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Samuel Colt 1

Samuel Colt’s Peacemaker: The Advertising That Scared the West Richard A Dillio

History of Media Technology Professor R. Pugliese

Samuel Colt 2

ABSTRACT: This paper undertakes a thorough examination of the Colt Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Company’s various firearm advertisements from the years between 1850 and 1933. Previous content analysis in the field of firearm advertising is used to examine Colt’s advertisements, and a terror/masculinity paradigm is presented in order to explain the tone, content and intent of Colt’s advertisements for their products. The study of fear-appeals is used to describe the narration of these various advertisements, with the conclusion reached that most handgun promotions from this time period were fear-appeals, even when they do not appear to be obviously so. Possible explanations for this include the public’s perceptions of handguns, and Colt’s advertising techniques. Applications for modern firearm advertisement content analysis are suggested.

Samuel Colt 3
The good people in this world are very far from being satisfied with each other and my arms are the best peacemaker. – Samuel Colt, 1852

Content analysis of gun advertisements and gun advertising history has been fairly rare. The latter was examined, but only in the context of modern gun print ads from shooting and sporting magazines (Saylor, Vittes, & Sorensen, 2004). The authors concluded that, despite the perception that guns are used and sold for self-defense purposes, a majority of the ads focused instead on lifestyle features and in-group dynamics. Ads specific to the self-defense purpose were decidedly uncommon. Another, more recent study sought to establish a coherent branding history among the socalled “Big Four” of firearms: Colt, Remington, Winchester, and Smith and Wesson (Witkowski, 2011). The author clearly documents the rise of Colt, or The Colt Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Company, as it was completely written, from Samuel Colt’s patenting of his capand-ball revolver, to the introduction of the Colt 1911 automatic pistol. Witkowski’s focus is on the growth of the brand, but the paper also offers valuable insight into the advertising methods used by the various gun manufacturers from the 1800s to the present. The usage of fear-appeals (however subtle they may be) played a very important role in the marketing of Colt’s handguns; little scholarly research has been conducted on fear-appeals in firearm advertising, and even less on the history of this particular tactic. Scholarly research on gun magazines like The American Rifleman has shown that the National Rifle Association has a long and storied history of using fear-appeals, through the printing of their “The Armed Citizen” column, since 1926 (O’Neill, 2007). While this work does not focus specifically on gun manufacturers, it provides a valuable deconstruction of the NRA’s communication methods, which will be applicable to studying fear-appeals as they appear in specific advertisements.

Samuel Colt 4 Finally, the scope of “gun advertisements” is large, and encompasses many manufacturers. It is with Colt’s firearms and firearm advertisements that this research paper is primarily concerned.

A Brief History of Colt’s Advertising Samuel Colt, like all the major firearm manufacturers at the time, relied heavily on word-ofmouth and product recognition in order to sell his guns. At one point, his factory was closed and most of his equipment auctioned off, as sales of his new weapon had been extremely sluggish. However, after a party of Texas Rangers used his revolver with great success in their fight against Native American tribes, Colt was able to secure a contract with the federal government to produce his new and improved “Walker” Colt. He then turned to Eli Whitney Jr. and together, the two men designed and implemented a new manufacturing process to assemble his guns (“Colt History,” 2012). There are several interesting aspects of the Colt story that make it ideal for a historical review of its advertising. The first reason has already been mentioned: Samuel Colt did not invent the concept of the revolver, but he did perfect it. Prior to the introduction of the “Paterson revolver” (another nickname for the first Colt gun, since it was made in Paterson, New Jersey), there were other weapons that attempted to overcome the limitation of single-shot mechanisms, the most widely known being the pepper-box revolver. These guns, instead of featuring a cylinder that revolved, relied upon the barrel to rotate, necessitating multiple barrels (Silva, 2003). As a consequence, they were heavy, hard to load, and because they were not rifled like Colt’s revolver, all but completely inaccurate unless at close range (Winant, 1952; Silva, 2003). Thus, the pepper-box revolver’s limitations made the appearance of Colt’s new weapon a market

Samuel Colt 5 sensation, complete with the all of the attendant advertising one would expect for such a breakthrough product. But skepticism of the new technology was pronounced, which helps to explain Samuel Colt’s failure to find success in his first attempt at selling revolvers. The quality of Colt’s new firearms offers another incentive to study their advertising, insofar as Colt was quite often recognized as the best new handgun available (Rensseleaer, 1947; Kephart, 1912). In addition to their popularity, Colt weapons were often touted as celebrity weapons. Wilson (1985) notes that such iconic figures as Wyatt Earp, Billy the Kid and Wild Bill Hickock were proud owners of Colt’s revolvers. A third reason for studying Colt has to do with its product line-up, and here the company differs significantly from the other members of the “Big Four”: between 1836 and 1904, Colt only produced two rifles. The first, Colt’s revolving rifle, was built on the same principles as the revolving pistol: a cylinder held multiple rounds, and rotated through a single barrel. The second rifle, produced in 1884, was known as the Colt Lightning Carbine. It was a pump-action firearm chambered for the hefty and rather famous .44-40 Winchester round, so named for the Winchester Repeating Arms company who introduced it with their Model 1873 repeating rifle (Wilson, 1985). In both cases, however, Colt’s rifles were never very popular, and they were frequently passed over in favor of Winchester, Henry and Spencer repeating rifles (Rensselaer, 1947). It is important to note that, when Samuel Colt first introduced his Paterson revolver, guns were viewed as either self-defense weapons for combat or tools for hunting. Accordingly, none of the early advertisements relate the abilities of the Colt revolver to anything other than their performance in combat or out in the field. This is a strikingly different approach compared to modern gun advertisements, as previously discussed (Saylor, Vittes & Sorensen, 2004). For

Samuel Colt 6 example, the term “hunting rifle” and “assault rifle” are both used frequently in modern conversations about gun control and advertising, but prior to 1970 the latter term simply did not exist in America (Exhibit 30). This does not mean that all guns were used for all things. But as Curtis notes, the multipurpose nature of most guns made them suitable for a variety of roles. The Springfield .30-06, for example, was originally designed as a combat weapon for American use during WWI. But through the National Rifle Association, the weapon was touted as a great sporting rifle that required only a little bit of retooling (Curtis, 1922). The quick transition from combat weapon to hunting rifle (and even back again) was nothing new to American shooters. To the frontiersman or cattle rancher, and throughout most of American history, the hunting rifle and the battle rifle were one in the same. In the late 19th century, gun manufacturers started designing and selling products based on their merits as sporting weapons (Kephart, 1912) but Colt was largely absent from this part of the business (Curtis, 1922). A Colt catalog from 1922 shows a complete lack of any rifle; the entire Colt production point at this time was made of revolvers and automatic pistols (“Colt’s Revolver,” 1923). In Curtis’ seminal work on sporting firearms, the only time a recommendation for a Colt weapon is made occurs in the chapter titled “Choosing the Pistol” (Curtis, 1922). He breaks down the possible uses for a pistol into five categories: pocket and home defense guns, target pistols, meat-getters, man-killers, and general purpose weapons. Under these categories, he suggests the .380 Colt as a home defense weapon because of its ease of use for women. He does not think much of target pistols, but recommends the Colt .22 nonetheless, and also recommends it as the premier meat-getting pistol for small game at camp (though again he eschews the use of a pistol at all for camping purposes, preferring instead to rely on a rifle).

Samuel Colt 7 Curtis’ thoughts on the Colt .45 automatic are simple and direct, and they speak for themselves: “As a killer to knock down a dangerous man and keep him down, there is no gun on par with the Colt Government .45 calibre automatic. This brute was designed with one idea in view, to kill and kill quickly the most dangerous game on this earth, an armed man with blood in his eyes” (p. 47).

Of general purpose weapons, Curtis once against suggests the Colt – The Colt Single Action chambered for the .32-30 cartridge. He admits that it underperforms as a combat weapon, but its shortcomings are erased in light of the fact that it is extremely safe to use when mounted, since it is almost impossible to fire it accidentally. It is clear that authors, who were extremely knowledgeable about firearms and writing from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, largely agreed that Colt’s handguns were some of the best weapons money could buy. Of their rifles, many sportsmen and hunters had nothing nice to say. But their handguns were considered top-notch, reliable and extremely powerful in the higher calibers. A study of Colt’s advertising is, therefore, a study of the most popular and respected handgun at the time, and perhaps in all of American history. Finally, some explanation on ammunition is required. Two advertisements (Exhibit 26 & 28) show the price for a box of 1,000 .45 caliber rounds to be approximately $19.00. Adjusted for inflation, that is around $505.00 in 2011. Considering that the average wage earner in 1900 made about $5,700 per year (Fisk, 2003), this is a not insignificant amount of money to be spending on ammunition; in fact, even in 1903 the various Colt revolvers were selling in a range between $5 and $11 (Exhibit 8).

Samuel Colt 8 Ammunition was fairly expensive, both as a percentage of income but also as continuing cost for the weapon itself. This could explain the eventual rise in smaller caliber ammunitions like the .22, which as an example was used in the “Camp Perry” target pistol developed by Colt in the 1920s (Exhibit 1923). This ammunition would have been cheaper to manufacture, therefore cheaper to purchase and more likely to be used in sufficient quantity by the target shooter to be cost effective. It bears noting that the above Camp Perry model was the first advertisement that specifically mentions target shooting as a purpose for purchasing the gun. Curtis (1922) and the Colt Revolver and Automatic Pistol Catalog (1923) both discuss Colt’s target shooting weapons, however, and target shooting as a competition was by this time centuries old.

Content Analysis and Fear-Appeals Curtis’ delineations of Colts combined with Colt’s participation in the handgun market at the expense of other weapons, makes studying Colt's line-up both simpler and more representative than studying other three major producers of the time. The study by Saylor et al. (2004) relied on content analysis to examine printed gun advertisements. Interestingly, they noted that the self-defense style of advertisement was used quite infrequently, but they also state that they made no distinction between types of weapons: “themes used by advertisers may differ between handguns and long guns; the present study did not examine differences by type of firearm” (p. 431). Several of these content categories therefore have less explanatory power when they are applied with a specific type of firearm in mind, and they are listed here: hunting/outdoors,

Samuel Colt 9 patriotism, combat, western/cowboy, testimonial, history, law enforcement, and self-protection (Saylor, Vittes & Sorensen, 2004, p. 426). An examination of these categories reveals that certain guns are naturally going to fall within certain categories, and also be excluded from others. A lever-action rifle, very often used as a hobby or hunting gun, is not going to appear in a law enforcement advertisement. Similarly, most handguns will not be featured in a hunting advertisement, since they are primarily designed for the purpose of self-defense or occasionally, target shooting. Shotguns, which are very versatile and offered in a variety of configurations to suit hunting, law enforcement, target shooting and self-defense, have a chance of being advertised under all of these categories. Saylor et al.’s approach is therefore a problematic because it is precisely this difference – that is, studying not only the ads but the type of gun being advertised – that stands to change the entire tone of the advertisement. Further, it is at this point where the examination of the ads as specific fear-appeals becomes necessary, because as will be revealed by a close examination of Colt’s promotional material, many handgun ads rely on rather basic appeals to fear, safety and defense. In its most basic sense, a fear-appeal is an act of persuasion that relies on scaring people into behaving a certain way, usually by describing what will happen to them if they fail to do as the appeal demands (Witte, 1992). Fear appeals are very common in areas of public discourse, from politics to public health (Innocenti, 2011). However, according to at least one author the usage and effects of fear-appeals in commercial advertising are not clearly understood (Tanner, 2006), perhaps because they are a risky proposition for most companies. O’Neill (2007) has shown how the NRA’s “The Armed Citizen” column present in their flagship magazine is essentially a soapbox for fear-appeals, though in this analysis the author

Samuel Colt 10 studies “how individuals achieve masculinity through performing heroic acts amid terror-filled struggles” (p. 458) as described in their “The Armed Citizen” stories. In essence, the NRA is using what could be called “stealth” fear-appeals; these stories are not advertisements, since they are provided by the magazine’s readers and contributors. But they are aimed at supporting the mythos of the self-reliant man, by constructing rhetoric that relies on American cultural conceptions of both terror and masculinity. By upholding this pervasive cultural narrative, the NRA’s magazine is making a positive statement about the presence of firearms in the United States, but also makes a value judgment on those persons who use them for self-defense. So while these stories are not advertisements for specific firearms, they are advertisements for gun ownership, as they follow the basic structure of a fear-appeal laid out by Witte (1992). The stories present a terrifying circumstance, and then describe how an armed person was able to overcome the situation and save themselves or their loved ones, usually from such horrific crimes as rape or murder. The implication in all of these accounts is that the firearm used by the law-abiding citizen was the determining factor in ensuring their eventual triumph over their assailant. The suggestion – at this point by no means muted – is that the only way to be completely safe (from what, exactly, is left to the reader’s imagination) is to own a firearm and be willing to use it in your own defense. O’Neill (2007) asserts that the NRA’s stance helps to create a social “Gun Control Paradox”: a situation where a large portion of the US citizenry wishes for more stringent gun controls, but a relatively small organization (the NRA) is routinely successful in overriding this desire through legislative action, very often through fear-appeals. At least one study suggests that this not paradoxical, however. Research has shown that strong fear-appeals are not viewed as unethical by consumers if they perceive that the suggested method for alleviating the fear-

Samuel Colt 11 inducing circumstance is going to be effective (Snipes, LaTour & Bliss, 1999). In other words, the NRA – and by extension, the gun industry – has a somewhat easy time of convincing the public that firearms are necessary for self-defense, even those people who might favor stricter policies for gun regulation. Putting aside the terrifying stories found “The Armed Citizen,” it seems almost instinctive to human beings that we understand a weapon can, in certain circumstances, keep us safe. This is not a revolutionary claim. All of these points create a framework by which to examine firearm advertisements, specifically by viewing them as potential fear-appeals. O’Neill’s terror/masculinity theory is particularly useful because these themes appear quite frequently Colt’s older advertisements.

Examining the Ads The time period selected for the examination of advertisements encompasses the early 1850s to 1933. The former date was chosen because this was the earliest advertisement for Colt that could be found. While there are likely ones earlier than this, they remain difficult to find. The year 1933 was chosen as the end point because it is considered the lowest point of the American Great Depression (Samuelson, 2012) when the output of the American economy was at its lowest. Spending on consumer goods would remain low until the recovery that was brought on by several things, not the least of which was World War II – which then saw a halt in production of firearms for civilians as gun makers were placed on war-production footing (Exhibit 29). The very first Colt advertisements may not even be advertisements, per se, but announcements. Exhibit 1 contains very little text, but instead present pictures of engraving and a very basic exploded view of the revolver itself. Exhibit 2 follows the same pattern, but this is

Samuel Colt 12 actually two different pages, the first announcing the “Pocket Pistol” which was a cap-and-ball design meant for easy concealment. The term “Pocket” in various iterations is used in several of Colts’ gun names, for example the Pocket Positive that is shown in the 1922 catalog previously mentioned. Another poster puts the date of an identical ad at 1855 (Exhibit 5), though it is a reproduction. The second half of Exhibit 2 shows exploded views of both Colt’s Paterson revolver and the comparatively rare Revolving Rifle. Exhibit 3 is a descriptive-type advertisement that attempts to explain the benefits of Colt’s weapons, with the traditional heavy reliance on the US government’s use of their pistols as market currency. There are also some interesting turns of phrase in this ad, such as “Treat them well and they will treat your enemies badly” and “If you buy a Colt Rifle or Pistol, you feel certain that you have one true friend with six hearts in his body […].” The appeals to self-defense are obvious, made all the more forceful through their straightforward language. This begins a trend of directly referring to the guns’ most important purpose, that of a combat weapon. Exhibit 6 is another example of a general advertisement, found in the Semi Weekly Raleigh Register in 1861. Exhibit 7 is an early advertisement for one of Colt’s first Automatic Pistols. The difference in design between this weapon and the revolver is obvious, and it had many added benefits over the revolver, to include an increased rate of fire, easier reloading, and ease of use. The ad bills the weapon as “Browning” because Colt developed its automatic pistol from a patent first filed by John M. Browning, who would eventually go on to design the weapon for Colt (Sheldon, 1987). It is worth noting that the advertising strategy of Colt did not seem to change after the introduction of the pistol. Of all the ads collected for this research, eight of them appearing after Exhibit 7 are still for revolvers (Exhibits 8, 11, 12, 17, 20, 21, 23 & 25), and eight are for the

Samuel Colt 13 new automatic pistol (Exhibits 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 22, & 24). Two of them (Exhibits 18 and 27) feature both revolvers and automatics. It seems that even though the new Colt automatic pistol was a technical marvel, there was still plenty of market space for the revolver. Exhibits 9, 10, 11 and 12 are all product “feature” ads, in that they are touting the various attributes of a Colt: concealability, power, reliability, and power again, respectively. These all fit under Saylor et al.’s content categories for “Attribute of the Gun” theme (2004), but when applied to older advertising the “Attributes of the Gun” theme collapses into the “SelfProtection” theme. All aspects of these ads, while they are silent on the specific uses for their respective weapons, are still insinuating what the weapons uses are in reality. Why advertise concealability and the gun’s small size unless you are suggesting it is easy to hide, presumably to carry around with you? Further, the only reason to advertise power and reliability are to focus the reader’s attention onto the gun as a weapon, i.e. a self-defense measure. Exhibit 14 and Exhibit 15 are both self-defensive in nature, though the latter is more subtle in suggesting the weapon’s use. This is a good example of where Saylor et al.’s (2004) content categories would seem useful at first glance, but the content category collapses again. Exhibit 14 is quite clearly an ad designed to sell the weapon on self-defense grounds. Exhibit 15 appears to be a technical ad but really, it too is a self-defense ad because it specifically mentions putting the weapon on your person. The unspoken assumption here is that carrying a weapon on your person is for personal protection. Exhibit 13 presents an interesting classification, since it is an announcement that the Colt 1911 model pistol was selected by the US government as the standard side arm for the US armed forces. Under Saylor’s model, this ad would appear under “Patriotism”, but also under “Testimonial” and perhaps even “Combat.”

Samuel Colt 14 Exhibits 16, 17 and 18 are all self-defensive as well, with 16 being particularly interesting due to its depiction of a woman placing the .32 caliber weapon into her handbag. 17 and 18 are focused on protection – home protection, and automobile/personal protection. Another interesting factor with these ads and several others is the phrase “You can’t forget to make it safe.” Saylor et al. (2004) reported that a surprisingly small amount of gun ads in their study mentioned anything about safety, whereas most Colt advertisements do exactly that. One possible explanation for this is that in this age of gun manufacturing, there are no modern guns on the market without both a safety and significant safety features built in. To use an analogy, it would be like a modern car advertisement failing to mention that the vehicle in question comes with a laminated safety glass windshield. This failure is not an indictment of the car or advertising, nor does it say anything noteworthy. It does not bear mentioning because every car has one. Exhibits 19, 20, 21 and 22 are all self-defensive in theme, and in fact the latter three feature the world “Protection” across the top, prominently. This was a noteworthy set of ads because they all appeared in the 1920s era immediately following World War I. We can wonder why there was such a focus on protection – especially of the home – but exhibit 19 gives a possible explanation for the feeling, “a spirit of restlessness . . . besetting us for a time [. . .]” The aim of the advertisement is clear, as it tries to tie the world-wide war fatigue into the psyche of the American homeowner. The focus on homeowners may be owed to the incline in homeownership in the 1920s, which saw a substantial increase after the end of the World War (“Historic Census,” 2011). Exhibits 23 and 24 depart from the theme of self-protection. The “Camp Perry” model target pistol was a new area of business for Colt, being specifically designed for target shooting.

Samuel Colt 15 The Colt Officer’s Model was often used as a target shooting gun (Curtis, 1922; Colt Revolvers, 1923), owing to its cheap ammunition, but this was a single-shot variant meant to put a single round at a time down-range with as much accuracy as possible. Exhibit 24 advertises a new product, so like the automatic pistol announcement (Exhibit 7) and the early Paterson revolver announcements (Exhibits 1 and 2), the entire focus of the ad is on the technical specification of the weapon; in this case, that the gun is identical to the tried-and-true Colt 1911, but in a smaller caliber round that made it more appealing to hunters – Curtis’ “meat-getters” – and target shooters, owing to the round’s much higher velocity. Though once again, this is a claim of which several authors of the time were doubtful (Curtis, 1922; Kephart, 1912; Van Rensselaer, 1947). Finally, Exhibits 25 and 27 are both once again personal protection ads, though they focus specifically on the defense of property. The first is the “Banker’s Special,” featuring the .22 long rifle round. “Banker” here means exactly what it suggests, and the gun was marketed to those people who stood behind counters and were responsible for large sums of money. The gun features a surprisingly graphic picture of the bullet’s effect on a bar of soap, which supposedly has “the same resistance as flesh.” The smaller caliber is admitted to up front, with the suggestion that it packs the “wallop” of a .38. Here, Colt is trying to balance the demand for stopping power against the need to keep the gun compact. Exhibit 27 is another example of the protection motif, in a similar vein to Exhibit 18. The ad is a testimonial style, centered on the protection of property.

Samuel Colt 16 Discussion Several aspects of these advertisements lend themselves to comment. O’Neill’s terror/masculinity paradigm is prominent in many of these ads. Exhibits 15-18 and exhibit 20 are all filled with the familiar tropes of masculinity: emphasis on protection, the importance of the family’s safety, and the guarding of the man’s “castle.” Exhibits 18 and 27 could have been ripped right from the NRA’s “The Armed Citizen” column, as they both put the emphasis on the man protecting life or property from rampaging thugs or thieves. The terrifying situation is narrated to the reader, and then the quick-thinking man – armed with his trusty Colt – offers a testimonial regarding how the weapon ended the situation. It is interesting to note that these ads appear long before the The American Rifleman began running their column. More broadly, it seems obvious that most of the advertisements researched here are, in some way or another, fear-appeals. It has been made clear that most of the advertisements for Colt handguns had, if not an explicit theme of self-defense, at least an implicit one. Even in the ads where self-defense is not mentioned, attributes of the gun themselves are mentioned, and most of the time these attributes are instrumental in making the weapon suitable for self-defense. Exhortations to buy a gun for self-defense are ultimately made through fear-appeals, since the best way to convince someone they need to buy a gun is to first convince them that they are a potential victim. It is therefore reasonable to state that the unique nature of handguns will require most advertising for them to eventually boil down to a fear-appeal. In fact, it is safe to theorize that every handgun ad is a self-defense ad (and therefore a fear-appeal) by default, unless the advertisement specifically and explicitly avoids the topic by describing a unique use for the gun outside of self-defense, such as the advertisement for the .22 Camp Perry model.

Samuel Colt 17 Studying the historical trends of these advertisements therefore demands that the approach to thematic content analysis of gun advertisements must take into account the type of gun being advertised. Handgun ads are operating under a unique set of implicit narrative rules because the uses of a handgun are generally known to be more specific than those of a rifle or a shotgun. If Samuel Colt’s advertising is any guide, handguns are marketed from a self-defense angle because of the natural assumption of what a handgun will be used for. This is true even when the purpose of the weapon is not explicitly stated in the ad copy itself. With this theory in mind, the content categories offered by Saylor et al. (2004) require some revision, or at the very least, careful consideration if they are going to be used to analyze handgun ads, whether contemporary or historical. There is every reason to believe that such a phenomenon is prevalent in modern handgun advertising, and so this research has modern applications. A Gallup poll conducted in 2005 revealed that for Americans, the three reasons respondents owned guns were divided equally among protection, target shooting and hunting (“Gun Ownership,” 2005). It is reasonable to suggest that those people looking to a gun for protection will look to the handgun first, so the lack of overt references to defense in modern gun advertising, as reported by Saylor, is not surprising.

Conclusion It is clear that studies of gun culture in American history require a thorough and nuanced approach, with special consideration given to how guns were viewed by both producers and consumers. In the case of advertising, Colt’s history suggests that fears for personal safety were common in the early days of gun manufacturing. Indeed, anyone wishing to study the current

Samuel Colt 18 climate of gun politics in the United States should consider that the gun industry’s reliance on fear-appeals is not new. It is in some cases more blatant, but as demonstrated there were several historical print ads that were quite explicit, whether they detailed horrific stories or illustrated a bullet penetrating flesh. A potential area for further inquiry would be an examination of the other major gun manufacturer’s advertising. Winchester – known for their repeating rifles – also made handguns, but a thorough study could reveal a different advertising strategy, since rifles were their “bread and butter.” In addition, a study in the shift of Colt’s advertising after they lost the US Department of Defense’s handgun contract could reveal a changing of tactics, since they could no longer rely on their status as a provider of government arms.

Samuel Colt 19 References Colt's Revolver and Automatic Pistol Catalog. (1923). Hartford: Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Co. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.31822035091925 Curtis, P. A. (1922). Sporting firearms of today in use. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015059753247 Gun ownership use in america. (2005). Retrieved January 27, 2012 from http://www.gallup.com/poll/20098/gun-ownership-use-america.aspx Fisk, D. (2003). American labor in the 20th century. Compensation and Working Conditions: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Fall, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/ cm20030124ar02p1.htm Historic census of housing. (2011). Retrieved January 27, 2012 from http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/census/historic/owner.html. Innocenti, B. (2011). A normative pragmatic model of making fear appeals. Philosophy & Rhetoric, 44(3), 273-290. Kephart, H. (1912). Sporting firearms. New York: Outing Publishing Company. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t4kk97f43 Wittie, K. (1992). Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model. Communication Monographs, 59(4), 329. O’Neill, K. (2007). Armed citizens and the stories they tell: The national rifle association’s achievement of terror and masculinity. Men and Masculinity, 9(4), 457-475. doi: 10.1177/1097184X05281390

Samuel Colt 20 Samuelson, R. J. (2012). Revisiting the great depression. The Wilson Quarterly, 36(1), 36-43. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.rit.edu/docview/ 916231681?accountid=108 Sawyer, W.C. (1910). Firearms in american history. Boston. Published by author. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b51082 Saylor, E., Vittes, K., & Sorenson, S. (2004). Firearm advertising: Product depiction in consumer gun magazines. Evaluation Review, 28(5), 420-433. doi: 10.1177/0193841X04267389 Sheldon, D. (1987). A collectors guide to colt's 38 automatic pistols: The production of the automatic colt pistol. Quick Vend Publishing. Silva, L., (2003), When it comes to popular firearms used in the early west, pepperboxes are nothing to sneeze at. Wild West. 16(1), p58. Snipes, R. L., LaTour, M. S., & Bliss, S. J. (1999). A model of the effects of self-efficacy on the perceived ethicality and performance of fear appeals in advertising. Journal of Business Ethics, 19(3), 273-285. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.rit.edu/ docview/198102134?accountid=108 Tanner, J. (2006). Read this or die: a cognitive approach to an appeal to emotions. International Journal Of Advertising, 25(3), 414-416. Wilson, R. (1985). Colt: An american legend. New York: Abbeville Publishing Group Winant, L. (1952). Pepperbox firearms. New York: Greenberg. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015001062358 Van Rensselaer, S. (1947). American firearms: an histology of american gunsmiths, arms manufacturers & patentees with detailed description of their arms. Watkins Glen: Century House. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015020809045

Samuel Colt 21 Pictures: Exhibit 1 Colt 1850s (1): http://www.connhistory.org/wwsevis_reading.htm Exhibit 2 Colt 1850s (2): http://www.connhistory.org/wwsevis_reading.htm Exhibit 3 Colt 1858: http://www.connhistory.org/wwsevis_reading.htm) Exhibit 4 Colt 1860: http://gunslingersgulch.com/index.php?topic=246.0 Exhibit 5 Colt 1855: http://www.cornellpubs.com/old-guns/item_desc.php?item_id=1092 Exhibit 6 Colt 1861: Semi Weekly Raleigh Register (http://mitchellarchives.com/front-pageadvertisement-for-sam-colt-firearms.htm) Exhibit 7 Browning 1900s: Source Unknown Exhibit 8 Colt 1903: http://www.smithandwessonforums.com/forum/armory/2366-1903-searscatalog-always-cool-gun-stuff-view.html Exhibit 9 Colt 1904: http://www.coltautos.com/mmst_i.htm Exhibit 10 Colt 1905: http://www.coltautos.com/1905ci_advertisements.htm Exhibit 11 Colt 1906: http://www.sodcity.com/gallery2/albums/Mouldsetc/3100428729_937df092a2_o.jpg Exhibit 12 Colt 1910: http://www.vintageadbrowser.com/guns-ads-1910s Exhibit 13 Colt 1911 Handbill: http://replicaairguns.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/screen-shot2012-04-30-at-6-57-36-pm.jpg Exhibit 14 Colt 1911:http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/ads/sportsandguns/gunsandammo/ ColtAutomaticPistol-1911A.jpg.html Exhibit 15 Colt 1912: http://www.zazzle.com/1912_colt_card-137673795000854439 Exhibit 16 Colt 1912(1): http://www.flickr.com/photos/46786167@N00/5229309087/ Exhibit 17 Colt 1913: http://www.tias.com/11382/PictPage/1922926198.html Exhibit 18 Colt 1917: http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/ads/sportsandguns/ gunsandammo/Colt%20Firearms%20-1917A.jpg.html Exhibit 19 Colt 1919: http://www.atticpaper.com/proddetail.php?prod=1919-colt-firearms-pistolad

Samuel Colt 22

Exhibit 20 Colt 1920s: http://cdn100.iofferphoto.com/img2/item/132/556/811/ o_OPBoZNxZNuESr97.jpg Exhibit 21 Colt 1920s(1): http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/ads/sportsandguns/ gunsandammo/Colt+Firearms+-1920_sA.jpg.html Exhibit 22 Colt 1924: http://www.sodcity.com/gallery2/albums/Moulds-etc/1924_colt.jpg Exhibit 23 Colt 1926: http://www.coltautos.com/DA/CampPerry/campperryci_Broadside.htm Exhibit 24 Colt 1932: http://38super.net/Pages/History.html Exhibit 25 Colt 1933: http://www.coltautos.com/DA/BankersSpecial/ bankersspecialci_22_Broadside.htm Exhibit 26 Colt Ammunition: http://www.cascity.com/forumhall/index.php?topic=39954.0 Exhibit 27 Colt Jeweler: http://www.sportingcollectibles.com/cphotos/c5269jewler.jpg Exhibit 28 Winchester Ammo 1896: http://www.cascity.com/forumhall/index.php?topic=39954.0 Exhibit 29 Winchester Hunting 1944: http://www.atticpaper.com/proddetail.php?prod=1942winchester-arms-ad-hunting-pays-off

Samuel Colt 23

Exhibit 1 Colt 1850s (1): http://www.connhistory.org/wwsevis_reading.htm

Samuel Colt 24

Exhibit 2 Colt 1850s (2): http://www.connhistory.org/wwsevis_reading.htm

Samuel Colt 25

Exhibit 3 Colt 1858: http://www.connhistory.org/wwsevis_reading.htm)

Samuel Colt 26

Exhibit 4 Colt 1860: http://gunslingersgulch.com/index.php?topic=246.0

Samuel Colt 27

Exhibit 5 Colt 1855: http://www.cornellpubs.com/old-guns/item_desc.php?item_id=1092

Samuel Colt 28

Exhibit 6 Colt 1861: Semi Weekly Raleigh Register (http://mitchellarchives.com/front-pageadvertisement-for-sam-colt-firearms.htm)

Samuel Colt 29

Exhibit 7 Browning 1900s: Source Unknown

Samuel Colt 30

Exhibit 8 Colt 1903: http://www.smithandwessonforums.com/forum/armory/2366-1903-searscatalog-always-cool-gun-stuff-view.html

Samuel Colt 31

Exhibit 9 Colt 1904: http://www.coltautos.com/mmst_i.html

Exhibit 10 Colt 1905: http://www.coltautos.com/1905ci_advertisements.htm

Samuel Colt 32

Exhibit 11 Colt 1906: http://www.sodcity.com/gallery2/albums/Mouldsetc/3100428729_937df092a2_o.jpg

Exhibit 12 Colt 1910: http://www.vintageadbrowser.com/guns-ads-1910s

Samuel Colt 33

Exhibit 13 Colt 1911 Handbill: http://replicaairguns.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/screen-shot2012-04-30-at-6-57-36-pm.jpg

Samuel Colt 34

Exhibit 14 Colt 1911:http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/ads/sportsandguns/gunsandammo/ ColtAutomaticPistol-1911A.jpg.html

Samuel Colt 35

Exhibit 15 Colt 1912: http://www.zazzle.com/1912_colt_card-137673795000854439

Samuel Colt 36

Exhibit 16 Colt 1912(1): http://www.flickr.com/photos/46786167@N00/5229309087/

Samuel Colt 37

Exhibit 17 Colt 1913: http://www.tias.com/11382/PictPage/1922926198.html

Samuel Colt 38

Exhibit 18 Colt 1917: http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/ads/sportsandguns/ gunsandammo/Colt%20Firearms%20-1917A.jpg.html

Samuel Colt 39

Exhibit 19 Colt 1919: http://www.atticpaper.com/proddetail.php?prod=1919-colt-firearmspistol-ad

Samuel Colt 40

Exhibit 20 Colt 1920s: http://cdn100.iofferphoto.com/img2/item/132/556/811/ o_OPBoZNxZNuESr97.jpg

Samuel Colt 41

Exhibit 21 Colt 1920s(1): http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/ads/sportsandguns/ gunsandammo/Colt+Firearms+-1920_sA.jpg.html

Samuel Colt 42

Exhibit 22 Colt 1924: http://www.sodcity.com/gallery2/albums/Moulds-etc/1924_colt.jpg

Samuel Colt 43

Exhibit 23 Colt 1926: http://www.coltautos.com/DA/CampPerry/campperryci_Broadside.htm

Samuel Colt 44

Exhibit 24 Colt 1932: http://38super.net/Pages/History.html

Samuel Colt 45

Exhibit 25 Colt 1933: http://www.coltautos.com/DA/BankersSpecial/ bankersspecialci_22_Broadside.htm

Samuel Colt 46

Exhibit 26 Colt Ammunition: http://www.cascity.com/forumhall/index.php?topic=39954.0

Samuel Colt 47

Exhibit 27 Colt Jeweler: http://www.sportingcollectibles.com/cphotos/c5269jewler.jpg

Samuel Colt 48

Exhibit 28 Winchester Ammo 1896: http://www.cascity.com/forumhall/index.php?topic=39954.0

Samuel Colt 49

Exhibit 29 Winchester Hunting 1944: http://www.atticpaper.com/proddetail.php?prod=1942winchester-arms-ad-hunting-pays-off