Voss award is presented annually to an engineer
or scientist who has made notable contributions in the feld
of building technology. Thomson was honored for her
numerous contributions to the development of standards
and specifcations for the use of lime in construction
applications, especially in the area of repair and maintenance
of historic mortars. She has been a member of ASTM
International since 1996, and her involvement in that time
has included serving as Vice Chairman of Committee C07,
Lime, and Chairman of Subcommittee C07.06, Physical
Tests. She is the New Business Development Technical
Director at Lhoist North America.
The Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI)
bestowed several honors during their 2012 Convention
and National Bridge Conference. ACI Honorary Member
Paul Zia was awarded the Medal of Honor, the highest
honor given by PCI. The award is given in recognition of
service to PCI or contributions to the industry over a long
period of time. His nomination was made and supported
by a list of industry representatives who have been
educated, mentored, advised, or in some other way
infuenced by Zia.
Four PCI members were elected as Fellows: ACI
member David S. Jablonsky, Robert H. Konoske, ACI
member Carin Roberts-Wollmann, and James M. Sirko.
The Concrete Foundation Association (CFA) presented
its 2012 Contractor of the Year award to Lance Jordan,
Chairman of Stephens & Smith Construction Co.,
Omaha and Lincoln, NE. The annual award recognizes the
contributions of a poured wall contractor to the industry.
Jordan was nominated for his leadership in a CFA position
on OSHA’s residential fall protection regulation that went
into efect in 2012. Jordan has been a member of CFA for
over a decade and held a 3-year term on the association’s
Board that ended in 2011.
Mitchell Lum
On the
Move
Formulated
for success.
©
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Code Listed
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20 february 2013 Concrete international
Propex Announces Certifcation, New
Distributor for Fibermesh
Fibermesh
®
150 and Fibermesh 300, manufactured by
Propex, recently received an evaluation report (ESR No. 1165)
from the ICC Evaluation Service (ICC-ES). Fiber durability
and its efectiveness in controlling plastic shrinkage
cracking were evaluated in accordance with ICC-ES
Acceptance Criteria for Concrete with Synthetic Fibers
(AC32). The company also announced that Fibermesh will
now be available in the Pacifc Northwest through Masons
Supply. The selection of Masons Supply as a distributor for
Propex means Fibermesh will be easier to buy in the Pacifc
Northwest markets.
Maxwell Systems Named a Top
Construction Technology Company
Maxwell Systems, Inc., was named to the Construtech
50, a listing of the most infuential construction technology
providers with a strong and ongoing market presence.
Companies nominated to the Construtech 50 are judged on
a variety of criteria, including having a strong product or
service, ongoing customer satisfaction and growth, and
outreach and educational eforts for the industry. The
listing is determined by the editors of Construtech magazine.
Maxwell was selected for this listing on account of their
determination to provide fully integrated sofware packages
that serve the needs of their customers.
Spider Updates Competent Person
Training Program
Spider announced an enhanced and improved edition
of its accredited Competent Person Training course. The
course covers proper design, installation, and operation of a
suspended scafold system, as well as hazard awareness and
risk mitigation, and meets OSHA requirements. The
updates to the program include more visual aids, updated
references to safety codes, and instruction on topics
resulting from recent safety research. Courses are taught
weekly by Spider’s team of certifed trainers throughout
25 locations in the Americas.
Free Open BIM Course from Nemetschek
To help structural engineering students, faculty, and
professionals learn more about Building Information
Modeling (BIM) and the impact it has on today’s structural
engineering workfows, the Nemetschek Engineering
Business Unit has sponsored a free course to teach BIM
from the viewpoint of the structural engineer. The curriculum
is organized as a self-paced lab and includes an illustrated
Open BIM instructional guide, exercises, and a copy of Scia
Engineer 2012 sofware, which students can download for
free at www.Scia-Campus.com. The course guides
students through an example building-based project while
highlighting the benefts and considerations of working in
a collaborative, model-based workfow.
Holcim Employees Volunteer to
Renovate Community Center
Employees at the Holcim (US) Inc. Chicago Skyway
facility volunteered their time to help the Juan Diego
Community Center in South Chicago renovate its building,
which included new fooring, painting, and other light
upgrades. The project fell under Holcim’s community
service initiative, “Together for Communities,” which aims
to involve employees in local volunteer projects. By
upgrading this center, Holcim employees gave it an
improved atmosphere and aimed to help the center
attract additional grant money. The center provides a
variety of services to community members, including
tutoring, English and computer classes, a food bank, and a
clothing program.
AltusGroup Gains New Member
Marxuach & Longo, Inc., San Juan, Puerto Rico, has
become a producing member of AltusGroup and completed
its frst job with CarbonCast High Performance Insulated
Wall Panels in fall 2012. Marxuach & Longo specializes in
architectural and structural solutions and complete precast
building systems, having completed over 300 precast
commercial building applications in Puerto Rico since its
founding in 2000. They used CarbonCast for a project at
the Fort Buchanan U.S. Military Base; casting began in July
2012 with construction of the project continuing through
the fall.
NRMCA Announces Winners of 2012
Excellence in Quality Awards
The National Ready Mixed Concrete Association
(NRMCA) honored ready mix producers who demonstrated
a dedication to quality management principles over a broad
range of activities from materials and production facility
management, product quality control, and customer satisfac-
tion. Winners of the 2012 Excellence in Quality awards
include divisions of the following companies: ARGOS USA,
Rmx; Bayou Concrete, LLC; Campbell Concrete &
Materials, LLC; CEMEX; Cemstone Products Company;
Chandler Concrete Co., Inc.; Chaney Enterprises;
Concrete Supply Co.; GCC America U.S. Ready Mix &
Aggregates; Irving Materials, Inc.; Jack B. Parson
Companies; Powhatan Ready Mix; Preferred Materials,
Inc.; Tarmac America LLC; Titan Virginia Ready-Mix
LLC; and Western Rock Products.
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22 february 2013 Concrete international
Descriptions of ACI Certifcation
Programs — Includes program
requirements and reference/
resource materials.
Schedule of Upcoming/Testing
Sessions — Search by program
and/or state.
Directory of Certifed Individuals—
Confrm an individual’s certifcation
and date of expiration.
Visit www. ACI Certifcation.org for:
Next Time...
specify ACI Certifed personnel
Since 1980, ACI has tested over 400,000 concrete technicians,
inspectors, supervisors, and craftsmen in 18 different
certifcation programs.
When you have a need for qualifed concrete
professionals—specify ACI Certifcation.
CCRL LAb ToUR
The Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory offers performance
examinations for the ACI Concrete Strength Testing Technician and
ACI Aggregate Testing Technician – Level 1 certifcation programs.
Upcoming tour locations are:
March 2013
Arizona
Colorado
Hawaii
New Mexico
Northern California
Northern Nevada
To schedule your lab for CCRL inspection, and to arrange for
performance testing, contact Jan Prowell at (301) 975-6704.
February 2013
Colorado
Guam
Hawaii
New Mexico
Northern California
Northern Nevada
Texas
Concrete international february 2013 23
Forming the Future
Highlights of the aCI fall 2012 Convention in Toronto
I
n the 12 years since ACI last met in Toronto, ON,
Canada, the city skyline has expanded signifcantly, due
in large part to concrete construction. And as discussed
in presentations at the convention, future development in
the region will feature concrete prominently.
Hosted by the ACI Ontario Chapter, the ACI Fall 2012
Convention took place October 21-25, with 1686 attendees,
including 450 students (of which 155 were from the local
area thanks to strong promotional eforts by the chapter);
there were also 111 guest attendees. International attendees
included 492 from Canada and another 182 from other
points around the world. Highlights of the event included:
Awards at the Opening Session
At the Opening Session, several award winners were
recognized. The Ready Mixed Concrete Association of
Ontario (RMCAO) was honored with the ACI Distinguished
Achievement Award for providing leadership in the
advancement of the concrete industry through education,
certifcation, and standards development. John D. Hull, the
association’s President, accepted the award. Since 1959,
RMCAO has worked to promote all aspects of concrete and
its applications.
The ACI Foundation Concrete Research Council
(CRC) presented the Arthur J. Boase Award to Ken
Bondy, FACI, for his exceptional work to advance the
design and construction practice of post-tensioned
concrete building structures. Bondy is a recently retired
structural engineer in Los Angeles, CA. He serves on
several ACI committees and is a Past President of the Post-
Tensioning Institute.
Michael M. Sprinkel, FACI, received the ACI Foundation
CRC Robert E. Philleo Award for outstanding advancement
of concrete technology in transportation structures
through the application of concrete materials research
on polymer concrete, overlays, and repairs. Sprinkel is
the Associate Director at the Virginia Center for
Transportation Innovation and Research, Charlottesville,
VA. He is a member of the ACI Technical Activities
Committee (TAC) and Chair of the TAC Construction
Standards Committee.
The ACI Foundation’s Jean-Claude Roumain Innovation
in Concrete Award was presented to Neal S. Berke, FACI, for
his holistic approach to concrete designs that combined
supplementary cementitious materials with chemical
admixtures, resulting in enhanced durability and
sustainability in millions of cubic meters of concrete, all
while lowering total life-cycle economic costs in comparison
with alternative approaches. Berke is Vice President of
Research at Tourney Consulting Group, LLC, Kalamazoo,
MI, and the co-author of Corrosion of Steel in Concrete. He is
active on several ACI committees.
The new ACI Concrete Sustainability Award honors those
who have made contributions in highlighting concrete’s role
related to sustainability. Two of the leading proponents in
this feld, V. Mohan Malhotra and P. Kumar Mehta, both
V. Mohan Malhotra (center) and P. Kumar Mehta (right) were
honored with the new aCI Concrete Sustainability award and
congratulated by aCI President James K. Wight (left)
24 february 2013 Concrete international
ACI Honorary Members, were recognized for their
pioneering and continuing eforts to introduce and support
the concepts of sustainability within the concrete industry.
Malhotra recently retired from the Canada Centre for
Mineral and Energy Technology, where he served as Head
of the Construction Materials Section. Mehta is Professor
Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
The main feature of the Opening Session program was the
presentation of the Katharine and Bryant Mather Lecture by
Bernard Erlin, President, The Erlin Company, Latrobe, PA.
Erlin is an ACI Honorary Member who has been an active
member of ACI for almost 40 years. He began his
professional career as a petrographer at the Portland Cement
Association and later founded the frm Erlin Hime
Associates with William Hime. The subject of his talk was
“Bryant Mather…So We Will Never Forget Him—Forever.”
Erlin paid tribute to Mather’s numerous contributions
that helped shape our understanding of concrete
technology, particularly in the areas of durability, air
entrainment, and alkali-silica reactivity. He also noted that
Mather developed a concept about the mechanism
contributing to cyclic freezing distress, which was termed
the “Erlin-Mather Efect.” Erlin related a few memorable
instances of collaborating with Bryant Mather—and also
talked about the life Bryant shared with his wife Katharine
and Bryant’s expertise in butterfy and moth collecting.
Student and Young Professionals Activities
EPD Competition
For the 2012 Student Egg Protection Device (EPD)
Competition, teams were challenged to design and build
the highest impact-load-resistant plain or reinforced
concrete EPD. Teams also were required to provide a report
on concrete’s sustainable benefts related to durability,
impact resistance, and other properties that an EPD
simulates. Thirty-two teams from 25 universities competed
at the ACI Fall 2012 Convention.
In the Durability Category, the top fnishers were:

First Place—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
Team 2: Alberto Isaac Elizondo Garza, Ana Luisa Aguilar
Rubio, Israel Aarón Chavarría Padilla, Griselda Yazmín
Martínez Hernández, and Yohana Elizabeth López
Alejandro; Alejandro Durán Herrera, Faculty Advisor;

Second Place—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
Team 1: Gabriel Angeles Montaño, Marcos Balderas
Varela, José Hinojosa Sánchez, Luis Isidro-Díaz, and Luis
Aquino Morales; Alejandro Durán Herrera, Faculty
Advisor; and

Third Place—Texas State University: Marcus Flores, Kevin
Clare, Eric Adams, Cody Houser, and Nathan Grosch;
Yoo-Jae Kim, Faculty Advisor.
In the Performance Category, Universidad Autónoma de
Nuevo León Team 1 fnished in frst place followed by:

Second Place—Faculdade Integrada Metropolitana de
Campinas: Airton Magdal, Juscelino Rhis da Costa, Marcelo
Luiz da Silva, William de Jesus Brandolim, and Rogério
Magdal; Fabio Albino de Souza, Faculty Advisor; and

Third Place—New Jersey Institute of Technology:
Andrew Canon, Brian Neves, Fabian DeLaHoz, John Te,
Convention Sponsors
Platinum: Ready Mixed Concrete Association of
Ontario.
Gold: Baker Concrete Construction and Sika
Canada, Inc.
Silver: Aluma Systems, Inc.; BASF Construction
Chemicals, Inc.; BMH Systems; Calmetrix; Canadian
Building Materials/St. Mary’s Cement; Cement Association
of Canada; Cofey Geotechnics; CSA Group; Doka;
ERICO; The Euclid Chemical Company; Geneq, Inc.;
Germann Instruments, Inc.; Giatec Scientifc, Inc.;
Geographical Survey Systems, Inc.; Grace Construction
Products; HCM Group; Holcim Canada, Inc.; Hoskin
Scientifc Ltd.; King Packaged Materials Company;
Kryton International; Lafarge North America, Inc.;
M&L Testing Equipment, Inc.; MAPEI, Inc.;
Max Frank (Canada), Inc.; National Concrete
Accessories Company, Inc.; Ontario Cast-in-Place
Concrete; Development Council; Ontario General
Contractors Association; Peri Formwork Systems, Inc.;
Proceq USA; Reed Construction Data; Ryerson
University; Sensors & Sofware, Inc.; S-FRAME
Sofware, Inc.; Silica Fume Association; SIMCO
Technologies; STRUCTURAL; and Tekla, Inc.
Titanium: Carpenters & Allied Workers Local 27;
Essroc; EXP Services, Inc.; Norchem Inc.; Ontario
Concrete Pipe Association; The Ontario Formwork
Association; Vexcon Chemicals, Inc.; and Yolles, A
CH2M Hill Company.
Bronze: ACI Arizona Chapter; ACI Greater
Michigan Chapter; ACI National Capital Chapter;
ACI Quebec & Eastern Ontario Chapter; Concrete
Floor Contractors Association; Davroc & Associates
Ltd.; Facca, Inc.; and Laboratoire Ville Marie—LVM Inc.
Copper: ACI Arkansas Chapter; ACI Eastern
Pennsylvania and Delaware Chapter; ACI Greater
Miami Valley Chapter; ACI Illinois Chapter;
ACI Intermountain Chapter; ACI Las Vegas Chapter;
ACI Louisiana Chapter; ACI New Jersey Chapter;
ACI New Mexico Chapter; ACI New York Chapter-CIB;
ACI Northeast Texas Chapter; ACI Northern California
& Western Nevada Chapter; ACI Pittsburgh Area
Chapter; ACI Rocky Mountain Chapter; ACI San
Diego International Chapter; and Isherwood
Geostructural Engineers.
Lanyard: S-FRAME Sofware, Inc.
Media: Daily Commercial News.
Concrete international february 2013 25
and Tyler Hanson; Mohamed Mahgoub, Faculty Advisor.
The frst-, second-, and third-place teams in each category
received cash awards of $300, $200, and $100, respectively.
Concrete artistry on display
Following up the competition that debuted at the
ACI Spring 2012 Convention, the local ACI chapter
organized the Art of Concrete Competition. A panel of
judges chose the winning projects:

First Place—Juan Antonio de-Leon Esquivel, Universidad
Autónoma de Nuevo Leon, “Human’s Capacity to
Restore the Earth”;

Second Place—Mitchell Green, Southern Illinois
University–Edwardsville, “Newton’s Cradle”; and

Third Place—Jorge Adrian Martinez-Oragustinovis,
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo Leon, “Deconstructed
Building.”
The student competition winners were announced and
their awards handed out at the Student Lunch. Featured
speaker John A. Bickley, FACI, discussed the challenges
faced during the construction of Toronto’s CN Tower in his
presentation titled “A 1970’s Adventure in Concrete
Technology.” He is President of John A. Bickley Associates
Ltd., Leamington, ON, Canada.
New student competition approved
At their meeting during the fall convention, the ACI Board
of Direction approved a new student competition: the Fresh
Concrete Workability Student Competition. A student
competition using fresh concrete was proposed by ACI
Committee 238, Workability of Fresh Concrete. All of the
current ACI student competitions deal with hardened concrete;
this competition gives students the opportunity to focus their
eforts on workability and rheological properties of concrete.
Starting at the ACI Spring 2013 Convention, the new
competition will challenge teams to create a mortar
mixture to be mixed at the competition and poured into a
mold shaped in the letters aci from the top of the letter a.
Each team would be required to determine their own
materials and bring pre-proportioned amounts to the
competition, excluding water. The rules for this new
competition using fresh concrete are pending and will be
posted on the ACI website when fnalized.
Social Events and Technical Sessions
Concrete Sustainability Forum—2012 marked the
ffh anniversary of the Concrete Sustainability Forum and
Panel Discussion, held just prior to the ACI Convention.
Presentations were based on the theme of “Balancing
Safety, Durability, and Resilience with Environmental
Stewardship.” The forum was sponsored by ISO/TC 71/SC
8, Environmental Management for Concrete and Concrete
Structures; and ACI Committee 130, Sustainability of
Concrete; with Session Co-Moderators Koji Sakai, Kagawa
University, Takamatsu, Japan, and
aCI President James K. Wight (left) presented a commemorative
plaque to Katharine and bryant Mather Lecturer bernard Erlin
26 february 2013 Concrete international
ACI Ontario Chapter Convention
Committee
Co-Chairs: Alain Belanger, National Concrete
Accessories, and Bart Kanters, Ready Mixed Concrete
Association of Ontario
Contractors’ Day: Clive Thurston, Ontario General
Contractors Association
Exhibits: Luis Dos Reis, BASF Construction
Chemicals Canada Ltd.
Guest Program: Janet Hutter
Publicity: Michelle Aarons, Reed Business
Social Events: Melissa Titherington, Ministry of
Transportation Ontario, and Sherry Sullivan, Cement
Association of Canada
Student Program: Mohamed Lachemi, Ryerson
University
Technical Program: Neb Erakovic, Yolles, A CH2M
Hill Company; and Hannah Schell, Ministry of
Transportation Ontario
Julie K. Bufenbarger, Lafarge, Medina, OH. There were
162 registered attendees.
International Lunch—Michel Virlogeux, Professor,
École Nationale des Ponts, Paris, France, and internationally
prominent bridge designer, spoke on “Modern Trends in
Bridge Design in Europe” before an audience of 94 attendees.
He discussed many of his innovative designs on projects such
as the Normandy Bridge and the Millau Viaduct.
TweetUp—The ACI Social Team organized the frst ever
ACI TweetUp during the convention’s Opening Reception,
allowing Twitter followers to network and learn more
about ACI’s connections through social media. Free
giveaways were handed out.
Joint KCI-ACI Sessions—The Korea Concrete Institute
(KCI), in collaboration with ACI, hosted a panel of
international experts who gave presentations on mega-
concrete structures, high-performance technologies, and
historical and state-of-the-art perspectives on structural
concrete. Thomas Kang, Assistant Professor, Seoul National
University, moderated the sessions.
Contractors’ Day—Presentations during Contractors’ Day
focused on “Concrete’s Contribution to Infrastructure,” which
covered several recent projects in the province of Ontario, and
“Innovations and Advancements in Concrete Forming.” The
speaker at the Contractors’ Day lunch was Peter Wilson, Vice
President of Project Delivery, Infrastructure Ontario, Toronto,
ON, Canada. His topic was “Building the Pan/Parapan
American Games.” Scheduled for 2015, Toronto will host
10,000 athletes for the largest multisport event ever held in
Canada. The construction involves six new sports venues and a
1.1 million f
2
(100,000 m
2
) Athlete’s Village with housing and
conditioning facilities.
100 Mile Concrete Mixer—The Royal Ontario Museum,
Canada’s largest museum of natural history and world
cultures, was the site of the Concrete Mixer. The event was
called the 100 Mile Concrete Mixer because the food and
drink served came from within a 100 mile (160 km) radius of
the Toronto and Niagara regions. A jazz quintet from the
University of Toronto Faculty of Music performed.
Next: Responsibility in Concrete
Construction
The ACI Twin Cities Chapter will host the ACI Spring
2013 Convention, April 14-18, 2013, in the Twin Cities of
Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, at the Hilton Minneapolis
and Convention Center. The educational and technical
program will focus on several angles of the convention
theme, “Responsibility in Concrete Construction.”
Convention highlights will include the debut of the
Fresh Concrete Workability Student Competition and
technical tours of Shoreview, a city near Minneapolis that
repaved its streets with pervious concrete, and the I-35W
Bridge over the Mississippi River. A hockey game in
memory of ACI Past President Dick Stehly will be played.
Invited speakers include Peter Richner, Past President of
RILEM, at the International Lunch; ACI Honorary
Member Mete Sozen at the Student Lunch; and Linda Figg,
Figg Engineering Group, at the Contractors’ Day Lunch.
Register now at www.aciconvention.org.
John d. hull (right), President of the ready Mixed Concrete
association of Ontario, accepted the aCI distinguished
achievement award from aCI President James K. Wight (left)
Forming the Future
Highlights of the aCI fall 2012 Convention in Toronto
Concrete international february 2013 27
The 2012 Student Egg Protection device
(EPd) Competition
universidad autónoma de Nuevo León
Team 2 finished in first place in the
durability category of the Student
EPd Competition. Students alberto Elizondo
Garza, ana aguilar rubio, Israel Chavarría
Padilla, Griselda Martínez hernández, and
yohana López alejandro accepted their
award from Walt Flood IV, Chair of the
aCI Student activities Committee
Student and Young Professionals Activities
28 february 2013 Concrete international
Student and Young Professionals Activities
In the performance category, universidad autónoma de Nuevo León Team 1 finished in
first place. Team members included Gabriel angeles Montaño, Marcos balderas
Varela, José hinojosa Sánchez, Luis Isidro-díaz, and Luis aquino Morales
Juan antonio de-León Esquivel (far right),
of universidad autónoma de Nuevo León,
took first place in the art of Concrete
Competition with his sculpture “human’s
Capacity to restore the Earth.” also, from
left: Luis aranda; alejandro durán herrera,
Faculty advisor; and Walt Flood IV
Student Lunch speaker John a. bickley
(second from left), with Walt Flood IV and
aCI Ontario Chapter members alain
belanger, Mohamed Lachemi, and bart
Kanters
Students signed up to participate in a
career networking event
at the aCI Faculty Network reception
Concrete international february 2013 29
Around the Convention
aCI President James K. Wight (left)
presented certificates of appreciation to
the aCI Ontario Chapter Convention
Committee, represented by Co-Chairs
bart Kanters and alain belanger
President Wight received a gift from the
local chapter
bernard Erlin presented the Katharine and bryant Mather lecture
Thomas Kang (left), moderator of the Joint KCI-aCI Sessions, presented KCI logo neck
ties to audience members who participated during the question-and-answer periods
at the Opening reception
30 february 2013 Concrete international
at the International Lunch, from left: ramon Carrasquillo, h.S. Lew, Kari yuers, Michel
Virlogeux, and Mario Chiorino
Around the Convention
at the reception in honor of brian hope
at the Contractors’ day Lunch, from left: bart Kantners, ready Mixed Concrete association
of Ontario; lunch speaker Peter Wilson, Infrastructure Ontario; and Clive Thurston,
Ontario General Contractors association
a visit to the testing laboratory at the
university of Toronto
at the Women in aCI reception
Concrete international february 2013 31
100 Mile Concrete Mixer at the Royal Ontario Museum
Technical Sessions | Commitee Meetngs | Networking Events | Concrete
See all of the sessions and register at www.aciconventon.org
Concrete is essential to the design and construction of efficient,
affordable, and environmentally responsible infrastructure. Learn
from real-world research and case studies, discover the latest
technology, and understand industry best practices during
sessions at the ACI Spring 2013 Convention. ACI technical
sessions cover nearly every aspect of concrete to provide you
with continued education that can be applied to your next project
and help you grow professionally.
Earn PDHs and Learn More About Concrete Infrastructure at the
ACI Spring 2013 Convention
Hilton & Minneapolis Convention Center | April 14-18, 2013 | Minneapolis, MN
Concrete international february 2013 33
The Gold Line bridge
Overcoming design, seismic, and safety challenges to build California’s
newest landmark
V
eteran design and construction crews recently
completed the largest, single public art/transit
infrastructure project in California: a 584 f (178 m),
dual-track transit bridge over the eastbound lanes of the
I-210 freeway in the San Gabriel Valley northeast of Los
Angeles. The bridge—comprised of 1.3 million pounds
(590,000 kg) of steel reinforcing and 6500 yd
3
(4900 m
3
) of
concrete—is the most visible element of the 11.5 mile
(18.5 km) Metro Gold Line Foothill Extension light rail
project under construction between Pasadena and Azusa,
CA, and is quickly becoming a regional icon.
The Metro Gold Line Foothill Extension Construction
Authority (Construction Authority), the independent
transportation planning and construction agency
overseeing the project, reimagined the construction process
when planning the Gold Line Bridge. The Construction
Authority brought in an artist early to lead the design, well
before the design-build team was selected.
“I wanted the bridge to be sculptural, not just an
embellished structure,” said Construction Authority CEO
Habib F. Balian. “I wanted to create something fantastic,
something never done before. I wanted the artist to address
the landscape—the mountains—as well as the community
and its history and culture. Ultimately, I wanted to meld art
and the transit experience, and I think we did that.”
The result is an $18.6 million bridge that includes two
dramatic 25 f (7.6 m) tall baskets, three 11 f (3.4 m)
diameter cast-in-drilled-hole (CIDH) foundations, a curved
underbelly to the superstructure, and seamless markings on
all surfaces—a truly unique structure that stirred its
designers and tested the skills of the construction crews as
they worked above a heavily used freeway and across an
active seismic fault. Through ingenuity, crafsmanship,
and hard work, the design and construction team
completed the artist-designed bridge on time, on budget,
and at a cost comparable to that of a standard transit bridge
of its size.
A Bridge Unlike Any Other
With more than 255,000 motorists passing by it each day,
the Gold Line Bridge serves as a new Gateway to the
San Gabriel Valley. To ensure its appearance refected this
stature, the Construction Authority put out a national call
for artists in 2009. A committee of community stakeholders
selected the project’s design concept advisor—award-
winning public artist Andrew Leicester—from a group of
15 highly qualifed respondents.
Leicester came on board early in the process to develop
the initial concept for the bridge design, and then worked
alongside Skanska USA, the project’s design-builder, as well
as AECOM, the project’s lead architecture and engineering
frm, to ensure the fnal design and construction were true
to the overall vision.
The Gold Line bridge, San Gabriel Valley, Ca
Workers strip the forms from one of three CIdh foundation
piers. The pier flares provide a base for a 25 ft (7.6 m) tall
basket feature
34 february 2013 Concrete international
The bridge design, which was approved in November
2011, was inspired by the local indigenous peoples and
wildlife of the San Gabriel Valley, as well as the oversized
iconic roadside attractions of nearby Route 66. These
inspirations permeate all elements of the structure. Most
notable are the two 25 f (7.6 m) tall, 17 f (5 m) diameter
sculptural baskets fanking the sides of the main
superstructure, which are tied together visually by the relief
pattern on the outrigger beam. The curved, serpentine main
underbelly of the superstructure features formed grooves
and hatch-marks that simulate the patterns found on the
Western Diamondback snake and metaphorically reference
the connectivity of the transit system.
When Leicester frst outlined these concepts, Lead
Architect Rivka Night of AECOM said she “had the same
reaction as everyone when they frst saw it—wow!—
because it is very unusual and not at all a traditional
design. My immediate thought was, ‘is it really going to
be constructed out of concrete?’ It seemed that it might
be a very complicated construction because of the
unusual shapes.”
Using three-dimensional computer-assisted design tools,
Night spent months working out the details of the design
before turning it over to Skanska for construction.
“Nearly everything on this project was specially
designed and manufactured for the project and required
our crews to install them using detailed crafsmanship
unlike any bridge I have been involved with to date,”
said Lawrence Damore, Skanska Project Executive.
“The workers exercised great attention to detail, ensuring
that the shape of the structure and the grooves and
hatch-marks created the overall efect the Construction
Authority and artist wanted.”
Specialty Aggregates Give Concrete
Baskets a Sparkling Finish
Skanska hired Masonry Concepts, Inc., in Santa Fe
Springs, CA, and Moonlight Molds, Inc, in Gardena, CA, to
create the basket features. Each woven basket is comprised
of 60 precast segments. The 16 precast concrete reeds at the
top of each basket range from 2 to 10 f (0.6 to 3 m) in
height. The concrete mixture in the precast segments
comprises a unique combination of aggregates—black
stone and clear, grey, and mirrored glass—developed
specifcally for the Gold Line Bridge.
Moonlight Molds fabricated custom-made molds to
create the curved surfaces needed for the rounded basket
shapes. Afer the segments were removed from the molds,
they were power-washed to expose the glass and stone.
The company then cured each segment for 28 days
before shipment to the bridge site. At the bridge site,
Masonry Concepts carefully placed each of the
segments, stacking and locking them together into nine
rings to create the towering forms atop the bridge’s
support columns.
Sixty precast segments were installed to form the exterior of
each basket feature
Night placements were necessary to minimize traffic disruption
on I-210
The bridge’s ribbed design was created by fastening polymeric
form liners onto curved forms. here, workers pull the liners from
the concrete
Concrete international february 2013 35
Serpentine Underbelly Required
Great Precision
For the other main aspect of the design—the serpentine
underbelly of the bridge—Skanska worked with the artist
to realize his vision. Initially, Leicester wanted the
superstructure to be a rounded shape. “However, we saw
difculties in the design and constructibility of that form,”
Damore said.
“We proposed a cross section with a fat soft and curved
sides…which Andrew found to be an acceptable
alternative,” Damore added. The curved side forms were
fabricated of site and hoisted into place atop the structure’s
falsework. To create the serpentine, ribbed design along the
underbelly, Skanska installed specially designed polymeric
formliners onto the curved forms. They created the cross-
hatching design by individually nailing chamfer strips to
the forms. All of this was done with painstaking accuracy to
create a seamless efect to the entire structure. Damore
concluded that the crews “are very proud of their work on
this bridge and how their eforts have created something
truly unique and quite beautiful.”
“Smart Columns” Will Help Measure
Seismic Damage
Adding to the design and construction challenge of this
structure was the existence of an active seismic fault (the
Raymond Fault) directly below the bridge. To address the
seismic issues, AECOM designed the structure as a three-
span, cast-in-place post-tensioned box girder supported by a
single column bent and one outrigger bent spanning the
freeway. Because of the large vertical and lateral demands
expected during an earthquake, AECOM designed three
large-diameter CIDH foundations—each approximately
110 f (33.5 m) deep and 11 f (3.4 m) in diameter.
AECOM’s design included time domain refectometry
instrumentation in the three CIDH foundations, in what
may be the frst application of this technology in a
reinforced concrete bridge. The system comprises coaxial
cables embedded in the piles. Afer a signifcant earthquake,
a monitoring device can be attached to the cables to assess
the integrity of the foundations. Damore reported,
“Without this system, a crew would have to excavate up to
20 feet below the ground level to inspect for any obvious
signs of concrete cracking.”
Bridge Completed with No Reportable
Incidents
Skanska’s work was done on a uniquely confned site
adjacent and above an active freeway, requiring extensive
planning, coordination, and nearly 100 nights of work
between midnight and 5 a.m. Skanska managed more than
a dozen subcontractors and more than 100 trade workers
detail of the superstructure, showing the intricate pattern of serpentine grooves and hatch-marks conceived by the artist andrew Leicester
36 february 2013 Concrete international
who put in more than 95,000 work-hours on the project afer
site preparation began in April 2011. “We are extremely proud
that in that time, we were able to maintain a clean safety
record with no recordable incidents,” said Damore.
The success of the safety program is the result of careful
preconstruction planning and diligent oversight by Skanska
and the Construction Authority as well as a job-site culture
that involved everyone working toward a unifed goal of
zero workplace incidents.
Construction Authority Praised for its
Oversight of Bridge Construction
On December 15, 2012, a project completion ceremony
was held to honor the men and women who designed and
built the bridge. More than 350 people, including elected
leaders, local ofcials, stakeholders, and project workers and
their families, joined the Construction Authority as they
gathered on the massive concrete span for a once-in-a-
lifetime opportunity to walk across the bridge.
U.S. Rep. Grace Napolitano, who serves on the House
Transportation Committee, praised the Construction
Authority for its oversight of the project. “Ninety-two
The completed Gold Line bridge serves as a gateway to the San Gabriel Valley northeast of Los angeles, Ca
percent of the materials and products used on the bridge
were from local sources,” she said. “That meant jobs for the
area, and we are very pleased that the leaders of this project
saw that this whole region could be involved and beneft
from its construction.”
With construction of the concrete superstructure
completed, Skanska turned the bridge over to the next
engineering and construction team, Foothill Transit
Constructors, a Kiewit Parsons Joint Venture, which will lay
tracks across the bridge as part of its ongoing construction of
the light rail alignment project. The light rail extension from
Pasadena to Azusa is scheduled to be completed in 2015.
“The Construction Authority is proud to have created a
functional piece of art that will inspire travelers and
commuters for generations to come,” said Doug Tessitor,
Construction Authority Board Chair and a Glendora, CA,
City Council member. “The Gold Line Bridge is
representative of the rich and proud heritage of our region,
and it will serve as a landmark for the San Gabriel Valley.”
All photos courtesy of the Metro Gold Line Foothill Extension
Construction Authority.
Concrete international february 2013 37
The aCI 562
repair Code
New document fills a major gap in the concrete repair industry
by Keith Kesner
a
t the ACI Spring 2006 Convention in Charlotte,
NC, a new ACI committee was formed. That
committee—ACI Committee 562, Evaluation,
Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings—has
since been focused on developing a code document. Afer
going through the standardization process of the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) (described in the sidebar),
“Code Requirements for Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation
of Concrete Buildings (ACI 562-13) and Commentary,” will
soon be published as an ACI code document.
Also known as the ACI repair code, the ACI 562 code, or
simply ACI 562, the document was developed in response
to the needs of engineers, contractors, and building ofcials
involved in repair of existing structures. Already faced with
the challenges of unknown structural conditions and the
potential for hidden damage, these parties were previously
hampered by a lack of specifc building code requirements
for repair of concrete buildings. This allowed for signifcant
variation in repair practice, possibly resulting in inconsistencies
in the reliability level of repaired structures. It also placed a
substantial burden on building ofcials charged with
approving repair and rehabilitation drawings, as they were
previously guided solely by code requirements for new
concrete buildings. The development of the repair code
thus represents a milestone achievement in the concrete
repair industry.
This milestone was made possible by the hard work and
dedication of the members of ACI Committee 562. While
it’s an impressive accomplishment, the code will need to be
improved and modifed on a regular basis to integrate the
ongoing work of other ACI committees and industry
groups, incorporate feedback from code users and regulatory
agencies that adopt the code, and refect continuing
developments in repair technologies.
ANSI Standardization
ANSI accredits more than 200 standards groups that work cooperatively to develop voluntary national consensus
standards. To maintain ANSI accreditation, standards developers are required to consistently adhere to a set of require-
ments or procedures known as the “ANSI Essential Requirements: Due Process Requirements for American National
Standards.” As the title makes clear, the document emphasizes due process, which ensures that a standard is developed
in an environment that is equitable, accessible, and responsive to the requirements of various stakeholders. Because it
ensures that interested and afected parties may participate in a standard’s development, the process serves and protects the
public interest.
The hallmarks of the process include:

Consensus on a proposed standard by a group or “consensus body” that includes representatives from materially
afected and interested parties;

Broad-based public review and comment on draf standards;

Consideration of and response to comments submitted by voting members of the relevant consensus body and by
public review commenters;

Incorporation of approved changes into a draf standard; and

Right to appeal by any participant that believes that due process principles were not sufciently respected during the
standards development in accordance with the ANSI-accredited procedures of the standards developer.
More information about ANSI and standardization can be found at www.ansi.org.
38 february 2013 Concrete international
aCI Committee 562 members posed for a group photo at the aCI Fall 2012 Convention in Toronto, ON, Canada. back row, from left:
Michael bartlett, Kevin Conroy, Greggrey Cohen, randal beard, Keith Kesner, Gene Stevens, Garth Fallis, Tarek alkhrdaji, Kelly Page,
Marjorie Lynch, Casimir bognacki, Myles Murray, and Paul Gaudette. Front row, from left: Tracy Marcotte, Peter barlow, Pedrag
Popovic, Jay Paul, Lawrence Kahn, Carl Larosche, Fred Goodwin, halil Sezen, Constadino Sirakis, antonio Nanni, and Gustavo
Tumialan. Committee members not shown: Eric Edelson, Peter Emmons, yasser Korany, Venkatesh Kumar, James Mcdonald,
andrzej Nowak, and randall Poston
Concrete international february 2013 39
Keith Kesner,
faCI, is an
associate with
Whitlock
Dalrymple
Poston &
associates, P.C.,
and currently
heads the frm’s
South Norwalk, CT, offce. He is the new
Chair of aCI Committee 562, evaluation,
repair, and rehabilitation of
Concrete buildings; and serves on
aCI Committees 228, Nondestructive
Testing of Concrete; 364, rehabilitation;
and aCI Subcommittee C601-f,
Nondestructive Testing Technician. He
was a co-recipient of the 1998 aCI
Construction Practice award and
received the 2005 aCI young Member
award. He is also a recipient of awards
from the International Concrete
repair Institute. Kesner received his
PhD and MS from Cornell university
and his bS from the university of
Connecticut. He is a licensed civil
engineer in several states and a
licensed structural engineer in Hawaii
and Illinois.
The ACI 562 Code
The ACI 562 code provides mini-
mum requirements for the evaluation,
repair, rehabilitation, and strengthen-
ing of existing concrete structures. It
was developed to work as a stand-alone
code or to be incorporated into future
versions of the International Existing
Building Code (IEBC),
1
depending on
local statutes and which building code
has been adopted in the project
location. The code includes specifc
provisions for:

Evaluation of existing structures;

Load and resistance factors;

Design of repairs;

Durability requirements; and

Quality assurance.
The document’s extensive commen-
tary, including a comprehensive list of
references, provides guidance to
engineers using the code.
As much as possible, the ACI 562
code was developed to be perfor-
mance-based (in contrast to prescrip-
tive) to provide engineers the maxi-
mum amount of fexibility in
developing repair solutions. Compli-
ance with the code, however, requires
that the engineer determine, based on
local ordinances, when existing
structures should be upgraded to
satisfy specifc requirements of the
International Building Code,
2
the
IEBC, or the current ACI 318. This
determination must be made early in
any project—once the compliance
method and the design basis code have
been selected, they must be used
exclusive of other methods and codes.
Moving ACI 562 Forward
The process of moving the ACI 562
code forward will begin at the ACI
Spring 2013 Convention in Minneapo-
lis, MN. The key goals of the next code
cycle will be developing educational
materials for presenting the code to
engineers and other users, improving
code provisions based on feedback
from code users, and incorporating the
work of other ACI committees into
the code and associated commentary.
Unfortunately, the ACI 562 code
was not adopted into the 2015 version
of the IEBC. To help ensure adoption
in future IEBC versions, the committee
will also reach out to other organiza-
tions, with the goal of developing a
greater consensus on the need for the
code in the engineering community.
People interested in working on
further development of the ACI 562
code are encouraged to apply for
membership through the ACI website.
Application forms can be completed
at: www.concrete.org/COMMITTEES/
COM_JOIN.asp.
References
1. 2012 International Existing Building
Code, International Code Council, Country
Club Hills, IL, 2011, 294 pp.
2. 2012 International Building Code, Inter-
national Code Council, Country Club Hills, IL,
2011, 690 pp.
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Concrete international february 2013 41
use of Precast Slabs in
rapid Construction
Pavement rehabilitation on I-66 in Virginia
by M. Shabbir Hossain and H. Celik Ozyildirim
S
purred by goals of minimizing trafc disruption and
safety hazards while ensuring longevity of service,
highway agencies are continually striving to fnd rapid
ways to build or repair as they concurrently seek out
materials and methods that can provide long-lasting
pavements. Their eforts are captured in the phrase: “Get in,
get out, and stay out!”
The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT)
recently used precast concrete slabs to expedite pavement
construction and repairs and provide longevity on I-66. Two
precast systems, along with conventional cast-in-place (CIP)
repairs, were placed on a section of jointed reinforced
concrete pavement. One precast system used reinforcing
bars in the panels and dowels at the joints, and the other
system used transverse prestressing steel and longitudinal
post-tensioning to reinforce the slabs and provide continuity
at the joints.
Precast slabs are generally cast at a convenient of-site
location, with minimal weather restrictions and better
quality control than is possible when casting concrete on
site.
1
Because they can be stored until needed and placed
quickly, they can minimize the time workers and equip-
ment must be near trafc.
Precast slabs can be prestressed,
2
reducing the chances of
cracking and helping control crack and joint widths.
3

Successful pilot and demonstration projects sponsored by
the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) have shown
that the use of precast slabs in paving applications may
fulfll the need for rapid construction of a quality product
for longer service life and that prestressing has the potential
to further extend the service life of such systems.
4,5

Project Description
VDOT initiated the subject study as part of a feld
demonstration under the FHWA’s Highways for LIFE
program to evaluate the constructibility and initial
performance of diferent concrete pavement repair options
in a comparative environment. Three repair techniques
were used on a four-lane section of I-66W and sections of
the nearby two-lane access ramp (Fig. 1). Studies conducted
in 2008 showed that this section of I-66 carried an average
trafc count of 184,000 vehicles per day, 5% of which
were trucks.
Such high trafc volumes demanded an accelerated,
minimally disruptive, and long-lasting repair. The three
repair techniques included: traditional CIP construction, a
proprietary precast concrete pavement (PCP), and pre-
stressed precast concrete pavement (PPCP). Afer installa-
tion, PCP and PPCP sections were diamond ground as
required in the construction specifcations to achieve good
ride quality.
Ramp
The 3552 f (1083 m) long exit ramp from I-66W to
Route 50W was repaired using both PCP panels and CIP
concrete. The lef lane was repaired using 9 in. (229 mm)
thick CIP patches placed in isolated areas and totaling
1023 yd
2
(855 m
2
) of concrete. The full length of the right
lane was reconstructed with 8.75 in. (222 mm) thick PCP
panels. The 224 panels were each 16 f (5 m) long. They
totaled 4710 yd
2
(3938 m
2
) of concrete. The right shoulder
was milled and resurfaced with asphalt.
Fig. 1: Project site in northern Virginia. Two locations were
selected for the study: the exit ramp (57b) and the mainline on
I-66W near mile marker 59 (figure courtesy of VDOT)
PCCP
CIP & PCP
42 february 2013 Concrete international
Mainline
The PPCP panels were used on I-66W just west of
Jermantown Road. All four lanes, including the right
auxiliary shoulder, were replaced with PPCP panels for a
total length of 1020 f (311 m) and a total of 5780 yd
2

(4822 m
2
) of concrete consisting of 102 panels.
The existing pavement structure was initially built in the
early 1960s and was designed to have 9 in. (229 mm)
jointed reinforced concrete on a 6 in. (152 mm) plain
aggregate subbase over a 6 in. (152 mm) cement stabilized
subgrade. The existing concrete thickness ranged from 9 to
11 in. (229 to 279 mm).
The new PPCP panels were 8.75 in. (222 mm) thick.
Afer the two lef lanes of the existing pavement were
removed, a series of panels, each 12 f (4 m) wide and 10 f
(3 m) long, were placed. Then, the right lane and the
auxiliary shoulder were replaced with monolithic 27 f
(8 m) wide PPCP panels, each 10 f (3 m) long.
Construction
Before and during construction, frequent meetings were
held between the contractor and VDOT to discuss and
quickly resolve any issues and avoid delays. The contractor
also constructed of-site trial sections of PCP and PPCP.
6

These trial sections were valuable in identifying problem
areas and were used to fnd solutions that were later
implemented during construction.
This was a nighttime-only construction project with
lane closures from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. Good planning for
the delivery and installation of the slabs was needed
because there was limited storage space for the slabs and
equipment. All three repair techniques were successfully
implemented. The contractor was satisfed with both
PCP and PPCP construction in terms of constructibility
and ease of operation.
Removal of existing pavement and base preparation
For the CIP repairs, sawing and removal of existing
pavement sections (Fig. 2) were usually performed in one
night. The area was then temporarily covered with wood
blocks to carry trafc the next day. Most removal required
only a single-lane closure, but for a few sections, closure of
both lanes was needed for a few minutes to facilitate
removal of the slabs.
Slab removal operations for both of the precast systems
were similar to those for CIP installation. Unlike CIP repair,
PCP panel installation occurred on the same night as
demolition and removal. The PCP system was installed in
the right lane of the two-lane ramp. Closure of both lanes
was needed to accommodate the delivery truck. Although a
major preparation of pavement base was not required, a
layer of No. 10 aggregate was compacted as a leveling
course before placement of the slabs. This leveling was very
important to achieve a smooth surface and match the
elevation of surrounding panels. Specially designed
manually operated leveling equipment (Fig. 3) was used to
prepare the base. To accommodate the leveling course, the
thickness of the precast slab was about 0.25 in. (6 mm)
smaller than the old slabs.
In the mainline, PPCP operations were performed such
that at least one lane was available. In most cases, two lanes
were available to trafc. Despite the night placement
schedule, trafc congestion still occurred. For the most part,
the existing slab removal for PPCP was similar to other
repair options. In the outside lane (auxiliary shoulder lane),
however, the asphalt drainage layer was stuck to the base of
Fig. 2: Saw cutting and slab removal (photo courtesy of VDOT) Fig. 3: base preparation and leveling for PCP (photo courtesy of VDOT)
Concrete international february 2013 43
the existing concrete slab and was therefore discarded with
it. A compacted layer of No. 21A gradation crushed stone,
in accordance with VDOT specifcations, was used to fll
this unexpected void. A No. 10 gradation aggregate was
used to level the base layer for the rest of the sections.
The fnal preparatory step was installing a nonwoven
geosynthetic fabric as a separation layer to minimize
friction with the base.
Concrete materials
The mixtures used for the CIP patches and precast panels
are shown in Table 1.
CIP cylinders were cured for 4 hours in the molds and
tested for strength, while the cylinders for both precast
systems were cured using radiant heat overnight for high
early strength and tested for strength and permeability.
Concrete placed in both precast systems exhibited satisfactory
workability, air content, and strength.
6

Only one of the 15 batches of CIP concrete failed to
achieve the required 2000 psi (13.8 MPa) compressive
strength in 4 hours. The low-strength batch, however, did
reach 1990 psi (13.7 MPa) and was accepted.
The measured compressive strengths for the PCP system
were higher than the 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) 28-day design
strength. The slag cement content and low w/cm of the PCP
system allowed achieving an average charge passed of
1493 coulombs in the rapid chloride permeability test
(ASTM C1202, “Standard Test Method for Electrical
Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion
Penetration”). Compressive strength requirements for the
PPCP system were 3500 psi (24.1 MPa) for detensioning
and 5000 psi (34.5 MPa) at 28 days. Determined strengths
were higher than the specifed values. Chloride permeability
tests were conducted on one set of two PPCP cylinders and they
exhibited a very low average of 601 coulombs charge passed.
CIP repair
Afer removing the existing slab, four dowel bars were
placed in drilled holes in each wheel path before placing
the concrete in the patches. Afer the patch concrete
hardened and prior to opening the patch to trafc, a
longitudinal joint was cut between the shoulder and the
CIP patch as it encroached into the shoulder in many
places because of deteriorated shoulder condition. However,
the transverse joints were cut all at one time when concrete
casting was complete for the entire lane.
PCP panel installation
The PCP system involved sequential placement of
quadrilateral panels with or without parallel sides to match
the horizontal curvature. The superelevation due to the
curvature of the ramp made it a challenge to match the
dimensions of the panels with the road geometry. This
challenge was met by using special equipment (Fig. 3) to
prepare the base to match the superelevation and placing
warped panels that had a corner raised but retained the
uniform slab thickness. Figure 4 shows the slab installation.
The existing (old) longitudinal joint was so deteriorated
that it lef large gaps lacking concrete along the new joint
that was formed afer the new slabs were installed against
the old surface. These areas required patching. While no
plans had been made for flling these areas, the contractor
was able to use dowel grout to successfully fll these areas.
Additional patching was needed along transverse joints for
chipping that occurred during slab installation.
About 25% of the PCP slabs exhibited mid-slab cracking
right afer opening to trafc. Cores indicated that cracks
were full depth. It is possible that some of these cracks were
already formed during production and delivery of the
Table 1:
Concrete mixture proportions, in lb/yd
3
(kg/m
3
)
unless otherwise noted
Ingredient CIP PCP PPCP
Portland cement 846 (502) 518 (307) 602 (357)
fly ash, Class f — — 150 (89)
Slag cement — 172 (102) —
Coarse aggregate 1862 (1105) 1828 (1085) 1653 (981)
fine aggregate 1088 (645) 1212 (719) 1285 (762)
Water 267 (158) 235 (139) 267 (158)
w/cm 0.32 0.34 0.36
Design air content,
%
4 to 8 5 to 7 4 to 8
Design slump, in.
(mm)
3 to 7
(76 to 178)
2 to 7
(51 to 178)
7 (178)
maximum
Note: CIP is cast-in-place; PCP is precast concrete pavement; PPCP is
prestressed precast concrete pavement; w/cm is water-cementitious
material ratio Fig. 4: PCP slab installation and alignment (photo courtesy of VDOT)
44 february 2013 Concrete international
panels. Lack of compaction of the leveling course might
also have contributed. Moreover, the dowel and tie bars
were grouted several days afer opening to trafc permitting
loads before proper load transfer was established, and this
may have allowed panels to be overloaded in early service.
PPCP panel installation
For PPCP replacements, the inside two 12 f (4 m) lanes
were installed frst, then the outer lane and the shoulder
were repaired using one 27 f (8 m) wide slab. Several PPCP
panels were post-tensioned together (Fig. 5), creating 100 to
160 f (30 to 49 m) sections. Each section was tied to
another with a doweled expansion joint. At both ends of
each section, slabs contained blockouts for longitudinal
post-tensioning.
There was one anchor slab in each section. This slab
was pinned to the ground. Within the slabs, there were
fve ducts for post-tensioning. Two ducts were used for
temporary tensioning of adjacent slabs as soon as they
were placed; threaded dowel bars were used for such
tensioning. Epoxy-coated strands in the other three ducts
were used to permanently post-tension a section (10 to
16 slabs together). These strands were fexible enough to
facilitate pushing (or insertion) through several slabs
together. Initially, a two-part chuck was used to anchor the
strand afer post-tensioning. Afer one of the strands came
loose from a chuck under normal trafc, however, a
three-part chuck was used to secure strands for the
remainder of the project. Also, epoxy on the strand was
removed for better grip. To avoid a potential trafc hazard,
the blockout slots were permanently patched before
opening to trafc.
As shown in Fig. 6, alignment was a problem in a few
slabs and this led to misalignment of the ducts. To locate or
match the ducts, cores were drilled at the slab joints to
reveal the holes and advance the strands (Fig. 7). Larger
ducts could have alleviated the problem. However, the
reinforcement and ducts were difcult to ft into the 8.75 in.
(222 mm) thickness and maintain the required cover of
2 in. (51 mm). Higher cover depth would be desirable in
harsh environments, so thicker slabs would be required.
The original plans were to use post-tensioned transverse
strands to tie all the lanes together. The use of tie bars
was not considered to be practical because of the
construction sequencing.
Although transverse tendon ducts were oval in shape to
facilitate installation of transverse strands, the ducts were
sufciently misaligned afer construction to make it
impossible to push strand across the whole pavement
width. It was decided to push strand through the joint
between the frst two slabs and to push strand through the
27 f (8 m) wide slab and into the middle slab about 3 f (1 m).
The strands were then grouted without post-tensioning.
Unfortunately, because the longitudinal duct diameter was
small relative to the strand size, there was very little room to
inject the grout. The completion of the grouting operation
could not be verifed because grout was not observed at the
successive ports. Also, the grout leaked at the joints because
there was no positive coupling between panels (only foam
gaskets, as shown in Fig. 8, were placed at the duct ends).
Fig. 5: PPCP sections were post-tensioned. The panels on each
side of this movement joint contain blockouts to allow tensioning
of strand (photo courtesy of VDOT) Fig. 6: Misaligned slabs (photo courtesy of VDOT)
Concrete international february 2013 45
In-Service Quality
A high-speed inertial profler was used to measure the
ride quality of the PCP and PPCP sections. An International
Roughness Index (IRI) was obtained using this profler for
the 0.01 mile (16 m) segments.
6
The profler uses a narrow-
band, single-point laser to measure the profle elevations.
Diamond grinding usually creates small ridges and depressions
that afect the test results. Therefore, a wide footprint laser
(ultra-light inertial profler) was also used to measure IRI.
The values were higher than the 70 in./mile (1.1 m/km)
desired
6
but were lower than the IRIs of the surrounding
existing pavement sections.
Load transfer efciency and defection profle under load
were measured using a falling-weight defectometer.
Measurements were taken immediately afer construction
and afer 1.5 years of trafc. The efciency values in both
the PCP and PPCP were lower than the target of 80% in
only a few places. The main problem areas were the
expansion joints between successive post-tensioned sections
in PPCP, where large gaps occurred. In these locations, load
transfer efciency values were observed as low as 70%.
During construction, lif-hook holes on the surface of
precast slabs were flled with a thin layer of rapid-set
patching material. Afer only 1.5 years of service, this
material was observed to be failing (Fig. 9). An epoxy grout
is recommended for future applications.
Conclusions and Lessons Learned
Despite the issues raised, the project was completed
successfully on time and on budget. It is also serving well.
To allow the surface to match the other remaining sections
of the roadway, however, the PPCP section was overlaid
with a thin layer of asphalt afer 3 years of exposure.
Lessons learned on the project and recommendations for
future projects include:

Trial sections were very helpful. Unless the contractor has
a recent experience, placement of trial sections should
be required;

CIP was easy to place and did not exhibit any problems
during construction;

For both PCP and PPCP, mismatches and gaps
occurred between slabs. Tighter dimensional tolerances
are recommended;

In PPCP, misalignment of post-tensioning ducts was
encountered. Larger duct holes should be specifed, both to
facilitate alignment and to provide enough space for proper
grout coverage. Increased duct sizes, however, will necessitate
thicker precast slabs to provide adequate cover depth;

Tighter dimensional tolerances of precast slabs, along
with careful installation, are needed to reduce corner
cracks and edge spalling;

To avoid problems with longitudinal joints between
existing and new pavement, simultaneous repair of
adjacent lanes with PCP should be considered;

About 25% of the PCP slabs exhibited full-depth,
mid-slab cracking right afer opening to trafc. In the
future, ensuring quality control during precast fabrica-
tion, proper base compaction, and establishing the load
transfer through grouted dowel bar before opening to
trafc are essential to avoid such cracking;
Fig. 7: Misaligned duct holes were located by coring holes. This
also allowed the strand to be routed from one panel to the other
(photo courtesy of VDOT)
Fig. 8: Foam gasket to prevent grout leakage in PPCP panels
(photo courtesy of VDOT)
46 february 2013 Concrete international
3. Merritt, D.K.; McCullough, B.F.; Burns, N.H.; and Schindler,
A.K., “The Feasibility of Using Precast Concrete Panels to Expedite
Highway Pavement Construction,” FHWA/TX-01/1517-1, Center for
Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX,
Feb. 2000, 155 pp.
4. Merritt, D.K.; McCullough, B.F.; and Burns, N.H., “Construc-
tion and Preliminary Monitoring of the Georgetown, Texas, Precast
Prestressed Concrete Pavement,” FHWA/TX-03-1517-01-IMP-1, Center
for Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX,
Dec. 2002, 153 pp.
5. Merritt, D.K.; McCullough, B.F.; and Burns, N.H., “Design-
Construction of a Precast, Prestressed Concrete Pavement for Interstate 10,
El Monte, California,” PCI Journal, V. 50, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 2005,
pp. 18-27.
6. Hossain, M.S., and Ozyildirim, C., “Use of Precast Slabs for
Pavement Rehabilitation on I-66,” VCTIR 12-R9, Virginia Center for
Transportation Innovation and Research, Charlottesville, VA, June 2012,
79 pp. (www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/12-r9.pdf)
Note: Additional information on the ASTM standards discussed in
this article can be found at www.astm.org.
Selected for reader interest by the editors.
M. Shabbir Hossain is a Senior
research Scientist at the Virginia
Department of Transportation and
is involved in applied research for
pavements. His research interests
are geotechnical and pavement
engineering. Hossain has expertise
in the areas of pavement materials
characterization, construction
quality control, and pavement rehabilitation techniques.
He received his doctorate degree from auburn university
in pavement materials. Hossain is a licensed professional
engineer in Virginia and Texas and is a member of
Transportation research board committees on geology
and properties of earth materials.
H. Celik Ozyildirim, faCI, is a
Principal research Scientist at the
Virginia Department of Transportation.
He is a member of aCI Committees
211, Proportioning Concrete Mixtures;
233, Ground Slag in Concrete; and
236, Material Science of Concrete. He
is the past Chair of aCI Committee
309, Consolidation of Concrete, and
the Transportation research board section on concrete
materials. He received his PhD in civil engineering from the
university of Virginia and is a licensed professional engineer
in Virginia.

In PPCP, grout ducts were connected between slabs with
foam gaskets which allowed grout leakage. Positive
coupling between slabs would prevent leakage;

Because ducts were not aligned sufciently to
allow strand to extend over the full pavement width,
post-tensioning was not feasible for tying together
adjacent lanes. Strands were grouted in-place without
post-tensioning;

For post-tensioning operations, using three-piece chucks
and stripping of epoxy from the end of the strand are
recommended for a better grip; and

An epoxy grout is recommended to cover lifing inserts
in precast slabs.
Acknowledgments
The authors thank the Virginia Department of Transportation
Materials Division, Northern Virginia District Materials Ofce, FHWA
TFHRC, and Fugro Consultants for their help and contribution in
conducting some of the feld tests for this study. The authors would
also like to acknowledge the sponsorship of FHWA’s Highways for
LIFE program for the construction of this project.
References
1. Tayabji, S., and Hall, K., “Precast Concrete Panels for Repair
and Rehabilitation of Jointed Concrete Pavement,” CPTP TechBrief,
FHWA-HIF-09-003, Federal Highway Administration, Washington,
DC, 2010, 6 pp. (www.fwa.dot.gov/pavement/concrete/pubs/if09003/
if09003.pdf)
2. Merritt, D., and Tayabji, S., “Precast Prestressed Concrete Pavement
for Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of Existing Pavements,” CPTP
TechBrief, FHWA-HIF-09-008, Federal Highway Administration,
Washington, DC, 2009, 8 pp. (www.fwa.dot.gov/pavement/concrete/
pubs/if09008/if09008.pdf)
Fig. 9: Loss of material in the lift hook patching (photo courtesy of VDOT)
Concrete international february 2013 47
Modeling
Corrosion Effects
an examination of chloride-induced deterioration of a bridge deck with
epoxy-coated reinforcement
by Soundar Balakumaran, Richard E. Weyers, and Michael C. Brown
C
orrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete is one
of the primary reasons for bridge deck deterioration,
especially in regions where deicing salts are
applied and in salt-laden coastal areas.
1
Corrosion is mainly
initiated by the difusion of chlorides through concrete to
the reinforcing bar depth. Epoxy-coated reinforcement
(ECR) was introduced in the United States as a corrosion
prevention method in the late 1970s. However, starting in
the mid-1980s, some agencies began to observe premature
corrosion-related deterioration. Specifcations and fabrication
methods have been adjusted in the interim, but ECR has
continued to exhibit mixed results, with some applications
performing very well and others experiencing limited
corrosion resistance.
2
It is therefore necessary to continue to
examine the performance of ECR and develop reliable
methods for predicting the deterioration rate of structures
containing ECR. Such research will allow transportation
system owners to anticipate repairs, rehabilitation, and
replacement rather than react to only visible deterioration.
It may not be feasible or practical to collect large
amounts of data from every bridge to estimate the time for
various corrective actions. In this article, we focus on the
selection of suitable parameters for evaluating a bridge
deck deterioration model based on the difusion of
chlorides to initiate corrosion and subsequent cracking
and spalling for an existing deck constructed with ECR.
We also interpret copper-copper sulfate electrode (CSE)
half-cell potentials and unguarded three-electrode linear
polarization (3LP) corrosion rates to determine where
these tests indicate ongoing corrosion for the bridge decks
with ECR.
The existing bridge deck selected for this analysis was
constructed in 1979 with a top mat of ECR and a bottom
mat of uncoated steel (UCS) bars. At the time of the
inspection, the bridge had been in service for 30 years and
exhibited prominent surface deterioration of the original
wearing surface (no overlay had been applied). Fourteen
percent of the deck surface area exhibited spalls, delaminations,
and patches. We assembled data from the inspection to
develop input values for parameters necessary to model the
known performance of the deck. That is, the calibration of
the parameters was conducted by adjusting their values
until the predicted damage level matched the observed
14%. Using selected parameters, the difusion model was
then applied to the same bridge deck to estimate the future
deterioration rate.
Deterioration Models
Several existing bridge deck corrosion deterioration
models are based on Fick’s second law of difusion.
3-9

Fickian difusion models require reinforcement cover
depth, surface chloride concentration, chloride concentration
at bar depth necessary to initiate corrosion, and apparent
difusion coefcient as input parameters. It is possible to
include the additional protection ofered by the epoxy coating
to the model to estimate the time for corrective actions.
Brown
1
conducted a chloride corrosion resistance study
of ECR on concrete cores taken from Virginia bridge decks
afer many years in service. The cores were ponded with a
chloride solution and corrosion initiation was measured
over time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
Corrosion initiation in ECR cores was identifed using the
observed change in CSE half-cell potential along with the
associated change in impedance and phase angle. Based on
this study, Brown
1
concluded that the service-life extension
provided by ECR is 3 to 7 years before the frst major
rehabilitation, or an average of 5 years.
Bridge Inspection
The bridge evaluated in the current study carries James
Madison Highway (U.S. Route 15) southbound trafc over
I-66 in Haymarket, VA. It is a two-span continuous composite
48 february 2013 Concrete international
steel girder structure with a cast-in-
place fat soft concrete deck with a
thickness of about 8.5 in. (220 mm).
From east to west, the bridge has a
6 f (1.8 m) shoulder, a passing lane
and a travel lane (each 12 f [3.7 m]
wide), and a 9 f (2.7 m) breakdown
lane (Fig. 1). Annual average daily
trafc on the bridge in 2009 was
16,500 vehicles, with about 6% being
truck trafc. Surface water drains
transversely across the deck to drains
in the breakdown lane.
As stated before, ECR was used for
the top mat and UCS for the bottom
Table 1:
Sample size determination for parameters to satisfy a power of 0.90
for a 95% confidence
Data
Difference to detect
(corresponding units
of data) Sample size
Surface chloride
C0, lb/yd
3
(kg/m
3
)
2 (1.18) 23
Diffusion coefficient
Dc, in.
2
/year (mm
2
/year)
0.012 (8) 29
Cover depth
Xi , in. (mm)
0.18 (4.6) 30
Fig. 1: deck plan for the evaluated bridge with delaminations, spalls, and patches
indicated by hatching
mat of reinforcing bars. Trussed ECR
bars were installed in an alternating
pattern with straight bars at top-mat
elevation in negative-moment regions.
The trussed bars turn down and
converge with the bottom mat in the
positive-moment regions. Thus, every
other bottom bar in the positive-
moment regions is ECR.
The original concrete mixture
proportions and construction reports
for the bridge were not available.
However, the deck was built in an era
when the specifed concrete water-
cement ratio (w/c) was a maximum
of 0.45 and the specifed cover depth
was a minimum of 2 in. (51 mm).
Sample size and statistical power
of the distribution
A minimum sample size is required
to provide a statistically reliable
analysis. This number can be found
by fxing the statistical power of the
distribution, thus denoting the
strength of the data collected. For this
analysis, a power of 0.9 and a confdence
of 95% were selected. Diferences to
detect, which are the minimum
statistically signifcant diferences,
were chosen arbitrarily below the
corresponding standard deviations
and were adjusted for a reasonable
sample size using statistical sofware.
Table 1 presents the minimum
sample size required for each parameter
to satisfy a power of 0.90 for a 95%
confdence. Surface chloride concen-
trations and apparent difusion
coefcients are highly variable, as they
vary with the location on the bridge
deck; however, it is not economical to
increase the number of tests to
increase the diferences to detect.
Cover depths are measured in a
relatively quick manner and are
generally not highly variable in a
bridge deck; thus, a smaller diference
to detect was selected, which explains
the higher sample size.
Cover depths
An electromagnetic fux cover meter
was used to determine cover depths
at 30 locations. Mean and standard
deviation values were 2.25 and 0.27 in.
(57 and 7 mm), respectively. Based
on a normal distribution, about
17.6% of the reinforcing steel in the
bridge has a cover depth of less than
2 in. (51 mm) and therefore has poor
corrosion protection in terms of
concrete cover.
Damage survey
A visual inspection and sounding
survey were conducted to quantify the
amount of damage (the sum of
delaminations, spalls, and patched
areas). As with previous studies,
10,11
the
Concrete international february 2013 49
amount of deterioration was expressed
in terms of percentage of the total area
of a lane over one span (Table 2). The
travel and breakdown lanes contained
about 70% of the total damaged area
over the two spans of the bridge (Fig. 1).
Chloride concentrations
To determine chloride contents in
the deck, powdered concrete samples
were obtained at seven depths from
the top surface in increments of 0.5 in.
(13 mm). The top 0.25 in. (6 mm) of
concrete was discarded because of the
variability and inconsistency associated
with the topmost surface. Afer drilling,
the powdered samples were thoroughly
collected using a vacuum-powered
flter mechanism, which ensures
surface cleanliness to prevent cross-
contamination.
Research by Glass and Buenfeld
12
has shown that bound chlorides might
contribute to the corrosion process.
Because it is not clear what percentage
of bound chlorides will contribute to
reinforcement corrosion, the acid-soluble
method, according to ASTM C1152/
C1152M-04e1, “Standard Test Method
for Acid-Soluble Chloride in Mortar
and Concrete,” was selected for the
chloride titration process. This method
accounts for water-soluble and
insoluble (bound) chlorides and is
considered to provide consistent
comparisons among multiple samples.
Background chloride content in the
concrete was taken as 0.3 lb/yd
3

(0.18 kg/m
3
) based on samples
obtained below the cover concrete.
The near-surface chloride concen-
tration distribution appeared to be
normal and relatively uniform with a
coefcient of variation of 36%. Surface
chloride values were taken as time-
independent because the bridge has
been in service for 30 years.
11
Average
surface chloride concentrations for the
bridge were 9.1, 6.5, 7.3, and 10.6 lb/yd
3

(5.4, 3.8, 4.3, and 6.3 kg/m
3
) for the
shoulder, passing lane, travel lane,
and breakdown lane, respectively.
These values are typical for the
northern Virginia area, which has
been documented to experience an
Table 2:
damage (delaminations, spalls, and patched areas) expressed as a
percentage of deck area for indicated lane and span
Location Shoulder
Passing
lane
Travel
lane
Breakdown
lane Average
Span 1 16.6 3.5 12.0 23.2 13.1
Span 2 9.7 11.0 11.1 26.8 14.8
average 13.1 7.2 11.5 25.0 13.9
average roadway chloride exposure of
15,500 lb/lane-mile (4369 kg/lane-
km).
1,10,11,13
The higher near-surface
chloride values in the shoulder and
breakdown lane are probably caused
by snow-clearing operations in the
trafc lanes and the location of the
deck drains in the breakdown lane.
Diffusion coeffcients
Difusion coefcients represent the
rate of difusion of chlorides into the
bridge deck concrete. The apparent
chloride difusion coefcients for the
bridge were calculated using a one-
dimensional solution
14
to Fick’s
second law of difusion
C C
x
D t
x t 0
c
( , ) = ⋅ −
|
\

|
.
|
|

¸

(
¸
(
(
1
2
erf
(1)
where C
(x,t)
is the chloride concentration
at depth x and time t; C
0
is the near-
surface chloride concentration; and
D
c
is the apparent chloride difusion
coefcient (note that erf () is the
mathematical error function). Calculated
average apparent chloride difusion
coefcients were 0.050, 0.025, 0.040,
and 0.064 in.
2
/year (32, 16, 26, and
41 mm
2
/year) for the shoulder, passing
lane, travel lane, and breakdown lane,
respectively. The higher difusion
coefcients in the shoulder and
breakdown lanes correlate with the
higher near-surface chloride values
noted previously.
Corrosion Assessment
To provide a statistically reliable
analysis, 30 test locations were selected
in undamaged areas of the bridge deck
for collecting corrosion model data
and to characterize the corrosion state.
Continuity
Electrical continuity is necessary to
conduct tests for corrosion of reinforcing
bars. This was established by resistance
measurements. Afer drilling through
the concrete cover to expose bars at
the ends and midlength of the bridge,
a hole was drilled and tapped into
each exposed bar, a stainless steel
all-thread rod was screwed into the
hole, and a low-resistance lead wire
was attached to the rod. A high-
impedance multi-meter was then used
to measure the resistance between six
bars in the top mat, two bars on the
bottom mat, and between the top and
the bottom mats. Resistance measure-
ments ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 ohms,
with an average of 2.5 ohms and a
standard deviation of 0.3 ohms. These
low values (for comparison, the
resistance of the spool of lead wire was
found to be 2.1 ohms) confrmed
electrical continuity within and
between the top and bottom bar mats.
Corrosion potentials
Corrosion potentials are used to
determine the probability of active
corrosion in a given system. The
half-cell potential test is conducted
according to ASTM C876, “Standard
Test Method for Corrosion Potentials
of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in
Concrete.” While this test method
was developed for uncoated bars,
Ramniceanu
13
has shown that corrosion
potentials of ECR can be efectively
50 february 2013 Concrete international
measured for structures that have been in service for
several years.
Half-cell studies and examinations of uncoated bars in
concrete specimens ponded with a chloride solution
15, 16
led
to a defnition of three corrosion risk categories:

High (CSE potentials below −300 mV);

Moderate (CSE potentials from −200 to −300 mV); and

Low (CSE potentials exceeding −200 mV).
Using these risk categories for the coated bars in this
study, the measured CSE potentials indicate that there is a
high corrosion risk over 50% of the deck area and a
moderate corrosion risk over 35% of the deck area.
Corrosion rates
A 3LP device is used to determine the corrosion current
density, an indication of the corrosion rate.
17
While the
device induces current and accelerates the corrosion process
during the brief test, the long-term efect is generally
considered negligible. Also, although the 3LP test was
developed to test uncoated bars, it’s been shown that
moisture uptake and localized defects in the epoxy coating
on aged in-place ECR bars render the coating electrically
continuous at the macro scale.
1,13
Interpretation of the measurements requires a knowledge
of the polarized surface area of the tested bar. Although
holidays, holes, and crushed zones in the coating and
varying amounts of moisture in the concrete make it
impossible to know the precise polarized surface area of
an ECR bar, we estimated the area to be the product of
the length of the probe (7.125 in. [181 mm]) and the
circumference of the reinforcing bar. In fact, the area of
polarization could be smaller than this estimated value, so
the actual corrosion rate may be somewhat higher than
implied by our 3LP measurements.
As discussed in References 15 and 16, 3LP tests and
examinations of uncoated bars in concrete specimens
ponded with a chloride solution led to a defnition of three
corrosion risk categories:

High (current density greater than 3.0 μA/cm
2

[2.8 mA/f
2
]);

Moderate (current density from 3.0 to 1.0 μA/cm
2

[2.8 to 0.93 mA/f
2
]); and

Low (current density less than 1.0 μA/cm
2
[0.93 mA/f
2
]).
Using these risk categories for the coated bars in this
study, the measured current densities indicate that there is a
high corrosion risk over 40% of the deck area and a moderate
corrosion risk over 37% of the deck area. These values
compare reasonably well with the 50% and 35% areas found
to have high and moderate risk of corrosion, respectively,
using CSE potentials.
Service Life for Bridge Deck
A service-life estimation for the bridge deck was conducted
by solving Eq. (1) using an application of Monte Carlo
simulation developed by Kirkpatrick
10
and Williamson.
11

Monte Carlo methods are mathematical probability
procedures using either simple or parametric bootstrapping.
Simple bootstrapping uses sets of data, whereas parametric
bootstrapping uses known probability functions. Input
values for a mathematical function—Eq. (1)—are sampled
from either data sets or probability functions and solved
multiple times to create the probability solution. In this
study, Eq. (1) was solved 65,000 times. Cover depths, surface
chlorides, and difusion coefcients were sampled using
simple bootstrapping or random sampling from the given
data set. Corrosion initiation chloride concentration values
were sampled using parametric bootstrapping, as a triangu-
lar distribution ft to reported values from prior studies.
10

For parametric bootstrapping of chloride initiation
values, the minimum, maximum, and mode of the triangular
distribution must be supplied. The chloride initiation
contents for ECR bars were taken from the range presented
in Brown’s study.
1
Several iterations of minimum, maximum,
and mode were selected. Brown
1
observed that chloride
concentrations at cracking for a 0.5 in. (13 mm) cover over
ECR occurred at concentrations both lower than and
greater than those of UCS bars. Brown
1
also showed that
estimated corrosion initiation chloride concentrations for
ECR occurred at values lower than and greater than those
of UCS and that the distribution for ECR appeared
bimodal (Fig. 2(a)).
As can be seen in Fig. 2(b), the range of the distribution
for the evaluated bridge chloride concentrations at bar level
at the time of the survey appears to fall within the initiation
chloride concentration range observed by Brown
1
for ECR.
Figure 2(b) also shows an outlier box. The lef edge, middle
line, and right edge of the rectangle indicate 25th, 50th
(median), and 75th percentiles, respectively. The diamond
indicates the mean and confdence interval. The dashed
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
1 2 3 4
Chloride Concentration, kg/m
3
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(a)
30
20
10
0
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
,

%

0 1 2 3 4
Chloride Concentration, kg/m
3
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Maximum:
Total N:
Standard Dev.:
9.08
27
2.34
Minimum:
Mean:
Median:
0.00
2.64
2.54
(b)
Fig. 2: distributions of chloride concentration at bar depth:
(a) estimate at initiation of corrosion of ECr bars in a bridge
studied by brown
1
; and (b) at time of survey on the bridge
evaluated in the current study (Note: 1 kg/m
3
= 1.7 lb/yd
3
)
Concrete international february 2013 51
lines (whiskers) encapsulate the entire distribution, indicat-
ing no outliers.
Table 3 presents the diferent combinations of chloride
initiation values and the estimated service life for ECR bars
using the frst mode of the bimodal distribution presented
in Brown’s work.
1
As previously shown by Brown, the
11-year time-to-cracking period is the sum of 6 years for
UCS plus an additional 5 years provided by ECR. As
presented in Trial 1, the model overestimated the time
required to reach 14% damage by 19 years (49 minus the
30 years the bridge has been in service). Comparison of
Trials 2 and 3 shows that a decrease in the maximum value
of chloride concentrations by 33% resulted in a decrease of
2 years of predicted time to cracking (from 20 to 18 years).
Likewise, increasing the chloride concentration mode for
Trials 6 and 7 by 0.3 and 0.5 lb/yd
3
(0.18 and 0.3 kg/m
3
),
respectively, in comparison to Trial 5 resulted in only 1 or
2 years’ increase in predicted time to cracking. In Trial 6, the
estimated 30 years to reach a 14% damage area were in
agreement with the average 13.9% deck damage deter-
mined for this 30-year-old bridge. If data for Trials 2 to 8
were plotted on Fig. 2(b), the minimum and maximum
values, as well as the mode of the triangular distribution,
will fall within the lower bimodal distribution range—0.6 to
5.0 lb/yd
3
(0.35 to 2.95 kg/m
3
).
1
It might be possible to
substitute the chloride threshold concentrations and
time-to-cracking periods of diferent reinforcement types
in this model to predict their service lives, but it would
require further study.
Deterioration model
Corrosion initiation chloride concentration values for a
service-life estimation of the bridge were based on Trial 6
with the 30 years of service life to reach a 14% damage area.
Figure 3 presents the corrosion-induced deterioration curve
based on chloride difusion plus an 11-year time-to-cracking
period. The 11 years are a sum of 6 years for UCS plus an
additional 5 years provided by ECR.
1
The deterioration rate
of the bridge is expected to be 1.6%/year, which is the
approximate slope of the deterioration curve (Fig. 3). To
simplify computations, only a few points were plotted afer
5% deterioration, thus making the curve largely linear
Fig. 3: The corrosion-induced deterioration curve based on
Trial 6 of the model. The curve reaches the 14% damage level
at 30 years, matching the damage level and service life of the
studied bridge
Table 3:
Corrosion initiation chloride concentrations and estimated corresponding service lives for ECr
Trials
Corrosion initiation chloride concentration,
lb/yd
3
(kg/m
3
)
14% damage
initiation, year
Cracking
time, year
Total time to
reach 14%
damage area,
year Minimum Maximum Mode
1 0.7 (0.4) 10.6 (6.3) 2.4 (1.4) 38 11 49
2 0.6 (0.35) 4.8 (2.8) 1.2 (0.7) 20 11 31
3 0.6 (0.35) 3.6 (2.1) 1.2 (0.7) 18 11 29
4 0.6 (0.35) 3.0 (1.8) 1.5 (0.9) 18 11 29
5 0.6 (0.35) 4.0 (2.4) 1.0 (0.6) 18 11 29
6 0.6 (0.35) 4.0 (2.4) 1.3 (0.8) 19 11 30
7 0.6 (0.35) 4.0 (2.4) 1.5 (0.9) 20 11 31
8 0.6 (0.35) 5.0 (2.9) 1.3 (0.8) 20 11 31
Note: Bridge under consideration had been in service for 30 years and had 14% deck damage at the time of testing
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
10
20
30
40
60
50
Time, years
D
e
t
e
r
i
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
a
m
a
g
e
,

%
Deterioration curve
based on chloride diffusion
plus 11-year time to cracking
14%
52 february 2013 Concrete international
beyond 5 years. Although this study involves a deck with
ECR in the top mat and black bars in the bottom mat, we
do not believe the bottom mat will have a signifcant
infuence on the deterioration of the deck because the time
taken for chlorides to difuse to the bottom mat is very long.
Summary
Our interpretations of the data obtained using corrosion
potential and corrosion rate tests conducted on an in-service
bridge correlate well with the actual condition of the
structure. Corrosion potentials may therefore be sufcient
to characterize the corrosion condition of decks built with
ECR, provided continuity of the top mat is established.
Further, based on our analyses of an existing bridge deck,
we recommend the following for assessment of existing
decks with ECR:

Surface chloride, difusion coefcients, and cover depths
should be measured at 30 locations on any deck that is
to be modeled for purposes of estimating its remaining
service life;

Testing locations must be selected in a way that the data
are representative of the condition of the entire bridge
deck. As observed from the bridge studied herein, data
obtained from the undamaged areas of the deck appear to
provide an adequate representation of the entire deck; and

For the triangular chloride corrosion initiation function, a
minimum chloride concentration of 0.6 lb/yd
3
(0.35 kg/m
3
),
mode of range of 1.0 to 1.5 lb/yd
3
(0.6 to 0.9 kg/m
3
), and
maximum of range of 3.0 to 5.0 lb/yd
3
(1.8 to 2.9 kg/m
3
)
may be used for ECR, as these values resulted in prediction
within 1 year of the 30-year deck survey condition.
However, further feld investigations are needed to better
identify varying performance conditions, as other decks
built with ECR may lie within the upper range of the
bimodal distribution determined by Brown
1
(Fig. 2(a)).
Acknowledgments
This research was supported by a subcontract from Rutgers
University, Center for Advanced Infrastructure & Transportation
(CAIT), under DTFH61-08-C-00005 from the U.S. Department of
Transportation—Federal Highway Administration (USDOT-FHWA).
The study is a part of the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA)
Long Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Program. The authors are
grateful to Rutgers University for providing support; to Virginia
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Concrete international february 2013 53
Soundar Balakumaran is a research
Scientist at the Virginia Center for
Transportation Innovation and
research, Virginia Department of
Transportation, Charlottesville, Va. His
research interests include design of
bridges, corrosion of structural materials,
structural maintenance, durability of
materials, and use of computer
programming in analysis and design.
Richard E. Weyers, faCI, is an emeritus
Professor of civil and environmental
engineering at Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State university, blacksburg,
Va. He received the aCI robert e. Philleo
award in 2008 for outstanding
contributions toward extending
service life of reinforced concrete
structures. Weyers is a member of
aCI Committees 222, Corrosion of
Metals in Concrete; 345, Concrete bridge Construction,
Maintenance, and repair; and 365, Service Life Prediction.
He has over 40 years of research and consulting experience
related to bridge deck performance.
Michael C. Brown, faCI, is the
associate Director of Structural,
Pavements, and Geotechnical
engineering at the Virginia Center for
Transportation for Innovation and
research, Charlottesville, Va. He is a
member of aCI Committees 222,
Corrosion of Metals in Concrete; 345,
Concrete bridge Construction,
Maintenance, and repair; and 365, Service Life Prediction;
and Joint aCI-aSCe Committee 343, Concrete bridge
Design. He has over 22 years of experience related to
assessing bridge deck performance.
Department of Transportation for organizing and assisting the bridge
feld survey; and to Parsons-Brinckerhof, which provided the bridge
deck damage survey data. The opinions, fndings, conclusions, or
recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the
authors and do not necessarily refect the views of Rutgers University
or those of the USDOT-FHWA.
References
1. Brown, M.C., “Corrosion Protection Service Life of Epoxy
Coated Reinforcing Steel in Virginia Bridge Decks,” PhD dissertation,
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 2002, 269 pp.
2. Zemajtis, J.; Weyers, R.E.; Sprinkel, M.M.; and McKeel, W.T. Jr.,
“Epoxy-Coated Reinforcement: A Historical Performance Review,”
VTRC 97-1R1, Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottes-
ville, VA, 1996, 104 pp.
3. Cady, P.D., and Weyers, R.E., “Chloride Penetration and the
Deterioration of Concrete Bridge Decks,” Cement, Concrete, and
Aggregates, V. 5, No. 2, Jan. 1983, pp. 81-87.
4. Saetta, A.V.; Scotta, R.V.; and Vitaliani, R.V., “Analysis of Chloride
Difusion into Partially Saturated Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal,
V. 90, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1993, pp. 441-451.
5. Mangat, P.S., and Molloy, B.T., “Prediction of Long-Term Chloride
Concentration in Concrete,” Materials and Structures, V. 27, 1994,
pp. 338-346.
6. Bamforth, P.B, “The Derivation of Input Data for Modeling
Chloride Ingress from Eight-Year UK Coastal Exposure Trials,”
Magazine of Concrete Research, V. 51, No. 2, Apr. 1999, pp. 87-96.
7. Boddy, A.; Bentz, E.; Thomas, M.D.A.; and Hooton, R.D., “An
Overview and Sensitivity Study of a Multimechanistic Chloride
Transport Model,” Cement and Concrete Research, V. 29, No. 6,
June 1999, pp. 827-837.
8. Martín-Pérez, B.; Pantazopoulou, S.J.; and Thomas, M.D.A.,
“Numerical Solution of Mass Transport Equations in Concrete
Structures,” Computer & Structures, V. 79, No. 13, May 2001, pp. 1251-1264.
9. Maheshwaran, T., and Sanjayan, J.G., “A Semi-Closed-Form Solution
for Chloride Difusion in Concrete with Time-Varying Parameters,”
Magazine of Concrete Research, V. 56, No. 6, Aug. 2004, pp. 359-366.
10. Kirkpatrick, T., “Impact of Specifcation Changes on Chloride
Induced Corrosion Service Life of Virginia Bridge Decks,” MS thesis,
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 2001, 125 pp.
11. Williamson, G., “Service Life Modeling of Virginia Bridge
Decks,” MS thesis, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA,
2007, 194 pp.
12. Glass, G.K., and Buenfeld, N.R., “The Presentation of the
Chloride Threshold Level for Corrosion of Steel in Concrete,” Corrosion
Science, V. 39, No. 5, May 1997, pp. 1001-1013.
13. Ramniceanu, A., “Correlation of Corrosion Measurements and
Bridge Conditions with NBIS Deck Rating,” MS thesis, Civil and
Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 2004, 92 pp.
14. Crank, J., The Mathematics of Difusion, second edition, Oxford
University Press, Ely House, London, UK, 1975, 414 pp.
15. Balakumaran, S.S.G., “Infuence of Bridge Deck Concrete
Parameters on the Reinforcing Steel Corrosion,” MS thesis, Civil and
Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Insti-
tute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 2010, 171 pp.
16. Smolinski, L., “Infuence of Reinforcing Steel Parameters on
the Formation of the Passive Layer,” MS thesis, Civil and Environmental
Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, VA, 2007, 127 pp.
17. Clear, K.C., “Measuring Rate of Corrosion of Steel in Field Concrete
Structures,” Transportation Research Record, No. 1211, 1989, pp. 28-37.
Note: Additional information on the ASTM standards discussed in
this article can be found at www.astm.org.
Received and reviewed under Institute publication policies.
Concrete international february 2013 55
aCPa 23rd annual
Excellence in Concrete
Pavements awards
T
he American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA)
has named recipients of its 23rd Annual “Excellence in
Concrete Pavements” awards, which recognize quality
concrete pavements constructed in the United States and
Canada. The awards program encourages high-quality
workmanship in concrete pavement projects by recognizing
contractors, engineers, and project owners who completed
outstanding projects. The program requires projects to be
completed in the calendar year prior to judging.
The recipients of the 2012 ACPA Excellence Awards are:
Commercial Service & Military Airports
Gold
Cargo Apron Expansion—Phase IV, Indianapolis
International Airport, Indianapolis, IN
The 43,000 yd
2
(36,000 m
2
) expansion to the airport’s
cargo apron consisted of 18 in. (460 mm) panels constructed
using a material transfer/placer or a placer/spreader,
controlled with stringless technology and using an “alternate
lane” paving sequence. The 180-day project was fnished
without any interruption to air cargo movements.
Project credits include Indianapolis International
Airport, Owner; Berns Construction, LLC (Milestone
Contractors, LP), Contractor; and Shrewsberry and Associates,
LLC, Engineer.
Silver
Niagara Falls Reserve Airbase Taxiway A, A1, A3,
Niagara Falls, NY
Project credits include U.S. Air Force, Owner; Surianello
General Concrete Contractor Inc., Contractor; and Urban
Engineers of New York, P.C., Engineer.
Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR)
Gold
I-664 Pavement Rehabilitation, Newport News, VA
This large-scale CPR project on a major urban highway
included full-depth patching on 54,000 yd
2
(45,000 m
2
) of
continuously reinforced and jointed plain concrete pavement,
while at the same time leaving the road open to trafc. To
I-664 Pavement rehabilitation, Newport News, Va
keep trafc moving, accelerating admixtures were used that
allowed trafc on patched areas within 5.5 hours.
Project credits include Virginia Department of
Transportation, Owner and Engineer, and Denton Concrete
Services Company, Contractor.
Runway 8/26 Pavement Rehabilitation and ADG V
Improvements, Denver International Airport,
Denver, CO
Rehabilitation of Runway 8/26 involved the replacement
of much of the existing concrete, as well as installation of
subbase, bituminous pavement, drainage, and landscaping.
To achieve this task without interfering with airport
operations, side roads were constructed to aid in removal of
the existing concrete, and the runway was only shut down
for 48 days.
Project credits include Denver International Airport,
Owner; Interstate Highway Construction, Inc., Contractor;
and CH2M Hill, Inc., Engineer.
56 february 2013 Concrete international
Silver
I-15 (from I-84 to 10th North, and 10th North to
SR-30), Box Elder County, UT
Project credits include Utah Department of Transportation,
Owner and Engineer, and Multiple Concrete Enterprises,
Inc., Contractor.
County Roads
Gold
Montgomery County, Iowa H-54 from Iowa 48 East to
M-63, Coburg, IA
The 7 mile (11 km) reconstruction of this county road
met multiple obstacles, including unstable base materials
and narrow shoulders and bridges. Despite the challenges,
the road was fnished on schedule with minimal inconve-
nience to residents.
Project credits include Montgomery County, Owner and
Engineer, and Cedar Valley Corp., LLC, Contractor.
Silver
Hess Road Extension, Douglas County, CO
Project credits include Douglas County Community
Planning and Sustainable Development Department,
Owner and Engineer, and Interstate Highway Construction,
Inc., Contractor.
Divided Highways (Rural)
Gold
U.S. Route 54, Kingman County and Pratt County, KS
A 10 mile (16 km) length of highway, involving two lanes
in Pratt County and four in Kingman, was reconstructed and
fnished almost a year earlier than anticipated. The project
team paid special attention to the quality and thickness of
the pavement on both sides of the county line and was
credited for producing an especially smooth pavement.
Project credits include Kansas Department of Transportation,
Owner; Koss Construction Co., Contractor; and Wilson &
Company and HNTB, Engineers.
Silver
U.S. Route 64 & I-40, Webbers Falls, OK
Project credits include Oklahoma Department of
Transportation, Owner; Duit Construction Co., Inc.,
Contractor; and Grossman & Keith Engineering Co., Engineer.
Divided Highways (Urban)
Gold
I-40 Crosstown Expressway, Oklahoma City, OK
The original I-40 Crosstown Expressway, an elevated,
4 mile (6.5 km) stretch of highway across downtown Oklahoma
City, was torn down and rebuilt just south of its original
location. Afer the completion of numerous other parts of
the project, 10 lanes of new pavement were installed, along
with other concrete elements. Despite the large undertaking,
the project was completed 223 days ahead of schedule.
Project credits include Oklahoma Department of
Transportation, Owner; TTK Construction Company, Inc.,
Contractor; and Poe & Associates, Inc., Engineer.
Silver
I-65 Reconstruction Project from I-459 to
U.S. Route 31, Hoover, AL
Project credits include Alabama Department of
Transportation, Owner and Engineer, and McCarthy
Improvement Company, Contractor.
Industrial Paving
Gold
Boeing Expansion and Site Development Program,
North Charleston, SC
One of South Carolina’s largest construction projects
involved the construction of a large facility for the construction
of Boeing aircraf, along with 21 support buildings and
concrete pavement throughout. Placing the pavement had
to be coordinated with the many other ongoing projects,
which resulted in 12 phases of construction for the
338,000 yd
2
(283,000 m
2
) apron and taxiway. Even with
numerous interruptions and changes, the project was
completed on time overall.
Project credits include The Boeing Company, Owner;
APAC-Tennessee, Inc., Ballenger Paving Division, Contractor;
and AVCON, Inc., Engineer.
Silver
I-35 Port of Entry Facility, Kay County, OK
Project credits include Oklahoma Department of
Transportation, Owner; Duit Construction Co., Inc.,
Contractor; and The Benham Company, Engineer.
Municipal Streets & Intersections (Less
than 30,000 yd
2
[25,000 m
2
])
Gold
Main Street Renovation, Grand Junction, CO
To replace the aging asphalt of Main Street, concrete
I-40 Crosstown Expressway, Oklahoma City, OK
Concrete international february 2013 57
pavement was selected for its longevity and recognition as a
cool pavement. During the construction, the street was
mostly closed to vehicle trafc, but it remained open to
pedestrians to keep business up for the 80 shops along the
street. The pavement was placed in one continuous placement
across the whole street with a truss screed, and each
intersection was also placed at once to ensure uniformity of
thickness and smoothness.
Project credits include City of Grand Junction, Owner
and Engineer, and Adcock Concrete, Contractor.
Silver
Bufalo Municipal Housing Authority, Bufalo, NY
Project credits include Bufalo Municipal Housing
Authority, Owner; Surianello General Concrete Contractor
Inc., Contractor; and Nussbaumer & Clarke, Inc., Engineer.
Municipal Streets & Intersections
(More than 30,000 yd
2
[25,000 m
2
])
Gold
Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI
A 2 mile (3 km) section of Wisconsin Avenue was
redesigned to combat its high accident rate. Performing the
reconstruction in three stages to maintain access to local
businesses, work began in the spring to remove and replace
the existing pavement and install sidewalks, driveways, and
electrical work. Heavy snow in April slowed down the
project slightly, but it was still completed within the
150-day working window.
Project credits include The City of Appleton, Owner;
Vinton Construction Company, Contractor; and OMNNI
Associates, Engineer.
Silver
Central Park Boulevard Interchange with I-70,
Denver, CO
Project credits include City and County of Denver,
Owner; Castle Rock Construction Company of Colorado,
Contractor; and Wilson and Company Engineers and
Architects, Engineer.
Donahoo Road Phase 1—115th to 131st, Wyandotte
County, MO
Project credits include Unifed Government Wyandotte
County, Kansas City, Owner; J.M. Fahey Construction
Company, Contractor; and Burns & McDonnell Engineering
Company, Engineer.
Overlays (Airports)
Gold
Runway 17-35 Rehabilitation, Augusta Regional
Airport, Augusta, GA
Over the course of four phases, Runway 17-35, originally
built in the 1940s, was renovated and brought up to Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) standards. The existing
pavement was used as a base, reducing the amount of
earthwork required, and another runway at the airport was
temporarily widened to accommodate commercial aircraf.
Project credits include Augusta Regional Airport,
Owner; APAC-Tennessee, Inc., Ballenger Paving Division,
Contractor; and Campbell & Paris Engineers, Engineer.
Silver
Municipal Airport, Clinton, IA
Project credits include City of Clinton, Owner; Cedar
Valley Corp., LLC, Contractor; and Crawford, Murphy &
Tilly, Inc., Engineer.
Overlays (Streets and Roads)
Gold
State Highway 121, Wadsworth, CO
Concrete was placed to rehabilitate the existing asphalt
pavement, which was experiencing signifcant distress. The
project was in a predominantly residential and commercial
area, so one lane of trafc remained open at all times.
Intersections were closed on weekends for repaving and
paved with high-early-strength concrete.
boeing Expansion and Site development Program,
North Charleston, SC
Main Street renovation, Grand Junction, CO
58 february 2013 Concrete international
Project credits include Colorado Department of
Transportation Region 6, Owner and Engineer, and Castle
Rock Construction Company of Colorado, Contractor.
Overlays (Highways)
Gold
ND Highway 200 Concrete Overlay, Hillsboro, ND
High levels of truck trafc serving two major industrial
facilities required a rehabilitation solution that could
withstand regular heavy loads. A concrete pavement overlay
was chosen due to its durability and ability to be placed in a
short time frame. Most of the construction was done at
night, using a nonglare lighting system. A high smoothness
rating was achieved.
Project credits include North Dakota Department of
Transportation, Owner; Dakota Underground, Inc.,
Contractor; and Ulteig Engineers, Inc., Engineer.
I-35, North of Marietta, OK
This well-traveled section of highway on the Oklahoma-
Texas border was repaved. The ACPA inlay concept was
used on the project, milling out 4 to 6 in. (100 to 150 mm)
of existing asphalt and replacing it with 11 in. (280 mm) of
doweled jointed concrete.
Project credits include Oklahoma Department of
Transportation, Owner and Engineer, and Duit Construction
Co., Inc., Contractor.
I-70, Ellsworth County and Lincoln County, KS
Two separate sites were repaved on I-70, both over 7 miles
(11 km) long. The project specifcations called for profle
milling of the existing asphalt pavement and placing a
concrete overlay for the mainline. Concrete could not be
placed, however, until asphalt temperatures dropped below
120°F (49°C); due to the hot summer, paving was initially
relegated to night time, but production speed increased
once temperatures dropped. Plants were erected near both
sites to provide consistent concrete through the project.
Project credits include Kansas Department of
Transportation, Owner; Koss Construction Co., Contractor;
and Kirkham Michael Consulting Engineers, Engineer.
Reliever & General Aviation Airports
Gold
Anderson Regional Airport Airfield Pavement
Rehabilitation, Anderson County, SC
Upgrades were needed to the apron and connecting
taxiways to accommodate the large aircraf needed by nearby
Clemson University. The major portion of the project involved
removing and replacing the existing apron with 10 in.
(250 mm) of concrete on a 6 in. (150 mm) cement-treated
base. The connector taxiways were redone in a similar fashion.
Project credits include Anderson Regional Airport,
Owner; APAC-Tennessee, Inc., Ballenger Paving Division,
Contractor; and The LPA Group, Inc., Engineer.
runway 17-35 rehabilitation, augusta regional airport, augusta, Ga
anderson regional airport airfield Pavement rehabilitation,
anderson County, SC
Concrete international february 2013 59
Silver
Taxiway Pavement Rehabilitation—Phase 1,
Charles B. Wheeler Downtown Airport, Kansas City, MO
Project credits include Kansas City Aviation Department,
Owner; Ideker Inc., Contractor; and Crawford, Murphy &
Tilly, Inc., Engineer.
State Roads
Gold
State Trunk Highway 83, Mukwonago to Genesee
Road, Waukesha County, WI
The State Trunk Highway (STH) 83 project involved the
reconstruction of 12 diferent typical sections, including a
rural road, two- and four-lane divided highway, and three
roundabouts. The roadway was closed for construction and
completed within a year, although the project only had a
10-day window to do work on the interchange of STH 83
and STH 59.
Project credits include Wisconsin Department of Transpor-
tation, Owner, and Zignego Company, Inc., Contractor.
61-59 K-8253-01 and 61-59 K-8253-02, McPherson
County, KS
These projects span approximately 14.5 miles (23 km),
with roads featuring two 12 f (4 m) wide driving lanes
along with 6 and 10 f (1.8 and 3 m) shoulders. The entire
project was completed within 15 months and used three
separate paving trains on each of the mainline pavement,
ramp paving, and shoulder paving.
Project credits include Kansas Department of
Transportation, Owner and Engineer, and Koss Construction
Co., Contractor.
Urban Arterials & Collectors
Gold
14th Street Sidewalk/Streetscape Reconstruction
Project, Denver, CO
This project transformed a 12-block stretch in downtown
Denver into a pedestrian-oriented “living street.” Due to the
project’s location, there could be no room for error and the
street had to remain open to trafc. The project reconstructed
12 intersections, including colored concrete crosswalks, and
seven blocks of street with new pavement. It also widened
sidewalks on both sides of the street and added numerous
other accents. Although there were run-ins with the
location of underground utilities, the project was completed
on time and under budget.
Project credits include City of Denver, Owner; Concrete
Works of Colorado, Contractor; and PB World, Engineer.
Silver
SR-68: 500 South; Redwood Road to I-15, Bountiful, UT
Project credits include Utah Transportation Department,
Owner; Geneva Rock Products, Contractor; and URS
Corp., Engineer.
14th Street Sidewalk/Streetscape reconstruction Project,
denver, CO
State Trunk highway 83, Mukwonago to Genesee road,
Waukesha County, WI
60 february 2013 Concrete international
Guide for the Analysis and Design of
Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete
Guideway Structures—ACI 343.1R-12
This guide presents a procedure for the design and
analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete guideway
structures for public transit and design guidance for
elevated transit guideways. The engineer is referred to the
appropriate highway and railway bridge design codes for
items not covered in this document. Available in hard copy
and PDF format.
Order Code: 343112.CI Pages: 34
Price: $73.50 (ACI members $45.00)
Concrete (Published in 2012 by Phaidon)
Concrete takes a fresh look at the world’s most versatile
and abundant building material. Collating fascinating and
beautiful concrete buildings by some of the most celebrated
architects of the last century, it features familiar projects
from Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright alongside work
from some of the leading lights of contemporary architecture,
including Zaha Hadid, Herzog and de Meuron, and many
lesser-known newcomers.
Arranged to promote comparison and discussion, the
selected projects take the reader on a global tour of inspiring
and intriguing structures: a German skatepark beside an
Italian roofop test track, a Japanese crematorium alongside
a Portuguese swimming pool, and a Brazilian government
building next to a Chinese opera house.
Order Code: CON.CI Pages: 240
Price: $49.95 (no discount on industry publications)
What’s Coming
Code Requirements for Design and
Construction of Concrete Structures for
the Containment of Refrigerated Liquefed
Gases and Commentary—ACI 376-11
Specifcation for Environmental Concrete
Structures—ACI 350.5-12
Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete—
ACI 445.1R-12
Specifcation for Bonding Hardened Concrete
and Steel to Hardened Concrete with an Epoxy
Adhesive—ACI 548.12-11
Concrete Repair Manual, fourth edition
Spring 2013
Build Your
eLearning
Success Online
now available:
Controlled Low-Strength Material (CLSM) Fundamentals
0.2 CEu (2 PdH), $80 nonmembers, $64 members
CLSM (also known as fowable fll) is a self-consolidating, cementitious material used
primarily as backfll in place of compacted fll. This course covers the basics of CLSM
technology, including materials used to produce CLSM; plastic and in-service
properties; proportioning, mixing, transporting, and placing; quality control; and
common applications.

Concrete Sustainability: Basics
0.15 CEu (1.5 PdH), $75 nonmembers, $60 members
This course provides an introduction to the subject of sustainability, with a special
emphasis on the concrete industry. Participants will study common defnitions of
sustainability, identify “greenwashing” in the marketplace, understand the three
pillars of sustainability, and identify strategies for the integration of concrete in
sustainable development.
Concrete Sustainability: incorporating Environmental,
Social, and Economic aspects
0.15 CEu (1.5 PdH), $75 nonmembers, $60 members
This course provides an in-depth study of topics related to the environmental, social,
and economic impacts of using concrete in sustainable development. Topics include the
use of industrial by-products, thermal mass, storm-water management, longevity, and
heat-island effect, among several others.
also available:
• ConcreteBasics
• ConcreteFundamentals
Visit our website:
aCieLearning.org
• Concrete Field Testing Grade I Certifcation Training
• ConcreteStrengthTestingTechnicianTraining
What’s
New
Concrete international february 2013 61
Batch Controller CB-30
Badger Meter has replaced its Batch Controller Model CB-20 with the CB-30,
which includes new features that boost accuracy and durability. The CB-30 is ideal for
use in concrete plants to batch water into the concrete mixture and other applications
involving fuid transfer. The device allows the controller to quickly set and run an
exact batch, and a presettable batch limit prevents batches greater than the specifed
value. A permanent display of the preset batch informs the operator about the
remaining amount and batch value. Also, an override enables the operator to manually
dispense water or add to the preset batch.
—Badger Meter, www.badgermeter.com
Heavy Duty Electromagnetic
Vibratory Feeder
Eriez Heavy Duty Electromagnetic Vibratory Feeders are
ideal for handling aggregate, slag, or wherever high-volume,
controlled feeding is required. The feeders feature an
energy-saving intermeshed AC/permanent magnet drive
and come in a variety of confgurations, with some models
capable of processing 850 tons (770 tonnes) of material
per hour. The electromagnetic feeders require minimal
maintenance and have a design that has no moving parts.
—Eriez, www.eriez.com
Powerblanket Extra-Hot
Powerblanket
®
Extra-Hot (EH) heating blankets
provide added levels of heat and feature GreenHeat


Technology, allowing them to have strong temperature
control and freeze prevention. GreenHeat Technology
is a heat system designed to provide efcient and
uniform distribution of heat while consuming low
levels of energy. The EH blankets are suited for
accelerating the thawing of frozen ground (up to 24 in.
[600 mm] deep) and for cold weather concrete
applications. In extreme weather environments, the
blankets have produced cured concrete with a
strength of 3925 psi (27 MPa) in 72 hours. The
blankets are ofered in a variety of standard and
custom sizes, and certain versions can perform in
temperatures as low as −40°F (−40°C).
—Powerblanket, www.powerblanket.com
EZ Strip Cure
EZ Strip Cure low-odor curing compound is for
indoor use on fresh concrete. Once curing is complete,
the compound can be removed with ammonia-based
household cleaners or a low-pressure spray, unlike
most curing agents that require strong chemicals or
abrasion for removal. This permits earlier application
of penetrating sealers, foor coatings, and other
subsequent treatments.
—ChemMasters, Inc., www.chemmasters.net
Carbide Bushing Tool
The new two-piece Bosch Carbide Bushing Tool is
engineered specifcally for small concrete chipping
or gouging jobs that require a quick, easy-to-use
concrete accessory. This tool starts with solid power
transfer delivered by a precision shank to maintain
constant pressure on the tool head. Shank options
include a 12 in. (300 mm) round hex, an 8 in.
(200 mm) SDS-max
®
, or a 12.75 in. (325 mm) hex.
The head measures 2 x 2 in. (50 x 50 mm) and has
25 carbide-tipped pyramid points. The tool can be
used with small, demolition, or combination hammers.
It can prepare a rough concrete surface or remove
excess concrete where chipping, cleaning, and
gouging are required.
—Bosch, www.boschtools.com
Products &
Practice
62 february 2013 Concrete international
PROLOK
PROLOK

is a new line of reinforcing bar and mesh
chairs featuring locking heads, eliminating the need for
tie wire and bar ties. PROLOK chairs are lightweight,
stackable, refective, and contribute to LEED points.
They are suitable for a variety of applications, including
commercial and residential; parking lots and garages;
and driveways and patios. PROLOK is available in three
models: the High Chair, which tightly secures a reinforcing
bar intersection without ties; the Tilt-Up Chair, which
reduces the number of ties needed in tilt-up applications
and features an EZ Flow base that has an invisible
four-point footprint; and the Sandplate Base, which
provides additional support for base stability with High
Chairs in sof and sandy applications.
—Grip-Rite
®
, www.grip-rite.com
Spectra Precision QM75
The Spectra Precision
®
QM75 Quick Measure distance meter is a
handheld laser distance meter suited for a variety of applications and
designed to give contractors a one-person distance measuring tool that is easy
to use, portable, and tough. The device provides a bright laser spot that allows
users to safely measure hard-to-reach places with about 1/16 in. (1.5 mm)
accuracy up to 230 f (70 m). A large LCD screen is illuminated for improved
visibility and measurements are taken in both metric and English units. The
casing is designed with engineering plastics, rubber overmold, and electronics
isolation to resist drops of up to 5 f (1.5 m).
—Trimble, www.trimble.com
MCI Super Remover
MCI
®
Super Remover is a powerful cleaner for removing rust, scale, and tough concrete residue. It serves as a
replacement for muriatic, phosphoric, and nitric acid cleaners, instead using low-pH organic salt to remove even aged
concrete from equipment surfaces. It can be diluted to varying concentrations and used on drum mixers, concrete
trucks, construction equipment, and batching plants. It is biodegradable and does not damage surfaces.
—Cortec
®
Corporation, www.cortecvci.com
Products & Practice
Information on the items reported in “Products & Practice” is furnished by the product manufacturers, suppliers, or developers who are respon-
sible for the accuracy of the information. Also, the descriptions of these items do not represent endorsement by this magazine, by the American
Concrete Institute, or any of its staff. They are published here simply as a service to our readers.
Concrete international february 2013 63
W. R. MEADOWS’ Perm Calculator
W. R. MEADOWS has developed a perm calculator, which allows users to
compare the amount of moisture that is transmitted through vapor retarders. The calculator is designed to show the
estimated amount of moisture that is transmitted through a material of a given permeance over a user-defned area
and time period. The materials of varying permeances are compared to the requirements listed in ASTM E1745. By
entering the perm rating of the vapor retarder, the foor area in square feet, and the desired time frame to obtain
the transmitted water volume through the material, the resultant calculation will be the amount of water vapor
transmitted in a variety of units for comparison. The perm calculator can be found online at www.wrmeadows.
com/perm-calculator.
—W. R. MEADOWS, www.wrmeadows.com
ConcreteNetwork.com Releases Concrete
Staining E-book
Concrete Staining Today, an e-book published by ConcreteNetwork.
com, takes a thorough look at the state of the concrete staining industry by examining recurring trends and various
economic factors. As concrete staining continues to be a popular choice among consumers for decorating slabs, the
concrete staining industry continues to change with the development of new products. The book takes a look at the
growth of the concrete coloring market, expanding product competition, water-based stains, new staining technologies,
and merging trends for sealers in conjunction with staining. The 16-page PDF is available for download and print
from ConcreteNetwork.com’s website.
—ConcreteNetwork.com, www.concretenetwork.com
Cable-Stayed Bridges:
40 Years of Experience Worldwide
by Holger Svensson
Cable-stayed bridges have increased in popularity since their introduction
in 1970, with approximately 120 worldwide in 2000 and around 1000 today.
Author Holger Svensson observed and played a part in their use during
that time period. This book is a summary of all facets of design, construction,
detailing, and maintenance of cable-stayed bridges. The well-illustrated
text goes in depth on topics such as preliminary design, aesthetics, design
computations, and cable technology. It presents highly detailed information
for computation and control of bridge vibration and galloping, cable
damping, and other such specialized topics. Included with the volume
are two DVDs featuring 30 lectures by Svensson summarizing the design
and construction of cable-stayed bridges and ultimately constituting a
two-semester college course.
Wiley-Blackwell, Ernst & Sohn, website: www.wiley.com
price: $185; 458 pp.; ISBN: 9783433029923
Products & Practice
Web Notes
Products&Service
Literature&Videos
Book Notes
64 february 2013 Concrete international
anchorage Systems
PROFIS Anchor
Hilti PROFIS Anchor sofware
ofers a high level of fexibility and
functionality. The program includes
the anchor design provisions of
ACI 318. Users can design with Hilti
mechanical and adhesive anchor
systems as well as cast-in-place headed
studs and headed bolts. Tutorials
explain how to navigate within
PROFIS Anchor and the included
Design Guide is an interactive tool
that explains ACI 318 Appendix D
strength design calculations and
PROFIS Anchor design assumptions.
—Hilti, www.hilti.com
Thermal Concrete 2-Seal Wing Nut Anchor
The Thermal Concrete 2-Seal

Wing Nut Anchor is a
single-screw veneer tie for concrete, concrete masonry unit,
or wood stud construction. The anchor features a dual-
diameter barrel with factory-installed EPDM washers to seal
both the face of insulation and air and vapor retarders to a
surface. The projecting thermal wings are made from an
engineering polymer, creating a thermal break and decreasing
thermal transfer, and can accept a standard or seismic hook
and spin to easily orient pintles and hooks parallel to
masonry joints. They can be adapted for seismic zones with
the addition of 9 gauge or 3/16 in. (5 mm) wire and a
seismic hook.
—Hohmann & Barnard, Inc., www.h-b.com
Power-Stud+ Mechanical Anchors
The Power-Stud+ SD4 and SD6 mechanical anchors are
the latest addition to the fastener range ofered by Powers
Fasteners. These anchors are fully threaded, torque-controlled
wedge expansion anchors designed for consistent perfor-
mance in cracked and uncracked concrete. They are
Category 1 corrosion-resistant stainless steel anchors
featuring a knurled mandrel design that helps prevent
galling during the anchor’s service life. The design of the
anchor allows for follow-up expansion afer setting under
tensile loading. The anchors are available in diameters from
1/4 to 5/8 in. (6 to 16 mm) and lengths from 1.75 to 8.5 in.
(44 to 216 mm).
—Powers Fasteners, Inc., www.powers.com
Product
Showcase
Concrete international february 2013 65
Epcon S7
Epcon S7 is a fast-cure, hybrid epoxy that yields a
high characteristic bond strength in water-saturated,
water-flled, and water-submerged holes and is the only
adhesive designed to cure in concrete under water.
On the job site, it allows for the installation of threaded
rods or reinforcing bars in concrete that is too damp
or water-soaked to bond with other adhesives. It is
designed to simplify specifcation and code compliance
and has been approved by several organizations,
including ICC-ES, under ESR-2308.
—ITW Red Head, www.itw-redhead.com
MASA Mudsill Anchor
MASA cast-in-place mudsill anchors provide an
alternative to anchor bolts in the design of mudsills.
Based of of Simpson Strong-Tie’s original MAS mudsill
anchor, the MASA provides greater load-carrying capacity
through improved reinforcement of key sections of the
connector. The MASA also includes additional fasteners
to improve performance. The standard MASA anchor is
designed for installation on standard forms; also available
is the MASAP anchor for use on panelized forms. Both
anchors attach easily to the concrete form and lay fat on
top of the form board.
—Simpson Strong-Tie, www.strongtie.com
SPEED-E-ROC
SPEED-E-ROC

is a pourable, high-strength
hydraulic cement compound designed for anchoring
and grouting. The cement-based material is ideally
suited for anchoring reinforcing steel, threaded rods,
sign posts, and other metal objects in concrete. It may
also be used as a precision and rapid-setting grout for
machinery base plates, bearing plates, and columns. It
can be used in interior or exterior environments,
including those with wet or cyclic freezing-and-thawing
conditions. The compound reaches a compressive
strength of 5000 psi (34.5 MPa) in 1 hour and 11,000 psi
(75.9 MPa) in 28 days.
—W. R. MEADOWS, www.wrmeadows.com
Product Showcase
66 february 2013 Concrete international
The following ACI draf standards are open for public discussion. They are being processed through ACI’s
ANSI-approved standardization procedures and are not yet ofcial ACI standards. To see a summary of all ACI draf
standards in process or recently completed within the past 3 months, please visit www.discussion.concrete.org.
Document number Title
Open for
discussion
Discussion
closes
440.X
Material Specification for Carbon and Glass fiber-reinforced
Polymer (frP) Materials made by Wet Layup for externally
reinforcing Concrete Structures
2/1/2013 3/17/2013
550.y
Design Specification for unbonded Post-Tensioned Precast
Concrete Special Moment frames Satisfying aCI 374.1
(aCI-aSCe 550.y) and Commentary
2/1/2013 3/17/2013
Proposed Standards
“Material Specifcation for Carbon and Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP)
Materials made by Wet Layup for Externally Reinforcing Concrete Structures”
The ACI Technical Activities Committee (TAC) approved processing the subject document through ACI’s Standardization
Procedure in July 2012, as did the ACI Standards Board in December 2012.
Therefore, this draf document is open for public discussion from February 1, 2013, until March 17, 2013. The document
appears on the ACI website, www.discussion.concrete.org.
Pertinent discussion will be available on ACI’s website and announced in a future issue of Concrete International if
received no later than March 17, 2013. Comments should be e-mailed to discussion@concrete.org.
“Design Specifcation for Unbonded Post-Tensioned Precast Concrete Special
Moment Frames Satisfying ACI 374.1 (ACI-ASCE 550.Y) and Commentary”
The ACI Technical Activities Committee (TAC) approved processing the subject document through ACI’s Standardization
Procedure in July 2011, as did the ACI Standards Board in December 2012.
Therefore, this draf document is open for public discussion from February 1, 2013, until March 17, 2013. The document
appears on the ACI website, www.discussion.concrete.org.
Pertinent discussion will be available on ACI’s website and announced in a future issue of Concrete International if
received no later than March 17, 2013. Comments should be e-mailed to discussion@concrete.org.
Public Discussion and Closure
“Specifcation for Bonding Hardened Concrete and Steel to Hardened
Concrete with an Epoxy Adhesive”
The ACI Technical Activities Committee (TAC) approved the draf standard subject to satisfactory committee response
to TAC comments in October 2011. The committee responded adequately to TAC’s comments and all balloting rules were
adhered to. On August 1, 2012, the Standards Board granted approval to release the draf standard for public discussion
and to process it as an ACI standard. Public discussion was announced on September 1, 2012, and closed on October 17, 2012.
The committee responded to the public discussion. TAC reviewed the closure and approved it on November 20, 2012.
The Standards Board approved publication of the ACI standard on December 5, 2012.
The public discussion and the committee’s response to the discussion are available on ACI’s website, www.concrete.org
(click on “Technical” on the menu bar, and then on “Upcoming Standards”).
Public
discussion
Concrete international february 2013 67
Code Case ACI 318-08/001(12) and 318-11/001(12)
Background
A letter was submitted to Chair Poston from Hans Hausfeld, Vice President of Helix Fibers, on September 29, 2011,
requesting a code change of Section 3.5.1 to clarify this provision as “ambiguity has been found in application.”
Subcommittee ACI 318-D was assigned to review the code change request. Based on that review, a change proposal
CD022 was prepared and balloted by the main committee on LB12-3. This change proposal to provide clarifcation
was approved by the main committee on June 15, 2012. While this change was approved for the 2014 code, it has been
requested to provide an ofcial interpretation that will become efective immediately for both the 2008 and 2011
codes. The Code Case was approved by TAC on November 20, 2012. On December 5, 2012, the Standards Board
approved Code Case ACI 318-08/001(12) and 318-11/001(12) according to the Institute’s Code Case Procedure, and it
became efective on that date.

Question: Section 3.5.1 of ACI 318-08 and ACI 318-11 states that “Discontinuous deformed steel fbers shall be
permitted only for resisting shear under conditions specifed in 11.4.6.1(f).” This provision has been interpreted that
Section 1.4 does not apply, which has restricted other applications in which discontinuous deformed steel fbers could
potentially be used. Is it the intent of this provision that discontinuous deformed steel fbers can only be provided in
concrete if they are used to resist shear?

Interpretation: The 318-08 and 318-11 Codes only address the use of discontinuous deformed steel fbers in
resisting shear. For other applications where it is desired to use discontinuous deformed steel fbers, Section 1.4
provides a procedure for approval.
Public Discussion
68 february 2013 Concrete international
17-20
National Stone, Sand & Gravel
Association Annual Convention,
San Antonio, TX
convention.nssga.org
17-21
CORROSION 2013, Orlando, FL
http://events.nace.org/conferences/
c2013/president.asp
20-22
ICRI Spring Convention,
St. Pete Beach, FL
www.icri.org
April
17-19
Seismological Society of America
2013 Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City,
UT
www.seismosoc.org/meetings/2013/
17-20
14th International Congress on
Polymers in Concrete, Shanghai, China
www.rilem.net
22-24
2013 fb Symposium, Tel Aviv, Israel
www.fb2013tel-aviv.co.il
22-25
World of Coal Ash, Lexington, KY
www.worldofcoalash.org
27-30
CRSI Annual Conference, Scottsdale,
AZ
www.crsi.org
May
2-4
Structures 2013 Congress, Pittsburgh,
PA
www.seinstitute.org/Structures2013.html
5-7
2013 PTI Convention, Scottsdale,
AZ
www.post-tensioning.org/annual_
conference.php
6-8
International IABSE Spring
Conference, Rotterdam, the Nether-
lands
www.iabse2013rotterdam.nl
International Concrete Sustaina-
bility Conference, San Francisco, CA
www.concretesustainabilityconference.
org/sanfrancisco/index.html
UPCOMING ACI CONVENTIONS
2013 — april 14-18, Hilton & Minneapolis Convention Center,
Minneapolis, MN
2013 — October 20-24, Hyatt regency & Phoenix Convention Center,
Phoenix, aZ
2014 — March 23-27, Grand Sierra resort, reno, NV
2014 — October 26-30, Hilton Washington, Washington, DC

For additional information, contact:
Event Services, ACI, 38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills, MI 48331
Telephone: (248) 848-3795 • E-mail: conventions@concrete.org
See the events calendar at
www.concreteinternational.com
for more listings
2013
February
4-8
World of Concrete, Las Vegas, NV
www.worldofconcrete.com
15-16
CEMCON 2013, Pune, India
www.icipunecentre.org/cemcon2013.aspx
14-15
IABSE Workshop on Safety,
Failures, and Robustness of Large
Structures, Helsinki, Finland
www.iabse2013helsinki.org
27-28
The UK Concrete Show, Birming-
ham, England, UK
www.concreteshow.co.uk
February/March
28-2
CSDA Annual Convention and
Tech Fair, Duck Key, FL
www.csda.org
March
3-5
NRMCA Annual Convention, San
Antonio, TX
www.nrmca.org/Conferences_Events/
AnnualConvention/2013
10-14
FraMCoS-8, Toledo, Spain
www.framcos8.org
11-15
Concrete Decor Show, Charlotte,
NC
www.concretedecorshow.com
Meetings
Concrete international february 2013 69
Modelación de los efectos de la corrosión
Balakumaran, Soundar; Weyers, Richard E.; y Brown,
Michael C., Concrete International, V. 35, No. 2, febrero de
2013, págs. 47-53
La modelación del deterioro producido por la corrosión en los
tableros de los puentes reforzándolos con un recubrimiento de
epoxi exige la elección de unos parámetros adecuados. En este
artículo, los autores consideran el cloruro de la superfcie, los
coefcientes de difusión y la penetración del recubrimiento.
Se procedió a la inspección del tablero de un puente sito en
Virginia cuya plataforma superior fue reforzada con un
recubrimiento de epoxi. Se desarrolló un modelo de difusión
para la estimación de la futura velocidad de deterioro del
tablero utilizando los parámetros elegidos y los procedimientos
de probabilidad.
Uso de losas prefabricadas en la construcción rápida
Hossain, M. Shabbir y Ozyildirim, H. Celik, Concrete
International, V. 35, No. 2, febrero de 2013, págs. 41-46
El Departamento de Transporte de Virginia utilizó reciente-
mente losas de hormigón prefabricadas para agilizar la
construcción y la reparación del pavimento de la autopista y
alargar la vida útil de la I-66. Se aplicaron dos sistemas
prefabricados y reparaciones convencionales moldeadas in
situ en una sección de pavimento de hormigón armado en
masa. Se utilizó uno de los sistemas prefabricados, el pavimento
de hormigón prefabricado, para el refuerzo de las barras de los
paneles y de los ensamblajes con espiga. El otro sistema
prefabricado, el pavimento de hormigón pretensado prefabri-
cado, utilizó losas pretensadas transversalmente y postensadas
en sentido longitudinal. En términos generales, ambos
sistemas prefabricados presentan un rendimiento satisfactorio
y el contratista mostró su satisfacción por la constructibilidad.
El Código de Reparación 562 del Instituto Americano del
Concreto (American Concrete Institute, ACI)
Kesner, Keith, Concrete International, V. 35, No. 2, febrero
de 2013, págs. 37-39
Desde su creación en el 2006, el Comité 562 del ACI,
Valoración, reparación y rehabilitación de los edifcios de
hormigón, se ha centrado en el desarrollo de un documento
normativo con el objetivo de elaborar un código de construcción
para la valoración, reparación y rehabilitación de las estructuras
de hormigón existentes. Tras completar el proceso de
normalización del Instituto Nacional de Normalización
Estadounidense (American National Standards Institute,
ANSI), se publicará el código “Requisitos para la valoración,
reparación y rehabilitación de los edifcios de hormigón
(ACI 562) y Comentarios” como un documento normativo del
ACI. Este documento fue elaborado en respuesta a las
necesidades de ingenieros, contratistas y profesionales de la
construcción implicados en la reparación de las estructuras
existentes que habían padecido la falta de unos requisitos
específcos en el código de construcción para la reparación de
los edifcios de hormigón.
Sinopsis en español
70 february 2013 Concrete international
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Aluma Systems ............................................................ Inside Back Cover
Bentley Systems ..................................................................................... 2
Computers & Structures, Inc. ................................................ Back Cover
CTS Cement Mfg. Corp. ..................................................................... 39
Decon .................................................................................................... 1
Erico ................................................................................................... 17
Headwaters Resources ........................................................................ 12
Hughes Brothers .................................................................................. 25
ICC Evaluation Service ........................................................................ 21
Mala GeoScience USA, Inc. ................................................................. 15
Oztec Industries, Inc. ........................................................................... 13
QuakeWrap, Inc. ................................................................................. 38
Simpson Strong Tie ............................................................................. 19
StructurePoint ............................................................ Inside Front Cover
Xypex Corporation ............................................................................. 11
SALE OF ADMIXTURE PRODUCTION
If you are producing more than 100,000 yd
3
of
concrete per year, then you should be making your own
admixtures. You would be impressed by what it will do
for your bottom line proft. I have been in the admixture
business for over 55 years and have approved proven
formulations that meet ASTM C494, and have been in
use in millions of meters of concrete around the world.
No admixture company will sell you their formulations,
BUT I will since I am getting out of the business and
willing to pass this confdential information, and raw
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72 february 2013 Concrete international
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Concrete international february 2013 73
Concrete
Q&a
Evaluation of
Strength results
Questions in this column were asked by users of ACI documents
and have been answered by ACI staff or by a member or members
of ACI technical committees. The answers do not represent the
offcial position of an ACI committee. Only a published committee
document represents the formal consensus of the committee and
the Institute.
We invite comment on any of the questions and answers published
in this column. Write to the Editor, Concrete International, 38800
Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331; contact us by fax at
(248) 848-3701; or e-mail Rex.Donahey@concrete.org.
Q.
The 28-day cylinder breaks were initially fne, but
now they’re coming in low. The concrete supplier
blames the testing lab and the testing lab blames the
supplier. Who can we believe? Can ACI 214R be used to sort
this out?
A.
The quick answer is yes, ACI 214R-11
1
can be
used to help sort this out. But without specifc
information regarding the cylinder test results,
we have to start by referring to ACI 301-10
2
or ACI 318-11
3

the ACI documents that defne strength acceptance
requirements for structural concrete.
From Sections 1.6.5 and 1.6.6 of ACI 301:
1.6.5 Evaluation of concrete strength tests
1.6.5.1 Standard molded and cured strength
specimens—Test results from standard molded and cured
test cylinders will be evaluated separately for each specifed
concrete mixture. Evaluation is valid only if tests have been
conducted in accordance with procedures specifed. For
evaluation, each specifed mixture shall be represented by at
least fve strength tests. When strength test results do not
meet the requirements of 1.6.6.1, take steps to increase the
average of subsequent strength test results. Submit
documentation of actions to increase strength test results.
1.6.6 Acceptance of concrete strength
1.6.6.1 Standard molded and cured strength specimens—
The strength of concrete is satisfactory provided that the
criteria of 1.6.6.1.a and 1.6.6.1.b are met.
1.6.6.1.a Every average of three consecutive
strength tests equals or exceeds the specifed compressive
strength f
c
′.
1.6.6.1.b No strength test result falls below f
c
′ by
more than 500 psi when f
c
′ is 5000 psi or less, or by more
than 0.10 f
c
′ when f
c
′ is more than 5000 psi. These criteria
also apply to accelerated strength testing unless another
basis for acceptance is specifed in Contract Documents.
Section 5.6.3.3 of ACI 318 states the same requirements.
We will assume that the breaks called “fne” met these
requirements and the breaks called “low” did not. So for the
“low” breaks, the real question becomes: Were the “low” test
results caused by changes in the delivered concrete, poor or
inadequate testing procedures, or both?
This is where ACI 214R can be helpful. As Table 3.1 of
ACI 214R indicates, variability in test results can be caused
by many factors, but, basically, variation in strength tests
will be related to variability in batching during
production or variability in testing. ACI 214R provides
methods for quantifying these two components of
variability, using either the sample standard deviation or
the sample coefcient of variation (simply the sample
standard deviation divided by the sample mean). Either
can be calculated with the aid of functions provided with
spreadsheet sofware, statistical analysis packages, and
many calculators.
Overall standard deviation (or, for concretes with
specifed strengths greater than 5000 psi [35 MPa], the
overall coefcient of variation) is used to assess the batch-
to-batch variability. The within-batch coefcient of
variation is used to assess the testing variability.
Each cylinder break provides an estimate of the average
strength of the concrete in the batch from which the
cylinder sample was taken. For example, if we made, cured,
handled, and tested 100 cylinders from a single batch of
concrete in exactly the same way, we would not expect
them all to break at exactly the same compressive strength.
We would, however, expect them to break somewhere near
the average of all 100 cylinders. A histogram of the
100 individual cylinder strengths would likely be
distributed about the average, following a bell-shaped
curve resembling the normal distribution curve (Fig. 1).
The variability of the results is representative of the
within-batch variation.
74 february 2013 Concrete international
Fig. 2: Standards of concrete control (Tables 4.3 and 4.4 in
aCI 214r-11
1
)
Concrete Q&a
Going further, if we made 100 batches of concrete in
exactly the same way, using the same materials, the same
mixer, and the same personnel, and molded 100 cylinders
from each batch, we would not expect all 10,000 cylinders
to have the same strength. We also would not expect the
average of the strengths of the 100 cylinders from each
batch to be the same as the average of the strengths of every
other batch. We would expect a histogram of the averages of
the batches to be distributed about the average of all the
batches in a similar bell-shaped curve. This variability
among all the batches under consideration is the
overall variability.
Strength Acceptance
For strength acceptance, typically two or three cylinders
are molded from a single batch of concrete. A strength test
is defned in ACI 318 as the average of the individual
cylinder strengths and so is an estimate of the average
strength of the batch. The strength of each cylinder
represents an estimate of the average strength of the batch
from which it was sampled. The diference between the
highest strength and lowest strength in a set of two or three
cylinders is called the range.
ACI 214R advises that the range of individual strength
tests from a batch can be used to estimate the within-batch
coefcient of variation. The strength test results for all
batches being considered are used to estimate the average
strength and the overall standard deviation (or overall
coefcient of variation). These estimates of within-batch
Fig. 1: Frequency distribution of strength data and corresponding
assumed normal distribution (Fig. 4.1 in aCI 214r-11
1
) (Note:
1 MPa = 145 psi)
coefcient of variation and overall standard deviation (or
coefcient of variation) are used to categorize the standard
of quality control using Tables 4.3 and 4.4 of ACI 214R
(Fig. 2). If the within-batch coefcient of variation
corresponds to a category of “Fair” or “Poor,” this may be an
indication of inadequate sampling and testing procedures.
If the overall standard deviation or coefcient of variation
corresponds to a category of “Fair” or “Poor,” this may be an
indication of inadequate batch plant production controls.
Control charts similar to those shown in Fig. 6.1 of
ACI 214R (Fig. 3) can be used to help determine if there is a
sudden change in the range corresponding to the lower
strength test results. Such a change, regardless of category,
may be indicative of a change in batching, sampling, or
Concrete international february 2013 75
Concrete Q&a
Fig. 3: Three simplified quality control charts: (a) individual strength tests; (b) moving average of five strength tests; and (c) range of
two cylinders in each test and moving average for range (Fig. 6.1 in aCI 214r-11
1
)
76 february 2013 Concrete international
Concrete Q&a
testing procedures. Careless or sloppy sampling and testing
procedures will most likely increase the within-batch
coefcient of variation. Systematic deviations from
standardized test methods will afect all of the cylinders
from a batch the same way and therefore will not afect the
range adversely. Examples of systematic deviations include
using a test machine that is out of calibration, curing
cylinders at nonstandard temperatures, and failing to
continue loading each cylinder to failure.
Limiting sources of testing variability is important for
the test results to be meaningful. Consistent application of
the methods provided in standards (for example,
ASTM C31/C31M-12, “Standard Practice for Making and
Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field”) helps
minimize variability of testing. Other standards, such as
ASTM C39/C39M-12a, “Standard Test Method for
Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens,”
generally include precision and bias statements that can be
used to help determine if the variability of test results from
a test are reasonable. It is rarely possible to assess strength
variations if proper sampling and testing procedures are not
being followed. Using ACI-certifed feld and laboratory
technicians on your project, however, can go a long way
toward assuring that the sampling and testing are being
ACI Committee 214, Evaluation of Strength Test Results
of Concrete, is conducting a study to verify or update the
values listed in ACI 214R-11, Tables 4.3 and 4.4, to qualify
concrete control. The values listed in Table 4.3 are identical
to values published in the 1977 edition of the ACI 214
report—one might hope that the standards of concrete
quality control have improved over the past 35 years!
The study is being led by Mike Bartlett at the University
of Western Ontario in London, ON, Canada, with the
assistance of Senior Undergraduate Student Jason Daplyn.
Afer preliminary results were presented at the
ACI Committee 214 meeting in Toronto on October 22,
2012, it was agreed that additional data should be solicited.
Therefore, ACI Committee 214 is asking readers to provide
data for this study. Data must be for production covering 30 or
more tests of the same mixture design, obtained by qualifed
persons on calibrated equipment, and it should be submitted
in a Microsof
®
Excel fle. The data should include:

Individual cylinder breaks for each test result, so that
within-test variation may be computed;

Specifed strength of the concrete tested;

Cylinder size and concrete age at time of testing;

Indication of whether the mixtures represent laboratory
trial batches or general construction testing;

Indication of whether the data are from a single testing
company or a composite set from several frms; plus

Any other information that may have infuenced the
quality of testing.
Other data about the fresh concrete, such as slump,
temperature, air content, or unit weight, should be included
if available. These data will be analyzed to determine the
correlation (or lack of it) between these properties and
the strength.
All information received will be confdential. All
organizations that provide data will be acknowledged, but
the source of any particular data set will not be identifed.
Please send data to f.m.bartlett@uwo.ca. Please send
questions to luke@njit.edu.
Request for Concrete Cylinder Test Data
performed in accordance with the applicable standards.
If your ACI 214R evaluation fails to shed any light on the
low strengths, a thorough review of the testing laboratory
sampling and testing procedures and a thorough review of
the concrete supplier’s quality processes are warranted.
References
1. ACI Committee 214, “Guide for Evaluation of Strength Test
Results of Concrete (ACI 214R-11),” American Concrete Institute,
Farmington Hills, MI, 2011, 16 pp.
2. ACI Committee 301, “Specifcation for Structural Concrete
(ACI 301-10),” American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2011,
77 pp.
3. ACI Committee 318, “Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11) and Commentary,” American
Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2011, 503 pp.
Note: Additional information on the ASTM standards discussed in
this article can be found at www.astm.org.
Thanks to Allyn C. Luke, New Jersey Institute of Technology;
Bryan R. Castles, Western Technologies Inc.; F. Michael Bartlett,
University of Western Ontario; and John Luciano, BASF Corporation,
for providing the answer to this question.

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