University of California

Berkeley

Gift of

Prof. John H. Reynolds

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iron or copper 12. fuch as blades 1 1 6. Aquafortis 5. How . f^that the work may appear like a ba/o-rtlie<v* 4. metal Another compofiaon of metal hand 7 To diffolvc cold in your naked ' " 8.CONTENTS. engrave prints by aquafortis 7. Of 1. Another for the fame purpofe of a colour i 6 gold compofe a. i. ttecl &* * fo engrave with aquafortis. To make tin To break an iron bar To arm 4. The method of engraving o To engrave on wood the graver 10. * of fwords. knives. A water to engrave on Another more mordant water 3 5. To engraving or copper. " * I. An ardent water to engrave or even eat it offemirely fteel deeply. 14. engrave onbr&fs.? fortis. etc. CHAP. II. Of Art. A of iron fecret to caufe the tranfmutation into the fined German fteel as big as tke 2. To *t>. . To engrave on copper with To engrave on fteel or iron . 3. CHAP. for wtth** . Metals. the Art of Engraving. Another with aquafortis S. * A Wax to av on iron or ^ ec on to *-ZJL A mordant water engrave 3. 5.

* To To To foftfn Heel 18 ib. ib. ib. 23. To operate the tranfmutation of iron into 31. 3Z. to gol-d 13. To whiten copper fo as to make very figures with it fine ie. Another receipt for the fame /* ib. ileel fo. Fixation of-falipetre 1 8 Tranfmutation of iron into 17 ib. without burning it Tc iccreaf? th .virtue of a loadftone 11. that it may cut 5 it were lead ib. 37. 27. if'... with it ^ ib. 28. A magical mercunal rnelt the aforefaid ring - mercury 19 ib. Another mercury from lead 1-6. . Toreilore gold to its weight. in order to make ftatutes. The A virtue of thofe rings fixation of copper which will be found . To w. Permutation of lead into fiiver- copper 19 Another to the fame purpofe to Another zi. 24. ib. colour of gold to copper.ii C O N T E 8. N T S. all forts of metals in the nut. flieliof a - metals 9. on the teft 2 29.'$. 30. 12* To regal water -*- operate the tranfmutation of filver in ib. To take immediately ruft from iron 38. Fixation of gold into -{ilverlo. extnicl mercury from antimony . after it has loft it in 13 14 ib.ifh brais figures over with filver 35. if an To manage p. To imitate tcrtoifc-fiiell on copper To perform the fame on horn 33. 21 ib. How Page to give fome perfection to -imperfect". 15 16 ' /& ib. Heel 36.. ' To give the finefi. Art. ib. To extract mercury from lead 15. ib. 23 To . Topreferve the brightnefs of arms 22. to yield fix ounces out of eight. 17. or other works. To foften metals 34. To melt JO. ib.

43. 54. 52. 59. 42. 65. 27 . fc hammer porphyry 41. and harden it more than 60. 57. 55. ib. To guard iron againft rufling To cut pebbles with eafe To whiten copper ^ A A amiant . ib. ib.'J'. To render iron brittle. 58. To foften iron. ib. fiSvcr from pewter will fprcad 23 To To the foftcn iron 24 it melt iron fo that under ib* ib. linders 56. ghfs 26 ib. A projection on copper receipt for the preparation of eroerv 35 make ^2 67.C O 39. Ingredients which ferve to the melting of iron 50. of ftones. a 2 To . ufed among the an cients ib. Another very hard temper 46. 6 4. 48. To melt iron and make it foft To whiten iron like jilver 47. ib. 38. or the way to an incombustible cloth factitious 30 ib. able mirrors as will en 28 them to faw marble it 29 afterwards ib. ib. A good temper for arms 45. To foften a fophiftic metal 44. which will diffolve forts ib. 53. 49. The true compofition of metallic mirrors or looking-glailes. NT E N T S. 62. ib. fo as to pound it like To give iron a temper to cut To {'often all forts of metals 25 ib. without excepting the moft hard To refine pewter To fix mercury To extracl mercury from lead The compofition of cafl mirrors and cy fpirit all A melt or calcine the blade of a fword without hurting the fcabbard ib. 63. ToVotain good 40. was before - To operate the iranfmutation of iron into d :mafk-fteel ib. 66. To 51. 61. To make convex and ardent To give tools fuch a temper. iii Page Art.

. ib. one ounce of which will laftlonfer than one pound of any other 74. ib. How A ^ld varnifh 39 ib. To 7 1 . or any other metal. rf. To folder iron-. To make a coppel with afhes 75. 72 73. with out fire An 35 ib. black varnifh to 'make a How 41 good ivory black for the ribovc purpofe 10 #. j$ ib. or laminas. ^ Art. 68 69 7-.- ib. To whiten brafs 82. ib. To To 78 To 79. and render as white a: d 35 hard as fiiver 80. How A.-*loet t for the above purpofe to draw the tinclureof rocou ufed in the compofition of the varniih for iceing as above varnifh ^ 40 ib. &pattca. To calcine pewter. 67. varnifh for floors 11. A varnifli from Fltndtrs 42 . ii-ver ~~ it . to prepare the lintfeed oil with the 3. 4 5. -make 9 Toiler with fire ^ rnak h !x render iron as white and beautiful as 36 ib.i.iv CONTENTS. To refine To make through and through pewter a prepetual motion -* 34 ib. III. A Bother to the fame purpofe 8 1. A fecrK fire oU. i 9. ib. 2. compofition of Varnifhes. **. excellent varnifh -- 6 Another. *'. An. . 38 it. 76 77.er method r 37 . good * A \ r*d varnifli ib. 7. To To Page render tartar fafible and penetrating extr*& mercury from any metal dye in gold filver medals. Of the 1. ib. cxtrad gold from filver CHAP.-AriO .

A Chinefe varnifh fuitable to all forts of colours fuits. A A gated b1=uk marble varniih wfc ch dries in iwo hours time : 44 ib. The . or varie ib.. Another fort of varnifh 36.v colour ib. goldfmiths and iimntrs 27. gated black marble 18. Another fort 1 6. 14.-. 26. A varnifh kn. like It /. Art. A A varnifh to lay on canvas fames varnifh of {heil-lac.own under the appellation of Beaume blanc> or. varnifh for copperplate prints 22 An admrahle varnifh 23. The Chinefe varirfh to imitate a 17. A other way ib. 19 to the excellent varnifh to give a fine g. 31. with a varnifh higher hue than coral itfelf ofa ib* - To m^ke it gridelin To mike it green 'v^. A varnifh fit to lay on all forts of colour* 24. which be very tranfparent i& 38. Another fo* the fame ib. 13.mes wilji cloth. To make fr-. white balm 25.. A. more particular ly calculated for mini <ture puntirg 29 30. 32. Anot. ib. whatever colour yc < ib* ib> 45 ib equally well. 3. . 28. 43 ib. To make it To make it yellow blue fit 4^ ib. A clear aad tranfparent varnifh. ib.o& above mentioned jafper* or varie 20. 21. for miniature and other pictures v Page 42 ib ib.CONTENTS.other Chinefe varnifh. ib.er varniih for pi&ures 15. A varniih to be ufed on plaifier. and any other fort of meterials. An excellent varnifh. How An bhck jafper. 33 34. --forts cf colours 37. in which may be put and diluted. a r d. for all --will - /^. 12. H nv to make much 46 ib.

above A fine whue varnifh curioas and eafy varnifh to engrave with aquafcnis 41. A fine varnifh for all forts of colours A varnifh to lay on. 45. 1. . fuch as in that country is laid on flicks -* and artificial -made canes ib. -- -1 -- ib. painted fmelland fragrancy of the - 48 A -ones moft beautiful Chinefe varnifh i. and paint them with trinfparem colours likewif*. 2. A varnifh to lay on paper How to caft figures in moulds 56. it. To make *bove purpofe - -- ib. all tfee $ ib. India. mentioned in Chap.t'iers Ur-leavcs. for the fame ufe ---- 46. 35. 55 ib. --57 Another varnifh 54 ib. after the ilinglafs A varnifH to gild with. ib. a tranfparent yellow hue. 55. Art. after the Chinefe manner . $4. for the 43 To To raife a reliff on varnifh -- 49 ib. A very fine red varnifh to gild eertain parts of flamped filtered in forne places with pew- A varmfh Je. A varmfh prevent the ravsof the fun from palling through the panes of win 40. render ii k fluffs transparent. To make a trtiifparent blue hue. 51 49 Tne true receipt of the Englijh rarnifh.- 58. p. A 47 48 ib.vi CONTENT The coropofiuon of varnifh lathes -- 3. er ib. L'AbbeM*Ws A figures varnifh --- -- varnifh to lay over plaifler-works.-. 47. ib. 60 61. $$. 52 53 ib. in imitation of the India manufactured frlks -44. 59. Page fit for the -. ce w-glafL-s 42. and other running ilalks vife adorned with of fiowers > of various col ours. 39. 50 5 1 52. To make a tranfparent green To give the above-mentioned irks. without gold A varnifh water proof Callot's varnifh.

boards. 10. which refills it* water for cifterns -- it* 14. A 13. 6z it. 18. Recipe $d. it.. . Page A fubtiie maflich to mend all forts of Art. 19. . 6. -- it. cement for delft. -- / rf. IV. &c. 9. 61 A a relief to gild over. acd other earthen --wares Another for the fame purpofe. Another -S. Recipe \ft\ 23.s it-. i 2. 60 it. to. Another. Sealing wax . &c.- 59. -it. A A glue to lay upon gold iize n. or even.raife an embroidery compofirion to make it. figures. A lute to join broken vefTels A ftrong glue of foft cheefe To make a ftrong maftich To make corks for battles To imitate rock works To rub floors with. A cement - An excellent A raaitich for ib. 17. CHAP. 22. tair. A maftich to make roek-woiks maftieh - broken wares -Another maitich -7. sV. . 20. it. 5. exceeding good Hzt. and other forts of embel- T* Page lifhmems Art. it. Sealing-wax. ours. 21. Recipe 4^. An fixe 12. rf. Another. -~ - To imitate porphyry To imitate ferpemine -- 56 57 . whether bricks. A cold cement and foun.CONTENTS.25. -- it. Cements. 63. Another Sealing wax : Recipe 2d. . called Orleans --it.- 26. it.it-.' IV16. 4. . 62. QfMaftiehs. broken veileis Another -- -- 58 iff* i'A 3. Another. 24.

To make a black -3. An excellent fealing-wax. 7. 8. 29. it - ib. To mak's what called . 14. A 64 CHAP. colour for the above wax 31. Compofition for Limners . To 67 . $ I. ---Recipe 9/. ami then - it. To faint in varni/fi on Wood. (Ufeful t<* Carriage Painters. paint 111. - 5.the Sap-green> or bkck-berry green 17. 10. II. Recipe 6tk. 27. I. To paint on Paper. ib. Exceffively good 28. Recipe %th. The 64 65 ib. Recipe *]th. How to prepare mod colours for limning To make what is called lamp-black Another way of making black 66 ib. 16.) Page Art* preparation of the wood. /' 6. Another. by Girardtt. To make a bine To make a turquin blue A fine green for Hmni. For the red --- il. previous to the laying of colours. ib. 15. 30. 1 1. 52 13. fame purpofc is -- ilk. To make a fine yellow To make a green To transfer a print on vellum. To make a blue To make the Gridelin 4.ng Another for the --- ib. ib.viii CONTENTS. and the general procefs obferved in laying them on it i. V. ib. Another* Recipe $tb. 6$ /. Artc 26. Concerning Colours and Painting. Another. Another. Page 6z ib. it. 9.

for nra"*~ pfrifs and terraces 40.-. or. 70^ 71" it. like ultramarine 28 pale red to paint on enamel 29. 25. in drawings. and tooftronp. inflead of ul* tramarine. in (ho it. whether for the 39. Another way 33. The whole procefs of making ultrama rine. or. 17.{hing on paper. very 69 *'. three times experienced by the au thor 34. For the vermilion 31. To * * ' 68 23. Another blue. of making Iris green a dark green. 41. To make thc-biftre for the wafn 38 The true To make fecret 76 it>. To make To make lake a liquid lake - 67 *' 19. fit for warning. a moft admirable fecret A -it. Of the choice of colours fit for expreffing -the various complexion* make. For the making of carmine 22. 18.ix CONTENTS. one pound 36. 37. f with the it* The way of mixing the lapis pafti!. $ IV. . which is both too dear. 30. Procefs of making the purple. i&. 34. A good way to make carmine 32. The . Another way 20. 26. to be ufcd for that purpcfb 75 j$. grounds of miniature piclurrs. ' * For the yellow For the blue 27. Art.. for paint ing on enamel . A very good and experienced paftil to make ultramarine of. for w. Another very ultramarine fine and well-experienced 7 35. The dofes as for . For the green For the red r. tranfparent Colours. to make ultramarine Another fecret 73 * to compofe a blu?. How to make a fine fleih colour 31.

For the fame. -62. Another . 4. An olive colour 54. The fecret for a fine red for the A Page 77 fecret to make carmine ' at a fir. Compojition of colours> to dye Jkins or gloves. 45. colour. To varnith copper plate prints How to colour thefe prints. ---It (lands water.$ V. '59. 44. 56. - i^. How are not acquainted with drawing to prepare a tranfparent paper to chalk with 65. To make print 81 fecret to 6 1. 79 ib. paler "For a pale ib. A lively Ifabel it. For the wainfrot colour filber. in of pictures in oil-colours /. 41 42. 47. colour For an amb^r colour For the golil colour 48 For the Fh-lh colour 49. How 'to make eves fkins and gloves take thefe ~ ib. VI. It fuits alfo pictures and painted wood.C'ONT'E'NTS Art. 3. it. ib. the figures of a appear ib. The ftraw colour 50. A curious make a print imitate ib. * wafh exib. <~ 78 ib. ib.ail pence . Tb 57 58. 46. the painting on glafs Another to the f^m? purpofe The met! od of chalkirg. ib.t 45. T6 varnifh a chimney /i. A fine brown 51 To make a fine mnfk colour 52 To make a frangipane colour 5^. for thofe who 82 83 if. ib. 55. 0r varni/h. imitation 80 A which fuits ail forts of prints* and may be applied on the right fide of it. 60. copperplate Prints. and makes the varnifli \vork appear as (hining as glafs in gold.

ifo.i. 97. For.CONTENTS.d on gla-'s. to be ufcd infhntly 66. and more fpeedy method. agaiiiil wet wtather fecret to oil to ib. for -pjlafs Preparation of the yellow for the iatnc Preparation ofthe white ib. - Another way Another way - - - ib 98. 77. To make an admirable white lead. How to draw on A glafs colour for grounds on . 94.i. fit for oil-paint ing and colouring of prints b ga 99 The' - . 73. Another white for ladies' paint A good azure An azure from fiivcr. ib . A wain. VJIL 76./fr.iling on 6j. Art. ib. Another for the fame 50.. to paint on glafs without lire to ^ . 89 86. 51. To make indigo To make a yeJlow An azure otmother-of-prp*-l ever - and making their dung there - - . ^3.glafs - ib. Preparation of the green. Preparations of colours cf all J#rts. - - A qi fb. How be laid on glafs after painting ib. An are oil to grind colours with. Preparations oUake iorglai* for glafs Preparation of the blue purple. A Yornifh to render transparent fhe impreffion of a prini: which has -ba-u d'. ib. A An Sz. xl Page 4 85 : VII. which nay be preferved x for - - 90* 91. 68.v':. 56. 93. ib.. to clean pictures - - ib. To marble i-nd j.rt. and the in . ib. ib.lpei' To clean pictures paprr - - - 79. Another way ^ij. A pir< pofe render old picKnes 3$ fine as nev/ It prevent piclim-s from blackening. oii t A. 72. of making a traijlparent paper. 71. 78.intr icralched off. Another way -$4. as mcnuoiicd . p. 61 & 62. when the works much expose to the injuries ot"the weather 8$ 87 ib. 92. - ib.jor water\ and crayons. 9. Glafs. /rtorher. lit^ng on pictures. 87. 9. A white for painters. 74. 88."T}. ib. ib. - ib. 95. 70. done in iefs than To make an azurcd water Another wny of making azure fine azure a fortnight ib. may ferve -alto to make cloth to carry in the pocket. The proper vavnifli 75. very curious and Timpleway of preventing flies from. or any other funnt. - ib.PM.

Directions for paintingin oil on wood Directions for painting in oil on canvas : a \ V/hkh colours are ufed for the above purpofe 3 ::i. Directions to make cinnabar. ib. To make 105. ib. or cinnabat j e8. 116. - 104 ib. . A ney-rbranches. 99. To make the fcpamfli ladies rouge j 26. ib. The (rue A Method Method Method i. 111. ening 107. To oils are ufed in painting lake offinftantlyacopy from f a print. or a pic ture i9 no ib. &?c. ufe. 105 io. Directions to make * 125. ib. A fecret to draw without cither ink or pencil 104. as pra&ifed in Germany Another very fine azure ~ - - - - 113 1 14 ib. ib. Another - ib C HA P. . 108 i**) 110. forchim- 102. To make an imitation of enamel on tin. 107 122. very valuable fecret to make exceeding good This fecret is of crayons. the difcovery of Prince Robert. 101. To render tlwftone-cinnabar and and. Direclions for colouring prints 100 Direclions for themixLure of colours 101 Directions for painting/r^/co tos Directions for the choice. 100. procefs ufed in the compofition of the Eailern carmine 04 The procefs obfervcd in making the lake 96 To make. The preparation of Page verdigrife > <. A gs ij^ fine liquid To make pink green - call the StiLd-grain a fine which we - Brown . ih.the fine columbine lake 97 fine red water for miniature 98 painting The receipt of the fine Venetian lake ib. vermilion iqo. 132. as hard as red chalk. 112. at vermilion finer : the fame time. brother to Prince Putatiiic . si 7. - ~ 93 iK 106.CONTENTS.A fine lake made with fhcll-lac vermilion 197. Direclions for painting in oil on a wall. VL . 1 18. . and which looks iimilarto4 ?s 129.ii>. 1 1 1 the Spdnijfi carnation 124. An azure 130. 113. ft. and compofition of tke colours employed for-the above purpofe ib. 114. - 3. 115. Which 123. 131. Another very different method of making fine as. to prevent them from black ib. 112 ultramarine The fame another way.

or any other metal. whiten fiiver 3. A A water which gilds copper and bronze. Relative to the Art of Gilding. a ib. CHAP. or paint in gold colour To wike or paint in filver. ib. How to do the lame to burnifh 9. To filver iilvei'. or what is called in buraifn- i ^jj-. ib. gilt with the above defcribed 17. 10. ufeful for gilding on high iteeples. 8. 2.CONTENTS. Page The method 2. of pewter which are applied on it .l- vering ib. which is to be ufed for colouring iilver plates. To clean and 4. 128 The method of applying on the wood gold. cret very ufeful tor watch and pin makers wafer to gild filver fteel powder ib. or boxes To gild filver in water-gilding without the fiftance of ib. i. 14. call* & thrjauce. tin. ib. water to gild iron with 33. - 122 ib. 1. 5. Art. / The preparation of gold in (hell bronze in gofa colour 6. or china wares To write. goid 3. To write in gold or filver To gild on glaifes. fe- 125 ib. 4. Another A or iron. To The 31. 11. How to matt burnifhed gold 8. 1 A copper medals 123 ib. or gild. earthen. g. &c. domes. 19. Another to the lame purpofe 7. To whiten and filver 12. How to get the gold or iiiver. af- mercury 124 16. i'-si : To gild without gold 5 6. gild iandy gold varnifh fit to be laid c-a ^ildiug and f. or in iuei*. polimed 20. 32. 30. ib. 13. 327 ib. 7. To of Gilding with flze or with oil gild with iize. ib. copper figures filver. To make the fine writing-gold 35. xi VI. in order to hold tail: the ready gut leaves To To 126' ib. water to gild iron - 5 < To whi en exteriorly copper ftatues To write in gold letters on pots. gilt plates ib. i&. . Another to the fame purpofe A gold without gold i he preparations oi the gum-water ib. 34. The liquor. ib. pewter A ccmpoiition to lay on lead. ib. efpecially with pencil ib. after being well ib. out of A The method of bronzing 129 ib.

For the aventuriue ** . To dye in polifhed black 10. 6. To gild paper on the edge To gild on vellum Another way Another way - . fefc \The Art of Dying Woods. Bones. 4.. CONTENT 59. The compofnion for red Another red Another way To dye wood in -. To 43. g8. give 6. 31. 44. - s. A gilt 42. ftone. china. glafs. Matt gold in oil 47. ag. i. 28.' A or copper or pear-tree. . gold colour. 3. on glazed ware*. To gild without gold To gild on calf and meep-fkin Gold and lilver in fheii without goid - To 4. S. To marble wood To imitate white marble To imitate black marble To marble and jafper 30. A blue for wood A green A yellow Another yellow Another finer yellow 12. what undul give a piece of nut. chryftal. j6. A blue purple a purplifh colour - Another o. VII. way ebony - To . U. J. 40. To imitate a fine colour to the cherry-tree wood To filver. $o. eafily made wocd filver falhion way dye dye in gold.. 49. 46. 41-. $. To To To whiten copper whiten filver without the whiten iron like filver afftflance of fire C H A Art. 34. 7. $. - imitate 36 . Another Another Another Another way way ebony black 20. 3. P. 17. ations one likes the root of nut-tree 4. ^ . a. 7. To dye wood in afir^ polifhed white 13. Aiiot'ier 15. 5. or . $.. with- out gold 48.. To dye any metal. gild marble apply gold. 37. To To To fine black. &c.xK Art.

figure in bronze to gild fuch forts of figures the choice and ion of metals compofit 137. 61. 57. Another way 40. fo that you may. 66.bron?. To. ib that the bronze may ftand water tor ever V 59. 50.e vooden. To To A ?. . To whiten ivory. 147 it>. 68. ib. plaRer. A in blue or receipt to dve marble. 34. To whiten green ivory which has turned of a brown yellow ~ 43. 53. 65. d. thus foftencd *4 ** *^. ib. To get birds with white feathers To Ibften ivory To dye ivory. *. i. Of Art. How 3. 63. Art. 58. Another way and whiten again that 42. 48. 52. 148 1^6 1 To Ot 2. il. z ^- 141 # * T(? 2 44. To make figures.1. xv Ptjle 13^ A 23. 5. b 2 . ib. oralabafter. which has been fpoikd 41. call it in a mould melted lead CHAP. 69. 64. j. ib. or other figures. with gg-rtiells To dye bones and ivory of a fine red To make a pafte in imitation of black marble ib. 37. To To counterfaftion of coral ibften amber. 67. 46. 31. . 49. the caft a At of Cafting in Moulds. ib t To as {"often horn. To dye bones in green Another way To dye bones. 56. water to dye bones and wood To dye bones and ivory an emerald green To dye bones any colour To whiten alabafter and white marble To blacken bones Another way to dye woods and bones red The fame in black For the green To dye wood vermilion colour A 146 ib. imitate tortoife-mell with horn preparation for the tortoife-ftiell - ^ 142 ib. The varnifh fit for bronzing 60.CONTENTS. 62. To dye bones in To foften bones To dye bones in black green 343 ?. 144 ib . or vales. To whiten bones . 32. petrify wood. A fait for hardening fo ft bones 54. ivory. 45. 5^. 38. Another way to ioften ivory 39. purple 145 ib f it>. 47. othcrwife karabe take the irnpreflion" of any ifal w * 2 - Another way 1 39 35 36. and mould them fhaprs - *& * in all manner of *b.

4. ~ mixed in a caik of wine 57. To make vinbouru. reilore a wine corrupted and glairy 18-. ib. . -? ib* 161 ib* ' 2. Relative to Wine. and turn 1. To To To To ib. ib. a four jeftore a fpoiled wine wine ib: ib. Art. fweei en a tart ji. Anoihfr vv?y in wine ^3. $. fweet wine of a very agreeable flavour. To Separate the v/ater from wine To To To correci. ib. To make a ib. 5. prevent wme from growing lour. a wine to have the tafte and flavour of frtnch mui'cat To make the vin-doux 6. To clarify in two days new wine when muddy 10. Q. of an excellent tafte 4. ' ^8. ^ ib. ib. To imitate a malvoijie i. To change red wine into white. and white into red To prevenj wine from fuft ing. ib i6 or bitter tafte in wine ib. 14. ing into vinegar to. To give M ine a mo ft agreeable flavour How to fii.xvi CONTENT C H A To make P. Pag* ift ib. ik. ib. otherwife tafting of the calk. To make anew wine tafte as an old wine i. 16. . To reftore a wine Turned To reftore a wine fulled. ib.d out whether or not there be water 36. 22. 7. To make the wine keep mout or unfermeated for 1. ib. go. 3.. ib. <t. To make a wine turn black. ik ib* ib* ib prevent wine from corrupting reftore a wine turned four or fharp 17. greeable Hdvour 35. To clarify a wine which is turned To correct a bad flavour in wine To prevent wine from fpoiling and turning To prevent thunder and lightening from hurting wine 160 ib. : ib. or tailing To prevent wine from pricking To make wine keep To clarify wine eafily" To prevent wine nom turning To correha moftytailc in wine Another method of the cafk - ib. ib.. To prevent tartrscfs and give it an a34. 3. and hefides very whole fome g. IX. twelvemonths a i. 15. i. 7. 1^3 ib. 32. To ungreafe \vinc in hours lef* ** than * twenty-four - .9. 13. and 10 give it both & tafte and flavour quite agreeable To make a vine produce a fweet wine 15^ ib. To heighten a -wine in liquor.

o. The receipt of the vinegar called the Grand Con10. To if 7 i. A dry portable vinegar. ftant iJ. To prevent one from getting intoxicated 46. To render vinegar alkali 8. 53. The fecrei. To rr.3. $ To To To recover a perfon from intoxication prevent the breath from Imelling of wine preierve wine - 166 w. ik^ H XL Of Liquors Art. vinegar man at Paris To make vinegar with water To make good vinegar with fpoiled wine good vinegar. Art. a ik. 169 ib. - ib. A method of making people drunk. 166 ib* $. ib. operate the fame in one hours time. Another way.' Another way lb t 54. 12. 17. ib. Another way en* 51. ib. on % larger quantity of wine 11. ib prevent intoxication by drink 47. of ma I-:: 113 15. To make. who are too much addicted to * Another method. or the vinaigrc cnpoudrc C A P. ib. Another method to make 4. i. Another method '50. Another way 49. in one hour. i. Anoi-her vav o do the fame 14. ib. 42. An excellent preparation of vinegar 7. X. good rofe vinegar fuch vinegar in an in9. ib. i^. xvii 164 To reftorc a wine To correct a bad Another way drink win. J!ai>!:'s To 16$ ib. Concerning the compofmon cf vinegars. 4. without To drinking ** 165 it>. H A P. 44. j> good to the laft C !&rt. A Vinegar ftrength and fee ret to ihcreafe the fhar^nefs of the vinegar 13. To make as good wine as Sfanijh wine - 170 . To cure thoie 4. Another way 48. and cffentia! Oils. 40. ib. To make good wine vinegar in a fnort time To change wine into ftrong vinegar To make very good and itrong vinegar 'with the worft of wines turn wine into vinegar in lefs than three hours to its firft tafte 5.ftore fuch a wine 6. no lefs certain with 45.CONTENTS.ib. 10*. tafte and fournefs in wine -" :>. gg. given by ib. : daggering their health 52..1.

er fuch waters. 40./ 178 ib. 43. Another Eau d* Angc au d' Ange Another and delicate Rojfolis^ known under the 33. To make crdrat water To make ccdrat another ?. cherry. To make ib. 44. 8. Citron v^atcr 5. 174. 4. ib. or kernel water botluhe red & white fort 41. Juniper water 3.xv-iii CONTENTS. To make a cooling cinnamon To make coriander water v/ater - t < Anife-fe-d \vatcr ^. 31. : - ib. ) ambrojy Rojfolis - ib. For the nectar A common To make ib. .c inftantly ib. frantly. ib. 7. ib. Another^ An 182 fc. to have it 35. 181 to make this liquor in- and al will ib. To make good RvJJoiis An efl"cnce of Hypocras. 3. Orange flower water made 12 Mufcadine rofe-waier it. Angel:c water of mufk and amber. To make Eau de Verjus To make orgeat-water ib. g. ib. To make To make Eau-ds-Ceic the compounded - Ezu-Clairette ih. ib. 38. To make good hydromel. ib. g. ftrawbcrry. otherwife To make Eau d' Ange. 1. a. ib. The preparation ready when wanted to put in cordials . or oth rate . 43. Lemonade water at a cheap 15. 8. ib.. 19. 39. 2. 32. ib. ferve as a 172 -- . 36 37. ib. exceeding good Ratafia of ambergrife 45. 10. ib. J 75 ib. The cinnamon water To make a ftrong anife-feed water.b. ib. To make orangeade the lame way a 8. way metheglin. ib. A light denomination of Populo ~ 34. t Art. To make exceeding good lemonade 17. if. ib. 13. 3516 ib. white Ratifia. called otherwife Eau-dcNoiau. Apricot water 16. 277 i. C. or animated brandy 180 ib. ib. Cinnamon water 6.. To make the Rofloiis To make a Rojjolis which may To make tion to other liquors Another way to imitate Page Spani/Ji wine founda 1/1 i&. 30. Other waters ib. ib. Another Rojfolis Another way JL&u iyg de Franchipar. To make rafpberry. ao. 179 ib. Aneffence and fhorter way of making the fan>e 46-. To make good Hypocras. %.

i3$ ib. Directions for the preparing of tea li. A exceeding fine fmelling water. Another way $6. fuch as from the Ifle of Rctz A ib. 8. An exceeding good How 80. 55. ib. 71. 57. and other fowl* Virginal milk 77. exccxfiviiy good How to extracT: the efftntial oil from any flower Effence of jeiTamine. 69. To make an hypocras with water Of the various liauors with which bemads - i&/ hypocrts may 188 63. An eilence of jefTamine 74. To make a clear and white Hypocras Tor the white Hypocras $8.other flowers To draw-an oil from jefiamme. receipt to make an imitation oi coffee Si. 76- E Hence cf capon. A - afliftance of fire 67. . it comes - 61. To make Eau de fweuillette. 184 ll) - Burnt wine 53. The receipt of the Eau imptriaU> or Imperial water 83. 62.. : xix- Page A fmelling \\-ater A receipt to compofe *$* one pint of /^ . How to make the Hipoteque 78. The receipt of the fyrup of orgeat of Montpcilier 84. ' . Effence of ambergrife 75. 70. .a Perfian fpecies of punch i. receipt for making of ckocalau A . - - - To imitate mufcat wine - * ~ - i8 "* ib.C o Art. ' 183 ib. with - which you can make forty To make a RoJ/'olis after that of Turin $0 How lomak?araf. 47. made at a very fmallexptrnce 8. 73. Turin fafhion An admirable oil of fugar Another oil of fugar. wherein there always enters a mix ture of lead or quick-filver. 6. A ^ 85. ib. An exceeding fine effence of tlypocras 52. 79.. To make Vin-des Dicu*. ap. or any other flowers To draw the eflential oil of rofes The oil of cinnamon An admirable eilence of reel 190 ib. without the 65. fu^ar Another oil of fugir..d. Ruj/olis.Ib. 72. to. Mau-clairctte iimple violet water 56. 7"o make the true Eau-de-Noiau ^g. 64. 48. An ptifan to colour any fort ot liquor fine lady's rougc^ not at all hurtful to the ficin like other rouges. ib. rofcs. Directions for preparing the true coffee 87. 49.. ^4.

Relative to the Confc&ionary Bufmefs. 30. or peach. currants. flavour. i. 8. An apricot jam. 6. ' CHAP. Pafte of jelfamine 201 ib. 16. which tafte. applicable to almoil all forts of fruits. jam 7. . To preferve green apricots To make the Cotignac liquid Another way How to make the caramel - - 209 ib. To prefer ve March double. Another way to make them liquid 207 To preferve apricots. ib. ib. after the French way 215 To makediy The prelerve A 9. To make an apricot. i. ib. Apricot fyrup 203. - dry preferve of them - 2c8 ib. and fra. ib. 1. 17. or fingle. r. 1 cherries. ib. no 211 - Tomake^>/wr To To To preferve quinces in red do the fame in white - 9. and To make a good current jelly To mak a vtrjus jeily cherry jam - ib. whether in loofc ^. Mufcadine. with or without - ib. ii.^fte to make fyrups with (hail be poiTcifcd of all their of flowers. Preferved nuts pafte . - 5.. 2 O2 ib. Orange-tower Apricot pafte' Currant pafte - 3. 40. jo. To make rafpberry. efpecially currams ib. aoS 10. or even in grapes or bunchesmarmalade of orange-ftowers 6. 4. 2i& il . 2 3. 13. How to ma ke i gren a ib. A prelerve Roujpslet. when neither too ripe nor too 3. 7. general manner of making fyrups. ib. To make liquid currants jam To make the fame with cherries Another way to prefervt ftoms - 204. Pwaipberry fyrup 9. To make a dry preferve of the fame violets ib.. 15. . 2. or in buds. 213 portable chimes of orangc-ilowcrs. 114 ib. 5. A 18. 4. 20. Aft. 8. 6. and other fortt of pears p'referve of green almonds To rnake the fame into a compotte 12 ib. The verjus fyrup ib. grancy 8. 2. 4. _ all forts A How verjus p. 7. Page 200 ib. ib* 14. leaves. To make the liquid rafpberryjam ib' The verjus jam The fame with powder fugar Peeled verjus - *o^ ib. 8.xx C ON T E'N T & XII. violets ib.

9.potte 6. when ripe To make a compotte of the fame fruits as above. j. Another way of doing the fame Tod j the fame fruit. gram ' - ib. ib. &. "8. aft '6. 1. - ib. plutns 25 ib. 9. and oth-. - ftrawberri-fs. 4. j r fuch like iruits - 1* it> 8. * ib. - 27 H. or bifcuits - 4. to prcfi-rve orag. made without which ib. t To make iced maroons To make the Rtya/ majjepins To make Savoy bitcuits Tc nuke bitter almond bifcuits To make meringues - *9 *<* - ib ib. and 3 ib. The compottcs of pears called ?nufcat ) the . ib. How S| ib. Genoa bifcuits 3. C ompottes oi verjus in purple and black damask. *xi ' Page To make To make 216 an apple jelly ib. 2^ : ib. cakes exceeding fine fire method of making cakes - 7. Ano with cinnamon.CONTENTS. rafpherries. 2. '6. - - A method of making A cream A cream Anotiipr particular 5 ib. currants. 7. The Genoa pafte j.-peels all the year round. lemons. Quinces jam. . evi plums broiled To make zcompottc of pcrdtiffon Tne lam - ib. 7. apricot cow. contrived for the ni ^ Ai fke of ccr - tain fcrupulous perions . ib. 4. grapes. To m&kej?Mlette$ To make bifcotins To make ii-mon lozengrs - ib. 7. the confer ve of orange-flowers A conierve of violets *7Aconferve with rafpings of Portugal oranges and ib. conjointly or fcparatrly To make almonds *-la-pralint To whiten cherries. The fa 4.QffummerComipQtttttOrflewfdFruttSi Art. as Avell as poaches. 4J. ib. moil early go firft and iV. '60. The 227 ib. 72. Competes of peeled verjus x. or chocolate aer way of icing. 5. The Queen's Macaroons cakes. pudding To make anexceeding good boiled cream To make wipped cream Another fort of a cream cuts as a rice 26 ib. x. 5. and other plums tor mirabelles.rt. . 70. but eTpecially in the month of May To make a patte with whatever fruit it may be 9. The rafpberry compottt 3. Sarntc 9. Catherine.o. $. ib. 45. 6. and other iruits 2. O. Is. 80.

4. whether on cloth oilmen 9. f. Art of taking out Spots and Stains. ib. clothei g.' p of . ola or lv ^-r.of a cloth ib* 3! ito. ib.i C Is.. DoubUjUur^ Kon-xlrtc. 2 l. A A maybe - ib ib.i from iil-/c and woolen ftuiu T'o colour velvet in rrd ~ 7"o revive die colo. fuel. Againft oil-fpta J4 ib. G Of the .o taAe off all forts of fpots To taAs the fpots oil from a white fiU or crimion " 39 ib. To juft ib. 7. 2.n. dU ver. linen. ib. Bzid<. ib. - x. 18. f pilled - *!. v^us. colour except the crimfon To tae To wafri UK^ r. 5. &c. * general receipt againft all fortiof fpott * upon ev . ib. c- gS . ery fort of {tuft (5. - and other fpoU fiU-ftuffs. or either ib. Again to. ib.e new jTo ta^e the ipo's o.ttc. 15. velvet - & . ib. and camblets embro'd ry. wafhing ball to take off fpot take out pitch and turpentine fpots ft inA-fpots. j. - 74.ad render it !i/. H A P. Another more fmiple remedy againft inA when 7. To reftoregold and filver laces to their former beauty To reftorc Turkey carpets to their firft bloom To maAe ta peltries r<:fume their fivft brightnefs. 8. ib. J-.T T 's S. 17. againft - jb. XIII. ao. me oft f? from or . or any Kui* . fil/U i\\k ig. To when their colours have been tarnifliedand fpoiled taAe oil all the foots oi wax from velvet of any - 57 ib. rta-la-lraife iict-s i S- Ac . i. Againft oil fpots on it.? . -16. A preparation of balls For iii/ts ven on paper fatin. - ib. 6. 4. c. ib. ?-gt of pears.. To teke off iron rnoMs from linen To take oft carnage-wheel's greafe from To take Agamftpifs-ipots off all forts of fpots it $3 ib. - iu. from cloth of whatev - er colour 5. 23. To tsAe the fpots oii from a white cloth To taAe off the fpors from crimfori & other velvets Tc taAe off an oil fpot from cio:ii Acompofitionor foap . 1 . j\wtr$Qiiz of apples *-!a-frouilIo*nt. . rs . ib. 4.

form With them rub your this compofuion into fro all Hick*. and pafs afterwards. A mordant water to til engrave on ft eel. : TAKE piece of ftcel. after having previoufly warmed it fufHcicntly to melt the wax. Orelfe take verdtgrife. on a white ground. as filver. verjuice in grapes. trace whatever you lines you fhall will on it. When both are incorporated together. When the wax is cold. or iron. on the have drawn. the ftrongeft little fait you can find alum in powder. 1.S E C R E T C S S. which ycui will fpread well over it with a feather. t: H A to Jay SECRETS I relative to the Art of on iron < ENGRAVING. the following water* II. and run fome of that water on your together till Mix perfectly diflblved lines : A pLue. A wax melt it. equal parts. ammoniac and common fahs. and the bulk of a nut of white wax add to it the fize of a nvufquet ball of cerufe of Vtnice. ONCE and R N I N G ART S TRADE P. S^f all then -#r?. . i. .in together a-boiiing. till it is fuScietttly deep engraved. paf fome of that water on the then of your drawing. That engraving will appear white. ftrong vinegar. for a quarter of an hour it through a rag. and copperas. re peating the fame. Take good . and a dried and pul: verifed. 2.

as if you were writing. after which. with the fame colour. on . prepared as before. CALLOT'S varnifh. Roman vitriol. . you mud only draw the outlines of them with your pen. and bake over it yeur colour. or three. contained between the firft outlines drawn with the pen. you let your work dry fora dryed thus. and draw your deiign upon it. To engrave <wi& Aquafortis.a plate. you will put a little more thart a quart of water. you take fome fire. : :pens to it Tryiirft. and dipped into your liquor. Take vercligrife. that is to fay.paper. of which the compaction fhall be found hereafter. to preferve all that part againft the mordacity of the aquafirtis. you mufl add a little more oil without making it. or places. jnade with charcoal. then put thiscomNext to this operation. to clean and ungreafe it . Take care notwithftanding not to burn it.. whether your colour runs fufHciertly with your : and. 3.n rdrnU Table compoiition uo. with ink. ioft quills. Grind them all to gether. in which into a very fine powder. into a chsiFendim. i'V. III. too limped . however. in the Chapter en fork's. Take equal parts of vermilion and of black lead two. Aquafortis for engraving.. i? . of each three ounces which you will pound Have a new pipkin. or other animals. with lintfeed oil .pofition into aJhell. done.on the pkte you pifcpoie to engrave. Then rub well your plate of Heel with wood afhes. grains of maftkfc in drops. If you want to draw birds.iay. and let your fteel or iron be well polifhed. by degrees. day or two. on marble. with the following aquafortis. which you will lay with a brufh. and your . but on . for fear you When that is When fhould fcale ic when you come to fcratch. if it Ihould not. till it becomes quite brown. with your pen. you will coverall the fpace. S Z C 11 E T S concerning it In about half an hour afterwards wi!I be perfectly engraved.4. which you want to be fngrave. /> that ths work may appear like a baflb relievo. and com mon fait. thofe etchings. roch alum. then fill up the infide of thofe lines with a hair-pencil . cut fome . ly fo as to have your pen mark freely with it. with the point of a needle. you wipe it with a clean rag.

for. which you are to pour on it. the depth of the lines of your engraving . you muft begin again watering it. and to pour. needle. To engrave prints. . and fize it with ifinglafs. take the pot from cfF tl'-s fire arid let it cool fo. by aquafortis. that your as before. raifed grounds. as generally are all thofe on copper plates. Take fome cerufe. when you will examine wheth er the lines be fufficiently deepornot. You are then to try. The only care you are to have. or pencil. ever all the places which are to bemarked. from running off. that you may dipyour hand in it without fcalding. and freely. which you will grind well with clear pump water. VI. $ a coa** fire : all togctl er. if not. and. To engrave on brafs. and poor it fo that it may run over the worlc you mean to engrave well. is the time to throw it away. and be longer at it. with which you -take of that water. liquor fhould not be too warm It is better to ufe it fpoil the work. and then oiFinto a pan placed under to re ceive it. and which is to. Continue thus to water your work for three Then you will pour upon it clear quarters of an hour. with a fhallhave occasioned.t the aquafortis. pic of hours siid. or copper. it would lukewarm only. Let thrm a little th. if it be a fiat work. to wafh oft* the mud which the aquafortis . S /rwrf TR A D'E S. with a coarfe bruih.. fome pump water. is. After it has been thus left covered with that aquafortis. and thus you will obtaia works of baffo relieve by contrary . Lay this compofition. V. <uoith aquafortis. for a little while. that is to fay.be a feparating aqua* fortis with which you cover the plate to the thicknefs of a crown piece. after it is hid on your plate . pump water. on the plate whicli . in its place. you muft raife around it a border of wax to prever. alfo rather more over the fire.A R T your drugs. And. : then. this becomes green: than. You may thus engrave all forts of works. Then have an earth en cup. if not at your liking. You mud and bake it put in your colour more maftick in drops.?s ir. fo that it fhould turn almoft black.fufe tVen phcc them over a charcoal when the water has ilmmered. pour a^ pain frefh nquafortis on your plate.

for there are two forts. vfr charcoal. or wooden. you will etch your plate with it. Let this dry. can dle. to trace it with your will eafily finguine. of this compofation. till it camera what you will over it. Take drops. as before directed. taking afterwards a fteel point. as before directed. blacken that varnifli with the flame of a. very fir. bake it owith the palm of year hand. then drtvv little yellow. point . end. the afterwards on plate. if you want to coonterproof a copperplate print. Then you dry or liquid. over which yotipafs.(red chalk) or any thing elfe. VIII. When it is dry. and pour aquafor : tis. blacken all the back of your print . if snore eafy than to engrave with the graver. a point. with a pen and ink and. then give a fe-* Cover your it cond coat.% which are bid on your plate. and be infinitely more correct . white lead. all the Unes-cf tli defign. which you want to engrave. 1 . over the ffrft and fpread When dry. which is infinitely For. . go over all the ftrofecs of your print. VII. following all the (trokes marked on it. and grind it well "with ma-dick in plate wkh it by means ftrft of a brui'h. whkh ces. cover it with a there is a charcoal fire. and then freouth it with the foft part of -a goofefeather. While on it. done. *The method of engraving with aquafortisYou muft have a very well poli fried plate. draw on it whatever dengn you pleafe* Or. you have no more to do than varnifli. in which fectly clean. ami proceed afterwards. cowtrning. and per Set it to warm over a chafingdifh. prepared as before. you rub the back part of your drawing with fome fanand lay it guine ftone. either to chalk your defign on that plate. for a day or tw. which is on the back of the draught. part on your plate. with a black lead pencil . Anotlnr. in all thofe pla on the plate. in. ar*d rcpafj> tke plate on the varnifhed fide. with a fmooth ivory. placing that blackened. Then you will go again over all -the black flroke. So that you may follow after* ft'toffonf the vam%(h. This being.4 SECRET S.e and well tempered.o . will {lamp the black of the print. 2.

he wafh. and run into an earthen pan. that the fpirit and beauty of the defign may be preferved. to 3. the moil re mote and the ncarcft parts. fvrtis : in parts. and theexpreflion of the figures. Therefore he takes care to : examine when thofe ly eaten in. certain parts which are n^t firong enough. in all the different placts of his work. True it is.is prevented.a 5. as he wains them to be. pla ced under to receive it. Indeed it muft be confeiTed. . tojet all the feveral parts fo proportionably.A This Jl T S and TRADE S. and to havt them mere correct. Thus. which are not to be fo deephave received a fufE ient quantity of aquawhich . over-laid \vith WPX. which you will drop in it. covering atfeveral times. or outlines. that it is fome times found rseceiTary touch a little over. in ?. with the graver. on which he fixes his plate a little (Lint way then pour* aquafortis on it. For it is rot eafy. and e-fro+ art in thofe pieces is than there found fos. 5 corn-el in all the turns.It is "again requifite that he fnould take care.s it water. eaten in. and as much as he plea- with pump A -z fes. great plate.'' ?ny more. have n framed wood/. by a mixture of oil and tallow. be nothing to find fault 4. from a lighted candle. it fnould not bite equally every where* This. of the figures. or fcooper. who have their own works engraved take the trouble of drawing alfo the outlines of their figures. is the reafon why all the painters. To this rf.Vcl he rhuflf board..ot a6t. as there ihould Wit. It is not enough for an engraver to work with the point of his needle. that we always difcover a great deal more which are engraved with aqvefortit* in them that are done by the graver. dries it gently before the fire. fo that it may only pafs over it. taking off his plate. . even in many of thefe. with the flrength and delicacy neceflary to make appear. with the above mentioned mixture of cil and tallow. th'at the aquafortis fhould r.cafe. when he comes to put the aquafortis on his plat". the aquafortis is often em ployed to fketch lightly the contours. as follows. on thofe places. and them which he wants to preferve weakefr. or that the^aquafortis has not eaten in fufTiviiently. And. by pouring it only over. then covers the moll remote parts.

called pickling.& S E* C R E T it refults S concerning fe. till he fee* they are fufficiently engraved. after bavjftg previouflv tempered it more or lefs with a proportionable quantity of common water. which is . fuch as you want it to appear in They. make ufe of the very drawing you give them.foft varnifh. begin by preparing a board. water. As for what concerns the refiner's aquafortis. which is engraved. and a little vinegar. That fort of aquafortis we have mentioned and defcribed in this chapter at the article of the --water for en~ gracing on iron and which iscompoied with verdigrife. You muft take care th?t all the ftrokes of the drawing fhould touch well. or e tehee'. fome of that white water is poured. and Scratched. and according to the de gree of ftrength which he is defirous of giving them. IX. it is never uiea but upon the foft varnifh and never as the former. imift he made round the plate. 7. . fuch places of his plate as he wants to keep not ib ftrong asoihers. is either pear-tree or box. and copperas. by the right fide. when the paper is very dry. wet it : de gently.on wood. both on account of its being of a fupsrior hardnefs. which are forwards in the picture. is alfo made ufs of to engrave on copper. comIfionly called white water. vinegar. *To engra<ve. and On that board you alfo lefs liable to be worm-eaten. this being laid ffrit upon a table. with a paile made of good flour. printing. agreeably to the defign you in tend to engrave on them. which they pafte on their board. according to the frze and thicknefs you want it. And. and with the tip of your finger rub it off by re grees. and finely polifhed on the fuie it is to be The fort of wood. in pouring it on the plates. common and ammoniac falta. which is called green water by pouring it only over the plate. You as there are a great number. covered either with hard or. and A border of wax: letting it run ofFinto a pan under it. draw firit your defign. on which. generally chofen for fuch a purpofe. that the figures. who have not the talent of drawing. and flick on the wood and. this laft is even ftiil preferable. 6. of the two. to that the tf-ckes only of the drawing (hould . are conflantly every time wafhcd with the aquafortis which eats in them...

or preferve all the reft you are to cut off and fink down with delicacy by means of a fharp and well tempered pen-knife.ART S A pen. and T R A D E S.-entcr into a more particular detail of the vari ous and curious circumftances attending this noble art.on copper <uotth is grower* copper. according to the iize and delicacy of the work. for you have no need of any other tool. -md {often the iirok -s. made with a piece of an old hat rolled up and blackened. XL To . orgoxet. according to the and the figures. whofe curiofi$y. as you proceed on. or lines. X. You m uft alib have a certain tool of fix inches long. round and {lender. called a burnifher. on tke art of engraving. &ew you all that you . which fills the ilrokeswith black. which to be of red well poliOijd. or thereabouts. is made in the form of a triangle.s very ranch the fliape of a fowl's heart. on that fubjeft.. mull: You on which you lay your They. {harp on each edge. a be provided likewife with a leather cufhion. of your work. ta When the plate. 3. will prompt them to be more particularly acquainted with it. with which you rub your plate. want it. makeufeof Hump. you draw your deiign on it with either When that is the black !ead-ftore or a Ikel *oint. tht t-ngrcwe. and give leis ilrcngth to certain parts. with 'which you fcrape on the copper when you n. on your board. final! chifel. 2. The other end. on the place you arc working. hr. To T. plate. one of the ends of which. 4. in order to form a better judgement you mud now and then. Wft ihall not give any further account of the art of *ngrAving than this fliort epitome. are to fpare. you execute. you have no further need of any thi-g but very iharp and well tempered gravers to cut in. as you go. a little prolonged by This fcrves to poiifh the the point. called 'a fcra~ per. and we (hall not at tempt to . as if you had drawn it with ink and Thefe ilrokes.' ore or fubjift. copper. mayamply fatisfy themfelvea. while you engrave it. by taking the trouble to read the treatife which Abraham Boffe has purpofely compo fed. to mend the faults. done. and makes you fee better the efrec~l of vour work.

faid ellewhere. 2. fuck as Hade: ef fwcrds. which they prepare and ufe as above XII. one part and while you pound it in a . you mull rot fail to begin by covering firft your plate with it. or copper. knives. which you will let lay for the fpace of half an hour. mixed with lintfeed cil. in the ufe of this method. alum. which you fhall have put a-drying to ufe it afterwards like a pencil. and put it in a el-fs veffd fufficientlv large. To engrave on feel concerning or iron .ifh veraigrife. iHregar. more warm it is. prepared as wefaid. and as much of ammoniac fait. either with a Heel point. Some make ufe of vitriol. or You may to the fame efRcl take Spar. cover it with the above mentioned paftetothe thicknefs of a fin This compofition murt be applied warm and ger. with a proportionable qua-nmy oftle Hrangeft diful'ed vin Let the wl o^e thin infufe for twelve hours.& SECRETS XI. after which wafti it with cold water. engrave on iron or copper. Pound it sll well in a mortar. if it be firft drawn on wax. two of vitriol. the ! . When this compofnion is well dry. vrrdi. and clean off your plate. what vinegar. For. Then pafs feme of your liquor on the places you (hall have etched with a needle or fteel point. in following carefully the flrokes ofvour defi^n. then pour over it good ftrong vinegar. and proceed as shove. When your drawing is done. and waih well the engraved place. &c.:n-trce coals. coat of wax laid on your iron. . ever you want to engrave on fteel or iron. Awtber . 3. or fictitious ocher. 1. Draw next what deflgn you like on a ring it often. I. Grind all together with Then. add feme very flrong vinegar. A ivater to Take Spanim. t fooner the work will be engra ved though you mud have care net to burn it. common fait. begin fuft by Sketching it with vermilion diluted with lintfced oil. take that powder cfF.. as v/e riol. vit and alum. common fait. and' lind. fome fublimate alone. fo as to obtain a foft pafle of it. Take One part of linden-tree coals . mortar. XIII.jrife. fquil parts. You may again lay on vour defign. finely pulverifed . fuMimate merrurv.

CHAP. and you will find that what was covered with the com pofition will be prefer vcd. and brimftone IE powder. or t*vtn eat it off entirely* Take two quarts. have your defign raifed.may keep in a phial^ carefully flopped. and pour it on your plate . by falling again into the pan. well ground nr.ARTS I. let it thus re if ycm want to main for the fpace of half an hour. You (hall next pafcal! that mixture into a cu~ cvrbit. leaving it on the fire. over the fire in an iron pan well tinned with warming lead . and as much of th$ whole as there can poflibly be diiTolved in that quantity of wine. can find. fo that. . Adapt to if tr leolt+head to ferve as a receivr r. BiiTolve into i& quicklime. of each equal parts. which you. aad raifed from the-o* thcr parts of the plate which are eaten down. for ufe. ed. of c. however* ycur water Ihculd not be too warmlefHs fhould fet arunniog the:oil which is mixed with the varnifh* Whei this is done. you Continue fo doing* for a lofe none of your water. Anctkcr mere mo. There will diftill a very mordant water. and common fait. make it with factitious ocher and linefeed oil. and Then fet the aforefaid water slet it dry perfectly. and holding it in one hand over the pan. or rather in a retsrt well luted. mac fait. or thereabout. wtae tartar and white fait. 1) S. and T R A /?///>. Lute well the joints* then give-it the heat gradually. and mixed with the llrongeR vinegar. An ardent water to engra<v*ftetl deeply.d mixed together. quarter of an ounce. quarter of an hour's time : taking care. When the whsle is well pound XIV. of thick black wine. and. tartar> vitriol. with afpoor. take with the other of the warm liquor. take youx fleei plate. . the oldeft and the befl yon. Take Spanifu verciigrife. 4 XIII. rub the aforefaid corn pofitioa with pot-afites mixed' with an eqcal crriaivtity of quick lira* in pow der.

or four pounds. Take burnt wood's coals. 2. of each three pounds foot dried. . quite pure.t the vclTelin foaking. and the operation is done. and in that fame imlant plunge your fheets of black iron : then take out of the fire.of iron into tbefnrfr German fteeL of clean foot one pound oak-wood twelve ounces. Strain this. "for three? times twenty-four hours. one pound i decrepitate fait. mud be large full intended fizc. other wife called cokes. and flop well. fet them aboil it Take a dilcretionable quantity of rye-bran cfrainiug. and. in a water wherein you mall have diflblved fornc am moniac fait. i. and dip in it the iron pegs. If. II. after which time take off your iron meets . fcore them well with the very bran with which they have been a-foaking> then rnb them over a little with This being done. and rub them afterwards with rye-bran. give them a reverberating fire. re duced to a third. and quick lime. make them foak again grindftones. and calcinated in an iron pan. : . in flifet? JiL T* . which you will afterwards ilratify with the following cement.Make of this and your iron feveral bedsfour ounces. relative to METALS. and Obfervc thr. which you lay vrur &oszgh to receive them. a minuteor two in vinegar. having well luted the vefTels in which you fhall have made thofebeds of ironand cement. your//* will be done. Let your iron reft there and foak for twentyfour hours.[ I* ] CHAP. and four of pounded garlicks.^ Boil all together in twelve pounds of common water. 9"* make tin. A ficrct to caufe th& 'HP^AKE JL tranfmutat ion. SECRETS I. whence having taken them off. alternately one over another . then add to it a little water. the reiTel.

about the width of half a crown Then take a fponge. Set the whole a-boiling. then waih the compofiuon in water. bring it round the bar.*!< ircn bar as big as tbe arm. having given a tre. and no more : then take off the crucible from the fire. Then. . In this. and put them again over the feeces or refidue. one ounce of each . if and keep what arifes from it. and. in diftilling thii compofition. ibap with which you will rub your iron Then bar at the placewhere yea would have it break. regal. Diftill this a* new. in powder. till this runs off quite clear. add one ounce ofcalaminary ftone . Another for tie fame furfofg. and two of ammoniac fait: gradual fire to it. in the middle of it. difiblve orpine. and add to it two ounces of common mercury. To ' eompofe Take refiner's dled coals. canef &c But one cannot recommend too much the avoiding . when melted. buckles. and place it between two fires of kin 'V. with an addition of two ounces of pulverifed arfe*nic. you dip an handkerchief and turn it round as iron bar. for two hoars. half an ounce of tuty. will break. in fix hours. and one si terra merit*. Give to this* a melting fire for five or fix hours running. dipt into ardent water of three To break an Take melted diOillations it . of quick-lime. fix of fea-falt exficcated. you will take the fpirits which ihafl have diftilled. and TRADES. with any thing take off and clean a*vsy pan of that unc~ iion. This will give you a metal. until there appear no more mercury. Put this cornpofition in powder. fnuff-boxes. in three hours time it will break with the You muft only take a great care to greateft eafe. of the mcft beau tiful gold colour which can be deftred. *nd which yoa : may make heads. guard yotyfelf againfl the fumes. and verdigriie. and a fufKcient quantity of water. fulphur. a metal of a gold colour copper fix ounces: melt them into a crucible . avoiding carefully the breathing of the fumes* Give this a melting fire. pat the matter into a crucible. ufe of for plates. Set this again in a crucible and. IV. PJace the whole in an alembic with one ounce of fahpeand. killed in two ounces of triple-diftillcd vinegar. one ounce. pour it into an ingot. In two pounds of aquafortis.ARTS IT I.

when melted. throw in one ounce of powder of the arfmart'i leaves. This procefs will give you a metal which (except the colour that atifts can at any time give it by an induftry well known The to them) has otherwife all the qualities of gold. It is V III. fore m?y eafily be purified. that it cannot bear tefUng. Another camp ofir ion of metal. : well known that gold is the rnoft perfedtof me After this comes filver. vulgarly. is copper. carefully prcferved. will not fail to obtain it. This liquor. will diffolve gold in the naked palm of your hand. after having drawn the fpirits per afcenfum in balneo-marite* cohobate again three different times. And whoever will proceed. by being delivered of all the with which it is load iupevfkial and combuftible fulphurs ed. the principles of which tals. may be ufed for candlefticks. Take . according to the follow ing direction. as it is to be wiihed we could make ourfelves thofe me tallic compofitions. and other coutries. At the third diflillation you fublime all the fixt and. rouft therefore ferve which rufts eafily. killed : and. VII. only to fupply common copper It and has not fo much brrghtnefs.of one hour. while i: is making. -How t$gi<vefome perfection to imperfett metals* i. To Diftill hart's diffol<ve blood juft gold inyaur naked hand. This thereapproaches nsareft to perfection. . or even half an ounce then cover the^crucible with an iron lid. and equally proportioned between them as thofe of gold. and keep the liquor for ufe. VI. which w* import from Holland. Waterpepper. We thought it was proper her* to give this receipt. Melt in a cru cible fix ouncei of refiner's copper. All other metah are reckoned Among them however that which smperfeft and crude. and. are very near pure. lute well the veiTel. and keep this matter in fafion for the fpace . and that it . Talce a certain reasonable quantity of the leaves ef Perjtcaria nrens t called Arfmart* or. which you will dry in the (hade. and other fimilar works. after which you caft it in an ingot.IP C R E T S concerning avoiding of breathing the fumes of this composition. when done. only defect is.

having covered it again with the fame powder. Whoever will 'know how it foreign fulphur. or any other very dry wood's fawduft half an ounce. filver. incombuflible and folary falphur. then lay over it a (hell B . and then re-embodying again metallic fubftan-ces . you will render it dill more perfect and you might thus purify it fo far. and reiterate the fame operation three times. fet it a-melting for the fourth time. and you will fee that the metal will melt and rem ua at the bottom of the fhell. 5. and this is known by none but the fons of the art. and projtel. till the copper is 2. Take faltpetre two ounces : fulphur half an ounce . as to give it. The other may. crucible. All this being well mixed together. and the faltpetre and fulphur reduced to an impalpable prece of gold. 7'e IX. the aallforts depts alone. and. or any other metal you pleafe . and uniting its n. oak's. giving it the hardnefs of filver. Take what quantity you pleafe of copper. walnut trees. fct the fire to it. iilver. Let the faw-duft be lifted very fine. analyling. at laft. if you : 3. metallic.gold. the detonations being mflde. by taking from it its fuperfluous falinepart.A R T S and TRADE S. X. Put the copper-regulus into another crucible. To melt powder. its ing feparating from this laft its arfenical fulphurs. on it perikaria's or hydro-pepper's leaves powder. without burning it. and. all the -qualuies of . Then. fill the cf a nut with it to the brim . extremely fine and true goW colour. Now. and fix* it by the fupplement of a fixt. You may alfo whiten lead . if not previoufly verfed in the'tnethod of diflblving.. will turn to purify brafs from its likewife into a very fine 4. and dividing or feparating. Pewter and quickfiiver may likewife be purified. render it fimilar to it. While melting in that a crucible over a melting fire. take the crucible out of the fire and let it cool. Set it in 1. But this we c not expeft to attain. of metals in the Jbell of Jnut. Break the crucible and feparate the fcories from theregulus. throw in at different times fome tutty powder "mixed with equal parts of refined faltpetre.curial one to the true metallic fulphur.

before you put the receiver to the cucurbit. it of torioifefnelltQ foak. is melted. which you will grind each time on a marble the 3. fa*c2s. for fometime. this cool. ^ DiiTolve one ounce of filver in three of this liquor . or one oaacc. it hurts nothing. in iron- X. throw over it. Tome good faltpetre pulverifed. 4. 2. and this will procure you you will make an aquafor with equal parts of falt-petre. folutions and cohobations. with double its weight of true French fpirit of wine. by degrees. till th faltpetre remains at the bot tom of the cucurbit refolved into a true oil which con what is geals itfelf no longer. as before.Keep it thus to Get a new iron-pan in fufion till it isat leaft half difnpated. of a load om. upon to draw. divide thefaltpetre from the lead. bit Put a Then put your gold XII. put it again into the cucur Take off thefe difbit with fome more fpirit of wine. it will fall into dsliquium tre is. dried vitriol.:J. There. according to the quantity of aquafortis you want Cohobate the fpirits feven times over. will recover its lofl weight. tatty and cinnabar. and. o t it folutian. drop by drop. After having well pounded it on a marble flone. repeating the fame procefs over again as before.XI. in fubtile pow der. lull. To operate the tranfmuiatinn 1. then difHl by a flow fire. . antimony. verdigrife. grow red hot upon a trivet. ofjil~ver into gold. To You mud . tis : called the Fix-bairn.S L C R E T S let it ft increafe the virtu?. the ftronger is the oil. in regal in it. marble. by that means. table. it does not fignify for. and roch alum and. : ?. As foon as this and then put two pounds of lead in it. add fte^l-filings. Next to that operation. of each half an ounce. carry it into the cellar. oi\e oiuice of your . foak. added by little and Grind on little at a time . oiL it To reft ore gold to its weight. what remains in the cucurbit and. and the more concodied over again the faitpe. for forty days. This will melt likewife. Should it take nre during that time. Let which you will pour into a cucurbit. after it has loft In v water. : being turned into debquium.

which after the operation muit be at nioft only half-full. and four of the aforefaid arfenic fublime the whole fo many times as necefTary.. inches. and this as many times as you may wafh your by means find neceiTary. which you will feal hermetically but.* per one. {hould ran as fair and clean as when you poured over it. 2. XIII. put it in a matrafs with a long neck. with which amalgamate it. with an eTake the middle and qual weight of 'decrepitate fait. after the diffipation of the mercury of it fire. fo that the neck of the under one {hould get into that of the up Or. rejecting the fubtile flour which rifes en the head. Let the composition cool. By means of fuch aninduftrious practice you avoid the neceflity of breaking your matraffes every time you want to refublime what was already fublimed. the aquafortis* which before was green as an emerald. 15- yo'ur nitre-oil in a bottle ma^e like the hour-glaffes. fome arfenic. if you make ufe of . having pounded. which you mufl turn lo as to put always underneath what is fublimed above. cryftaline matter which fubiirnates. > you will find reiterate fo many times as necefTary that no flour fhould filver lenger fublimate. At the bottom of the the filver fixed into gold. you put on . that nothing fhould afcend any more. and the dregs which re main ia the bottom. elfe. take care to lute well the joints. and veilei. will become as clear as pump-water. ver hot a/hes. Calcinate fome with mercury. which fhould not You will get reach the matter by three fingers diftance. when the whole ihall have been fixed thus. 1. And. and which you will cover with another inverted. day after day. every day to the amount of a filver pennyweight of filvtr fixed iftto gold. on a fand fire. Place this obottles. and divide the water from the oil. : 3. At laft the mat ter turns iflto a Itone^ which.A R T S and TRADES. Take one ounce of this calcinated filver. Sublime over again this cryftal. Fixation of geld into filler. Sublime. Give under this a lamp fire. This fublimation may eafily be performed in a matrafs laid on its fide. and plunge it in them to the heighth of fix. and mail therefore be preferved. that the water in which you filver. which will never be the worfe for ufe.

elfe. mercury into the crucible.mutaticMof lead intojilver. vineafhes four . XV. then take off your Out of one hundred and five .L Take fteces. throw the whole into a retort. ive of the whole with diililled vinegar. at leafi. and. oil. .an uncluous pafte. This you will put in a pot. one . To Take I. it it you will find it to be thc> XIV. Make under this a digefting fire . ammoniac fait four Ounces. and pebbles calcinated two.as is necetfkry to warm the fand keep it and teit it. Another mercury from lead. well luted. which adheres . You will get. or crucible. which you know to be done by the transparency of the 4. 2 that is : to fay. Soak the whole warmly with oil qf vitriol till you make it corne into . fuch a fire . lead filings one pound . veffel. Take Put Hrit the this fixt four parts of mercury. iJiiHl tiiis compofition.. bricks. and the fire muft be continued for twelve hours. will draw^SW marcs. Give a gradual fire. calcine it with common fait. and diftll it with a gradu al fire. f XVII. in a retort. XV Take . three pounds. Ditfolve in this iwo pounds of lead and.n5- SECRETS till it is all concerning* n a digefting bath. to the cruci- Take filver out and teit in the world. throw in ten ounces of borax. reduced into a fixt oil. till all the compofi- iion be reduced into a lump. pufhing it. with that fort of fait which is extra^ed from the dregs* or caput mortuum of Saltprtre and vitriol calcinaed both together. and. pound . When this is diflblved. when the lye is become white. on a gradual fire p The receiver muft be very large. puoundedinto a powder. into the receiver. placed in a pan full offend. afterwards.^ . of quick filver. pearl afhes one extract mercury from le&d. you fo for ten days. ten ounces*. and one of that oil. weight or t<wo pounds and haof filver capable to ftand the ted weight. lafh b^r degrees^ to the very .pounds matter. of lead. half full of water. with which you will cover it over intirely. fine lead Per.. or. in e : Make quickaiirong .

pelli^ula^ and put it in the cellar. that lead. of ar?. (that of Montpellier which ferves to make their famous vs^digrife is the fitted). XVII. and rub your 2 with it. filingSj cr any other iron Tubbiih they. . By thefe means they keep forever bright and XXL Rub them fhining. XXII. To manage jle el fo. reiterating the projections in proportion as the matter fufes.hefe cryftals become JDiiiblve them again in the fame vinegar and excinguiib in it fome red hot iron laminss. Replace the fpirits on the fapttt moriitutn then plunge and extinguish in them fome red lot iron lamin.A R T S and TRAD E S. Or.^> with hart's marrow. till the iron melts and flows into copper. 17 it pulveri&d nitre. drying them every time. till . join wuh this wa- B 2 ter . diftolve fome all urn powder with the ftrongcft vinegar you can find. tarn i . and every one. XX. for one night. To preftrve the Ingktncfs. XIX. pafs ir throui?^ terin^ Pviper. alkaline. andprojedlon XVIII. Another. Melt feme lead in a crucible. till it is entirely melted. . then difiblve them three or four times in difHiled vinegar. Pound fome vitriol in powder. the changed into copper by means of To do this you put your ironftratum fuper vitriol. will. then evaporate the water unto ^. into a very fine copper. ftratum in a defcenforium. the water which will come from a . and let it over a ilrong blaii re. Tranfmutation of iron Iron is eafily into copper. Redden them in the fire. elfe. iron will turn into copper. by an alembic. byihefe means. or filings and. tain fome green cryftals.certain quantity of earth -worms . and diiUI froip it t the fpirits by means of the retort. Fixation offaltpetre. to water them a little over with vinegar faturated of ialtpetre. pufhed by bellows. Another to the fame purpofe.-is. it may cut iron * Draw. and tarter falts and verdigrife. by liule and little. DiiTolve vitriol in common water . and you wii. : li . You muil not forget wlien you have made your beds of vitriol.

artifts it akea To reitore it.were lead.il fand re. you will find the running mercury of antimony. When this is done. XXV. which you never ceafe to Hir the \vhole wdlforf. Begin Throw . that water. the quantity of half a pint. for about two minutes. called by red . iju. Let it cool with the fmall quantity of vinegar which fhall remain after the ebullition. in very ftrong vinegar. with which yc*i- aiay cut iron with as much eafe as if k . in the forge. or there When this has boiled about a couple of hours. To foften I ft eel. Let the beak of the retort be in water. in order to puree it from all the mwditioe* to boil will ireeffantly ftir rvith a iirfi by a How fire. That fortoffteel is made ufe offerknives. and other instruments. not ex ceeding. in this liquor your iron kindled red hot. XXI II. wherein the water 15. and put copperas.ar of the adhefion of mercury. and it will become foft. fwords. the matter will remain in a lump at the bottom of the pan. or on the graquarts. four or five times. in the live coals. put your fteel. and wooden fpatula. abouts. Then throw into the pan half a peuud of crude mercury. 2nd at :he bottom of that veflcl. red mere ury from antimony-. after having made hor> plunge it in the coldeil water.orrc fa-It. of each in a retort of twoSet the retort on the bare fire.fnagical mercurial ring* verdigrife half a pound. To extra fi Take antimony and decrepitate Mix them together and put pound. Bail the whole. colour t you muftj. however. In pro portion as the vinegar finks you may add more. thus cover ed. XXLV. and an equal quantity of Pulvcrife each of them feparately. then boil them in oil of nuts till reducer" in o an Coyer well your Heel all ungucntum* over iviih that* compofidon to the thickness of half a crown. thefe powders into an iron pan which hath never been Take u fed before for any thing el fe. A. rob them of dieirioarfeit peel.i8 S E C R:E T S concerning ter an equal Then quantity of horfe-radifh's juice. then throw it in Handle this lump well in to a large pan of cold water.after\vards to the temper. defcretjonable quantity of garlic. temper.cher?y.

and wafh it well till the wa. quarter of an hour . when. put it li a. which you will make blafHng for a. gether. ing the firft and laity? n?/#. The whole being granulated. particularly in thofe well-knowaAt fuch times the difeafes of women. A . drawing this metal through the wiring bench. When perfectly dry.clean piece of linnen to take off the fuperflu-ous parts . keeping handling the mat ter well in your waters... and drunk failing. ring half an hour. Throw it into a pan of water. mak. then throw in it sn. by the iid. ri>t -virtu* of tbofe rings. and do the fame again and again. into fmall bits of the form and iize you like. from the eve ning to the morning. reduced to a third. or othcrfire till : the next. andlute them fo well that there ihould no. They may be monthly I. killing the worms boil in a varnifhed ring are alfo very ufeful in in fmall children. l~hew the disorders one* affVfted with. To mslt the afor ef Take Alexandrian tuty.er remains clear. on which. XXVI turns of a duH red dolour. wifh another. your matter turned into a gold colour. and then you will and it as-hard a& . and melt it as you would gold. or -filver. with the powders and Cover your crucible ajitde thicker than the others. With this matter you will make your rings in' ingot. or beds. and bottom. having flattened it quick!/.A* R T S and TR A D E S.bits of the above mercury. day you will find .of borax. and what remains well fixed after this fecond trial. top.es. and cut as . with a glafs (or four ounces) of water. yen mull extend on a fheet of white paper. taking offyour crucible. new pipkin. and terra merita. 19 Th'row that firft water away. When your mercury is thus well fixed. put it in. and furround them well with live coals every way. till the lafl remains clear as rock water. aid mercury. a fmall crucible with half an ounce -. you expofe it to the dew of one night. chink remain. flop the colos in the head. if you make them They XXVIII. for fear it fhould grow too hard. place you& crucibles in a gold or black -fmith's furnace. XXVI. (eparately pulverifed and mixed afterwards to Stratify your. which you will examine well after having dried them in an oven.haftily. and put clean water in. and pulh by ftrength of bellows du-. then let them cool gradually in the. of each half a poand.

and had prepared for it. the XXXII. on four ounces of red copper in fufion. fbiion. copper laminas over with oil of nuts. with it. zinc is in it> take if off from the fire. adding gradually to it. then dry them over a flow fire iupported. Reiterate this. then ilir and call In ingots. After two hours of guard yourfelf againfl the fumes. for this fecond time. and ilir the matter a little figures. of which if you project one. upon fmall iron bars. melt it in a crucible. you will take this compofttion off. ounces of fine pewter. fneft colour of gold to copper in order to . XXXI. XXX. and put it again in the crucible with the fame When melted. ftjr'ring continu ally with a fpatula till the mercury difappeafs entirely. To Rub imitate tortoife-jbell on copper. There will come a powder. Take five parts of copper. which you will melt in a As foon as the crucible. To perform fame on horn. - XXIX.ffcr SECRETS toricf ruing XXVIII. after it is melted. you may take it off. you may obtain thepromifed advantage. quantity as before of the fame powders. and while ftill a little warm. then one ounce of Alexandrian iuty reduced into a fubtle powder. by their extremities. an equal When all is cal quantity in weight of flour of fulphur. cinated. which nielt in a cru Take two cible. A fixation ofcopper which will be found toyield Jix ounces out of eight > en the teft. add^ again to it half an ounce of common purified mercury. with an iron rod. To whiten copper fo as to make very fine figures' with it. if Make you . and wafh it well. throw of copper. a cold diffoiution of aunpigment in filtered lime-water: then> lay fome of this liquor with a biuih on your comb or gthex horn work. To gi<ve the Take one pound in it make J}atutes> or ether xtforks. and mixed with two ounces of beanTake care to keep flirring this matter. . then caft it in the molds of your They will look like filver called ones. and call it ia the molds you propofe. and to flour. then throw in one part of %inc.

equal . and Take beech and in coals. and put to the fife. or gra nulated. gether. and mix them afterwards. Pound them Then well. and XXXJ1I. with chamber-lye. To wajjy brafs figures over. with water. Coals twelve pounds. pomegranates' (hells' powder. for the fpace of fortyeight hours. fifted a&es coals pulveriied and thus prepared. burn them together. vine. vjner and loot. thrown in metalswhile in faiion. one peck . three pounds. take the veffel off from the fire. The reft is a. snd fift them through a very fi>ne fieve. prepar ed as directed. them. To When willow. . extinguifh operate theiranfmutationofiron intofteel. horns ten. all well mixed to To make one hundred pounds weight of fteel. vine afhes. or rather. foft Spanifh iron. if you good. when ufed. there is required one hundred and twenty pounds weight of to which. fhoes. not itreaky give rt e aforementioned dofe of the faid powders. tliem in a lye made with two parts of oakwood afhe s and one of quicklime* Pafs this folution through a filter^ Take ing paper. and pomegranate* of each equal quantity. This filver being wholly diflblved. To /often metals. * find it has not penetrated enough the it to do the fame the other iide. Take one ounce of aquafortis. both well pulverifed and fifted. and prepare them the fame way. I. with fewer* Dlfiblvein it over a moderate fire one drachmof good filver cut fmall. putting afide and feparately each drug by itfelf. and which will give it the white colour of filver* e XXXIV. firlt time. parts* . and vaporife it over a flow fire in a glafs veffel. foot. burn likewife ox horns. before they are confumed. Diflblvefaltpetre and camphire equal parts. burnt fhoes allies. : XXX VI. foftens them perfectly. and throw in it as much white tartar as is required to abfolve all the liquor. you will get the belt fteel which can be had. pafte with which you may rub over any work made of.ARTS you turn and T R A D E : S. in the following proportions. Another receipt for the fame. copper. Take one bumel of beech alder's coals. There refults a borax which. XXXV. Sift well alfo foot. .

after the operation. half a peck. cold. or. and putting it in. for which you intend to fit it. in taking it out. It wants. 2. in well. You rnuft take care to have them fo well luted. and notfloted wood. You muft proportionate the quantity of windholes in each kiln to the quantity of bars. and acts with infinitely more power. inch thick of powder to each bed. cf whatever kind they may be. and a fufrkient quantity of wa ter to make-the (aid bulliiwium? in which you will fteep. foot and garlick. by the frequent handlings of it. 5. as not to allow the leaft nir to find its way in for there would refuh an intire mi {carriage of the whole operation a be/ides. or diminifhed. The ftratum fuper ftratum ought to be made one. your iron bars before you cement them. to make the faid am. you muft make a lexiviation of vine and fhoes aihes. nd go narrowly towards the top. wind *f* ^n ' efcape. If you want to have your fteel white. fy your iron bars with them in a crucible well luted .floppe'8 vefTels. joined to it. Obferve that you muft take care to ufe new. one and an half. it you likewife let it get air before you make ufe would become quite dead and fiat. for twenty. 3. .SECRET then give a good rfre S concerning Mix well thcfe powders. . Sliould of it. therefore. the crucibles again. to make up what is loft. and large crucibles are to be prefered to fmall ones. if you wartit purple. By fuch means. 4. the heat contracted be comes flrong.orfe for having been thus in ufe. 6. and cf cruci-bles. always very clofely conn". The kiln ought to be wide by the inferior part. nothing but an additional fapply of frefh are cautioned to keep powder. N..es. and ftratiparts. That which comes ofF from the crucible. your powder would hence lofe all its virtue. is not w. or a jiace underneath wherein the afhes may fall j and" feveral openings to Jet the.JtfeitYer mutt you neglect to have it fo conftructed as to be provided with an a fa-hole. well pounded. . which muft end in a conical form. Therefore it you lied. you mull add to a!l the above powders one peck of juniper-wood a (he?. equal parts . . The bars ought to be ranged crofs-way one over ano ther .four hours.

mi- All the expence amounts to or ten* jhtllin . after and rencer it m?-* is out . into fiaetnntitas. would you may. every week. ar.ip up the fire . in a year. which mnkes one hundred litres _>"er IL Thus.The .eight pounds tight* . on the footinjr ofjfc y2tZr ptfr pound. on computation.800 liwres. you . there is. With thofe two ingredients make a ftrong lye which you will evapo I. be made in the fame kiln.Iron.cW twenty tivfts. -. on pleafe . thus turned into ftcel. melt in a crucible two pounds after fuilon. and one pound of common fait. throw in part of yc when quite col"!.!/. to which. or pound . colls aboat^fy litres. for Ten crucibles this will employ Powders for the two thouhous For two men to fit uo. XXXVIII. to the reduction of one thiru part of what Next. cf pewter. Take quick lime made from rockfbr tratifparent pebbles. jome to nvo hundred litres If you fell your fteel. :b 23 an ope- ix eftimaie of the v/ eight o. repta-ing the fan>e prcceit ferent times..A R T ' S and coji TRADES. p ery 2. .will add one orpo- pound of and. Now. To obtain good Jifaer from pewtir. the twothoulancs weir. have as many kilns as vcu may make a kilnful every week* XXXVII. or. four hundred li<v . rnelt it again. four litres. ir. this calculation. : . To bles. The whole heim it rated and melted. new lye.iron. You muft rub your iron with a piece of rag ilee'pect into oil of tartar per deltquium. which. v comes. < o o'. and tiling frefh lye. 'prepare the Heel. and each kiln make 20. rate it on the fire made before. and wat. to two/../ at a time.r pne jingle . clear profit. To take immediately ruft from . .*weighr.

rock alum an equal quantity. and being mixed together. XL T . 7*o melt iron fa that it willfpread under the hammer. Incorporate all together in a pan. and. borax. acanthus. incorporate them into a pafte with the whites of two new-laid eggs. (or moufe-ears) or in the very juice pounded out from thefe plants. eight fcruples of auripigment. When all is in fufion. Pour over it a fufficient quantity ofcow-pifs. euphorbium. and of nine nights run all XL. and plunge it in diftilled wa . Take .4 2 -SECRETS The fait. take off the crucible. 7*0 give if on XLL ter Make your from a temper to cut porphyry. and alkali fait. fit to (land the teftof all the allay ers. . four oun ces ces To foft en a fophiftic metal. IF. plunge it in that matter. 11 . of each two 6nhuman excrements dried and pulverifed. XXXlX. then. and pilofella. in a crucible. to make a thick pap with it. together.T'o/often half an ounce of tartar and two and a half of verdigrife. then. work it the fame way. This will turn into water. Project fome of that powder over any metal when in a ftate of fufion. or before the fire. and you will obtain the defired effect of making it s XL Take foft. ready prepared as be fore mentioned. Make an iron red-hot in the fire . Take equal quantities of lime. fublimate mercury. when redhot. reduce them into a very fine and iubtile moniac powder. two of common fait. concerning next operation is to take one ounce of am an equal quantity of borax. Mix cxpofe it in a porringer to the dew ning. half . of each equal parts pulverised. when cold. nettles. tartar. iron red-hot. you may kill your iron. in which. melt it as you would filver . There you will-find your filver. You may afterwards then. To/often allfort cfmetals. iron. Take black foap and common fait. and put all together with the pewter. an ounce. and nitre fait. con tinue the fire for one hour . and ammoniac fait. $ye* the fire. which you willfeta-dryinginthefun.

keeping fUrring with a fpatula. Add to this one pound of red-haired child's water fairs. To melt iron and make it foft. a crucible. and let it there lie for twenty days. and put it in a cop. bury it in the cellar. after having previoufiy xnade them red hot in the fire. ftrong vinegar. . X L I V A good temp er for arms . orfpurge . Make throw by little at a time about half a pound of that au ripigment prepared as before . when you want to get arms of a good temper. of each equal quantities. It will XLVilL T* C . and let the compofition Of this you may throw fome into the crucible in cool. and put and lute well its it in a retort. water. and you will End your iron foft and white. Now. give you one ounce of good filver. Then feel ro longer with it any faline pat tide. . to which will adapt receiver. and. bullock's gall. XLV. four of oil of Take two pounds of auripigment. or all Incorporate well this together. till and TRADE S. When you gem and ammoniac have mixed all well together in a glafs ve'flel perfectly clofed and Hop ped. and. along with realgar. roots of wild hdrfe-rad- bryonfo. and a XL VI. XL VI I. and dry it up afterwards over a foft fire* put fmall bits of iron in a crucible . 25 with bullock's gaU. purilain. and plunge any red hot iron in it. To whiten iron like filler. faltpetre. begin to Take Another *very hard temper. Then bring you diilil it up again. when very red. alkaline. Take tythiraalHf. nettles' juice. and by a gradual re. Pouiid all together. Melt iron red arfenic. filings in Then take one ounce of that matter and melt all together.ARTS fire. child's little fait. or one of copper pel. and the auripigment foak up all the oil of Then tartar. tartar. take off the pan from the iire. of each One drachm. fo that you may get at leaft one pound of juice. you have only to plunge them in this diitilled liquor. you %vhich your mt tal is in fufion.

When pewter.ruubh'. rinds. or little more. sfr. To melt or calcinate the blade of afavord without hurt ing thefcabbard. ammoniac fa!t. you will fee what a furpr. bard. project over it. rye-flour and make fmall balls with it. mardifite. and place . to be melted with any of the following ingre ^/%. and put it into a crudble. Repea_t this three pounding the matter into powder. with this difference. Take knot . which you will mix with charcoal's duft. and fqueeze over it fome part cf the Then replace the fword into its fcab juice of a lemon. muft drop into the fcabbard of the fvvord fome arfenic in powder. crown-glafs. Then. citrine. Take fine till it comes to a perfect calcination. at different times.mirobolans. or fteel. LIT. fc^^is to pound like *lafi. auripigment. which then put them into a retort well luted.fing effect this will have. beatea and. fulphur. Take \jery thin. melted. over a gradual fire to draw the fpirits by If in the fpiritous liquor. in a mortar. it will diilblve. pewter.rnade red hot every time. and place didiliation. . you put any ftone whatever. afterwards. plunge in it feven different times your pieces of iron. To refine pewter. antimony. 3j. In a quarter of an hour afterwards. bein? thus inched for the third time. which will pome from this operation. magm-fia. it will refume its former fuhdifferent times. as you could to the XLIX* Iron is Ingredients which ferve melting of Iron. green. or frefii. that refined to an infinitely fuperior degree.SECRETS XL VIII. A fplrit which dry it Take yott-wiil will atf/clve all ivifb~ forts cfftones t out excepting the moft hard. To -fix mercury* verdigrife in powder. fome nitre. tion will render them fo brittle. the dii\il!ed water from rock alum. fiance of pewter. concerning To render iron brittle. it 'will ~be LIU. You LI. which you will put KJ a Make a hole in that powder. lead. &c. that them This opera you may pound glafs. pomegranate dients .

and eat . two of arfenic. and two drachms ofalum. you proceed as follows. . and eggs' water. then you will cad this compofition in the flat fand mould prepared for it. for the fpace of LT :"zi mercury from lead.R T S and TRADES. and not. add fix ounces of calcined red tartar. and put it on the wooden one covered with leather.ad turned all into running mercury. Begin firft by taking the coarfeft part away with the wheel over a grinding-ftone. half an ounce of faltpetre. a double quantity of the lead. knot of mercury previoufly impregnated with white of Cover this knot over with borax." that all the falts well evaporate. you will find your !e. at the bottom of it. *Tz tr'-i-" or loookingof#ttt&ilic mzrr-ors. take the mirror from that wheel. or well purified. Leave all this in fufion together . ly. Take lead and beat it into facets. and then you fmoorhen them with water till -they arefuffiThe fecond ftep is to ciendy polifaed by attrition. and a difcretiona.at once. or quickillver. : Put thefe in a glais veilel with common falts. ble quantity (that /ilver. is to fay as ' ' much as you pleafe) of LVI. which you will melt As foon as they (hail be pounds of refined pewter. though gradual two hours. ^The ccmpojltion of cajl mirrors and Take one pound and a half of red copper . pen the veiiel again. add again over this fome more verdigrife and pounded Lute well the lid of the glafs. To give thefe mirrors the requifite polifh. very fin?. ces of refined pewter eight oun one and a half of ftellated marshalf an ounce regulus. may 2. and bury it under After that time. after the fame method as the pewterers and braziers do. hours. gl&ffeS) ufed among 1. Cover this well. or laminas. if you o* ground for nine days at leall. for the fpace of three. otherwife regulus of antimony of bifmuth . both in good fufion. or four. the ancients. one or two fingers deep. cylinders. and give a pretty fmart fire. crucible. one and an half of nitre. LV. then throw over it three copper. after having rubbed itwcllwith emery in order to give it a fine poliih. Take one pound of decapitated.

manner. Convex and ardent mirrors arc rubbed and polifhed in the farae. oh this on another of the fame kind. . Whtn they (hall have been in good fufion a pretty good while. 2. and impreg nate them with oil of tartar. till the crucible Cover this crucible with a fame earth plunge iire. the fame oblique direction in turning them.. throw this metal into a pan full of lukewarm water. with which you will ftratify Take one pound of copper your laminas. you are to make your mirrors obferve. to the lid in the fand. over which you (hall have placed a birch -broom. inftead of arfenic. and two of brafs. 1 . in detaining the arfenic and making itpafs into it with the fame fa cility as oil pafFes through leather. till it lute it well and fet it to dry. place your crucible in the furnace on the bare fire .SECRETS wheel and put it concerning it eat ofFtne fcratches which may have happened to Then you mull take it again from thefirfi wheel. if you chufe. lid Du ring that time the oil prepares the copper. but then you mull manage the fire gradually till the This being done. By fuch your metal will be fa hard as to refill the file . and continue fo long till the mirror haa acquired a fufrkient finenefsand brightnefs. you will find your copper va riegated with feveral colours. to force your metal to granulate in falling through its twigs into the water. 33 . *To make convex and ardent mirrors. likewife with leather. cible cool. of the When done. and it would be ftill more fo. putting bed upon bed is full. Melt firil the brafs on a blafting fife . and break it . let the cru oil is quite evaporated. on both thefe laft leathered wheels. and wa/hing Take notice that afterwards with magifter of pewter. precaution will not be brittle j and acquire the fame qualities ileel. covered after having previoufly rubbed it your mirror with prepared blood-ilone. then throw in your prepared copper. LVII. Then take a quarter of a pound of white arfenic in powder. in laminas. You may. and give it a gradual it is ftrong enough to evaporate the oil. Take of this copper one part. you^had ufed auripigment. if. Cut them in fmall pieces to get them into a crucible.

Now occafions. and the bar will become ^ harden it afterwards in fteeping it. LVIII. To give tools fuch a temper as will enable them . iron. inftead and TRADES. LIX. take it off from the fire. never brittle. andit c bar den it afterwards more than in an iron Make a little was before. To operate the tranfmutation of iron into damajk- fteel You mutt after firfl purge it it of its ufual bmtlenefs : ano . may even employ it. Melt firft the metal. in which fevera! times melted lead C s Take . It has been found by experience. 1 having reduced . when red cherry-colour. if it has not firil been foftened with oils. rub it with a piece of candle. . that an armour can never be good proof agajfi ft fire-arms. in .. on a when it . and. and it will be of fp a temper as to be fit for lancets.he concave to make the convex mirrors. and afterwards hardened by itecping them fevcral times over in binding waters. and fteep it immediately in good ftrong vinegar. You when good fplitdng or denting. red hot. Make the tool red hot in the fire . and other incerative things. LX. (ition is the beft which can be employed for the manu It is white. razors. facturing of thefe forts of mirrors. and knives. and.vhich you ITball have diluted lome foot. ^vith which you will be able to cut other iron without its very foft. hard. make it red hot in a itfeveral times in oil of olives. as we faid before. wax. one part.ARTS #eel. to Ja-iv marbh. crucible deep you mail have before thrown into filings. operation four or five times.^ums. in mere forge water . and perfe&ly free from lead. To foft en 1. 29 on of of which you many 3. take of this hardened metal three parts the befl Cornwall pewter. then put your pewter to both are well melted together. you will throw this comin pofition in the convex mould to make the concave. Then make it evapo Renew this rate by a ftrong fire. 2. blailing fire. for various forts of works. ia which you will pour melted lead. as that for copelling. and fufceptible of receiving the higheft and moft finifhed polifli. and This compo'-. chink lengthways bar.

which er. throw in it by little melt in a crucible. In reiterating this operation on the fame metal. and crude tartar.each equal parts well mixed togeth and ftratify with this mix^d powder fame very thin copper laminas. : (hall have been fubUmed remix with die faces a~ Sublime anew. ' L. and this iron will never rail. for the third time. only the flours will fwim over Now take arfenic of one {ingle fublimation. there will together. LX 1 1 1 . Then take the crucible out of the fcn\ and throw in half an ounce of crude mercury Let it cool and pulveriie this. till you fee both yourpewter and I. A p re] eft: on or. Boil it a good while in fome mutton-fuet and.XJ. you will jr your copper as beautiful as filver. ccpp cr* pewter two ounces. When dene. every tinle you throw your fleel into the oil fhould catch fire. ( eggs* Ihells calcined. pebbles with eafe. Stir at a time the fame weight of fidur of brimftone. for fear year iron till you can no more tooch it with out burning y on rfelf. till it has foaked in the wax. Put it again to the. Take auripigment and what gain.ft the wheel-fire for three hours. and granulate it in water. equal Put all to-gether in a pot covered with anc-.I. To whiten topper. you throw the matter intoU. ycm are to put in great agitation for a good while before.S E C Take R E T S~ cone: \ care to cover the vefTel in which the oil it. then. i Warm LXi. Tc rut. quantities^ ther having a little hole on the top. Now . . rub it over with a piece of ierge. and mix again the faces and the s Then. fire. To guard iron agalnfl r lifting. every time with a rod. is con tained.faces. . Then pu(h the fire with violence to the degree of fufion. of . 2. which yon will When melted. and. Then increafe the fire. he no more fublimation . Then rub it with new and clean white wax. \\i?. you will cut it very eaiily. in order to prevent there by your matter from fparkl ing when you throw it. Give it fir. LXI V Take fine fa-phur well calcined.

to obtain a more eafy ePut this matrafs vaporation of the compounds from it. Put this in digeftlon for Pour off by inclination your regal water eight hours. it will ftand it per&ftly. and then you may ufe it for making all forts of plates. if you teit it on the coppel wish by degrees. over by three fingers deep. one of your ejtfulph united arfenic. E*&iphurate in a crucible. with the dye. A . When good fufion project on the above powder. while you doit. as the former. znoft part of it. one ounce of carefully. * 3! Now melt four ounces of molten copper. . you will put the bignefs of a filbert of camphire. Leave it thus in fufion for a little while. two of fubliwhich you will have diiiolved mate. and during two hour?. in whick tort is yellow. Repeat this procefs four different times over. Take it One ounce of this pow der. then re duce your emery into an impalpable powder. . 2. the preparation of emery. and fet it on digefling again for eight other Then take your thus tinged wa hours. 1. after vvhidi you will: let the fire go out of 'itfelf When done. three. till you fee that what remains in the re This is the true oil of emery. S. ftirring with a Hick. It is fo beautiful. Put new water on your impregnated matter. Diftil ters which you will mix and pat in a retort. with double the quantity in the fulphur-vivum in powder.. that it fwim LXV. Leave this crucible furnace with a ftrong fire during three or four hours. gether in a matrafs fo large that the cbrripofktbn fhoalel occupy no more than a third part of it. pour over it regal water. you will find your matter it in a (tone in the matrafs. or four* Pound it and make times in the fire . and twoofiilver in an aquafortis made with nitre and vitriol. or Spanifh emery. kad. then let it cool. receipt for Calcine eaftern.ARTS 2 in and T R A D E it. ou: and pound into powder. then a ftrong ore for fix. an equal quantity of fait of tartar drawn with diililled vinegar. Then take two ounces of the afbrefaid oil of emery. that. and of which you (hall have cut the neck off. what quantity you pleafe of arfcnic. of fratafuper ftrata of it. on a goo<i fire. in the fand as high as the matter. and give it a moderate fire for ttro hours. Put all to >. Put it next into a matrafs.

which you muft find to be as white as fnow. projected upon another ounce of fait in fufion.> during one hour. and oak-wood which you will calcme into mix with an equal quantity cf pearl-aihcs. and throw it after wards into oil of olives. and get it weaved into a cloth. your fait of tartar will be fufibie and penetrating. LXVI. Spin it. it will and through. The fire will never have any power over it. penetrate it through as white as fil- LXVI II. and. 2. In a month's time you will find your alum as foft as flax. and boil now in it Take a large flick Q{alumenplumofum. DiiTolve this calcined tartar in aquavitce. after having there let it burn throughout.g SECRET S concerning dcr. will increafe your gold by a third of its primary quantity and rather more : And you snay thusincreafe it again and again by repeating the fame operation. add as much water to it as there may have been evaporated. 1. tartar with vine branches. or any other metal. To render tartar fufille and penetrating. fo that it mould exceed over the fait the thicknefs of an As foon as your fpirit of wine Set it on fire. aftes. if you keep it a little while in that ftate. or the ivay to mak? an in* combuftlble cloth.ke it oif> and you will find it perfectly clean. and leave after it a veflige verin the place where it touched. and next evaporate What fhall remain is the fait of tartar. I. Now it ihould you little make any iron red hot. On the contrary. ihall be al! confumed. and carry it into the cellar. inch. and when arrived at the bottom your tartar will be calcined. Take Boil all A factitious rotten amiant . 3. t:. Stratify cakes of white When done fet them on fire by the top. When together this has boifed LXVI I. antimony. .off the vefTel from the fire. Pour over it the bed and the trueft French fpiritof wine. in common aquafortis When that water mall have diilblved . and pro ject on a of that fait. the brandy. in ten times its weight of water* one hour. good *To extraEi mercury from any metal* DifTolve lead. then pafs it through the filtring paper. the belt way to wsfh it is to throw it on red hot coals .

you will find it. and the flacked lime. by means Edulcorate this of a water impregnated with fait. Now put all this into a pan. ftir it well twice a day with a ftick. and. the fame diflbluting procefs. Next to this pafs it through a fil- and. Make twice. for three whole weeks. 33 it can. which you muft have bullets. fo that it fhould fwim over the matter. what you will find not able to pais. and pour cold water over it. You will foon fee the mercury going into the receiver. LXIX. and you have made Now take all your pafs through the filtring paper. but corroded only in a white powder. all toge a precipitation of that diffolution to the bottom of the veffel in form of white curds.* and pufhiton with a great fire. Take one ounce of that difTolution. and under which* at the bottom. impregnate it with diuHlled vinegar. and mix them ther.ARTS diffolved as tion. and you will find that the water will finiih to difiblve what the much of as and on what (hall aquafortis could not. and it. with cold common water. 2. perfedY diffolution of all the powder. 3. till you have obtained a tring paper . that it may be well incorporated. and. The fame procefs carefully attended to. and once with forae a little warm. make fmaO which you will put into a retort well luted. To . Then take quick lime. Grind all to gether on a marble (lone with a mullar for a long while. which you will flack with the fwimming liquor which covers yo. both \hofe made with hot water it and thofe made with aquafortis.ur matter . half an ounce of am moniac fait fublimed over common fait. difTolve it now with fome frefh aquafortis. Continue thus if it fo appear to you that this may do. to fucceed better in that incorporation. feveral di Solutions. had the precaution of filling with water. pciir it out by inclina not yet be quite diffolved. as the painters do their colours . may pro cure you mercury from all the metals and minerals with out exception.. with equal quantities of the powder which lies under it. or only water. pour feme hot water. thus edulcora ted and exficcated into powder . Shake then the matrafs in which the metal is. T R A-D E S. then dry it.

of. LXXT. have foaked For three days in lime water. proper. in oo<i Then pour out the aquafortis in another which you will throw a finall lo?dftone of You quality. there remairs a white fait known de. which is made with nitre ?. in the Take what following manner. pour over it a furHcierrt When quantity of oil of vitriol. of gold. Tike eight hours.the 2. jjrojedl over it at feveral times fome nitre Take fine "*Vhen done. which (liall toherfes. LXXIf. till you fee it calcined.nd vitriol oil. and them fo for twenty-four hours over a very gentle At the errd of that term you will find them tho roughly dyedgol4 colour. in this condition. Diflblve in what quantity of warm w.neryou think. melt it in a crucible. or be in need ialt a. & refine pewter. concerting LXIX.1 to drynefs . a fufHcient quantity of that way faturate it.54 SECRETS 1. and drained in a barrel Have a . or magifter. Then put indigeiHcn in it filver laminas cut fmali and thin. Then pound it into powder. To mc&e a perpetual motion. cr laminas. Afecretfre. "bullittons arifing from that mixture (hall be ended. To dye in gold fil*ver medals. LXX. which you know when vou fee the wafer can difTolve no more of it. it will refume its Jorm of pewter. bottle. name of fait of Glauber.. tbrottgfy and through. In this difFo'ution put a drachm of calx. only refined in a much fuperior degree. open by one end.. aquafortis. pewter. to have it fwirn over. . Get next half a bufhel of barley. you melt it again. and pierced with a dozen of holes oh the other. in v^ich you will throw fome fleel* Leave this mixture to lay for iix or filing-swell dried. and (top it well that no air get in. will obferve a perpetual motion. If. infide and outficie. and mix-it with an equal quantity of charcodl pulverised very 6ne. Put in it three or four buftiels of oat ftraw cut verv fine. quantity you pleafe of nitre fait. as that which is given. This curious operation is performed by means of the admirable fait of Glauber. ]et fire.

the metals you are telling on them. then put it between two crucibles over a flow fire to get heat by degrees. all L XX Take i V . crude tartar. The harts-hcni allies ferve to bind. well f n. which you put over the other afhes to the thicknefs of a crown piece. then cined. all Put this into a piece of Lntogether and fift it. :he wholti cool gradually and pound it" ' T 2. or unite.ARTS a fneercloth of this And TRADES. quick lime. ft. of each equal p?rts. thofe of vine. and to dgaw down at the fame time the lead. equal parts of the afhes refulting from vinebranches. about half a pint of water ev i ery other day. pounding well thefealfo over the others as hard as you Thefe lad afhes ferve to fet off clean the grain of can. wet barley in a lump over the oats' lira w. i . You muft ufe cignt times as much lead as the compofitiou. which you pound and mix well diflil it in Saturate it with good brandy. ami inclofe it well all round with fullers' earth. murton-bones. . with a gardner's watering. An off. with three ounces of Pound antimony. and harts' horns burnt and cal Mi itlen them witl/a little common water. then place cover it with other fsmilar cut draw. Let it dry. when you thruit your hand in it. and com mon fait. When. you feel it his heat you may keep up warm. without fire* Take one ounce of ammoniac. after having adapted the receiver.pot. and let it reft till the time that. than Take frefli butter. till the lump contained in the crucibles itered hot. you want toteft by the coppel.branches and mutton-bones together. LXXV. by throwing. weighs.Jwfir iron. and one of common^ fa!ts an equal quantity of calcined tartar. To make a ccppsl with afies . one ounce of which will laft knger cm pound of any other. . a"bout one inch thkk. and melt all together. a retort over a graduated fire. and together. Then pr?{s them very hard in a mould called CoppfL take am -s from the jaws and teeth of a jack. or any other metal. -I* XX Hi. and luted well the joints. 3/3 all the water which can run out of it. and as much of bell-metal.

cold water. To render Iron as white. you are to hold a kindled piece of This will immediately fet the matter charcoal over it. you will fee ii immediately boiling. made. after having thrown fome of the above powder at the place of the joint. ofglafs. Have again fome borax. and fet it a-doing. To folder Make nvitbfre.fion which is no fooner done but you may take off ehe pafte. Then throw fome of your powder between find oover the joint. the If there be any roughrcfs you E&uft fmoothen it by rubbing with a grinding -flone> for *hc Ulc will have r. of alkaline fait. becoms as white B> (hall . asjilver. for the fpacedf half an hour.water * whirh you will put round the two broken pieces placed ea a table. LXXV 111. that holding to each piece. as much. which put in to hot wine till this is confumed. tionfolidatTon is As foon as the boiling Hops. over a gentle fire . and pa/ling under the joint. and one of cow -milk. TV make Borax. any iron piece. and fet it in the fun for three days. put the 'two 2. and leaxtifxl. pieces you want to join on-a table. Take two . LXXVI. and you will nd it confolidated. two pounds of Mix wellall toge virgin honey. and mix it with an e Put then jail together into which you When ddne. and with a fc?ther rub your powder at the place of the joint . dilute it and mix it with two ounces of alkaline fait which is ufed in making Put all into a pewter pot. and mix well. Then the if* ther. it faould be open over It on the top.S6 S: C RETS ceneeruing When you want to folder any thing. Take ammoniac fait in qua! quantity of quick lime. and prepared as before mentioned in theprc-: cedbg receipt. . ounces of rock-alum . if you #eep it in that prepared water. LXXVI I. sdone.o power over it. then take it out of the water. Take next two ounces of em fait in powder. . have made red hot> will. and. a pro iching their axtremities as near as you can one to anotherj: Make a crutt of fullers' earth fo. powder. a pafle with pulverifed chalk and gum. The only difference is. that you are to yubqver the two united extremities with melted foap .

and. and recommend to D . Melt firft your brafs as ufual .crucible. 1 Put this into an earthen pan made red hot.mercurial water. with **N (ingle ounce of that powder. you muft burn the matter. then tb fenic in powder. as white as . you will be able to whiten two pounds of brafs.. not what will have fublimed on the top. as white. Pour it afterwards into a very Urong vinegar.fiiver.good - good vinegar an operation wliicK you muft repeat three times. equal. it in this Repeat twelve times theiain. which will render your Kite a ce as V. whidi you will ftop by laying only a medal on it. in proceeding about it as follows. to To melt liy the brafs with mor 1 throw in the crucible of mice-dung . Make again a Another to tb' ood lye with vine-branch afhes and in fufipn. calcine pewter. cover auripigment.quantities. one ounce only (if you have two pounds of brafs) fnfion caft it into very fJfO* r. . LXXX. w^|^nd dry it . operation as many limes' a* e give It an additional degree of fa nefs. times. Throw in it your pewter when Re LXXXL i. Then put all this into a crucible. Then. and reduce it into an impalpible powder. when you m tit it for the fourth time. with the addition of an equal quant.ARTS LXXIX. Jriave next force new peat this'Jfeven different goat's m-Hk in.which you fhall have added fome white ar~ Melt your pewter again . when in . drawing near to filver IsiVbe very difficult to diitinguifh it from filver 1 ' heitielf. B. and as bard. When calcined take what you will find clear in the bot tom.e. then * Re: into. Mak^a very fine powder'of this matter .fo that it may be very fine and clear. Pound mortar. TQ and T R A D E and render it S. 'ffifefotAs foon as done. as /liver. . and the pewter will become as hard and. vinegar. as we \fail before. then grind it again well into an tmpalpi 4er as before. and. ypu are to projecl: on it. Melt well your pewter in a. To whiten'' brafs. it with ap^ther well luted and having a little hole in the top. all in a ^ 2. Take rofin and faltpetre. preparation.

Melt. It will S concerning fin all ferviee. fteel. over a fire of clear and bright live-coals. crucible beginning and ending always with the powder. and the caftin an ingot. before the lead ihall congeal. is done. I This will look like the regulus of mehfd antimony. with an equal quantity in weight of it and of filver lamin a inas. for fear the fulphur fully the matter fhould blaze and be confumed before it is all poured in. Now. An other method. add to it Set it on a ftrong fire. pour now your fulphur. To txtratf I. continually (Hiring with a fpatula. Have at the fame time in fuiion an equal quantity of Then take your firft crucible. off from the fire . be filled ike .SECRET to do the fame. cible over the fire. in which the lead fulphur. The fecond is good. over the mixture of lead juflmade. if you make a piece of copper. copper> iron orfteelmay alfobeeaiily whitened' by means of the butter from Cornwall tin. over the laft bed. reduced into an impalpable thai the cruciHk 9>otiH nor powder. gold from Giver. m?kzjlratafuper ftrala of i>em. care 2. throw in the fame quantity in weight of quick When this Stir and mix well this with a flick. throw it away. Then. & which coagulates. When the whole is come quite cold. half that quantity of fublimate. which you know by its white colour. from the other cruci and quickfiiver you have ble. about one pound . The firft water which fabilities is not good. or crvital. Take Cornwall pewter. grind it on a mar Then put all again into a cru ble table with a mullar. Is melted. or iron. put about half an'inch thick of Venetian giafs. of lead. proceeding as follows. in * crucible. and leave it in fufion till all the ful matter be fluid enough to be phur is burnt out. it does not fignify which. and fublime. Reduce no\V tfcis compofttion into powder. it will become as white as filver. Obfe&re however fo near the kirn as to let r. prepared with fublimate. brafs. LXXXIII.he ghfi bo'l over. Brafs. and fteep it in that water. whatever quantity you pleafe. and. be found of no in the fufion of that metal. or pewter. It will have even its brittlenefs. LXXXll. red hot. alternately. filver. and.

Addalfoa fpoonful of tintfeed oil. in a crucible. fome of the fire ofF. in <is till h is as . Then take off. particles precipita- powder. your r^ulus. whether the matter has got all in it fix. in order to thin. or in which you will put lead in fufion.aloes. II. You . SEC RETS for the III. ounces of turpentine oil. and capable to tiand any teft whatever you may put it to. and Jet this melt in the fame manner.fluid it ow your regains to purify filver-fmiths do. flrong fire. compofuion of VARNISHES. and two of the karabe. make 3 coppei. prepared \vith hvpatica-3\vt3. or eight. HS--IV to prepare the linifeed oil<ivitk the hepatica-r /V the abwe purpcfe. l>y fear ounces of this iu pov^xler* with one pound . and you will have very true. ?^id fet them thus in fufion all together for a good hour at leaft. in breaking your crucible.ARTS Make and T R' A D E S. throw in the gumThen take lac. and reduce it to the thicknefs of a fyrup. fit for any of the chymical phyfics. Mix ftick. c5>. an alembic. to tire confidence of a bal-n earthen pot. Wv. by When n to the '. Keep 8 ring. in order to incorporate well this oU 'with the reft. Melt this firft eight ounces. you mix with a fuflkient quantity of oil of penfeuie. 3o a fire ftrong enough to melt both the matters and theglafs.ih thefe if then put them in fufion. tinged with recou. TAKE or gum-lac. over a very melted.'ii fmall.tc it . bar alt ' . and let cool. put it then put to diflblve in me frora ic.g with ir /.. with a ftick. or amber.>ng- prepare the lihtieed oil with bepatica. and good pieces of gold.. It is fine gold. ick ^<XXXXXXXXXiiXXXXXXXXXX^ CHAP. in a varnifhed in the retort of is Whan : which. bottom very pure. and let it cool obfervir.

and (hake it well. and bottle it. a? ufual. \d - f .-^ to boil. When conceded. which you do over the fire. Take the bot tle off from the fire. filler t. I. &c. let it cool. put it in a piece of douglv as you would an apple to make a dumpling. columns. . <varnijh for iceing* Concoct fome turpentine with water. - >om b a the fire : icir it we! I with a flick. grind'it | with vinegar. Set this over -a <n in the retort of an alembic. How to dra--i'. diilblve it in wine and oil of turpentine. VII. The maftich will melt. An excellent *varmj/j. ! \ \ layover prints. Place the bottle over the coals. <ina large iron kettle. and you u e your. ? A ' V. and white wine of brrr-xh-. you muft take care (top with paper. withfaod. or very hot afhes. In a glafs . . bottle. Have a the * ^* > . over it a coat of four ounces of gum arabic then . and paper. and ufe it. . put four cances of it in oil of turpentine. which true French fpirit of wine. . to ufe as dire&ed before. what quantity you pleafe of verdigrife. and get the ver Mix it with wine.40 8 E C R- E T S concerning of the faid oil. ty good to . Which fliall be \ to lute well with potter's clay. ' IV. In order to draw the tircVare of rscou. two part Place the kettle o filled. You - vvii! find it will anfwer your expi. half an ounce of as much of maftich in drop. Lay digrife out of it. oil beginning to fcum. one pound of white mad iclu Pour over what quantity of oil may be req. Bake it in an oven as d then cat opemyour dumpling.n pafs it through a piece of linen. Ared-<uarnijh. Take three ounces of gum-lac . and a pint of fandarak Put all in a matrafs. till it has ac quired the confiflence of a very thick fyr up. ftatues. and to ivvell much. to fee that the This varnifn is exceflive\vholebeperfecllydijfToived. Another) as goad. VI.rj.uifite tocover all the niaflich. . to keep for the above-mentioned j III. the . wood. fine varnifn.

when done. Put on next your fecond coat. Then poliili.three hours to dry between each coat. and allowing a three hours time between each coat of varnih to let them dry. that all the pores may be well filled. 2. : I Take gum-lac. without ver milion. or more. of varnifh. feme oil of afpic over it. . deep red. has been firft well poliihed. then. . s. bottle and flop it well. become r rough. rent urine. 4 If the kit coat of varnifh. Didblve the roiin over the fire in a fufficient quantity of As foon as fpirit of wine . then add the fandarak to it. feparately. . VIII. you muft firft lay *a coat of varmfh on the wood . you lay one> two. and D z well- .4 black varnijh. Let this dry for three hours. . and let all dry for three hours. and keep themdiilinft. (ieve the venturine over if. "you muft begin by pouring. 41 the coals. fir it a coat of lample varmfh. this is alib^diflblved. three. rouft be left to ' Wiien dry. And this coat. equal quantities. var. Get the com Strain petition to boil in that fttuation for three hours. and give the final coat after. After which rub it again with a cloth. coats.-nih.s dipped in oil of olive. through a fheercloth . besides. want to lay 3. Obferve that the wood. one ounce of each. four ounces fandarak and black roPulverife all Cn. on which you Rub it again. to proceed afterwards in their mixture according to the following directions. while frefh. as well as all the dry. according to your judgement or liking. it. hrft. of that which is prepared with the ver milion then a third and a fourth. which will take near a quarter of an hour to mix well together. To make this varmfh red. Then lay. like the fit-ft. after being dry. lay another coat of pure bright. you put one ounce of But to dilute the vermilion to fix of the faid varnifh. add the powder of gum-lac. others. with a brulh. according as \ va want it of a more. till it become Over this. nib it wnh iii" vcgr. with a pounce lione and vinegar. and lay the matrafs on the fand. and then the fix ounces of varnifh. As fo. or lefs.ART it S and TRADES. and al lowing always. and keep it for ufe. at lead three hours.. vermilion. and ihould appear no more.

is the firft preparation of this varnifh. which you let dry. ruarvijb for pitturss arabic. two and a half. over ember allies. gum . two. XII. the cleared and Put it to infufe in.. to it the meaning through a doth. and ufe it hot vfith a brufh. H6 w to make a good ivory -black for the above pui*~ . Strain it in the water. through a cloth. from Flanders. equal parts. after a little petroly or rock-oil with varnifh and turne. and rvarnijli to Jay on A .44 well till all S is EC well R E T S concerning melted together.his boiling. and flrain it again after like the o- warm. I. Avarnifo. black colour is given to it by means of/i^ traJjms only of ivory black to every two ounces of it. clear turpentine. two drachms of each. . A warnijh Take fpirit 5 cffitll-lac> for miniatures tures. Such The f IX. . oil of !* when fcum it. XI II. 2.. Add feme water to it. to digeft XIV. in the fire. anxi put all in a matrafs over a land acd concocl: together by a gentle heat. as before. and equal parts. bee. with fpirit of wine. '. Lay it on your floors with an having mixed in it the colour you want them to be. Another Take four ounces of whitctt you can find. white If any thing remain in the lin en afterwards. over a moderate fire. to have them the whiter. four ounces Melt all together over a fire . Strain it. and Venice turpenMix their. and -karabe to that. till it is black. Then grind .es Then add the maiUch gether. and other -pic of wine. ake aethereal ail of turpentine. for one night. canvas fafoes. and make a pafte. X A warnrjhfo r floors Pat room.. and ftir well. ins to boil. XI. z. it again. Ptf*- Burn any quantity of ivory you pleafe.a pound of . Put it into powder on a flone of porphyry. one pound . ther. Take nne and nuts.add fame more fpirit of wine to it to diffolve it as before . Fir ft bail and fkim the ihell-lac and fandarak to iiveoanc. fire. white karabe and martkh. fandarak. picked fnelMac. after having added bulk .

then lay it with a bruih on what you want to be jafpered. you lay on the firit coat. e f Tifc. C5V. If black. Beat all well together to a reafonable quantity of each. yoa rub it with a varnifh compofed as piefcribed hereafter. And. 2* Next to this have aloes and karabe. a. two oun Put it in a matrafs with four ounces of turpen ces. and half that quanti It is not to be ufed with a bru(h. on any fort of picturt. is You may i. along with ounces.ART S and TRADE S. ty of fugar candy. that all may melt. Underneath lay it. quick lime. There will fall a ground to the bottom. XVII I. An . This being thus variegated. froth. are to make your fecond coat of varniih. over which will Of this you fwirn a very ne and transparent liquor. with the drugs prefcribed in the above receipt.efulph\ir~ vi uuin t . you lay on it the following vanuflx. Make gated. If the tine oil. r Ho<w to imitate black jafpef. equal quantities. lumn. aquafortis. till all is well incorporated. foft bruih. a fugar-candy. with this firft competition. To give it a like glois afterwards. XVI I. XVI. putyour table or co ble. a ta This done. for the fpace of twelve days. and whites of eggs. or any thing elfe. XIX. thus blackened. to compofe your black. Give a gentle fire. and the rind of walnuts. When. See Art. it is well varie . one ounce of green *ach. in a dunghill. Take aquavits > Another fort. xix. twelve ounces of lintfeed oil. neCbinefcvarniJh. 43 bulk of a nut of Narbonne-honey.. you need add nothing fome lamp-black is but the oil. Lay it for a week in a dunghill. rub your intended piece of furniture with it. XV. of each two BifTolve this in a varniihec! pipkin. laying it over requifite to the other after it is dry. or variegated ll marble. a large ball. with a a liquor : that is your va*rnifh. Dilute all together . pulverifed and lifted fealing wax. You will find it well veined and variegated. and then take it out again. whether a column. to give it j ftisg lufire. by that means. be added ftill. Take wax be red.

or half an ounce. direclly. ^Take oil of fpikenard. . Stir well. pounded glafs. to take away the bad fmeli of this compofition. k An. two. and pounded amber. Melt four ounces of yellow amber. in that operation. add apiece of camphire. add again one fpoonful. throw in it one half of the fanthing in it. As foon as this is alfo melted. and one half of the oil. When done.. and ceafe not to ftir as before. or flick to the pot. with a deal iVick. When the matter begins to be a little cold then is the time of adding what quan find neceflary to make a tity of turpentine oil you may true varriim of it. foft brum. A<varnijb fit to lay on all forts of colours. Have a new earthen pot well Set it before the fire. lit of wine. throw in the remainder of the oil and fandarak. without any glazed. Prepare water with lame iiirglafs. of lintfeed oil. a little turpentine. from the moment it is melted. three. what quantity you pleafe . then take it off from the lire. Never ceafe to ftir. and ikndarak. An SECRETS t concerning excellent *varm]h togive afineglofstotbeaiw** mentioned jaf per cr variegated black marble. and touch. When hot. When all is well difiblved and mixed. over kindled coals. one ounce of fealing-wax. every time before you lay it on. well picked and clean. and let Warm it it diffolve . fandarak. XXII. True French fpilay another of the following varrifh. and melt. previoufly thickened with a little gold litherage . an ouce o' . Take t XXIII. burn. s XXI. pan. When it is nearly melted. in a new earthen Take care. A *varnijb for copperplate prints. Lay. and add. left it fnould darak. two drachms . ha!f~a-pound j gum-elemi. the bot tom of the pan. burnt Boil. three ounces . a-warming.admirable varnifo* white maftich and lintfeed oils. and none ihould rife along the fide?. all to verdigrife. you will find gether in a new earthen pot it to be an admirable fort of varnifh. a coat of this on the print. for it requires to be ufed XX. A warnijb which dries in t<wo hours time.44 XIX. then bottle and flop it for ufe. that the fire fhould but jud reach. Take <w ounce of white amber half. with a very Next to this.

(train and keep it afpic for ufe. an ounce of fandarak well all . What XXIV. and which will hurt. fpoil. When the matter is diiFolved. four ounces gum-lac. maftich. A Chinefe varnijhfuitable to allforts of colours. 2. white-balm. tnber aflies. and turpentine oils. XXVII. Pound and put them in a matrafs perfedly dry.care the bottle fhould be well flopped firft with a cork. over which you will put fome pafle made with flour. two drachms . withk the addition of half a pound of fpirit of wine . of each one ounce .fpirit - and TRADES. goldfmiths and limners. till the whole is diflbjved. in a fquare bottle large enough to be but half full after the whole is in it. To every ounce of thefe three drugs. four ounces of rectified fpirit qf wine (the true French fort) . An Take may be put. over ther rag. and put them. and fet it in a balneomari<e. Take . and :ia much of juniper gum. equal well. in a glafs bottle well flopped. four drachms . clean picked fandarak pulverifed. two. one drachm of maftich. or. well tied over. The . pound ed and mixed thus together. with the fpirit 4>f wine. put itacopal. thefe together. or damage none. verife the ingredients. in which diluted^ whatever colouryou like. and Itfuits. A qjarnljh to ' be ufsd on plaijhr> of materials. and any other fort To the varniih of copal and fpirit of wine. fpirit . gum The whole being well pulverifed. and befides with wax and leather. half an Pulounce fandarak.for laying on all forts of colours. 45 of turpentine . and tak$.arnijh. one quarter of i. XXV.ARTS . eight days. DifTolve this over a flow fire. Take one ounce of white amber . and this varnifh is done. The method of applying it is as follows. ly fome calcined XXVI. Pat all together to infufe for Evaporate two parts of it over a gentle fire. as much of gum copal. Stop well the matrafs with a rag. excellent nt. one. long with your oils in a matrafs. put three ounces of fpirit of wine. of wine. remains is a varnifh fit. and then ano Boil the varnifh thus. A varnrfh kmwn under the appellation 5/"Beaumeblanc. only add talk.

When done. 7*0 make it gridelin colour* Dilute with your varniih fome blue verditure. then ufeiu with your. That if you intend this varnifh for miniature pictures. Take Spanifh vermilion. then XXXIII. Set it in the fun to infufe. <voitk varnifi> of a much high er hue than coral itfelf. for one hour only. it pound and mix and a little indigo* with varniih. Subftitutc for the above ingredients. XXXil. you lay on it the propofed colour or Whe colours. grind it on a marble with brandy. the fined or pine you can find. Take fome Naples yellow. Grind. then with a rag. and whitening. andftir it two or three times a-day After a fortnight's infufing thus. part of lac. XXXI. XXX. and add to it the feuh. which you reduce into a fubtilc powder. and put in a matrafs. TO make it yellow. pafs on them two or three coats of thir varnifo. to dry . put the conftantly. and onedrachm of camphire. and white lead. poliift it with olive oil and tripoly.46 2. lake. on a marble ftone. and keep it in a bottle well corked. with water. matrafs. Ji . and mix it well varniih. Another way for the fame. pewter in grain. diluted in aquavita with fome ifinglafs. fo make it green. allowing the proper time between each coat of varnifh. anJ. 1 XX VI 1. Note. XX X1V. or eighth. during the hotteil days in July and Auguft. you are to make an addition of equal parts of gum copal and white amber. over hot afhes . Take one ounce of white karabe. Let it dry. you eii off rub the Another Chine fe varnijbj more particularly cat* ciliatedfor miniature painting. How to make a red. when dry. according to difcretion and tafte . then pafs all through a cloth. with five ounces of fpirit of wine. SECRETS The concerning piece intended for varnifhing being previouf- ly well poKihed. thefe are dry. German greea verditure. or amber . XXIX. mix this compofition with as much varnifu as you may find it requifite to apply.

. and I experience from them. ne compofitioH . (hell-lac.A RT Take S and TRADES. and fetitovera fmall charcoal-fire. fineft and whitefl wax you can find. thus prepared. two drachms 'i*ne quarter. oil Venice tur- l pentine. a fine white cloth clearer and the finer you chufe it. and a little of the finefl all forts. Then make fome itarch with flour of rice. Lay cloth. XXXVIII. having care to lay it on as equally and fmoothly as polfibfe. of the fined and cleareft Venice turpentine. and. And. To make fajhes Take the cloth as * *witb chtb. with afoftbrufh of fwine's hair Ukewife. Expounds two Have Put. of nuts. pafs. Take of the . dy a little bran Should then the varr. one and a half of the moil perfect lintieed oil. alfB. cut in fmall bits. fpirit of wine. begins to be a little warm put in the wax. and let it dry afterwards. Take darak | Ar. 47 XXXIV. in this pot the lintfeed and turpentine oils to- third. a new and varnifhed pipkin. . which will be very tranf parent. To [ j ultramarine. j. make ufe of a very foft hair f'brulh.iih Add XXXVII. and proceed-as ordered in the other receipts above mentioned. of the faid cloth. to apply it. .iih. Boil them well together. two black rofin. Take A ckar and tranf parent varnijb ft for of colours. ounces . with a ftifF brufti of fwine's that ftarch on both fides of |he cloth> and * let it ft When it is perfectly dry. When this gethcr.vtherfQrtofvarniJb. as fmooth you can. on both fides dry. lake. make it blue. and boil it well alfo. than fir ft. the . prove too thick. and according to the directions of your judgment. . and lay a coat of it. more tranfparent the faihes will be. XXXV. | two of fan. and lay it carefully over the colours. larger. XXXVI. the following vart. in grains. Fix very tight on a frame. on your hair. thin it with an additional quantity of oil. and whitening.cf <varnijh fo for the* above fajbes. to it. Diflblve and prepare the whole as above. at leaft by one is requifite to contain all thefe ingredients.

ell of your win dows. give a coat of it on both fides of the cloth. You may render vour f?. in whites beaten. well purified from all its greafy is the beft. when the luting has acquired a perfect drynefs. Note. of lintfeed oil. the neck of which is to enter into that of the former. after which take it off from the fire. wooden fire . Stop this matrafs with another fmaller matf&fs. then fet the varnifh a-boiling. XLII. if. and as much of fpirit cf turpentine. Put this in a glafs-matrafs. bottle and flop it for ufe. Have care to lute well both necks toge ther with pafte and paper . SECRETSand take care to mix all well with a very clean (lick. and put it to dif- folve. AfnewMte warni/h. while compofition is ftill a little warm. with a 'toft bruih . Note. Turpentine.* fixed on the frames. Set the plate on a chaffingdi{h. a copperplate.ike one pound of fine Venice turpentine. for near an hour. T. and let it dry in thefhade. When cold. to make the varnifh for fafhes. with a foft bruih. 2. Lay a coat of this on the panes of eggs w. ' A curious and eafy <varnl]h> fo engrave *witb as and equal a coat La?. is . on you can. Now. and put on the aquafortis afterwards. than is wanted to con tain the matter. and pre pared as before directed. and fitteft. alfo well incorporated with the reft. take the pot off from the this XXXIX.four hours.48 bits.ihi-s flill more tranfparent. and let it cool. then let it dry. aquafortis. To . and let it dry. at leail by a third. . yarnifo. in which there is a gentle beat of half confumed charcaal that the oil may congeal and dry itfelf gently When yen find it has Acquired the confidence of a on. you lay a frcooth and equal coat of the following varriiih. and. being thoroughly melted. larger. for twenty. till the wax. and. fet the fiift matrafs on a fand bath. as fmooth XL I. on both fides of them. then you may draw with a fleel point in order to etch your copper. A <varmjb to prevent the rays oftbe fun from fajfing Pound gum adragant throng htbe fanes of*windo<w-glajjies into powder . parts. XL.

To make a Take tr an parent blue hue. Next have ready prepared. Dilute thefe powders with tortoife oil. diluted with gum-water and. Put both thefe into pow der. Jilks. cover this with a pre Then 11 the paration of lamp-black and gum-water. for the above : ammoniac fait fix: of verdiand exficcated. Allow. lours.A R T XL 1 1 . and let it dry. and which ought to be all Jranfparent co When this is done. S. Put this on a very thick glafs. DifTolve one ounce and a half of gum arable in two pounds of water. To render ftlk fluffs tranjparent* after the Chinefi manner and paint them with tranfparent colon rs . cjff. iliftilled . Of this oil lay one coat. then ftrain it through a cloth. in imitation of the India manujaftureel turpentine. with an ivory tooth. itate or represent. Let this in grain. XL1V. between the outlines ofyourdefign. of your defign. diluted with a clear vanufli. on both fides of your fluff. fuitable to the purpofe. which you flop wel!> and fet over E hot nine drachms of grife. likfiwife. 49 1 . . with the (unable propor tions. till all is well united and cie$ With this. very clear . cover what places you incorporated.and flower-!. lay on both the right and wrong fides of the Huff another coat of clear varnifh. and lay a coat of clear varnifh over the whole. When this is alfpdry. or two. and the bulk of diifolve by a gentle heat . XLIII. Grind with it bol Armeniac. . the different forts of metals which you want to ufe. and form. A moderate heat is required for a moment to help that varnifh to dry. in fhells. and whitening on a porphyry (tone. intervals with the intended and proper colours. 2. fill up the vacan-. cornpofition. .afufficient time. the various reliefs. S To And raifc 1 R A D E a rtliefon <varni/h. . however. Take two pounds of oil of to it add two ounces of maRich a filbert of camphire. and dry. and according to the forts of things you are to im Then fmooth the parts. before you touch the When that time is over. draw the outlines fluff again. ash is proper. for each to dry. between each coat. htfrnimit fkiifully are to cover. pofe. with a pencil. and let the fecond lie two days or>.

We. andfragrancy.SECRETS XL concerning hot afhes for a week. and according to th$ir extent^ ii^proporttonable quanti. fotmw the aforementioned painted filks> all the . even this. : \ 1 ^ j < Take verdigrife. we receive from India^ are all tainted with a certain partic ular frnell. would help not a little in ruining the deTo imitate. or eight. or over a lamp fire. to draw the white out of it. by the f-ime hole. perfect ly . Note. at r your works among thefe ingrethe clofet. over. diflinciive. which. Set that egg in hot dung. break the egg. and you will find a very finetranft p?. feveral ipts for the compofition of fundry tranfparent coWe (hall therefore take the liberty thither to s the reader. if it be for works at It is well to it pla>ing a . on intended by the above labor. for the above purpofe. and fet it over a gcnow fire.rent yellow. Replace. and agreeable fragrancy. you mufl cbferve the following cliJH. in the Sixth Chapter.-epper. for the fpace of feven. V. mace. fmdl. XL V c "i competition will give a very fine -tranfpafent green. II. Have a fmall clofet. and moft obvious character. . two drachms of quick filver. for more ample fatisf action. 1 . it: be for one fingle piece of large ^ik^^^iJt. and make your drawings with the clear varnifh. or the baiket. equal irind the whole in a mortar. gold litharge. that" the filks. make a hole'in file (bell. if hinges^ fluit^d and Hnedflfepverin upon in either of them. have given. if not imitated alfo. and quickfilver. for thefame Take a new-kid egg of that very day. with the yolk. re. or. being their iar. only a fine bffkt^mth top the infide. and 3$ much of ammoniac fait . days. and the completion of the above mentioned operation. : fo make a tranf parent green. as directed in the preceding article. nutmeg: all-fpice. fit for the ufe above mentioned. known. then flop the hole witk wax. and other things. To make a trcmf parent yellow hue. of the India ones. After that time your colour will be fit for ufe. for four or five and When that time is twenty days. with the urine of Put k next into a bottle.

F. ne true receipt of the Engtijh <varnijh> fuch as iv 1 ibat country - is Smoothen and laid on flicks and artificial-made canes. Then. a difcretion able quantity of Flemifh glue. very fmooth and equal. then. fr. give one coat of this. through a cloth . and flop it again as well as before. for twelve hours. With this colour you touch your flicks. After this is done. bottle and cork it. you do not think it fufficient. B. but: can be performed and imitated. there fcalmoft no fort of works. the fame quantity of the whiteft gumcofour drachms of fandarac . then turpentine oil. A Take one ounce moft beautiful Chineft <varnijh. to your Hick? is dry.ftead of this. you roll them quick and brifk. fpirit This (as when you mill chocolate). preffion S and T R A D E S. in water. two. polifh well your Hicks .like mar bling. rub them. in contrary fenfes. in a fine drops. having diluted. then pour. we have jufl given. in a &alIn the fpace of another twelve hours. drain it X . : XL VI 1 1. fome turnfol cut very fmall. you marine.A R T ]y clofe fhut. of the whiteil karabe (amber) . . pour over it one ounce of the fincft ' Stop the matrafs firft with a cork. glafs matrafs . After this. fct it on ember afhes. rather. and preparations of colours. made with turpentine and after this of wine.m pal Put all this. r will find" that the fpirit of wine mail have diiToIved all the gums. in it fix ounces of good la fpUftt of wine. t e& nation. put a forking. or canes. to keep for ufc. uncork. give them another. be tween both your hands. gently. Set this to infufe. with a paile made of flour. reduced into a powder. Then. and let coo!* fire. coming from the Indies. on their fmall ends. or your artificial made canes. N. in an equal quantity of water and chamber-lye. Then. operation gives them a negligent and natural. With the various compositions of varnimes. then. and let them dry. here and there with a hair brum. S i till you fee they have received a full imfrom the odour of thofe ingredients. Then. or. . of fine maftich. and red orpine. X. while the varnifh is ftill quite warm. or. the njatrafs . holding them perpendicular. give them a third coat> of clear varniih. over a flow with a bladder wetted.

two. and fet it in the fun. and free from all forts of hard nobs. with thafc. when this is done. to make a black-colour varnim. of the firft feparated clear part of your varniih. as much . With it. four ounces cioth. you put in the clear varnifh. ana a certain coarfer part will fhew Htfelf at the bottom. This laft you may ufe with fine lamp-black. over niflv. B. 4. on hot afhes. 1. rectification above mentioned . inftead of black. L. you want a red colour. Take two . pounds of double. clination. Then. letting dry between each coat. concerning and fet which you are to lay another coat of varthem to dry. you muft let dry in the made what is varas it liifiicd. fpirit of fandarac. and lay. arid 3. in the fame manner. wine Mix. you rub wbatever you want to be varniflied. join tacamahaca-gum with the fpirit of wine of double Jf. according as you think proper. . ft to the work. or a vefiel with a long neck. then bot tle and it well. made of new feed-lac. And. you put.SECRETS hling. while all this is performing: and when the whole is well executed. you put fome cinnabsr in powder. There will flop foappen a reparation. as much as you find requifne to give your work a &n^ luflre. A fine cvurnijb for all firts ofcolours. When perfectly difTolved. which is de- flined to make the laft coats. out fpoonfuf^of oil of turpentine . proper there {hould be fome fire. in which the cinnabar is.rectified . fo near may receive from it fome gentle heat. irais. is N. by in pear fftimming on the top. 2. while another more clear will ap Divide carefully. ibme guard itagainil the duft. when you have done with laying the feveral coats of varnifh. ftrain it through a jelly-bag. you from the very beginning of the operation. You may varnilb. one.y/hich fuall have ilrained out of the bag. or verdigrife if you want . in a macopal. if put. well picked. for luftring. in the fecond part of the operation. and. more or lefs. you want it white . one. or three coats of it. t.in lieu of lamp black. gum Set all a-diffolving. theclrareft from the thickeft part. fome dragon's whitening in blood in tears.

tripoly. while a-warming. one . and fo on any other colour you want it to be. it prove too thin. For that purpofe. the pureil you can find . but. over the laft eoat .cither . and fet it on the fire with two drachms ofoccotrin LIU. till you find it has acquired a fufHcient degree of luitre. and half a drachm of dra 1 L A Take gon's blood. v/K*that. Ar B. you take a cloth. and difappear at laftr Keep up the fire till. in refpeft to each of them. over red hot charcoals. put i: in a well-glazed pipkin. diffolved. and boil gently.I Jikeas varnifh docs. teen ounces trafs A <varnijh to lay on. of varnim. do all require to be polifhed. proceeding. varnifli what ever you want with it. fet the maon the fand. and fet it in the fun to dry. With that oil add. . Ar B. and equality. and Continue to boil it.A R T S and TRADES. the oil will turn all into a fcum . four Put all maftich. LI. But if. with a ilick. left it mould run over the pot. about the fourth part of its weight of rofin.. for twenty-four hours. after the Ijinglafs. for it cannot dry without the aiSiianoe of. z. feven. A *v amifly Takelintfeed-oll. Thefe varnifhes. Then. I. without gold. 53 want it green . fandarac. half a pint of fpirit of wine. if of varnifh has lay it this pimicular hot: you on wooden wares. <varnijh to gild with. in a chaffirigdifh. four pounds . Thiscompofition property. add fome more rofin to it. both previoufly well pulverifed together. Add after. that fcum will infenfibly waite itfelf. dip it in and rub. Take fpirit of wine.. when dry. till all is perfectly oil. you fee it draw to a threa. as before directed for the others. and give the fire for three hours. E 2 water' . four ounces of turpentine I. When of it is come as it ought to be. trying it thus. Then. taking a iitile of that oil. iirft. in digeiHon.. in which you diffolve one drachm of fafFron. with moderation. white amber. Make all difiblve 'At together. thefe. Add this to a certain quantity of Ihell-lac varnim. take it oft from the fir-. continu ing to let it boil. or before the fire.

54 water It. on the till it is bkick every where. chaffingdiih. Set it again. whatever L V. fubjecls. bottle. and ciently hardened. \vhen the plate has done fuming. when very imcothly. How to cafi figures in moulds. when of oil of fpikeand one of rofin together come to the couMence of a varrnfn. To ufe that varnim. draw. palling and repailing it gently. Obferve to put as little of it as you can. and e: qua!!y. and. while it is a-boiling. and. mentioned in Chap. pounded into tity an impalpable powder join j . you lay onefecond. When done. etc. p. over the flame of it. Take one pound of Paris-philter. never ceafe to ilir with a little ftick. etch. fpread it delicately over the plate. fuch as fajhss f Jlatues. to engrave his moft admired. 1. Such is the true receipt of the varnifh. When done. nor have the therefor^. for a long time. then the varnifh is fufYou may then chalk. laid on. virgin-wax. fmoak the plate. and. make a very extenfive ufe of It. jamin. and. ar-d light. in drops. till it is reduced to one third . with a candle. coat of this over the firft made with fiae This varnifh is very fine. Begin by laying on your paper one firil coat of very This being dry. A <varmjk to lay en paper. Callot's warnijb. But you mull take care to chufc the mieit and the moll perfect rofin . Take two ounces of the fineft lintfeed-oil ben . two drachms. LVf. taking a little of the varuifli with the tip of your finger. and truly admirable. and to lay it" on as fmcoth and equal as poffible. you will on it. You may. SECRETS itfelf concerning leaft cannot hurt it. bot-houfes ? LIV. now. wherein there are kindled charcoals . frames. power on Quaere:>/ prefer<ve <what is Would not fuch a <varnift> be extremely ufeful> f* mucb expofed to the injuries of the <weagardens and eJfe<where . "and to boil it well. melt three parts clear and thin'fize. 1. which tht famous C allot made ufe of. or pot it in a large-mouthed 2. the bulk of a filbert. on the varnifh fide. and an equal quan of bricks. warm a little the plate you intend to engrave upon. veflel. 2. Boil all this together.

and as much of fpirit of wine. one pound. pulverifed fandarac> Put all in a bottle. and fet it in the fun half an ounce. one ounce . when done. in the pipkin. with a hair pencil. Take it A varnijb fine to lay over plaifter -works. orungl'eafed. or. being mixed. dilute in it fome cinnabar. for one quarter of an hour. then fct it a~dry A i. what is called.dee on a c.. of fpike. rafp it fi-ie. water. placing yourfelf between it and the light. which you melt together in a matrafs. When dry. and the rarnifli is do When thus clarified. and fix ounces of ihell-lack.ARTS join to this and TRADES. LI X. DiiTolve that foap. in clear as to make a pafte you^tre v and make your moulds with if. and let 'it reit fo for fevea or eight days. fhiny. Cover this. in a well-flopped matrafs. varnijh. oil in order to clarify the oil. added grad ually. Then. rub it gently with a piece of cloth. LX. you put your powders. your flatus will appear as white. or figures. Of . ' Set this. and litharge as Boil both together. white Alicante loap .Another varmjh. fpike oil. every where. one ounce of alumen plum&wn. which has been laid on. with chamber-lye . in which. or a varnifhed pipkin. Take raaftich's and fandarac's. ungreafmg it. and little at a time. till it comes thick and milky. as alabafter. Take. gradually. and beautiful. in fhell. *uery fine ted <varnifo. UAlbe Mulot's Take of This compofition is particular till perfectly difToIved. Pound them into a fine powder. with your finger arid a little water. and put in a well glazed pipkin. of it . and one of Dilute all ammoniac fait. of each two ounces. l^Vli. without abforbing together. take one 2. dip it in this foapy preparation. next. ly fit to varnifli gold or filver. Have three ounces of lintfeed-oil. and warn the plaifter figure all over with it. LVIII. that you may perceive better the places which take the polifh . equal parts. it. for fear dull fhould come to it . in a balneo maritz to boil and concoct together for one hour : and this var- mfh is done. which had previoufly been grir. Take much. fhort hairy brum . thus. pound of it. a foftand ing.

infinitely preferable. and let it reft awhile . a- . Take great care not to have it burn .that all As foon as this fee ms be perfectly incorporated. lay firft concerning three or four coats v on between each coat. if you have that op portunity. your work. B. and rough pitch equal quantities. three pounds: of that fort of varnifh called Arabian f andarac. A and other forts cfembellijhments. or gum-water. and four of oil of fpike.leaves. and fet it over the fire. have a hen's feather. during which time. in pow der/ Mix well this with the fpatula. of various cclours. and. are properly laid on. you take fome of the coals away. and fet it again on the fire. half an ounce. to you done. on the leather. it is a proof the matter has fufficiently boiled. If the feather be grizju dip it in. and ftrain it through a ftrong coarfe cloth. and keep it for the fol more moderate may lowing 2. Apply the filver. When thcfe with the white of an egg. it N. and fet it in the fun. quite warm.. and fome fhellfufficient. to dry. Take lintfeed-oil. made with one part of fpiritof wine. SECRETS Of this compofition. and off quickly. If you fee that your matter boils and fwells. . let it cool a little. zeled. take it off from the fire. Inftead of faiFron.56 2. make ufe of the ftaminas of lilies. to concocl well this addiiion with the reft. keep continually iUrring the matter with a" fpatula. and throw in one pound of well-chofen and picked hepatica aloes. one pound each . iUrring always well. you take it off. ufe. we have prefcribed bove. fir pewter leaves. LXI. and other-wife adorned with running Jlalks offlowers. figures. and allow time lack. give one coat of the abov-ementioned varniih. which are Put all into a varnifned pipkin. varnijh to gild certain parts of ftamped leathers. you had better. lay on another of pure and clear Varnifh without cinnabar. you mull take it ofF. fuxRciently done. 1. The Arabian fandarac. to avoid it. on fuch plac? s as you want to appear gilt. or not. filtered infome places with pew ter. looks like gold. When you want to know whe ther it be. W^ten the laftis given. Set it now again upon this fire. and faffron. Therefore. When dry.

of whatever colour you will. very fine polifh. and poViih. When your marble (hall have been thus well fpeckled all over wi^l that red colour. when the fir it laid colours are dry. reduce it to an impalpable then mix it with a little gurnadragant. or fome foot. this dry . you' dilute it. do as above. Pound all into powder. powder pcrfs With it a marble piece in the fame manner exactly as defcribed in the preceding article . which* you overlay with oil. and afperfe your oiled mar ble with it. lay your pafte over them. which you grind well firfl with Let water. and lay it on your When this is alfo dry. Then make a paile and lay itover them. imitate ferpentine. or even invent. according to your tade and fancy . and afpentine. Then. let them dry likewife. with a brufh. B. 2. or well poliihdlprble. For example. and a little fiat. imitate porpb If too red. or marble Hone. You may thus. Then.-. and next with a little addition of indigo. by ftriking the handle of the brufh on your vvrith as the book binders do to (lain the covers of their books. After this is done. of a fine poiifh. under LXII. LX1II. N. 57 &*. is S and T R A D E j| S. it admits of a fpeckled marble. you lay your reft. and when this is dry. all forts of marble. have feveral different colours pre r pared as above . to it. on forne piece of glafs. adcl a ]$ttle Take EngHfh brown_red. . take fome lighter green. taking your lump of brown red andurnber. Take auripigment. known by feme. when dry. Make a colour compofed of brown red.. To 1 . put a little more auripigment with the indigo. as in the above receipt. um ' ber. imitate. take of that colour.. with a largiOi brufh.A R T bovc. and looks like porphyry. and. previoufly grinded with gum adragant. Then have a plank. make a thin paile of it. firft For the prepared pade on it. till you come to obtain the trus hue of the fpots which are in they^rOf this colour you take with a brufh. If you will have . afperfe. or mark with each of them feparately. To the denomination of Gum of Juniper.^and. rn^ke a paile of it. and c^g after another. or Venetian lake. and . you let it dry.

VII. IV. SELLING-WAX. of each equal parts in weight. parts of Paris-plafter. friccafTeed and pulverifed bullock's blood. one ounce . A maftichfor brnken wares* Pound a (lone-jar into an impalpable powder. Boil all toge ciment. then ufe rofin. SECRETS I. bol armeniac and quick-lime. even glaffes> and will ftand both fire and water. cotton and oil. half a one. This may be ufed in mending whatever you will. and beat them Another. An excellent maftich. very fine. and add to it fome white of eggs and quick-lime. &c. CEMENTS. done with whitening. arid quick-lime. VI. rofin. relative to MASTICKS. black pitch. and cement. one. and rnelt all together . wax. III. Take four. two Take ounces* VIII \A . one. pounded glafs. Sift it. fulphur. Thefe of w^rks admit of being overlaid with an exficcawhite. two.g3 S it E C it is RETS concerning have forts chalk. any quantity of white^f eg %s. and begin beating a-new all together. this lail yellow wax. one . V. ther. &c. Another mafticb.. Take frankincenfe and maftich. IV. coarfe turpentine. II. and fulphur. well A mixed together. A ful tile maftich - wel! to a froth. after having well pounded and grinded each of them feparately. Another. four ounces . and one of foot. Take fix maftich to make rock-works. or whitemixture of yellow ocher. of each. quick-lime. Add to this foft curd cheefe. CHAP. and a little tive varnifti. TAKE Take to mend allforts of broken veffels. pf each half an ounce*.

*Worcefler. . An exceeding goodfixe. and ibft refijis water. is to warm it and lay a coat of it on marble. #ve%tmces . the whiteit ifinglafs you can . turpentine. and> when nearly dry. bit by bit. then ** jljl^ XV. JC: . paint. foak it in quicklime-tfrater. X L V. boil it in common water. Stafford. maftkh and turpentine. . with the poi$. four ounces yellow fuet. curd-cheefe. and it for ule. Take what and rofin. Another. Mix thefe knife. A fat. 59 one ounce grinded tile 4 half aa ounce . of each. four ounces. keep Take half a pound TO frtfh-cod's tripes . a fufficient quantity to render Take litharge and ork thefe all together j and. S. write. &c. XI TI. then join them together. a difcretionable quantity of marble pounded into a very fine powder. of eac. IX. of each two pounds 5 mutton ocher and rofin. ftrain and add fome white of eggs beaten: bottle. and add.t ofa on the edges of the broken pieces of your ware. while in fufion. A cement for delfe t and other earthen wares. . or any other earthen wares. and. delfe. add. reduced to one third. Boil an eel's fkin and a to lay upon gold. to make it in flakes. for the fpace of half an hour.ART Take rofin. The method to ufe it afterwards. throw this fize in whatever mould you pleafe. X. To take off the bad fmell. XL Take hours. A cold cement for cifterns andfountains. takeit during twenty-four off. called Orleans fize. or draw. XII. Melt quantity you will of wax them together. Then.find . pat of this well together.] ime 1 together : when it. rnaltich. and gold in ftiell. finely filtered and When that time is over. a little cloves and cinnamon. A glue . little quick. while it boils. S and VI I L T R A D E A cement. what you pleafe emit with a pencil. 1 cf nuts. boil it in two quarts of white-wine. which Take quick-lime. boiled gently. bo! in powder. for the fame purpofe.

till find. pounding them into powder. gum A more. arabic in chamber-lye over a chaffingdifti: ft ir with a ftick. XV I Take . one quarter of a pound of . two ounces of new wax. as you had of gum arabic. The quantity of tallow to be proportioned to the degree of drynefs you require in this compoii tion . .S E C R E T* S Concerning lute to join broken wej/els. Melt . a quarter part of both the other parts and brimtwo put together. tities. it. Let it be the* fatted and neweft tnoift you can warn it in very warm then fet it . according to difcreis A r . If you dry fome whites of eggs in the fun. or Diflolve XV. boil it begins to ftink. you fhould add fome of that powder with the cheefe when you difTolve it along with the lime. . difcretion- ally increafe. till perfectly difLlved. or dimkufti. I. B. rofin equal Take white wax and flone. 'To XVII. nor water. N. and it remain clear and neither dry. dofe of that Take wax. equal quan Melt all together. two of Boil all gently together black pitch. in clean water. make aftrong maftich. and coricoft the whole for one quarter of an hour. your bottles with XIX T'o imitate rock works. fhoe-makers roiin. on that principle. befides that which comes from Auvergne. To make forks for bottles. well incorporated together. XVUI. then add an equal weight of flour.thereabouts. the glue will befo much the (Ironthat. B. As foon as you find it is fo. and turpentine. Aftrong glue with foft cheefe. if requifite. the prefcribed ingredient. take it off from the fire^t is done. in water. when diflblved into a glue. and flop or . fire : and. fo that you may. *. briclf-duft. finely fiftcfd. Take one pound of rofm when on a flow add fome tion. has the quality requilite for this compofition. and one of tallow. fo long as it mould to rot. a cheefe from Auvergne. Obferve that no other cheefe. ger. and. with quick lime . hoo-'s lard.

in fufficient quantity to make a fort of dough with it. thread 3 philter. lintfeed oil . figures. . with your gers. umber reduced into a fubtile powder. and obferve not to tread upon it. over a flow fire. trophies. or paint it ever. with a rough dry bruh. with it Let well all the nobs you may meet with between your fin all over with it. and throw it in col'd It will form itfelf like the fcum of the fea. is to draw.ARTS Melt water. bricks &c. fruits. &c. Then you fill up thofe (ketch and raife them with the above pafle. fcrub well yonr floor. fpangles> if you chafe* F The way to do it. the outlines of what you want to have raifed in relief. rub your floor by mans of an old hair broom. linen. or fancy. as arms. you gild. filvcr. The method you will. 2. for of ufing it. and. This pafte is. &c* according to your deiign. dry. fqueeze XX. to XXI. Take cerufe and 3. till it comes line and fhiny. while it is foft . flowers. wkeiksr boards. is by laying fHV . 1. and enrich it with go-Id es. new wax. four ounces of each. or e* an embroidery. . then have from the plumber fome black lead which is generally of a black or reddifh hue. filk. this fluff. and put it in a varnifhed new pipkin. to boil for two hours. with the above compofition. and rub your floor hands. then. Take a pail full of fcarlet wafh from the dyers. and as you want it. pitch. dry. afTa-ftetid'a. Pound all. till it is pcrfe&ly dry. warm only that part by which you defign to itick it. on whatever whether cloth. 61 the whole at the fame time. as you like. equal quantities. and TRADES. To r-ub floors with. Then keep^it >in that fame pot to make your paite at any time after tich. when it begins to dry. Take one pound of burgundy fandarac. obferving never to-make more 6fit at a time than you think -to employ directly when. and wards with it. A tomfojition to tnake a relief Jit <uen toraife gild over. When you frant to apply it. 4. which you dilute. maf- tur pentine. it becomes as hard as marble. You may paint alfo'the ground of thofe reliefs with 5 whatever colours you pleafe..made as follows.

The whole being melted. iandarac of the an cients. one . to make your fticks. and form your flicks. benjamin and black rofin. XXVI. cither {hell-lack or dragon's blood. minium. one: fulphur citrinum. five ounces. at Vienna. {hell-lack. -Mix all. drachms of each . eight drachms. five . laft oi all. otherwiie printers rofm. two. N. one.lack Recipe 5th. of each. on the great altar of the Virgin Mary Recipe ift. half an ounce each } vermilion. tur pentine. Incorporate all well. and maitich. XXV. half an ounce. one ounce half an ounce. cinnabar. Recipe ^d. half an ounce. Sealing XX1L wax: Take one pound of ihell lack Recipe ad. Another.next put the maftich and the powder the lire. add. h&deracea. Recipe 4th. Take of each. four ounc? s . rubbed over with oil of fweet almonds . three . and make your fticks. pound . if you will. Take greek pitch. make your (licks on a marble table. the cinnabar grinded with a little oil. AetherBaling wax. turpentine. fome turpentine-oil and fulphur to the quan tity of four ounces of each. and take it off from the lire. XXVII. three. There is a work of this kind to be feen. Take turpentine and failor's pitch fix Another. and take care to have done before the wax is cold. frarskincenfe. white rnaflich. one ounce j dragon's blood. dragon's blood. Another. and maftlch. two ounces of each : roan. twelve Recipe 6th. . to melt of frankincenfe and. Mix and incorporate all together over the re. . Take gum you: fticks.62 rlrft SECRETS concerning a coat of varniili of ifinglafs and rcfm melted togeth er. Take Ihell. and two of ammonia The . maftich and rofin. ounces. Diffolve the fhell-lack in vinegar'. Mix all in a very warm bsll-metal mortar. cinnabar. XX III. B. as much as you fee Put the pitch firft on it requifite to give the red colour. . and make XXiV. Another (hell-lack.

over kindled coals. over a chaffingdifh. with the lack and vermilion both well pulverifed . and another in theother pot . rofm. 2. fet toinfufe. . {hell-lack. Take again of another powder in the fame manner. in which you keep two ounces of {heil-lack. and another. Have now foirle cinnabar in powder. ly Girardot. 1. Recipe yth. draw fome of the faid gum. have pipkin. little vinegar. brought along with them from each pipkin.after having torned them thus a reafonabJe time. yoB &e both v . in a non-varnifhed While this is in fufion. the enJs of your two Hicks together. turn quickly. 63 whole being melted. then. and have a This. then mix it. make as Hick& of the form and fize you like. >For two pounds ofguras. Take very fine *nd TRADE fail as S. four and a half. till they are method. or only touch your incorporated gums. (licks XXX. An exctllentfealing wax. Then another. Now deep a wooden flick in the firft pot. will perfon to help you. to melt. Melt the. by this powder. and fkim it. will form the flicks. which you put in a pan with water. in diflblution with vinegar. Take gum-lack. fimilar to this.roiin with a Then take it out of the fire . and four and a half of whitening. you can your Exc effiwly good. ounces of rofin. When thus fufficiently coloured. half an onnce . and. take it out of the water with both your hands and the wooden pallets. perfectly well amalgamated together. begins to cool. fefr. and melt them together. and ftir it with the faid pallets. and handling it on a table. to mix and incorporate well what matter they (hall have And whea. Another. to make the compofuion take colour. Recipe Ith. one over another. then move it. another pot. when with the compoiition it. Another. four ounces . Pujt four Recipe pth . XXIX. &c. In that water and cinnabarfir ft.ARTS The XXVIII. having wetted his hand. form your i. cinnabar. twoouAces of cinnabar are wanted. wooden pallets prefentupon thern> before the fire fonne powder of one fort. pound them all into a Then have two and impalpable powder. and mix it in the fame way before the fire with the all. .

firfl. V. form your fticks as ufaal.ounces of cin nabar. tail. mixed the colour yea want with turpentine oil. deep them. in doing it. before laying on the next . in the following liquor. the composition (hould not grow cold. V^4&^^ CHAP. To paint in varni/h (Ufeful to Car riage I. upon a porphyry table. on a marble. to colour them. "\TOU muft firfl X Tro> es-white. SECRETS $ I. then polifh over the laft coat with pouncedone grinded on marble into a fubtile powder. lay on the wood two coats of diluted with fize-water. poliftied. A colour for the alow* wax.a li In this you dip your flicks.. table. at differ ent times. Next. at feveral times . to make it. lay two or three coats of pure white varAs foon as this is dry. Grind. colours. or other well . previous to the laying of and the general pro cefs clfir'vsdin laying them it. Wherefore you mufl. When this is done. each time you deep them in the colour. en I. The preparation of the wood. ? concerning COLOURS on wood. with fhavegrafs or horfeand then with pounce-ftone. Then having lay over thefe a third coat of cerufe. and lay it on the wood.) PAINTING*. when you find the matter fuiBciently tinged with red. with a Sufficient quantity of nut-oil. carry them again over the chaffingAnd difh. previoufly pre pared z. rub it over -with a foft rag* ni(h dipt in tQ fine olive oil^thea rub it with tripoly reduced into . twq. as follows. painters.4 SECRETS concerning- both matters are well embodiiied. allowing after each coat a fufficient time to-dry. and take care. . XXXI. Lay afterwards fix or feven coats of colour mixed with varnilh. Pbliih the wood. to keep them in a due (late of malleability. add the varnifh to it. liquid.

To make a fine yellow. fap~ green. and fit a fheet of tranfparent. and boil or Venetian lake and Bratogether. or vamiih paper to it. Grind cochineal with white lead and a lake. pals a piece of wafh-leather all over it. it is reduced into the moft impalpable powder. the red. There is a fort of black which. from its hue. The black is made with lamp. little According as you put more or lefs Venetian of this laft in gredient. To transfer a print on vellum . makes the blue. burnt and reduced by grinding^ like the You keep it other black. IV. on that print. and then paint /V.ART S into fubtile and TRADE . VII. Hungarian green^ and terverte. The whole grinded on marble with i pretty ftrong leather fize. This is made of fheep's trotters' bones. and tf ? mid dle part of the four edoes. fketch out the varnifhH paper. To make a black. thea fized with leather fize. For To make a red. Burnt turnfol mixed with quick-lime and water. the bulk -?-f Din's hear*. piece IT. you mufl boil fome kermes in a water impregnated with orpine. put it in a bladder. and fix it by the four corners. 1. all the outline* and turns of the print which jou plainly * F 2 fee . To make the Gridelin. a yellow. or ivory. the fame as the other. fil take all wood. with vinegar and water. by means of a little white wax. Th^n a very fine lead pencil. may be termed a velvet black. VIII. Lay it on the print. To make a green. till grinded on a marble (lone. black. The green is made of a mixture of verdigrife. S.J Chufe your print. To paint on paptr. To keep it. 2. III. II. To make VI. for width and breadth. with an addition of flat. you make it darker or clearer. To make a Hue. into an impalpable powder. V. black lead. and having wiped it with of linen. 65 a clean powder.

rub the back of this varnifhc J paper all over with red chalk. When done. XI II. IX How III. the grey lamp .wine vinegar. the red . and on the vellum. and lie print perfectly feetched. Moft colours are prepared. tartar* Another for the farntpurfofe. and now and then vifit this difti. XII. fix it on it. black whirl fixed 1 . of. if you pafs over ail the fhokes which are delineated on the varnifhed pa per. XV. venligrife. (lone. and with white. tvith a wooden. If it become too hard. dilute put in (hells for keeping. the red chalk of the back will fet off in all thofc parts. Prop over the flame a earthen difti. as you did on the print. an-d ftp-green. or grinded. and gather all the .. the black the gold. Compo/itions for Limners. a very final! Grind fome verdigrife with vinegar. cinnabar. To make a blue. Te. courant mourant. it with a drop of vinegar. Ocher makes the yellow . XI. blunt point. which you grind alfo well with the reft. and oil throw them in another full of water. Grind on a marble a third of verdigrife. the white. . To mak^ what is called lamp-black. with gumarabic. itfelf to it. the green cerufe.66 SECRETS concerning fee through. Then grind them on marble with either or varnifh. aixl quantity of rnrtar. Another way making black. . To make a turquin blue* turnfol infufed for one night in chamber lye. whereon you will find the fit to receive what colourt you like. or ivory. black. Whitening grinded with verdigrife will make a very fine blue. and carrying it on the Then vellum. Put a hrge week of cotton in a lamp filled with nut oil and light it. A fine green for limning. in proportion as you want to have it paler or dar- XLV. to prepare moft colours for limning. and gold in (hell* X. Burn fonie nut (hells in an iron pan. and Then add a little quick lime. . XVI. then grinded with a difcretionable quantity of quick German lime.

or in child's urine. three quarters Take of a pound of the whiteft found. Pound fome cochineal and alum together . and hour. throw in feven pugils of After this has thrown two or three pulverifeJ cbauam. and hang Add it in the chimney to dry. till want. in fine powder. put all in a bladder. duced to one third. Then which fet it the fun under a cover to dry. one dozen and a half of grains of fait of tartar . if you put it \^. XVIII. For the making cf carmine. Strain . bones. Expr*fs the blackberry juice. two quarts of fpring water in a varniflied and. 2. To make what called the Sap-greeo. bubbles. 67 XVI. and decant it in ano ther clean pipkin. Put all together in a faucepan to boil. and boil it for a quarter of an Add three pupils of autour. and take it oat directly from the fire. pafs it it corne* to a fiae colour. For the vermilion. take it off from the fire. or Hack- berry green. Another <way. Vermilion becomes very fine in aquavits. XVfl. allum to it. XX. drop by drop. the bulk of two filberts of mineral cryftal . which mull b made of live coals. Then put in this water five ounces of cochineal in powder. or cuttle-fim. Strain it three times through a coarfe cloth. when it boils. I. then boil them with ascertain quantity of lemon-peels cut very And when it is corne to the right colour you fmall. It is ufed with whipped whites XXI.ARTS force and is TRADES. That dries thefooneilis the fineft. Then add three pugils Roman alum in powder. But it will be Hill finer.aqua^ *uit<e with a little faffron. oil of tartar. pipkin cf make it throw four bubbles. pour. till re rafped. a pint cf clear water . one drachm and a half of roch-alum . To make lake. To make in a finer fort. XIX. when full ripe. On a quantity of alum and cochineal poanded and boiled together. To make a liquid Me. through a cloth. Boil . three parts of an ounce of Brafil wood . flrain it four times.

Strain all this through a linen cloth. which we. With more cloth. How far it is needful to obferre ter 2. and put it in a lye of fait of tartar to boil on the boil fire. and reducd to one third. white. Then of two thirds. you have no fun* boil it on the fire. that this operation is beil done in the crefcent of the moon. IV. with a little alum. put to infufe for a lye with fait of tartar. bottle and ilop it. XXIV. Make XXV. or. rious complexions. it to the reduction Ron U and one bubble more. Every five ounces of cochineal give one of car It is to be mine. ocher. . and Set this in the fun for a fortnight. To make tranffannt XXIII. Per Put in colours. verdigrife. nion prevails. you muft ufe fome white and ocher. For women and children mix a little white and is a little turnfol. For the red.. very flrong vinegar. Note. In it. Boil Run it through a linen all. a mixture of white and vermilion proper. Of the 1. fome India wood.Shake it well before ufing. XXII. and then gather the carmine. bottle and cork . For men . choice of colours ft for cxpr'effing (be va . 2. For horfes you muft chuie biftre. if gum-arabic. The grey want nothing but biftre and 3 . and white. the green. 4. and fo let it remain for three weeks. The dark brown horfes require a little addi tion of black. or lefs alum. one night. and divide this liquor into feverai delft veffels. Bruife Avignon feed. concerning pour under a kind of mouldinefs.69 SECRETS by inclination. rue-juice. For old folks . call French Berries. in this country. For the yellow. At the end of that term off the wa You will find this precept is left to the wife to determine. which you mutt carefully pick off. and mix fome gum-arabic with it. A general opi grinded on marble. Strain it. you make it of a higher or paler hue.

the filings of a piece of good iron. and leave the powder. % mini be ftiaken before ufmg. Rut it afterwards in a glazed pipkin. nearly boiling*. it fmall ad dition of faiFron renders XXVI. to which . and gum-arabic. pour a little warm water into the matrafs. and three of yellow Dutch beads well grinded with mafeich-oil. When the liquor then pour all into another vefTel. 1. temptible fecret. and fet it on a flow fire. a certain quan Take it out and grind is tity of German Palma. XX VII Take 2. and let it remain a few hours on the fire. Put them in a matrafs with aquafortis. vered and luted. decant it out gently. pour the whole in a glafs phial of more than a quart fize. will This is far from being a con give full fatisfadion. it there. and lute it well. the more blue it will be. This done. for painting on ena ' mel. which is at the bottom. Procefs of making the purple. 2. fine and neal it. take it out and cool. to dry. Gut it in into liquor. and throw it in the matrafs. and then neal it gently on a very re gular let it fire . Let it thus lay for the fpace of fix weeks. fhail be quite clear. a little while after. for one night. R T It 3 and TRADES. forged weak. and fet it on a gentle re to run all Take one drachm of very frnail bits. Let it boil gently till the filings are all dhTolved. XXIX. and. XXVII. A more lively. ti rnaft admirable fecret: old. j4 pale red to paint on enamel. Have two ounces of clear water. Put that gold into a matrafs. with one ounce of ammoniac fait. And nothing more is required to dilute it than chamber-lye. and two of good aquafortis.Acork it. More or lefs quick lime will raife or lower it in hue. Put this dried powder in a new crucible well co 3. When this is done. chamber-lye. Grind fome indigo on porphyry with turpentine oil. Anctber llite> 'very like ultramarine. For the blue. 4. Now one drachm of that powder. drift i. F. with a little quick lime. The longer Soak in you leave 1.

decant it out gently. which be ing ceafed. fcnd turned up by the edges. and let the gold falls to the bottom. and fhake it. it rcit till 3. as when you put it in. till you fee it has acquired a fine purple hue. this powder with a little oil of fpike. Grind. 4. you mull 11 the bottle with water. 5. A . and may juftly be deemed a ninth arti cle in the procefs. little cafes made with cards. now. of which the When the card has foaked the edges. 7. XXXI. Now the proportion to make the purple colour three grains only of your afore faid gold dull to Mix thirty of the white froft-glafs. and put it on a brown paper. It is to bs oil. both thefe powders in a calcedeny -mortar with a good Take deal of clear water. How 9. mix it . and let mortar . decant out die water. Then fill the bottle with new water. The mere addition of a black to the above competition will make the fineft colour for complexions. fmd. dry it by a flow fire. fine out. After the powder ha8 fettled to the bottom of the mortar. fome fine white frofl>glafs . the water is quite *:lear. and put it ir. and do the fame. decant off the water. in form of a little cafe or mould. the whole operation is accomplifhed. keep it for ufe. Grind. put it in a bottle. When repeating this operation till the water is as clear when you decant it more fmell. and put them XXX. it in fmall boxes. of paper. are turned up. There let it dry . putting it the powder dry in the iuortaritfelf. 8. 6. When this powder has fallen to the bottom.with water. thus prepared.which is to be oblerved in its fabrica tion. then let it fettle. to make afneflefo little colour. or rlefh* colour. It will occafion an ebullition.70 S E C R E T S concerning which yoa will add one ounce and a half of oil of tartar drop by drop. folded in four or five doubles. and. take the powder out of the on a white bit preferred by putting in a dry place. This done. when dry. and has no Take your gold out of the bottle. next. for fear of diilurbing the gold and lofing it. and vefTsl in let the powder dry in the fame : which it is.

Lintfeed oil. for a quarter of three. half an ounce yellow rofin. you will have a fine. Decant. except the gum. and often tliakeir to prepare them for this ufe. it with the following cement. . an hour . Take it out of that water . and let it reft for a quarter of an hour. and of the grinded lapis 9 equal quantities. taking care that none of the ground fhould run out with it. and. Another <way. incorporate them in a glazed pan. continuing toftir and beat it well then decant aga. . in equal quantities. maftich. that water into another glazed Pour new warm water on the grounds. gently. in Jefs than an other quarter of an hour you will fee tke water all azured. colour into (hells. Grind dry. and pro pan. as much . half a one ajjafcetida. and boil it to afyrup. bag. XXXIII. fome of the browned lapis red-hot in a whole crucible. *The Make three procefs of making ultramarine. Put thefe powders into a glafs phial. . Stop well the Run the bottle. Stir this water with a wooden fpatula . pound it in a mortar. of which you put $ little lefs. Thus ter and cream of tarter. two . . with rain-wa lake. and previoufly digefted together in amatrafs. times experienced by the author. and gum-arabic. taking of this. with a mixture of lintit. tied very clofe. wax. Boil all in a glased pipkin. carmine colour. then throw it into vinegar. and. and pour fome clean and clear warm wa ter over. two ounces . then incorporate . A Make a XXXII. black rofin. roch-alum. and fet it in the fun for fix weeks.iu this new azured water with the former. Repeat this three When calcined. Then grind it on porphyry. and fife times. i . When you {hall have fabdlifed your lapis powder. and pour over a fufiicient quantity of brandy to cover them. little and TRADES. fame of coc clnella urfuta fugarcandy. 71? good way to make carmine. all nearly in equal quantities. feed oil and fpiritof wine. Repeat . on porphyry. three Venice turpentine. and fqueeze over the juice of a lemon. ceed as before. then run it through a cloth into clear water. of fine Venetian Put it in a little varnifhed pipkin.ARTS XXXI.

put in a 'vatnimed pip fcereprefcribed. new wax. and fine rofin. dragon's blood. and throw it again in vinegar. one. little bits. which by little bits. Take nut or lintfeed oil. . other wife male frankincenfe. you have a fine make ultra-* ultramarine of XXXV. rofin. and. by means ef drugs. Melt all thefe ingredi ents. vinegar . cal cine it again as before. and let it diflblve like the other Stir this compofuion with a flick. you may make what is called center-blue. broken in fmall bits. When dry. When all are introdu ced and well difiblved. Break it ia red hot in a crucible. Of the re* jnainder. three ounces of each . fet your. in little till it is cakes. for it does not admit of pulverifation. When done. A very good and experienced pafiil to ^The dofes as for one pound. when a little warm. one after another. and by little at a time. put it in but by little at a time . four ounces of it for every one pound of compofition.7t S E-C RE T S concerning Repeat doing fo. and pound it in a marble mortar with a wooden peftle. four . till the water is no more tainted with any azurine particles. put in the ro fin pulverifed. put inthechalk it gently. into a fine powder. *vi&. Take Another <v try fine and well-experienced ultra- marine. between When red hot. olilan. if it. the Burgundy pitch. and by degrees likewife. &c . throw it in white. XXXIV.wine blafling coals. three ounces . marine of. notwithstanding. one. you add gradually the dofe of dragon's blood powder. you can find. you fet a-drying on paper or you pulverife it. then dry it. two drachms . and there will remain at the bot tom a very -fine Aaure of Ultramarine. azured waters in evaporation. in the fame order as they are That is to fay. Burgundypitch. Should it not pound eailly. till it does at After it has been put iafteafily fubmit to be pulverifed. you muft. As foon as the rofin is melted. pouring left it mould blaze. grind it on a porphyry Hone. repeat again the fame procefs. with and make it the &ne& lapis -lazuli good aquavits. Then gather it up impalpable. kin^ the oil firft . pour Next add the rofin in powder. and if it do not pound yet. which Hates. This being difiblved. then try it again in the mortar. and.

Repeat this operation as till many times as it you find the water coming blue. If it ftick. then. make it into a ball with your hands. as thick as you can. that the whole be moft perfectly united and incorporated. and proceed the fame as for the firft time. Work it a-new as before. and cover k well for fear ofany duft getting at it. throw into it the thick pafte you had previously made of/apis lazuli with bran dy andlintfeed-oil.ARTS which you arc and TRADE S. working it between your fingers. Melt in another glazed pan. however. The way of mixing the lapis with make ultramarine. and over a gentle fire. and one oflint- 2. Then let it remain twenty-four hours. as Stay. put pan a quantity of lukewarm water. when you threw it in water in or der to form it into a ball. the paftil ss not done. proportiona ble to that of the matter. fall from the ftick into a pan or water . with a liquor made of two parts of aquavitc?. 3. a quantity of the be fore-mentioned impalpable powder of lapis lazuli. After the faid twenty-four hours are elapfed. and cover carefully for fear of duft. the paflil> to XXXVI. and you muft let it remain longer on the fire--. Dilute. without the afiiftance bf water. Throw it in a . and when it becomes a little cold. Put new lukewarm water again on the fame paftil. till it does not ftick to your as a proof of its being arrived at its degree of to judge To know it. and work well the whole togeth er with two wooden peftles. you fee whether or not it ftick to them. water. 5.glazed pipkin filled with cold perfe&ion. I. When the paftil is melted. then repeat the trial again. which you fhall have previoufly Then you may keep it as long greafed with lintfeed oil. three or four whether or not your paflil is done. Angers. till the water becomes quite 4. the paftil defcribed in the preceding receipt. and G you perceive . let a drop you pleafe days before ufmg it the firfttime. in this blue. for ufe. Obferve that your paftil be per fectly purified from any particles of water it might have carried away with it. which you will immediately decant off into a chi na bafon. Stir and mix this fo well.

by working it with the hands irillead of peftles. Ultramarine might be drawn from the paftil. is ultramarine of. decant them again with ail the gentlenefs poflible. But. then feverr'-l e q- it rimes tip it becomes in diftilled vinegar. . in in the crucible. 2. The lafij. repeating this fry able. which is the region why the peftles are preferable. there is room to mode of proceeding. dry per When dry. make when . ver again. The firft ultramarine not fo much foas the firft is . 4. Some people make ':heir lapis red hot on the bare think. and gather your powders feparately with the fame numbers on each par cel. But it is crucible. 6. won ered at if it does. and ftriped with or filver. than by the other. as 1. fecond.narine. Qbfer<vatiom on the above procefs. 7. for fear of looiing any of the ultramarine which lies fixed all round the fides and bottom of the bowls. particularly when calcinations are Oil n repeated. which is a convincing proof ihat there is no more any thing good in the paftil. and value. it fatigues a great deal more the articulations by that fort of working. the Now it need not be bits will rjm. decrealing in beauty. for fear of the dull. with a new and foft hair brufh. brufh it down gently to the bot fectly! tom. each into another fimilar veffel. carried off with the decanted When thefe waters are duly decanted o if. each fingle operation might be attended with fome imperfedion . co waters. jnerit. alfo reckoned to be of a good quality. number them by fir ft. and. and let the ultn . much preferable to make it red hot in a 3. though never fo little. the bowls. and when quite clear as when you put them in. the fined neither is . 5. Let thefe waters fettle. and might be. And it goes thus.7'4 SECRETS concerning it begins to turn gray or white. third. is which is of a the beft to fine blue. q^refnlly. becaue. agreeable to that of the bowls whence they come. which lies round them. to avoid rniltakes. sfr. the fecond is the third fo fine as the fecond.gold Th- lapis. that by this coais. ihould the fire make it fplit. Be careful to range in order the different bowls in which you have decanted your tinged waters .

2. to be ufzdfor that pur* Gather in the dimmer. which are at the bottom of the Next to this. you muft do through a new cloth. which prevents the colour from fufFering arty alteration . If . Put the above picked blue leaves in to a marble mortar with a fufficient quantity of that al um water. twajbingy in drawings > inftead of ultramarine. it . over a china bowl. By means of the fame procefs. in china or glafs veiTels. a large quantity of blowarc which grows in the fields among the corn. as well as of the water impregnated with it. 1 To XXXVIII. it over a china or glafs bowl. i is loth too dear. by putting too much of that ingredient. has been XXXV II. Pick them . When pounded. impreg nated with alum. Take a large quantity of the flowers of that name . you may likewife draw the colours from every flower which has any great eclat. Note. Pick well their blue leaves off. 2. /to/*. Obferve that you muft not put much alum in the firft water. exprefs the juice through a new cloth. you darken the tone of the colour. 3. well co vered to fence them againft the duft. if you aredefirous of preferving the brightnefs of the colour for. render thefe colours portable. . as it fometimes happens at the ve : ry fir ft bruife. in the ipring. even after hot in blafling charcoals. as to giveeafily all the juice by exprelfion When you ftrain it. Have lukewarm water impregnated with impalpable powder of alum. pound them in a petal of the flower. pick out the green and the yellow. to foak them only. in which there is water impregnated with the whiteft gum-arabic you can find. that is to fay. You muft not neglect to pound them with alum water. marble mortar. Then. pound them. 'The truefecret of making Ins-green. and throw the remainder away. with a little lukewarm water. Then mix fome gum-arabic water wkh it. and too Jhong.A R T when it S and T R A D E S. 4. till the whole is j . with either a wooden or marble peftle. you fet them a-drying in the (hade.v>ade red preferves its fine colour. Another fecret to compofe a fne blue. fo mafhed.

and deflroy their brightwhich is one of the chief things always required In the in colours. 2. and thereby cauie it to become mouldy. the air. you may. Jbort. you mutt be cautioned at leaft to take care it fhould not be one of walnut-tree wood. or for <wajhing on paper. but which mould not at the fame time flop the exhalation of the liquor. which fill up with clear water . by means of the fame procefs. fome chim Mullar it thus fo long as to bring it to be as ney-' foot. ripe. obtain the colour from garden. ftir and mix all well with a wooden fpatula. bottle. apt to tarniih the colours. the firfl bottle. Set them in veral glafs tumblers to dry it more eafily. and give two or three ftrokes of a peftle more to the whole . on marble. towards the end of autumn. . month of March. put it in a wide-mouthed & fine poffible. When done. but not in the inn. and dark at the fame time. when you fee the fruits have fomented fufficiently to give eailly their juice by exprefllon. drain it through Divide the whole into fea new cloth in alum-water. a little quick lime dud in the mortar. with child's water. and fall to the bottom of the veffel. a XL. fa. becaufe it is nefs. Let the coarieft parts fettle for about half an hour's time. of wallwort's ftalks. after the flowers are pounded. or dou ble violets. and.for draperies and terraces* Take. is the coarfefl biftre. and very Let them rot for five or fix days. and lay fome paper over them to prevent any thing from falling Into the glaffes. ^To make a dark green. whether for the ground* of miniature pidures. in the cellar . XXXIX. in good quantity with their fruits on them. Proceed the fame with refpeft to the fecond bot tle. fnr the wajh. Note. If you mould pound thefe flowers in a wooden mortar. *To make the Biftre. By thefe means. But this is never fo fine nor ib lively. and. you {hall have a colour fit for the warn of a green hue. you may change it by only adding. or. 3. Grind. then. Decant out now the liquor gent What remains in the bottom of ly into another veffel. 1. If you want a tone of colour different from tilenatural colour of the flower. then drain it.76 SECRET S concerning 2.

A fecrst 1 to make Canning. into plantain-water. in a bell-metal mortar. Dilute calcined and pulverifed alum. 77 and after having left this to fettle for three or four days. 3. XLIV. and. and fet it to : V. paler. Thefecretforafine Red for the <wajh. over it as will exceed above it by two lingers. on account of the mercury which enters into its composition. This procefs will give you a very fine red. lively Ifabel colour. Skim it carefully in a glafs veflel. It is into a third.A R T tie. which would undoubted for. you put only one half of yellow. you muft. Stir well with a wooden fpatuh. and two thirds cf red and yellow. then fet it aliquor through a new and flrong cloth gain on the fire to boil. at afmall expence. add one half of yellow. Make a yet quite warm. and pour fo much rofe-water neal. Break and bruife.inftead of half an hour. A lively Ifabel. while it is 1 . forbids the ufe of any coarfe colour. becanfe this laft has too much confidence. Put this to infufe with difUlJed vinegar in a glazed pipkin.pound of gold colour Fernambour^-Brafil. When it boils. For . much preferable for the wafh. XL I i . 3. to dye Jkins or gloves. pour on it white. and another half of red.wine vinegar. Competition of colours. to that which is made with ver milion. draught. in which you boil it for the fpace of a Strain the quarter of an hour. For the fame. 2. to a quan of white. befides tarnifhes too foon. impregnated with Roman alum. and mix fome of the liquor in which you have diffolved the cochineal. -of thus you 3 re to proceed in the manipulation the colours which are intended to ferve in draw ing for wafh whenever you will not have them rife thick above the furface of the paper. decant This gives you the fined biftre. and the froth that will arife is the Carmine. the neatnefs required in a ly look verv bad all . XL I. If to a quantity of white. S and T R A D E it S. you lhail have an Ifabel of a paler hue than the firft. half-a. G 2 XLV. To make a tity XL ill. dry. fubtile powder with any quantity of cochi Put it in a veffel.

and red. fine brown* Burnt umber. To make an very little For an amber . and making the quantity of red equal to^ 1. all darknefsis ftill increafed. and a L. little Thefe ingredients well mixed will red and little white. The paler hue of it is obtained by adding only fome while.. very little black chalk . twice as much. when well in corporated together. will make a fine brown. very little white. For a pale filler t j Take burnt umber ftilllefs a little yellow. you mix a little white and yellow together. amber colour to much yellow. compofition. then add a little fljore red than yellow. and no more red than white. This is made with a little "umber . a little yellow. little white . yellow . Take LIT. For tie flejb colour. red. LI. and a little red. 70 make a fine mujk colour burnt umber . produce as fine a mufk colour as ever was.if. colour. putting no white to the umber you add only fome black chalk. tity This is made darker.78 SECRETS XLV. yellow- Liu. only by adding to it a quan of burnt umber as much yellow . Much *Tke ftra<w colour. XL VI. yellow. 2. c&nctrning colour. and as much red. or nefh colour. imitate well the complexion. by decreaiing the quan of black chalk. ^To make a Frangtpane colour. very great deal of gum. as little red. L VI 1 For the gold colou r. A tity The fame is made paler. I. and three times as much yellow. 2. XL IX. 1. a little white. Its as at much 3. join a little more red. you add white. A* . and no black at all in the above . and this mixture will give you a very fine bright gold colour* . much black chalk. red. X To much To XL VI If. and z. a little black.

2. S and T R A D E Olive colour. in order to incorporate them a pan. and there is no fear of its ever coming off. Then range the grinded colour on a corner of the marble (tone. LVI. colour. have verJigrife di fized water. Let it dry. you may again to dry. VI. Copperplate-prints. foaking it all the while with orange flower Then grind both the gum and the colour to water. and the quarter part of it of red and LIV. with the fame brufh. S. Grind the colours you have pitched upon with perfu med oil of jeffamine. and pafs another coat of this over the white. yellow . an equal quantity as that of the colours. LVH. and twopenny worth of fpike. and pour a difcretionabie quantity of water over Then with a brufh. a frame made precifely to the fize of your Fix it with common flour-pafte. another fimilar coat of the fame dye. lay another of white lead over it. with a foft bru-fh. of gum-adragant. your thumb. well. FQ <varmjb Copperplate. by the white margin on that frame. diluted in mere This being dry alfo. to dilute fufficiently your pafte. When dry. it. rub them Give them again. 7> LIU. luted and grinded with oil of nuts and acoarfe varnifh. To 1. with a iUck. or orange flowers. and as big a* .ART To make a little yellow. Dilute in a as new glazed pipkin. Have print.Prints. Grind. not burnt. and hang them When dry for this fecond time. little white . To Blacken it firit . with black and size. then lay the follow ing tranCparent varnifti on it. For the Wainfcot colour. or varnifk. little umber . Put all into gether. which is to be made with out fire. An the olive colour. the colour is fufficiently fixed. and hang them in the air to dry. LV. about a quarter of a pound of Venice turpentine. Much warnijh a Chimney. and of red half the quantity of yellow. rub your gloves or fkins over with this tinged liquor. yellow . When this coat is dry. take umber. How to make Skins and Gloves take thefe Dyes. drefs them.

LIX. and. of wine. to mix or unite them. You with the pencil the wrong iide of the print.xto as SECRETS much o concerning bo> er turpentine. mixture of yellow and white lead . a -ikies which you want to exprefs. a ! little . with a ' Dilute one quarter of a pound of Venice turpentine. you mix fome blue eerufe with white lead . This varuifh being no thick of'anepg. t ' ' Slti . 3. quired than umber.' Prepare. you apply them on pallet-knife. and makes the work fainted ivood. If too gill. and half a gill. which mix with year pencil according to the For the green of 'degree of rednefs you will have it. LVlil. in irnmitation tures in oil colours. and may le Itfuits alfo pittures and applied on the right fide ofIt. firfl. bsck 2. lav with your brufh a coat file of the pn. for the fined green. of fpirit thick. dimimifhing or augmenting one of =the two. tree-le-ives. not upright. according to the darknefs or lightncfs of the For the diftances. Hinv 1. ready pre pared from* the colourman . ufe a little oil of nuts. oils. which you take up with the point of the Then with the pencil. and then proceed thus : To The fielh>colour is made with a little white and "Vermilion. you muft work them on the in the following manner. and. according to the circumftances paint woods and trunks of trees. ad d a little rnore of this lalt . appear as feining as glafs. if not enough.. you muft have mountain-green. with thefe two colours only. you alter your blues to various degrees of fhades. rothing more is re Toexprefs fky-colours and clouds. your col ours on a pallet. forne verdigriie : As for the lighter fhades of thefe col ours. or thereabouts. and. and fo on for the other colours you may want. and. A <varni/h which fuits allforts of Prints. Fieri ft t it to dry. &e. paint thde prints.nit enough. Itftands water. to colour thtfe prints.t. you only add fome yellow to either of the above To two. - are to compofe them yourfelfon the pnllet . pafs of Pic coat of fpirit of wine on the whole. or thcrcant of wine. it iliould not dry quick oil i T immediately. more or lefs.

in a glased pipkin. After having laid on both fides of the print. it will mine like glafs. Then before it is quite fo. To make f the parts. in order to make it tranfparent. then pofiibie. whereon you ihall lay thefe gold leaves. to have thicknefs than the apparent one of milk. board behind the print. when dry. one ounce and a half of each . lay on it. Pour aquafortis in this pan or veflel. as foon as this is nearly dry. maftich in tears. that you may get the pnnt in and out of it on its flat. L XI. Let thisvefTel be alfo as wide at top as it is at bottom. 2. with out bending inn the leaft. this being dry. one coat of the varnifn defcribed in the above Art. After it and then by the lay another . fpirit of the fame. the guns of a Print. you bring it 8* no more of the former. . firft coat on the glafs. and. and.ARTS Iktle and fo that TRADES. two drachms. let it cool. it will then be You may alfo put a pafteas good as anycrown-glafs. as neatly as prepared as follows. Venice turpentine. the print.. will appear like true maffive gold on the right iide. Ivii. mit of the print flat with all eafe in its full fize. A curious fecret to make a print imitate the painting on glafs. one coat of the varnifh defcribed in the preceding Art. to fupport it the better in its frame. previoufly Have a glazed veflelfo broad at bottom as to ad 3. and of wine. LX. you have only to lay on the right fide of it. and lay on it two coats of the following varnifh. let it dry a little while. you need only lay another coat on it. Lay one coat of this on the right fide of the print. 1. has boiled the prefcribed time. preffmg gently on it with the cotton you hold in your hand. Put on the fire. Chufe a crown-glafs of the fize of your print . If it be not to your liking. 2. appear in gold. equal parts. ke it out. enough to cover all the bottom then lay the engraved fide of your print on that aquafortis* T. four ounces . By thefe means all 1. Now when this is all thoroughly dry. and let 6oil for the fpace of one hour. lix. lay fome gold in leaves on the wrong fide of the print.

there will remain nothing but fairly the printed parts. 1 LX 1. 5. and wipe the aquafortis off gently with foft rags.8s SECRETS concerning out. agreeable to the beauty of. your intended print. . the paper off the glafs. fcrape. 4. after you have fcratchedoff all the paper. without making any wrinkles or bladders. Another the to fire. on account ef the heat of the glafs. wet your finger in common water. When it is perfectly dried in that fituation. before the fecond coat of varmfh be quite dry. and moiilening the back of the print. on which neither duft nor any To do thing elfe will be able to caufe any damage. this. and then lay it by the 2. Heat before the print. equally. the thefame purpofe. and allowing time between each coat to dry. and you will have a choice of beautiful pictures. then fteep it two or three times in three 'different clean frefli waters. one part of turpen Then lay two coats of tine with four of fpirit of wine. will fpread more eafily. which have received no imprefTion from the engraving of the plate. On them you may paint in oil with and a bru/h. 3. in a matrais. either how to paint or draw. crown glafs of the fizc of and then rub it over with Venice turpentine. As foonas the fecond coat is dry you may lay OR water-colours on the print. By thefe means. with your nail. or rather more. for about half a quarter of an hour . a which. lay the right fide on the beforementioned glafs. wet your finger. there is no need of knowing. and while it is ftill moiil enough for the print to Hick upon it uniformly. rub it all off. and wipe it each time in the fame manner. Boil next right fide on the giafs. and fmoothly. 1. Boil. the prints ufed. This being done. in fpirit of wine. and inbalneo marine. according to tafte and judge ment. fo that there remain nothing but the ftrokes of the engraving. LXIIL n* . and the moil bright and lively colours you will have pidlures. for about a quarter of an hour. 4. this compofition on the back of the print. and moiflening the print on the back part in all the white places. This glafs being cold.

83 of chalking. the black fide of which now lies uppermoft towards you. recommended. S and T R A D E S. with line minikin pins. going gradually and orderly for fear of forgetting fome places. they will ibon become able to flrike out themfelves fome good And to obtain that point. with 3. a while in that way. flip it. way not foil it defign. is With a foft. and only the black lead colour. with a crumof ftale-bread. on white paper. all over the turns of the prints. Lay this meet. When they lhall have pra&ifed for. on the under part of that which lays at top. beginners fhould firft ft LXIV. forthofe who are not ac quainted with drawing* They who are not acquainted with the principles of drawing. you wafh it with India ink. and fix thefe three meets together by the four corners. cut to the fize of the print. in preffing Now a tr an/parent paper to chalk with. on thefe outlines. mailers of chalking neatly. and one of the befl. HQVJ to prepare . When the whole is finifhed.ART LXIII. you will find all the outlines of the print moft exaclly drawn. fo that nothing of the paper can be feen. unpin the papers . on upon the face of the print. where they fliall have *The method nothing more to do afterwards than fhade. and more eafily. lay another fheet of clean paper. And to {hade this defign. and gently. may amufe themfelves with chalking fome beautiful prints. after which. rub one fide of a white meet of paper. or colours. or ivory point. you rub off clean all the ufelefs marks of the pencil. black lead pen cils. that it and on this fheet. and. and a brufh. pafs a flroke India ink and abrum. the follow piece of defign. 2. In order to render themfelves fooner. . You may now. and leave none but thofe marked with ink. or with ink and a pen . and on the edges. in the fame manner as they ke done in the original. fo th^t the iheets may not vary one from ano ther. which would quite confufe and mar the whole the clean fide. which may be prevented by laying a fiat ruler acrofs the print under your hands. take a blunted needle. ing method 1. and not to go out of the fine turns and outlines of a drawing.

we thought it would not be unacceptable to the public to be'apprifed Of another. as parts of the ilrokes as them of courfe an opportunity of by practice. and even with boldnefs. and entertaining. with India ink. lines. had not at hand * LXV. tc leufed inftantly. if youwafh that fame deiign. <vix. and truth. a pencil. which pafs on both fides of the paper. with a brufh. ufeful. provided you apply with attention. With a fponge. then. rag. and rub them over with oil. and more fpeedy method of making a tranfparent paper. This method will certainly prove very agreeable. for example. you may learn to draw very neatly. or any thing.of turpen To tine. wipe it with a handful of the . while fixed on the original print. gives concerning it lets to prepare a tranfparent paper. mixed in double the quantity of oil of nuts. Thus pradliling often. 2. Wing glad of copying a deiign. Another. of the defignlaid under. deep a fponge or feather in it. When you want to ufe it. pafs over all the ftrokes. caufe the paper to imbibe that mixture. feather. acquiring. as foon as done. The above receipt for making tranfparent paper for drawing being attended with fome difficulty. and . as in a cafe. in the expreffion of all the turns of a piece of drawing. 1 Have. varrfimed. You tti ay even thus learn to (hade with neatnefs. lay it on a print. {beets of fine and very thin paper.84 firft SECRETS know how them fee the minutelt glafs. or fpirit. one or feveral. more fpeedy. which. where any one. and turns. by means of which. it may be made and ufed directly. through a follows. thn let it dry. or a pen. paper. the length of time which n takes to dry. for thofc who have not the patience to learn by the common me thod. and for a certain while. which feems too tedious to fome. and noway inferior to the other. in a hurry. . and are blefTed with fome (hare of memory. fpread Hntfeed oil on both fides of any common thin iheet of paper. and generally difgufls beginners. a correlnefs. This preparation then is as <be it whatever it will. Then.precifiort. or tranfparent.

A R T
'

S

and

T R A D E
inftahtly

S,

85
imme

the foft rags which are (craped off from leather at the
tanner's.
diate ufe.

The paper

is

dry and

fie

for

Note. Nothing elfe can fupply the tanner's leather oil from the tags, as nothing c6<^cifoak t^e fuperfluous
It is that pap'er fo fait, and fo thoroughly. it Id quick, and makes it' fit for inftant ufe.

which dries

IXVf A <varnift} to
.

print which

'has

render tranj'parent the imprejpon of a been glued on glafs] and the paper
Ixi.

and Ixii. of the fame, -Dilute all well together, and lay one coat of it on the tflrokesfcf engraving, which are left fixed on the glaia.
fcratchcd off as mentioned in Art.

Take turpentine, and

a very little

oil

VII. For painting on

LXVII. How
*i7ion fait.

to

draw

on

Grind lamp-black with gum-water and Tome coinand a pen, a hair pencil, or any glafs ; and afterwards {hade and 'paint it with any of the following
this

With

thing you pleafe,

draw your defign on the

competitions.

ijXVlII.
I.

A colour for grounds

on glafs.

Take

iron filings, and

Dutch yellow beads, equal

parts.
tle

If you want it to have a little red call, add a lit With a Heel fmillar, grind all thefe copper's filings. together on a thick and flrong copperplate, or on por phyry. Then add a little gum-arabic, borax, common fait and clear water. Mix thefe a little fluid, and put the compofiticfn in- a phial forufe, z. When you come to make ufe of it, y6u have nothing to do but with a hair pencil lay it quite flat on the xkfigu y-ou {hall have drawn the day before; and having left
1

dry alfo-fer another day, with the quil|^m a tur key, the nibofjphich fhallnot be fplit, you heighten-the lights in the fame manner as you do with Crayons on blue
this to

Whenever you put more coats of the above paper. corn portion one upon another, the made, you muft be And when this is fenfible, will naturally be ftronger.
fini'fned

you lay your colours

for

garments and complex

ions as follows.

LX1X.

H

Preparation

86

SECRETS
LXIX.

concerning

Preparation of lake, for glafs.

Grind the lake with a water impregnated with gum and fait ; and then make ufeofit with thebruih. The fhading is operated by laying a double, treble, or more coats of the colour, where you want it darker. And
fo
it is

of

all

the following corn positions of colours.
.

L X X. Preparation of the blue purple, for gLifs Make a compound of lake and indigo, grinded toge ther with gum and fait water and life it as direfted in
;

the preceding article.

L X X 1 Preparat io n of the green , fo r glafs Indigo mixed with a proportionable quantity of gam boge, and grinded together as above, will anfwer the intended purpofe.
.

.

LXX Gamboge
I

F

.

grinded with

Preparation cftheyellcnvfor the fame. ialt water only.

LXX11I.

You have
a pen.

Preparation of t be white. only to heighten much the white parts with
<varnifi to be laid

on glafs after painting. Boil, in oil of nuts, fome litharge, lead filings, and white copperas calcined. When done and cold, lay it all over the colours which you put on the glafs.

LXXlV.

The proper

LXXV. How

to

paint on

/#/}

without fire.

Take gain arabic and ciiflblve it in water with com mon fait, bottle, and keep it. With this liquor, if you
grind the colours vou intend to paint with, they will fix and eat in the t^lafs. Should you find they do noi enough, increaie only the dole of fait.

VIII. Preparations of colours of water, and crayons.

all

forts for

oil,

LXXVf. An
Take two

oil to

grind
to

colours

with, when the works

are much expaftd

the injuries of ibe weather. ounces ofmaitich in drops, very clear,

and

Then put in a well-glazed grind it with lintfeed oil. pipkin any quantity of that oil, and fetit on the fire to boil. By little and little introduce in that boiling oil
the

AR T

S

and

T R A D E

S.

87

the abo ve prepared maflicb, flirrino; well

the whole to

mix and incorporate

it

better.

When done,

take

it

off

from the fire, and let it cool. Such is the preparation of oil with which you are to grind your colours, when they are to be much expofed to the injuries of the wea
ther, for they will refill
it.

LXXVII. To
1
.

marble axd jafper paper.

you want to employ (fuch as Jake, mafficot, indigo, yellow and red ocher, etc. etc.) with bullock's gall ; grind each feparately, and keep
all

Grind

the colours

them fo. Then have a large and wide pan filled with lukewarm gum-water. Sur well that water with a flick. While it is thus in great motion, and your colours being
ready under your hand, with a large brufh take of each much as the tip of the brufh will carry, and touch only the furface of the water with it. The
feparately, as

colours will immediately expand. Each colour requires a particular brufh to itfeif* Therefore, with another brufh, take of another colour, and do the fame; and,
till you have put you have deftined for the^purpofe. 2. When the water ceafes to turn, you will plainly perceive all the variety occsfioned by the different co lours. Then, taking your fheet of paper, lay it flat on the water, leave it there for about two or three minutes, and, without taking it out, give it one turn round on

with another, of another, and fo on,
all

on your water

thofe

the water, then pull it by one of the edges to the fide of the pan, wafhit, dry it, and burnifh it afterwards. Note. The paper muftbe chofen good, and the water
fized with

gum- adragant.

LXXVII1. To
Take

clean

pMures.

the picture out of its gilt frame. Lay a clean towel on it, which, for the fpace of ten, fourteen, fixteen, or eighteen days, according as you find it necefia-

you keep continually wetting, till it has entirely drawn out all the filthinefs from th,e pifture. Then, with the tip of your finger, pafs fome lintfeed oil which
ry,

has been

fet a

picture will

become

long while in the fun to purify as fine as new.

it,

and the

LXXIX.

Another

88.,

SEC

R-E T

S

concerning

LXXIX. Another for the fame purpofe. Putinto two quarts of the oldeft lye one quarter of a pound of Genoa foap, rafped very fine, with about a pint of fpirit of wine, and boil all together on the fire. Strain it through a clotsh, ,and let it cool. Then with a brufh, dipped in that compofition, rub the picture allo-* Do the fame again once more, and ver, and let it dry. When dry, dip a little cotton- in oil of let it dry too. Let this dry anut, and pafs it over all the picture. and, afterwards, warm a cloth, with which rub gain the picture well over, andit will be as fine as juft out of
;

:

>

thtvpainter's hands.

LXXX.

Afecret

to

render old pictures, asfne as new.

pipkin, for the fpaceof a quarter of an or, one quarter of a pound of grey or Bril-afh, and a little Geeoa foap. Let it cool, ib as to be only lukem, and waft your picture with it, then wipe it/
Boil in a
,

new

.:

feme olive
5

oil

on

it,

will

make

it juft as fine as

and then wipe new.

it

off again.

LXXXf. An

oil to

prevent piftures from blackening.
to

/<

mayfer<ve alfo to make cloth gainft ivef weather*

carry in the pockety a-

Put fome nut, or lintfeed oil, in a phial, and fet in When it has depofued its dregs at the fan to purify it.' the bottom, decant it- gently into another clean phial, and fet it again in the fan as before. Continue fo do
ing,
till it

you

will

make

And with that drops no moref&ces at all. the above-defcribed compofitions.

oil,

LXXXII.

A <wajb

to clean pictures.

and wood alhes ; in this ^lake a lye with clear water the pi&ure over, and it will dip a fponge, and rub The fame maybe done withcham-r cleanfeit perfectly. it ber-lye only; or otherwiie, with white wine, and will have the fame effect.
Another au^y. an handkerchief, and rub the picture Then pafs a coat of gum-arabic water on the

LXXXIIF.

Put
with

filings in

it.

LXXXIV.

Another

.

A R T

S

and

T R A D E

S,

89

L XXXIV. Another way. Beat the white of an egg in chamber-lye, and rub the picture with it.

LXXXV. A very

curious

and fmple way ofpreventing
or any

files from fitting

on piftures,

other furniture,

and making their dung there. Let a large bunch of leeks foak for five or fix days in a pailful of water, and wafti your pifture, or any other
piece of furniture, with it. near any thing fo wafhed.
tant and well experienced.

The
This

flies

will

never come

fecret is very

impor

LXXXVI. To
Put fome
i/atis,

make

indigo.

otherwife woad, or glaftum, with There will rife flacked lime, to boil together in water. a fcurn, which being taken oil, and mixed with a little
{larch,

makes

the indigo.

make a yellow. the luteola dyes yellow, becomes green by the woad, org/aftum. Whence we may juftly conclude, that green is not a fimple colour, but a mixture of blue and

LXXXVTI. To

What

yellow
white.

;

as the yellow itfelf

is

a

compound of red and

azure of mother-of-pearl. quantity of fuperfine tefted iilver inlaminas. Put it a little while in vinegar ; then, taking it out of it, drew over the laminas fome pounce-powder to alcoholife them. Next ftratify them in a crucible ;

LXXXViTI. An

Take any

and when red hot, take them off from the will have a fine azure.

fire,

and you

LXXXiX.

A <white for painters^
for ever.

which may

be preferred

Put into a large pan three quarts of lintfeed oil, with an equal quantit) of brandy, and four of the beft double dialled vinegar ; three dozen of eggs, new laid and whole; three or four pounds of mutton fuet, chopped fmall. Cover all with a lead plate, and lute it well. Lay this pan in the cellar for three weeks, then take fkil fully the white off, then dry it. The dofe of the compofition for ufe is fix ounces of that wMte to every one of bifmuth. XC. An

H

2,

than a fortnights DiHblve in very ftrong vinegar. Another <white for ladies* paint. over it. and. . Gather wallwort's grains between green and ripe. and roch-alum. and repeat this proctfs as many times as you can get any azure by it..90 S FCR ET To S concerning XC. in fubkeep as long as that men tioned in the preceding receipt. Re-melt aixd wafh theirs again. Cover the pot. and ten or fifteen days afterwards take off the azure. and as powder. Then add four as follows. which you will find about the lami ( 2C! I. 3. and. the fire a little . Befides gem-falt. then waih them. and lute it well. made ounces of ammoniac tile fait. good azure. Melt thsnx both together. A Take two ounces done in hfs. When they have and bake or ftew them in a pan. 111 !.iilyer. hogVlard add one of a kid. its colour will never change. . Grind all together. Put this in anew v pipkin . Replace things as before . The pomatum which. Have next dog's dung very ry fine. of each one ounce. you will find in the matrafs as beautiful an azure as the very ultramarine itfelf. fulphur and am moniac fait. XC Pulverife it ve dry. as much gem-falt and roch-alum. as this pafleof painters do their colours. as it will be able to diffolve. and will keep for ever very fine. This white will muchoffulphur. ladies make ufe offer is painting four parts of. and fift it through a 81 k ileve. An a&ure froitefil ver>> nas. Then grind it on a marble with the wallwort's juice and a mullar. 2. and you will find a very fine azure colour. Increafe. ten days after wards. To make an azured wafer. ftrain them through a cloth. Now. boiled a confiderable time. XCI. When cool. and keep the juice in a glafs phial . the fame again . The filver laminas may fteep in the vinegar if you think proper. fome likewife diffolv alkali in the viiregar. hang up laminas of the fined teited. when you fee an aztired fume arising. of quickfilver . Bu ry it in the cellar . andputhto digeftina matrafs over a flow heat. and. take the matrafs oiF from the fire.

der into the. and flop the fire. XCV. then the az. with cold. S. an incorporation of three ounces of verdigrife. reit for a Put this compofition into a few days. &c. cotton. all together. by putting phiai to ioak. Now take it and work it with lukewarm water firfl.water in which the ammoniac fait was dif- folved. Pulverife and XC V I Another way. and ikim it . which youdiffolve in a triol. and of an equal quantity of ammoniac fait which you dilute with a little tartar-water. Leave this to infufe for the fpace of forty-sight hours. mix well together one part of ammoniac Then fait. fine azure. to flop and lute well. you will XCIV. Take ter. it in a and T R- A D E. Another way of making azure. and you will have a . and. XCVII. is to boil a little white honey in tha \vater. and fpoil their azure entirely. or There are fome who abfurdly warn it with lye.ure will be done. two . one ounce of vi Put this pow and one and a-ha'f of quick lime. When done. and then . of the bulk of a filbert ammoniac fait. pour over it oil of tartar enough to make a clear paitfc of it. fuch as thread. and two. with a little cerufe. and take it out with it alfo. and wherr that water . and let it glafs. which lute well with the Put this matrafs on a mild and flow lute of fapience. Another way. you will find a very fine azure at the bottom.of verdigrife. whe*n you fee a white fume beginning to rife. a drone: lime-water . indeed the only preparation allowable. fa\$&*' evicvum> one. Put this in a glafs veffcl. you may dye whatever with it. cloth. ammoniac fait. Pulverife the whole. break it. 91 Now. and at the end of that lerm the azure mall be done. but they moll undoubtedly What is moftadvifable. four parts. which take care.A RT & 5. if you tinge any water with this. and put the powder in a rnatrafs. Note. fo as to raake a thick pafteof it. Takefublimed mercury. put it in an oven along with the bread. When the matrafs is cold. fire . common half-pint glafs tumbler of wa Then pound and fife. A fine Make azure.

and you will get a rnoft beauti ful white.iv without either ink or pencil.nk. wards in a bottle. oil cut it open and take verdigrife. to the reduction of one half. CIIl. wherein you CI. which <we call Browfl Stil-de-grain. either in or water. quarts of the ftronge ft vinegar. Grind the finett white lead in flake you can find. then wafh it a-new.tion four or five times. mixture of cochineal powder and burnt alum. will ' p. Grind the verdigrife with vinegar. water becomes lukewarm. through a cloth. This a fine colour. it is u- And to gamboge. an filter it after to one half. and. Put this a-foaking for twelve hours in two place. To make an admirable white had. . & fet to dry on render tiles. fed with gum. fmall tied bags. but the other XCVill. Pour the water off by inclination. pounded and fifted into a fubtile fo as to make a thick pafte. which you putfinto powder. Rui> a fheet of paper with tripoly. Afecrtt to dra. one pound ofMontpelier verdi and half a pound of white tartar from the fame grife. fine liquid green. then reduce it by boiling Let it reft forf. You will then have a very C.vo days. when done. the ftone with vinegar. Wafh it well in a panful of water. The preparation ofverdigrife. you may put fomc a fine vermilion. it will give Stifle it quite hot in rofe or plaintain water. To make the keep it for ufe. fit it out. Mix *.f2 laft SECRETS may it concerning it. and grind it again with frelh vinegar. you the-finefl vermilion in the world. Jl fine to work with. as you like. wafh the azure with contribute to give will certainly hurt it. Bruife and boil in three quirts of water four ounces of Strain all French berries. Then. well together. and put in this* juice a difcretionable quantity of whitening. Repeat this opera. it When dry. fit fir oil painting and colouring cf prints. XC X. with any blunt Make a p [L ^ ^ finer. on It will immediately turn black. and put it in a Bake it as you would piece of brown bread dough. and let it fettle. I bread .

fome tobacco pipe clay. and cut it in ths make your flowers Grind what colours you propofe to make let ufeof. -you add gamboge water s tinged with a litt!e> faffron. I> 2 S. Whatever yea CIV. with clean water. with. fhape. his. 'To render the ft one. CV. dilute them. Set the work. and when they are a little thick ened and consolidated. ons 9 as 'very bard as red chalk. or lights and fhades. on the Hone. the colours ftiouJd run. when dry. if. to the oraage colour you muft add fame minium to it. for the chiarcs. and. and lay them civ with the brufli.in the open air for fear them dry. on the (tone. and Then you roll each cray e/curos. CVI. 93. To make an Get a iheet of form. common water. You muft be attentive to make crayons of va rious degrees of hues in each colour. to present them from blackening. and figure. Mix. put a difcretionable quantity. or in thefun and then you may ufe them with fatisfa&ion. each apart. and eachfeparately. Note. Grind. with liquid varniih. form your trace will be vifible. in> grinding it. miiih drying them before a gen-* tie fire. with your firft white pafte. as much embody as will the make it of a higher or paler hue. brother te prince Palatin. With refpect. fo as to make a pafteof it.a very valuable compofuion. Then take Separately each colour. and grind them. J! <v ery valuable fecret to make exceeding good cray* This fecret is of the difco~ of Prince Robert. Imitation of enamel on tin* for chimney** branches* &C. fo fine as to fift them through a filk fieve. :. : it muft be confefied. and fet them to dry on a fheet of paper for twodays in the (hade. of orpins . on between two boards very clean. block-tin very clean. 3^ For the yellow.A-RTS-and T R A blunt point. you chufe to and other things. of each of the colours. This preparation extends only to the re-d.cinnabar and vermilion fner . and whole with a little common honey and gum-arabic water. at the fame time. You raife the hue of the itoae-vermilion. drawing on it. 2. To com plete their drying lay them before the fire. then When yoa want to employ them. 1.

and throw in fixteen hour. a little hazel-tree ftick. not quite fo blafting as the firft . CVII. then dry it. boiling for half a quarter of an Take it off from the fire. throw in one ounce of the Stir often with fineft cochineal. grains of Roman alum in powder. and no foap. to draw as ftrong a tindure from it as you Then have white lead. cleaned and wafhed as the firft. fill it with fpring or river water. fire. (tripped of its peal.94 SECRETS cenccrmng Take the fined orpine in cakes. and when it begins to boil throw in a drachm of ckouan in fine powder. puiverifed very fine. and fet it to dry on paper. then throw in itrain this iixty grains ofautour. true free efs ufedin the compofition of the er n carmine. decant oat gently your tincture . till you have obtained the defired point of colour. where they will be perfcclly free from duft. it. holding fully Walh it with boiling water. as you do with every other fort of colour. and prepared after the method above mentioned for the orpine). pulverife and wfe 4. and let boil gently for near a quarter of an hour . Grind and dry it again. then drain it imme diately through a clean cloth. poflibly can. then quarts. very clean and filter ed. and grind it well with water. and keep it on the fame degree of fire. prepared as follows. that the carmine may have time to make a precipitation. which you boil very quick for near a quarter of an hour. warned with lye. new and perfectly clean. Make it in little cakes. Eaft a glazed pipkin. take French forrel and boil it by itfelf in water. wjien it be gins to give iigns of boiling. capable to contain more than three pints of liquor aPlace thefe in a room. 2. in fubtile powder. and repeat this operation with the forrel tinclure. (dried in cakes. and. and grind it a-new with this forrel tincture. and receive it in another new glazed Put this on a pipkin. At the end ofihis term. orpine you can find. and let them reft there for a week. For ihegridelin. and receive it in two different large china bowls. Then Have two Engliih water through a cloth waihed in lye. piece. The I. Set it on blafting coals. quite new. When dry. and not with any foap.

Eight or ten days afterwards. which the carmine has been 4. and keep it as perfectly clean. you may add fome more . again the tincture which is in the fecond bowls. and you may fqueeze it into another empty bowl. decant 3. it will help a great deal the precipitation of the colour. inro a new varniihed pipkin. by boiling it to that effect for five or fix minutes. In order to bowls. take it off immediately. Dip your fponge into very clear and pure water. taking great care in not car it fo gently that the liquor may very cleanly. if you only approach it to the fuperfke of the tinctured water. . Ifyou diiTolve one drachm of mineral cry ftal into this tindure. in the following manner. & decanting. which procure you again another carmine Should darker. forking and preifing it alternately till you have rendered it very foft. gather it with a little brufh. and with a great deal of care* take the water off from your china 5. more or lefs. which (hall have been left in the bot tom of your bowls. and vaporife the liquor gently. which is at the bottom. you might make ufe of another method.ARTS tincture into and TRADE S. it will immediately fill itfelf with it. left it fhould touch the carmine. as we faid before. but gently. fhade the carmine. Should the water you have thus drawn out be ittil tinged. there happen any rnoi^nrfs on your lail cups. avV. Then Now. put Into fevv-rrtl final! china cups. from which you takeout afterwards the water with a fponge. in decanted for this fecond time. and there work it well with your hand. and place in the fun i>) to dry. 95 fize as two other China bowls. in the fame manner as the firft. on the fire. Then fft the pipkin. prefsand fqueezeit quite dry in a clean towel. for no doubt but it would carry feme along with the water. till you have got it all out of the firft bowls taking care every time you approach it to the furface of the water. till the ground remains in the ccnThis pap-like ground mult then be iiftence of a pap. to do Then letting dry in a ry the caVmiae along with it. of the fame the two former. 6. then dry and gather the carmine. thus repeating the fame procefs. and much lefs valuable than the firft. a very fine and clean fponge.

and let it fettle. and. tc Put it. By thefe means you will have very fiae crimfon carmine. Then wring well your bag again. above the pan-wherein the tincture did Difiblve. Set a large ilone or the above-mentioned jelly-bag. and let it cool fo as to be able to keep your finger in it without fcalding. take it off the fife. with one ounce of finely pulverifed cochineal. 'fpring that is it may*more readily melt. to exprefs all the alum's diilolution from it into your tincture. take the bag. 3. if you chufe. keeping ftirring all the while with a flick. in order to pafs it through a cloth. and let . previoufly diluted by degrees witii fome of thefamelye. Boil the whole for thefpace of a quarter of an liour. 1. irtade^f doth. add one drachm 0f terra merita in fine powder. at the fame time with that of the cochineal . a new glased pipkin. fame bag at two feet diftance. and pour all your tincture in it. when all all is to throw off the dregs. and do fo till the whole is pafTedthrough. which put in a kettie-witli four quarts of faring water. infide and -outfide. When it is in thatflatc. it will render your lake the reder Wi. then take it -off from the firr. and render it perfectly clear.. *cr Now hang again and wring it quite dry. 2. {train through a cloth. The proccfs olfer^edin making the lake. Setit a-boiling for half a quarter of an^ hour.6 S E C R E T ' S cencetning more it mineral cry ftal to it again . Take one pound of Alicant k--ii or Bril-aih. and now is. and never ceafe to flir with a ftick all the while it is on the*fire. in clear water. and warn this well drained. next. thereabouts. while you itir with a flick what runs from it into your tincture. CVI1 1. in about two 'quarts of warm run. turn it well. boil it as before. pan under the bag to receive the tin&ure which {hall Jilter -it . When this di'iTolution no more than lukewarm. . pul-" verifed. hang your bag again over it. If it . havefonrebody to pour it for you in the above jelly-bag.the tincture cool. in filter it. water iix ounces of Roman alum well pounded.en the whole fhall have boiled the prefcribed time >ef half a quarter of an hour. Have another ftone pan like the ftrft.You may. throw it in a jelly bag. and wafh it again afterwards in clear water. and the tincture froths no more. as before.

rafping the fofteil partof a dozen of found or cuttle fifh bones. pour over Let this infufe it two quarts of ilrong wine vinegar. howe ver. run the liquor through a clean cloth. Take the pot off from the fire . at leaft. laid on plaiftered flones. During that fpace of time you muft. Boil it next for half an hour. which. in fmall bits. 1. it ces fhould continue to run tinged. you may then let it go fo . and flir the contents. then fUr and mix it well in the whole quantity of tincture. without the affiftance of any heat for three whole days. and the ftronger the colour.ARTS it and TRADES. and. put your pot half-way in. Put this in a new and glazed pipkin I by . re.pound it in tar. or where. till it nearly boils . carefully ftir this matter. and. 2. you cover it with its lid. which you fill with cry fand as high as three fingers from the brirn. add this powder to it. then pour it again in the bag where the lake is. and let it (land for a week. with a bit of cane. that the alum may the more perfectly be diflblved. and does not even flain the paper. till you fee a froth rifirg on the top of the compofition . however.pouring again and again what ihall run firft from it. CIX. can find. then add one ounce of pulverifed Roman alum. after having repeated this three or four times. 4. In this fand Place all on a charcoal fire. when immediately taking the pot off from the fire again. 3. Put it indifferent retorts. To make the fne columbine lake. diffolve two or three oun more of pulverifed Roman alum in about two quarts of that very tinged water. and . Have next a glazed pan. four times a-day. then. and let it dry in the fhnde where there is no duft. you may preferve it from any. till it runs quite clear. with a box-fpoon take it. Take half-a-pound of the fineft Brafil wood you Cut it an iron mor . with the cane above-mentioned. and fpread it on pieces f cloth. and conti nue o to do till itabfolutely does run clear. 97 run clear like water. Then let well drain the lake which is in the bag . If. and boil it again for the fpace of ihree quarters of an hour. Replace the pot on the fire. put it again in the bag over the ether. taking the pot off from the fire. and fet them half-way in your fand again. if not.

add two ounces of Tcermes in grain. tion in a (tone paa. and keep it there till it begins to fimmer . take ri water. tte the fine 1. then {train the li quor through a cloth. retorts The rcfidue which is found at the bottom of the ought not to be thrown away. Let the pearl afhes foak thus ver. chufe. and keep it there for three days. Venetian lake. if let it reft. taking it off from the fire. during which you are to keep up the fame degree of Iteat. fet the copper on the and boil it for one quarter of an hour.9$ by SECRETS this time. receipt V CXI. But it rnuft not be ufed till twelve days after. Replace all on the before. you muft take care it is you warm. for miniature-fainting. as during which time Note. This water may very properly be ufed as a walh to give an agreeable bloom to pale faces. is When the tincture in the retorts. pour what ran thick in the firft pan in the bag aWhen all is new filtered and clear. concerning ought to be quite cold. 2. put in each of them half a gill of lye. Put. all of them well pounded into powder. well which muft have been previoufly vvaflied. one ounce QiFerHam Pour three pints of burg Brapl wood. as it is very good to paint in water colours. the lye did not run quite clear. after which.e red water. pour over it fix gallons of fpring Should you rot have any fpring water. with fix drachms of fine white ifinPlace the pot on warm afhes. 2. CX. let it cool. made with vine-branch allies. but-no pump water. changing the pan onty under neath. and the lake is done. copper again. fpring water on it. fire. then. at firft. put it in the gain. you may. Ncte. filter it till it does . of Put it in of good pearl afhes. bottle and flop it well^and fet it in the fun for a week before ufing. and then. When you put the powder of cuttle-fim bones in the tincture. 1 . then. glafs chopped very fmall. When the ifinglafs is melted. finely rafped. and receive the filtra fire. Take one pound twenty-four hours. in a new glazed pipkin. Then filter this lye through a cloth jelly-bag. gently to the reduction of one half. a large copper . and three drachms of bo Boil this rax. If. A fin. one of alum. .

cleaned. When nothing runs any moreoi^tof the bag. aetih*. without being at the trouble of cleanfing it. o gH>ocrwc31 ~ *~~< ' irTpi^**^! r Put the filtered nnc* fcoured. Then filter again this lye tinged with fcarlet colour. and ftir it to run all together. Then ftrain It quickly. boil. . *** **. ^ . directly into it. Diflblve. to avoid all ny colour thcfe inconveniences. keeping fUrring all the while. 6. next. which you boil to whitenefs. over the fire. ltrincr. that in order your bag may ferve you both for the lake and tindture. would entirely fpoil the lake. fchree ingers thick. S md TRADES. you muft not filter through it the fecend For fhould you pour this lye in which the fcarlet is. and about half a foot fquare. boil again. throw in 5 again half a pint of quite clear and pure fpring water.. the lake is left in it. Take it out with a box fpoon. in another quart of fpring water. and wiped dry. in the jelly-bag. and in a copper or glazed earthen fauce-pan. and fpread it on plaifter flat Hones. and afterward^. and pour it. vered . 99 it wafhed. all together for the fpacepf quite fubfided. which would give you an infinite deal of trouble to get out of the bag. along with the above diiTolution of Roman alum. and prefs well the flocks. lye from the copper. half a pound of Fernamburg $n2///vvood. lialf a quarter of an hour.-. and receive the filtration into a clean (lone pan. while warm. Gbferve. pour it in your tincture. ftrain your fecond lye eitner thro' a cloth fufpended by its four corners. that there may not remain a- in them. co . and fet it on the fire to throw in two pounds of fine When does fcarlet flocks. and. Strain it through a cloth. in the before-mentioned jelly -bag. After all is run out of the bag. cut and bruifed in an iron mortar. af And theleail bit of it ter the filtering f the tindture. as we fsid in the preceding article. While the " tnA **-' . half-a-pound of Roman alum in one quart of fpring water. Befides this . 4. the fcarlet flocks would undoubtedly run with the lye. Then throw it in the fame bag that filtered your firft lye.-. ture in it. Therefore. itfelf.A RT boil. or through ano ther bag by 1. till all the froth has Boil.

brown ocher. green. Cloaths little blue . or. lamp-black. prepared foot. muddy bag. laid on the vermilion. if ftuiFs. 1. Venetian lake. are made. you muft Hill keep filtering the liquor through the underneath. vermi lion. take yellow ocher and brown red . it is a mix And the mades are made ture of lake and vermilion. and the (hades with a grey colour. It often happens for the fir ft water which runs out of the bag to be muddy. the (hade with biftrf and lake mixed together. with white lead alone. you only mix fome black and white and umber together. For fliould there be no cloth on the plaifler> the lake would flick to it. fine azure. ufe vermilion in the lighter parts of the folds . If light and like filver. For completions. yellow mafficot. Ail the colours which are ufed for colouring prints are grinded with gum-water . and brown red. with white lead and a 5. as it fometimes hap pens. 4. according as you want the colour more or lefs bloody. you put that Should. red cloth. indigo. by chance. For fair hair. liquor into the bag again. more or lefs. taking off the pan from and fubftituting another. . and the Jake alone. the filtration continue to run red. fine verditure. For the lips. white fflafficot. Cologn earth. will form the -Jark ftiades. Note. the calcined green only C X II excepted. which grinds with vinegar. . French berries* yellow ocrier.ico SECRETS concerning vered with white cloth of the fame fize. till it is clarified. if linen. The chief of thefe colous are. and to carry fome lake along with it. 2. If a white cloth. Then. 3. CXIII. But you muft continue filtering till It comes bright and clear. white lead. you muft make a mixture of white and umber together. and you If a fhade it with a compound of umber and black. with white and vermilion. you make a mixture of white and vermilion. Directionsfor colouring prints. calcined Juice. lake and vermilion for the clear fhades . made by means of a mixture of black and white lead together. and a great deal of umber. Jf a carrotty colour. umber. biftre. you join a good deal of white with very little umber.

muft add a the to foften 1 it. made with white mafficot. 1 1. to make the tranfition between that and the blue. The pale blue is ufed for the lights. in dra 3. . diftances. are made in the fame way where. with French 10. or blue and white . 6. with the mafficot and umber. CXIV. you mix green and blue toge ther. The For trees 9. 2. The grounds is you mix green and umber together. but you little yellow to them. 13. but. if they be obfcure. peries 4. fcdth lake. 1. Clouds are made with purple . blue and lake only for the clear fhades. and the clear fhades with a mixture of black lead and mafficot . The dark fhade. and French berries' juice. white. and very little black lead . 5. mix a little lake and blue together For the berries' juice. and.ARTS CXIII. and for the clear fhades a little thicker. The chiaro ofeuro. I 2 Directions . The orange colour is made with black lead for the lights. for the lights. mafficot and blue. and for the fhades you make the blue predominate in the mixture. and thicker. with Cologn earth and lake. and TRADES. and mountains are always made with blue. is 101 Directions for the mixture of colours. and you may form their fhades by an addition of indigo. yellow ocher. ever there any green. for the lights . mixed with calcined green . for their fhades. 8. The gold-like yellow is made with yellow mnfTicot for the lights . 2. and the darker of all. Stones are made with white and yellow mixed to gether . and lake. for the darker fhades. The lake is ufed very clear. The fkies are likewife made with blue. The pale yellow. The other is made with calcined green. with umber alone. when it comes near mountains. The firfl is made with 7. for the lights. and their fhades with black. mix the indigo and blue together. purple is made with blue. the darker fhade. which you fhade with the lake. The green is of two forts. you muft mix lake and indigo together. you take calcined green. and indigo and blue for the darker ones.

neral ones. and compcfition. and well polifned with the trowel. efth* colours employedfor the above purpofe. This is made with a lime which ^has i. in hour proportion as you work. you muft your prepare clefigns in their full intended fize on paper. with colours diluted in yplks but earths. therefore. and artificial-made colours.. concerning Direftions for painting frefco. while the coat underneath is flill moiil . Before you begin to paint. are fuch as follow. been flacked for a great while. This coat is not to be laid on the Begin wall. They ufe hardly any other which may preferve their hue. and no longer than half an after the coat of prepared river fand above men tioned has been laid on. mixed with old flacked lime. and white marble in fub* tile povvder/mixed in about equal quantities. this fort of touching up is never good for any thing . on the wall. you are to prepare no more at a time than you are fure to The bo paint over in one day. as well as moft of the mi reeled. firft. and never. for the above purpofe. are of eggs. End. ufe. touch them over after they are once dry. the mafon's work muft be made of bricks or free ftones very dry. dy of the wall on which you lay this coat muft previoufly be pargetted with plaifter. Sometimes no . too often. or gum. and chalk them one after another. The colours made ufe of. becaufe thefe colours always blacken. while frefh and moift. And. as you go on. In thefe forts of paintings all the compounded 3. 2.ip* SECRETS CXIV. glue. and never keep that vivacity and brillianw thofe have which have been laid at firft when the ground was moift. and defend it from being burnt by the lime. you muft obferve to employ them quickly. The white. Directions for the choice.. CXV. pulverifedand fifted aifo. but in proportion as you paint . Befides. as fome do. in the cafe of paintings expofedin the air. by laying on the intended wall a coat of fifted river fand. or with a mortar made with fand and lime. And if the paintings are to be expofed to the injuries of the weather. fcales off in a very fliort time. that the work may for ever preferve its beauty.

of ufed inftead of lake. is not fo made of earth. It requires to be calcined in an iron box. ron-mines. which is alfo a natural earth. .Smalt ftance. manner of preparing which we mail give ( ix. like This fort of black is that which i s ufed . good as that which 6. the white will turn black. is a black which comes from Germany . in frefco. particular!) in fkies. The purple-red it is England. and of a better look.f-There is alfo another which is a natural earth. 11.) a. of the preparation. 4 The obfcure yellow. lapis lazuli. or brown red. or. cxxxiii.paintings. but diluted only on the pallet with oil. and to turn red. Naples yellow. if you want to make it finer. is It is ufed in which has very little fubgreat landfcapes. and fupply by fmalt. Yellow ocher is alfo a natural earth. that of charcoal. yellow ocher and white mixed together. or yellow ocher. Art. and Hands very well the open air. S and TRADES. browner. though it be ufed . The ter<verte. which depends entirely on the quality of the lime. is round the mines of brimftone . and flimy. which anfwers the fame purpofe. you it may fpare ufing it infrefco paintings. fort of German black. is a na There is al tural earth. which is apt to difcharge. The ultramarine. which is very hard and dark.A RT c^rnot be 2. Umber is an obfcure earth. and is a natural earth. 8. Cologn earth is a fort ofrufty black. the product.juli and precife account. It is not to be grinded. fubfifts and keeps itfelf fine much longer than any other colour. and. is to be got by the ilreams of iIt receives a fine colour from calcination. or. difficult is a hard ftone. As and of a very it is very dear. from Verona in Lombardy. a fort of filth which gathers 5. This colour. 7. 103 no more than a quarter part of marble duft is required . and makes a bluim black. 3. 9. which be comes red if you burn it. The earthen black. a blue colour. if Ocher. its is colour nevertheless. is a natural earth. fo another fort of terwerte. 12. and there be too known but when you come to ufe it for much marble. 10.

or grinded tiles .104 SECRETS concerning ufed for making printers' ink. and can foakin no more . that except the lipots. lay another coatofficcative coGrind fome common lours. they lintfeed oil with a large brufh. in order to fpread it better. or chalk. the bro\v>n-red. j purple-red. . which is made with burnt wine-lye. They make a cement with lime and marble dud. then fmoothen CXVII. and lay a coat of it on the wall. prepare your prin cipal colours. and that the dampnefs with a hot trowel. fa that the face of the wall may remain greafy. with which they fmoothen it. CXVIII. whitening. MttM *. if neceflary. the yellow ocher. then draw their defign and paint. give it two or three coats of boiling oil. Directions for painting in oil on CXV1. obferving to mix a little varnilh among your co lours. this they lay on the wall with a trowel. Such are all the colours which are preferably to be ufed Grind and dilute them with in/r^/ro-painting. and pre vents it from fweating out through the pores of the wa ll. a wall. then. which they boil all together in a pipkin. When this pretty flifF. : \ 5 \ \ There in are order it Ihould not occaiion the colours to fcale. There is another ftill. coat of ficcative colours above mentioned. Method 2. or more. maftich. and prepare a competition coarfe varnim. water. and ail] the blacks. Before beginning to work. then draw and paint on it whatever you will. is very dry. fome who prepare the wall another way. of Greek pitch. firfl with a brufh. that you may not be obliged to varnilh them af terwards. and then give it a coat of In the next place. . which is done as follows. red ocher. You muft. on account of the oil which refills it. (thofe particularly which have thro' pafled j j the fire) turn paler as thefre/co dries. and other forts of earth. Method I . as it fometimes happens. and lay afterwards. in fmall galBut it is necefTary to know. they lay on the wall the equally. may fooner dry. and put each by themfelves. and more When this is done. when the wall is perfectly dry.

the ponce ftone. up all over with a ponce ftone to eat off all the The fize which you put firft on the intended to lay down all the threads. which may notdeftroy lay on a coat of fimple the others . and when CXX. CXIX. as foon as you be gin to lay it. it will dry the fooner. with a little \vhite lead. To grind this co lour. go on without interruption. Lay. or iron fcum. 2. Pafs over it firftacoat of fize. then ano ther of whitening diluted with (ize 5 then another again of boiling oil. fifted brick-duft. as ufual. Therefore. And. and fmiths' embers. they ufe a large knife made on purpofe. they ufe nut. lay the above-mentioned coat ifhed. Directions for painting in oil on wood. full of fubftance. cxvi. that the colour may not pafs it through.A R T Others again brick-duft. Beat and and incorporate all this together. as mentioned in the above Art. with whites of eggs lintfeed oil. or lintfeed oil . and fill the fmall holes. Its nature is fuch. all in equal quantities. Method 3. S end T R A D E S. fine and fmooth tick or cloth. you draw yourdefign. 10$ CXVIII. and. Then another . and it will make fo ftrong a cement as can not be equalled by any thing elfe. make a cement. otnerwife it will afluredly crack in every one of thofe places where you ftiall have refumed your work. and lading. you muft not flop and leave it till you have finilhed. When this colour is dry. and proceed according to the other make directions. which nail a frame. one cost of fize on the wood . brown-red. rub cloth is knobs and knots. if you like. and fand. with lime. or mortar. on Direfiions for painting in oil on canvas. of ficcative colours. and paint 1. till the whole wall is entirely covered with it. and totally polAnd when dry. firft. which is a natural earth. to render > you are to rub it it again lay fmoother. for example. Chufe a ' dry. 'that while you are laying it on. When the cloth is dry. colour. they another with lime. when this is dry. You may mix it. 3. in order to lay it as thin as it is poflible. When this lafl is thoroughly dry.

becaufe the ground in watercolour draws and foaks the oil off the colours. and Titian. ufe as their colours more (lifF. a long 5. each by themfelves. and fpoil the Therefore. which xnuft render them much finer. is when they are too much tor mented on the pallet. we cannot recom vivacity of their taint* mend too much to be cautious and clean in employing them. but more fluid and tractable ia working. try to ufe them feparately by . taking care to lay them as diftincl. In this. and keep a little oil of fpike a- iriongfl them. particularly the lampblack as much as poffible. and feparate as without mix poffible. as it often happens that painters Whenever this is the tafe. and for the better prefervation of the colours which are to be laid afterwards in painting. Never min gle together thofe colours which are enemies to each oth er. to render the ground greyifli. Another caufe of the colours not keeping while their beauty. who wifhtofee little oil as their works keep bright and lively. previous to the painting of it. mixing poilible. which aflifls in rendering them indeed vaporifes very foon. that could there be no ground at all laid on the canvas of a pidure. the colours would appear much % \ 1 * - and preferve their brightnef* longer. They therefore. you muft take care to put as little colour as you poflibly can. as all the blacks are. without any other preparation at all. For it is proper to obferve. . as there are many whicK adul terate. and This cuflom paint afterwards in oil over that ground. and ihould one paint directly on the bare cloth. fjace thegr*a^f5 c-auuof their dli^fs Drifts from nothing but the oil with which they are diluted. the others. to prevent the cloth from cracking. ing them too much with the brufh or pencil. they fnuft needs be hurt. confufe them in working. 4. and otherwife corrupt.on the pallet. more much A s ces of theirs has not a little contributed to render their pie more lively and bright. as well as in the preceding coats. buiv them felves.io6 SECRETS concerning another coat of white lead and charcoal black. proof of this affertion may be found in the practice of Paul Veronefe. who ufed to impregnate their canvas with water colours only. to their advantage.

cxiii. Orpine. mall content ourfelves with making only the following addition to them. that (except lime and marble duft. which the oil corrcdls a little. however. 3. or flake white . who is not precipitate his pictures. the cuflom pre without fome difficulty. To calcine iron box. I. 6. 5. foon deftroys their brightnefs and beauty. one is yellow. a very bad quality. Though all the different forts of colours which co. vails of grounding the canvas with oil colours. Cerufe. and the other is white. Maflicot . It is ufed calci ned and non-calcined. however. when there 4s an occafion of giving of api&ure. this lead turns into fome forts offtakes. Several years after. Though this w. in painting. this colour is made with lead which you bury. Which colours are ufedfor the above purpofe. 2. without entering into a repetition of thofe already mentioned in Art. It is made with calcined lead. The 4. we. when you grind iion the ftone. fhows his judgement in laying his colours enough. this is a fort of ruft gath ered from lead. are ufed in painting in oil are not fit for that called frefyet it is true. CXXT. which indeed cannot ftriclly be called colours) ev There ery one of thofe ufed infrefco are good in oil. fore. S md T R A D E S. the better. the lefs colour you can lay on for that purpofe.hite exiils in painting. Take care on The lead which ly thofe colours and oils are good. White lead . but lays them thick covers at feveral times the carnations.. and ii in poiitive ufe. but of a coarfer nature than the other.A RT felves. there are two forts of this colour. 07 more Nay. it is a method not commonly be rolled praclifed. if thofe colours are obnoxious Therefore he to the others with which you are to do it. it has always. otherwife auripigment. on fome painters ufe to help their colours to dry thefooner. As to what concerns the firfl laying of grounds on canvas in water colours. in terms of art is called empater. or in a pot well flopped. (lay till it is dry be ilrcngth to fome parts fore you touch it up again. and which. But when the canvas is good and very fine. becaufe they may fcale. which are of a very fine white. and cannot For this reafon. it in an But few either cal it. they put cine .

becaufe it difcharges very much. This 11. j < - 1 * \ through a 'very 12. It is very fel9. which is an artificial made one. There are feveral forts of lake made. Chap. it muil be flraired er confidence. becaufe it is a bad colour of itfelf. 6. but lay it a little thick and dark. but it is as dangerous to ufe it thac . and' very dangerous to ufe it. Lake. This colour is generally ufed for making or draperies . befides that it is a great enemy to the others. It does not (land the weather. but handy to paint black draperies. Ivory-black. colour is drawn from what is called French berries. Brown-pink. if we believe Pliny > Book Lamp-black. when properly ufed. and fome ocher forts of woods. Brafil wood. if there were never fo little in the colour with which the It is however of a veryacanvas is firft impregnated. with common bones. Indigo. Black lead. xxxv. ^ or again. or even ufe it at all. as the fumes are mortal. They fometimes calcine it to prevent greeable look. 10.joB cine it is SECRETS concerning it. fine cloth. or vermilion. They ufe it with great fuccefs diluted with gum-water. It is a good colour for the competition of greens. otherwife called ftil-de-grain. Verdigrife. which they foak and boil. This comes from lead mines. This is the moil pernicious of all 14. This colour is 7. This black is made indifferently 13. Appelles difcovered this fort of black. the colours. wood afties. This colour. it is the reafon why it does not reiid the impreffion of the air. Ikies. v. to give it a prop When this is done. or calcined white chalk. it keeps its You muft not mix it with too beauty a great while great a quantity of oil. and capable to ruin a whole picture. is drawn As it a mineral. from the mines where they gather quickfilver. or with fcarlet flocks . They inake very little ufe of it. its malignant effect . 8. nor the injuries of the weather. This is a bad colour. as well as ivory. Blue verditure and green verditure. dcm ufed in any other works but landfcapes. Cinnabar. burnt. then mixtherefult with vine-*. iscompofed with cochineal.

but it is chiefly good for mixing with ultramarine. that it dries very much. but you muft take care it fliould It is made with the not carry the colours away with it. and evaporates almod When you make ufe of this oil. the fooner. for other colours. tfr. you muft let it fettle. it mud be employ ed alone by itfelf. boiled in oil of the whole has boiled. are other oils again which are denominated fkcative oils. the lefs fmrfiediatelf there is of any other oil in the colour. There litharage and a whole onion peeled. N. Jt is fitteit for diluting the -and then ikim off the top. 109 taatway as orpine . is made with azure nut. There firs. B. and for that purpofe the7 mix a little of it with the blacks. ferve only to make it turn yellow. becaufe they ferve to dry up the others Thefe are many in number and fpecies. and the different forts of fmalcs. . as 2. they ufe aliooil of fpike. and leaves the colours without any glofs. When white* K . Which oils ars ufed in painting. To render the colours more fluid. The beft oils which are ufed in painting are thofe of nut and lintfeed. boiled with uold they all 3. however well prepared as it may be. CXXII. which is taken ofF after boiling . 1. This oil abforbs itfelf in the canvas. One fort is nothing but the oil of nut. or fmalt. becaufe it ferves to maka them fpread with more facility. and to clarify it. This fort of oil is alfo very good for touching up pictures . in powder.A R T S and T R A D E S. and it is an undoubted truth that. flowers of a plant called Spikenard or Lavender Spike. You muft be very careful never to ufe. is another oil drawn from Melezian-roiin. There are again fome other forts of compound colours. They ufe it alfo for cleaning pictures . the pencils with which you ihall have laid any verdigrife. which are never ufed but in oil. The chief reafon why they uf* it is. and fpread more eafily under the pencil. for it would fpoil all the colours with which it may be mixed. 15. this onion ferving only to exfiecate the Another fort greafy parts of the oil. wherefore it is called Oil of Turpentine. which can never dry without fome afiiftance of that kind. the better.

have laid it upon. to foak well the flocks. bailard fnfFrori the fire. C X X V. dry. at will. and grind it well. CXXIII. and. is a vermilion. pour it on thefrfFroa in the bag. Take good fcarlet flocks and fpirit of wine. . and fuch of the other colours as you want prcferve pureft and neatcft. and rub your cheeks. and lay under it what you want to dye. by means of wetting th tip of your finger with your fpittle> you may then take it The me* off. from which. till the co lour becomes very deep. well glazed and well flopped. you will have a very fin copy of whatever you (hall to . rabick. On half a pound of fcarlet's flocks you muft put four ounces of fpirit of wine. has charged itfelf with all the co Strain this dye through a lour of the fcarkt flocks. which is carefully lud on a fhcet of p^per. This rouge. then rinfed and wiprd between two it cloths. in' the colour you extract from it. and a fufficient quantity of water. The Huff which is to be dyed ought previoufly to have been boiled in alum-water. lips. Then. and wring it hard to exprefs well all the colour out. Boil it afterwards with a little Arabic water. make the Spanijb carnation. with which wet a cloth or a paper . as a preparatory procefs to mak* take the dye the better. ftnctming t whne. Incorporate them well. fo take cjfinjlantly a copy from a print > or a Make a water of ibap and alum. 2. lay either on a print or picture. thod of making it is as follows. cloth. put in four ounces of pearl afhes to every one pound of fafFron. While you grind wafh. lemon's juice. put the bulk of a filbert of gum a-. CXXTV. 'till the Tpirit of . To make the Spanifi ladles rouge. &c. en pot. Take Dtrfffzem it. both together. and throw it into a double cloth jellyThen fet half a pint of Spanifh lemon's juice on bag. when juft luke-xvarm. wine. and p&f* it once under the re-ling prefs : then going round the other fide to take it up. or lemon's j uice.no SECRETS pifiure. or. 1 Boil the whole in an earth in their (lead.

till you are perftdYiy ounces ofroch alum you . And by the . after which you may make a bladirrg one for twelve hours. or *vtrmilion. is ready. fine lake. CXXVI. 2. mad* with jhell-lac. with five fee the A in powder. as wefaid before . which is in form of curd form it into fmall cakes. repour it into the bag fo many times. and not tinged. a yellow. Throw. With this powder. Put mercury (or quick iilver) in a glazed difh. fill the quarter part of a retort with a fhort and wide neck. tinue it fo for ten hours . take off the lake. Boil all together. and /kirn well. and boil the whole in a filver porringer. fatisfied. For want of chamber-lye. Boil. Set it on a fand-bath. repeating the fame trial. if you. in a place by no means damp at Repeat thir wetting and drying of the fame (beets over and over again. fome cotton with it let the colour. it till and. and let it be well furrounded with Pour fome melted brimftonc over the fand every way. as many times as you pleafe. Place it firil on a fire of Then incrcafc the fire bv degrees. in : in When rabick. Ar B. and wet Ionic them dry in the ihade. all. the liquor in a flannel bag . till the liquor runs at laft quite clear. . which you rrny eafily know by fteeping a bit of then take it out again to fee whether or white rag in it and if it do not. proceed as follows. or balls. ehufe. fixteen pounds of chamberthen put in one pound of fine (hell-lac. till chamber-lye is well charged with the co lour. CXXV11. you may. and dry them in a (hade on new tiles . though they 1. till you find ar& charged with rsuge to your fads faction. By the firfl fire. let it boil not the colour pleafe you longer. employ a tart lye made of ftrorig pearl a flies. now. and. with an iron fpatula.ARTS this 3. there will arife a 3. and con cinders. Steep flieets of paper *nd TRADES. black furoe* By the fecond. . 2. whole is converted into a black powder. the kit . Obfervations. without lufFering what runs into the pan under to fettle. lye . keep conftamly ftirring. with a wooden fpatu'a. then keep them for ufe. Direftions to make cinnabar. 1. . Then.

and anfwer perfectly the fame purpofe. Place it next. ilir well till the lump is become quite cold and black. let th of the cinnabar. \ . two fpoonfuls. 2 Put this into a fubtile powder. which touching alfo the bottom of the retort. equally good.. have ktpt warm in a veiTel by the corner of the fire. TtfTel cool. N. well dried it keep 3. by means of the drawing OIK the fpatula to introduce the . which will flop from breathing any air. AnGthtr> *very different^ method of making cinnabar. round is as to prevent fo well the retort . on* a very mild fire . and ia the neck of the retort. which iignifies the perfe& accompliflimefit As foon as this is the cafe. There are many who. for two or three hours. and very exactly. and which you fhall. in the receiver. puih on the fire to a pretty fmart degree.fpatula. with the other. or Hone ones. through the fame way that it came out. fome brimftone over a flow fire. this At the end of term. inftead of a glafs retort. 4. and you will find. of your prepared powder of brimftone and quickfilver. Continue foto do. with which having filled the fourth part of a very long retort. B. it fo for five hours. and even to the bottom of the retort . fhould come out of the funnel five or fix inches. and ic. and introduce. and with one hand {queeze t-1 knot of mercury between your fingers through a cloth?* into the melted fulphur and. or thereabouts. that it may not cool the retort in going in. Melt. in a pipkin. CXXVIII.us laft SECRETS concerning a red . which all equally bear th fire. take it out. with which you intend to irsake cinnabar. you will lute it well. a very fine cinnabar. In the middle of the fpatula let there be a bung of lute When meUed. through that funnel pafs a long. . without a receiver. for that purpofe. When all this done. and thereby retard the operation. draw out the fpatula. then introduce into the retort a long funnel which will reach as far as the matter. adding every hour new matter. then incrcafe and continue it till tbry fee the red fumes . wfe earthen.Both methods are arifing. They make a (low firs for about half an hour. with a good lute.

and of preventing the intro duction of new powder toincreafe fame time it the lump of cinnabar. painters make ufe of. or till that flux is abundant enough to procure the cuie It is the fame alib whlvof the venerian diforder. to excite the mouth. But it is proper to tell them here. that he to whom quick gold and filver are known can do with them alfo every thing as with the metals .ART the increafed your retort is S and TRADES. and which enters into the compa* fition of fealing wax. So that. or belly. Then wet it. along with aloes wood. then. This cinnabar is the very fame 5. and which looks fimllar ie 9 - ultramarine. that Of breaking of the rerort. the harder and redder the lump of cinnabar becomes. the longer you keep the fire up. it 113 you have new powder. which they reiterate two or three times. and which arc known to him alone. Non licet omniius adire Chorintam. 1 keeps a free pafiage into the retort. that they would not perhaps commit fo grofs an error. There are alchymiffo who maintain. in the laft place. in order there mould remain no vacancy in the middle of the cinnabar-lump. myrrh and other aromatics. in con- K 2 tinuing . Grind well together into powder three ounces ofainnociiac falt^ and fix of verdigrife. if they attempted this procefs with the cinnabar. which the philoibpher endeavours to draw from quick gold and To which filver. without reintroducing the fpatula. to The its to the quantity of one of the fpatula's ufe in the neck itfelf prevent filling up by the fublima- tion of the matter. becaufe they are of opinion. But. which empy ricks ufe in fumigation. and replacing quickly. it neverthelefs flops it too. take oil" the fpatula for the lafl time. Obfervations. An azure as fine as. Thus. flop the retort with a lump of lute only. reflection I fhall add. they can with the naturaKor fictitious cinnabar we have jufi mentioned refolve irreduclibly either gold or filver . at the CXXIX. but as the old faying is. flux. till lump of cinnabar hundred weight. and inj eel frrfh powder . which would occaiion two evils. that thefe metals have fprung from it in the entrails of the earth. by means of the ball of lute which is round it.

that nothing can poffibly exhale from it. and nitre. CXXX. add a fofficient quantity cf calcined pewter to render your liquor quite milkwhite. and CXXXI. in pound of nitre. 1. and which is very $ne and good. one of copper filings. pound of the ftrongeft double diftilled wine vinegar. cinnabar. one part : fulphur Mix well all into cvivum. one powder. . two . Place this for one month in hot horfe dung. and quick fi!vr. to make az ure. DiiTolve. whit at that place. and remaia. A very good obfervation. with its copper lid. after and buiy which term the competition iue azure. the hair will inftantly turn. 2. one pound of vitriol. will be turned into a very CHAP. till you have made a giafs matrafs. When tire diflblution ihall be perfe&td. two ounces of ammoniac fait in powder. half a In thit three ounces of cinnabar. to rednefs. that if you rub the forehead of a horfe with it. and bury it for five At the end of that term days in hot dung.SECRETS tinuing to grind it it concerning of tartar. with oil pretty fluid. as they pra&ife it in Germany. which you muft put into a glafs retort* it over in hot horfe dung for forty days. Put this coifipofidon into a copper f eftel. The liquor which dills from the vitriol. Put this into Tbtfamt> another *way> as praflifod in Germany* another method of proceeding. in one Another <veryji*e axurg. water put tinfel or copper . CXXXIL Take vitriol calcined Anotbtr. they will diffolve. and one pound of *he whitefl? eg#s ihellscalx. which you muft Hop and lute fo well. Let the whole reft for three day s v and then you will have a middling azure. has the power to diffolve any fort of metal whatever. Here is an alembic. three. you will find your competition turned into a fine azure. VI. It has again thif additional virtue. and at the *nd of that term you will find a very fine aure. Diftil.

iince they ufed nothing elf but whites of eggs for gilding marble. are of different fizes. VI. or leather. and' TH E The method ofgilding 'with fixe. relative to the ART of GILDING. To gild on iron and other metals. SECRETS I. their arches. and others which come to three pounds ten ihiilings. which held the place of the fazed wrhitewe fe pow-a-days. i. till . and fuch other bodies aj 4o not admit of being committed to the fire. or 'with oil. gild any other works than fuch as were fheltered from the itcuaperance of the weather. *vix. Therefore they could not. STo 'gild 'withjjx. Put this a-boiling in a pailfoj of water. as there are fome the thoufand of which comes to no more than three pounds altogether. quainted with.( "4 ) ^ ^ CHAP. You as muft is made begin by preparing your fize. with pro* priety. old leaves which are commonly ufed in gilding four pounds per thoufand. for the means of gilding in fuch a manner as to refill the inju An art the ancients were not ac ries of the weather. cheaper to them. coat. affietts. orburnim-gold is fize. the ftrongeft and That which is not fo pureu the pureil are preferable. their cyclings. We are indebted to the difcove ry which has been made a few ages fince. which Take about a pound of odd bitts follows. as it come . fuch ait is prepared for gloves r breeches. The compofition they ufed for gilding on wood was made of a ilimy earth. of the fecret of painting in oil. firft of parchment. which were all gilt in that manner. and they could not obtain from their method of applying gold. or *wbat called in burnijh-gold. as well as of various degrees of thicknefs. wood. called by artifls II. they made a compofition which was uBat neither fize nor whites of eggs cam refill the water. and with which gilders make that firfi As for the fed with fize.f. commonly employed by carvers in wood.

but. you lay the fize in fmoothening. you may weaken it. dip it into fome clean waier. it is perfectly dry. ftrain it tiine. gilt. tity of pul verified whitening in it. and ferves to prcferve it a great while. if it be on carved work . both in the the fize. When you want to ufe for wood which it muft be boiling hot. with a brufh. 3. through a When cloth to make it finer . otherwife trate fufficiently into the wood. cut fquare. for the white is the nouiifhment of gold. with little deal flicks. or in fmoothening. with a bruih made of boar's briilles. require . as above. SECRETS reduced to one half. thrufting rub and fmoothen the white. or according as the nature and carving of the work pecked. Take a certain quan tity of fize boiling hot. if a carved one. or eight different coats of it in muft work dry thoroughly before you polifh it. and. is to be would not pene If you find it too Then flrong. angular. Then. you muft givt a dozen of coats at leaft . which has been already ufed. as much as you tliink will be Dilute a difcretionable quan Sufficient for your work. coats. white. you muft make another preparation. otherwife the work might fcale. (tumping on your work. and as clofely weaved as let the As foon therefore as poffible. in the following manner. taking a brufh you made of boar's bridles. but if on a plain one. Concerning fize is till it is and your it done as it- ought 2. called an infufion of . unkfs the la ft be dry. whether in flumping. becaufe it is fofter.. wich oar } . one of thefe flicks into the cloth. When you have given the requifite number of 4. you muft have a coarfe rough cloth.i-i 6"-.Jfxt. You muft even have a great care that each coat mould be laid on as perfectly equal as poffible. if it be a plain work . by adding water to it. When the wood is thus prepared with f*ze only. and two more coats in fmoothening. then. You muft be very careful not to give coat upon coat. quke new. it to be. and thicknefs of the white. and wet the work in proportion as you go on in poliihing. and let it infufefome it feems well difTolved. either of you muft lay it in (lumping with the brufh which ways is equally termed fo. to ajftrength of yoid the fame inconveniency. you give fever.

or a cizel. you may thereby fall from one error into another. they who are fond of finiihing their work highly. That you may cut the white more neat. of coats of white the carving fhould not be choaked up. becaufe grow thick in the leaft with that dirt. the filth it therefore fpare not to purge your brufhof gathers about the point of its hair.ARTS and TRADES. however rub it too much with the fliavegrafs. o^ferve only to wet it a little with a brufn. with this raffling -crook they go over all the turni. you take what is called a a gouge. with a bruih a little worn. . (in Frenchy>r#20/Vthe ornaments. 6. The wetting and bruming thus your work. after having been applied. and open all the places which want it. When the white is once more dried. in order to level Hill better all th Do not grains and inequalities which may be on it.. yoo may if the eafily fave yourfelfall that trouble i principally carving pretty neatly fiaiihed. by giving two or three . in propor you pplifti it. by it wafhing and fqueezmg again as ibonas you fee them it with 5. zfer-a~retirer) . to reftore them to their former fharpnefs. When works are not of great confequence. Or elfe. rub fhavegrafs. (called by the French. and give to the orna fermvir. all then bretelling with another in. called a-nezrond). take a certain iron inftrument. 117 your little fHcks wrapped up in cloth. 7. which is to precede the laying Now. and curved by one end. which would prevent it afterwards from uniting with the buron the gold. For. the more eafy to be burnifned the gold will be. according to nature flrument. by levelling the fmall bumps and imperceptible undulations you may have made cither in giving the white. This precaution completes the fmoothening of the work. and more delicate than the carver had firft made it. made on purpofe. or in polifhing it. has agai that other objedl of cleaning it of the mud you occaiion tion as in fb all doing . as it is difficult that after ten or a dozen. or ruihes. and make your white what is called greafy or fmeary. the vcining-crook. or ments the fame form which the carver obferved when he firft cut them. you thereby render the work much neater. the fmoother the work is made. turning agreeably the fides of leavei nifh gold fize.

is never fo perfect. be of the confidence of the There are jelly you eat. as I faid before. and pour over it fome of your afore -mentioned Stir fize. but not in the bottom grounds) 9. and help to gi<re it more and mix brightnefs. carved. The fize you make ufe of in this cafe rnuft. the yellow is -dry. antimony. tinglafp. boiling hot. Be. cup. burnijh-gcld fi~e t made and prepared in the following manner Bol ar> menian. you muft dilute feme yellow oeher. butter. all well.&lf. and been afterwards re-cut. principally in fuch deep places of the carving as you cannot come at to lay the gold leaf. this compolition made howr it . as it is very true the white is the principal and only fupport of gold. biilre. &c every one according ta his own way. nor ftands fo long . or red chalk. white. black. All thefe forts of greafe ferve to facili tate the burnifhing of the geld. When three different coats of another in called French afflttte. you rauft lay over it (in all the raifed places. to be right. you lay one coat of it over all the work. weaker by half than that which you ufrd for the whitening. the bulk of a horfe bean. Others add burnt bread. when cold. After every thing has been performed about the which could be required 10 completely finifh that preparatory part. and here. or olive oil. and no. that this colour may fupply its want. and drained through a cJoth. blood ftone. and repaired over again.SEC RET this operation S concerning three coats only of white very clear. ving made it a little fluid and warm. fugarcandy. with a little of calcined lamp*. with this compofnion. however. But. to grind and in>Put this compofition in . and the carving feems a great deal more rough than when it has received ten or twelve coats of white.more. fort of compoinion. that the whole may be well diluted. which you grind afterwards with ail the other drugs and water. taking them little at a time. And. a little foap. and grinded by i. veined. and grind it with fized water.a corpor ite them the better.gain befides. while you pour that fize. . girded both together and at laft one drop or two of tallow. about the bignefs of a nut. thofe who mix r. ha 8. and blackhead pulverifeci as big as a pen.

Hold your oofhion in your left hand along with the gilding pencils. and about half an inch wide by 'one end. io The gilding is now performed as follows. which are to be* of different fizes. Then cut it in as many parts and fizes as you want. fixed all round with Let thi nails. take a differ brufh with which you dry -rub the work all over. keep it warm over hot afhes whenever and while you life it.ARTS if will. cufhion be alfo furrounded by the back part. is an inftrument 1?7 it. and ftill more fo if any body fhould happen to pafs and rrpafs in the place where you fit. in which you put ibme very . if there be occafion for it whole. palette). with a band of parchment of five or fix inches righ. Have firfl a pipkin very clean. they muft be fo thick that the fliiit'fhould run with dffEich coat muft be well dried fi ulty from the brafh. from blowing the gold leaf which is laid upon tails icn. (in French. with a flit. and two 7 thirds of each of the two rules. or. as for the two others. or what part ! of . and thereby facilitate the buruifhing of the gold. you proceed thus. -in Th* brufh you lay it on with ought to be foft. to prevent the air. before giving the next. and the fir ft coat you lay pretty thin but. On this cushion put what quantify -of gold leaves you think proper. 1 1 To apply the gold. take it with your tip. -Get next a cufhwhich is to be made wish a light and flat fquartt board covered with a calf leather. I | | ing of which you will affift youHelf very much if you breath over them while you pafs the knife under. and a few wetting pencils. along your cteek. to fet and fpread the better the This tip therefore you pafs fquirel's tail. made with the point of a fquirel's tail placed upon a round ftick flattened. which ought to be made in the form of thofe ermin rifings which hang in the ermine ikins.clean and filtered water. when the laft isalfo perftftiy dry. it. and A tip. and wilh it take ofF the gold leaf. and fluffed underneath with cotton. to fmoothen all the grains and littla of the gold fize. which is alvvays fluctuating about vou. : 1 19 t chaffing -di{h. With the gilding knife fpread thefe leaves very fmooth/in do . And. obferve to ml TRADES.

When. by the water flipping under the gold leaf juft laid. in fhort the work As it isimpoflooks infinitely better in every refpeft. But if it fhould pafs over the gold leaf. or matting with fize . made either of a real WolPs tooth. Previoufly. or. dpv^n all tht in the hollow pnrts which you forgot to parts of gold do with the pencil then duft it with a large one. to this. to raife the gold. you matt and r p fs. cut fome bits of gold. and put another in the Head. or elfe a pebble called with the Before burniftung. eipecially when wet. it flicks fafter infinitely more eafy. never fcratches. take your water pencil quite wct> and pafling it above it on the work. you mud have palled on the place one of your pencils immediately before the laying of the gold. jfible with all poffible care one can take. you may again put fome vermilion. principally a cafe. burnifh it order to detach certain to make them fet ciF and fhew to parts from the other.on the work. bhcd ftone.iio of it SECRETS you have divided. otherwife the gold would be incefis laid As ibon as the gold leaf fantly flitting and cracking. the work is brrniiVd where vou want it to be fo. however. you muft. what has not -been burnifhed . is more eafily dufted for burnifhing. as they now ufe it. an agate. pum. and as it is impofiible to lay gold on gold. and make look it . To that effect you ufe an inftrument better advantage. you muft. you would not be able to repair it unlefs you take the gold leaf entirely off. let the water run from it under the leaf juft applied . then. you will iind that this fpreads and almoft of itfelf . made in the fame form. in French fmaU yamender. which. but there may happen fomc little accident now and in fuch in carved works. this will i mined lately make it fpread and ketch. you take and when you look your work put on the defective places over. on the gold fize. and thus concerning lay it on the work-. and this is called faulting the work. crooked point of your burniiher. with a pencil. called a burnijber. dry. On the contrary. 12. with a very foft pencil and burnifh gold fize. When the work is perfectly in or rather. it would immediately fpot and fpoii it . and finely polifhed. where you think proper.

Put tlris into a matrafs. the French II. To gild without gold. as 1 am going to prefcribe^ and which will give an incompara work. crucible one ounce of ammoniac Then throw water. matted. and repa^ed your work. gamboge. and life only fine lake. is diluted with a little gum arable. which you mix with a little Venetian turpentine. which is no ftnall addition to the beauty and richnefs of the work. you may mend them with gold in fhell. for four and gild frames. pxilverife 2nd egg with two ounces of mercury. and make it look as gold-frnkh's Grind together. as you know. and fupply it by gum any icum. repaffing. \Yhatever you write or L . it will be as hard fire as a (tone. 121 which is called. receipt is the beft. arid fetit. There is again another repaying you muft not a forget. marble.A-RTS look brighter 13. in all the hollow places of car ved work. Give this a fmall fire for the fpace of half an hoar. gild without gold. and others. Put in a fait. IV. Cover and lute well the crucible for fear the mercury fhould exhale. and half that quantity of common mercury. To Another fotke fame purpofe. but the ble fire to -the gold. which. incorporate well together the yolk of an twenty days* in hot horfe dung. fad M TRADES. which is to lay. This fort of faulting. in term of art. Increafe the hot. and other common things. afterwards till the crucible is quite red the compofition into a pan of cold As foon as this matter is cold. this. Hop it well. and one of ammoniac fait. fdfne purpurine with water . dilfolvelt in g'um it will look like gilt. fome vermilion. firft If. When A GrinJ it has done throwing 1'yc. call buckling with geld in fail. and red brown. and applied with a pencil. after having burnifhed. you find again fome de fective places. then put it to foak with chamber-lye in a pan. on This competition is fuch. . dragon's blood . and Wherever you lay a coat of III. There are who make it otherwife. water Break and grind it. ftirand fkim it. decant the chainKrwater. and oil of curpentine. a coat of a compofition of vermilion.

VIv *To ^Orite in In this juice throw juice of juniper leaves. and of this liquor lay a coat on your gold. or china wares. Set it in the fire till your glafs powder in melting makes a varnifh on the gilded parts. or paint. Pulverife fome purpurine into fubtile powder . with cham ber-lye. wet it. which water. with a (tick. ter the lafl water is poured awav. Let it fettle.121 SECRETS V.VII. 7 be concerning or draw with this compofition will look as gold itfelf . brulfed in fmall bits. fo many times till you fee the water comes out at laft quite clear. . When diflblved. gently. and vvafh it in common watrr. and lay your appear very beautiful. fome gold or ii'ver filings. ef facially with cil Pourd then grind. preparations of the gum-water. and by little at a time. Draw the gold or filler. which folve will then > earthen. a glafs. which you fet there to infufe for three whole days : then make the trial. an indifferent one . then let it dry. in filver. To gild on glafles Take j?old where and how you like. Then dilute it in times till the water remains clear. In half a pint of common water put two ounces of arable. gum-water. Vf II. To *wrife. fome powder of fafand gum-water with your ground. Diffome borax in water. with eommon. then water it over. T^o <vjrite> or painty in gold colour. It will and either wrice or paint with it. . and you will find it very agreeable if you try. well. Reiterate this lotion fo many will be black and dirty. it makes the right degree of gum-water to be ufed for the gum above purpofe. and throw off the water. which you like. appear . and either write Each time you change This fecret is by no mrans orp'int. fome tin-ghfs . the water take particular caffe Then mix af to allow a fuHkient time for the fettling. a pen IX. or a china cup. turning incefiantly while you pour. and it admits even of being burnifhed with the burniiher. and dilate it. Let it fettle. in a bell-metal mortar. on porphyry.

verdigrife half an ounce. dry it . fill up your pan with water. one ounce. To . XII. 1.ARTS neft virgin filver. and burnifh. Then add tartar half an ounce. Make all alkali. B. burnifh as XIV.. and one of medals again on thefe fi Continue this alternate ftratiffcatfori of medals lings. Take fiiver-cryftals. till you have laid all the medals you wanted to whiten. To whiten and Jil<vcr copper medals. gem. well grinded and mixed to Boil the whole till the whitening of the medals complete. and make a filings from Cornwall pester On this bed bed of them at the bottom of a pipkin. A water to gild iron. or glue. ture. Boil Now heat your iron. dilute fome red tartar with it. after hav With this mix ing made it into a very fubtile powder. / 2. gem fait three. or boxes. falts hito a paftewith common water. ufe. Make another bed of filings over thefe medals. DiiTolve iilnglafs in water. XT. rub it over with this fturT quite hot. boil roch-alum. and the fame quantity of common fait. and TRADES. ammoniac. When reduced into a fize. When this is done. tal then put a thick gold leaf on giidcrs ufual. is from Montpellier. and fet them on red hot charcoals till they fmoak no more. In three pounds of river-water. and a pen. They mull have previoufly been cleanfed with foft fand. or a pencil. and it attain with this addition. and put on it a pow4er compofed of roch-alum* and tartar gether. Roman vitriol as much. it of the fame fort as rne- And. N. to purge them from any greafe. taking care however they ihould Take not touch each other. XIII. common and of each of all thefe two drachms. and orpine one. when this is dry. then by the fire. lay one of your medals. or ftrong lye. write on your pots or boxes . Lay your figures over with it. and no ways inferior to the X. 123 fi- appear very hand fome. To write in gold letters OK pots. and filings. To whiten exteriorly copper flatues. when warm.

on an iron plate. put half a pound of ammoniac and two ounces of good aquafortis. which you fet to drain on fmall flicks on another bowl. a free pafTage to the fumes of the aquafortis. into a fubtile powder. and fet them on fire. When dry. put it on the marble again. be ufed liquor. or in a cru firft cible. then in bits aqd neajit. Grind well together. of each one ounce. and drachm of gold. let it be very mild. doing the fame with what drains from them till you have ufed all your liquor. on the contrary. Cover the ma- Have next its with a fheet of paper. but terminated in a fjmall orifice. and wafte itfelf all into vapours. water -gilding without the ajfiftanc* Take cut it of mercury. fo as to form a fort of funnel or grenadier's cap figure. 2. this matrafs on a very flow fire.i4 X IV. for the gold would infallibly fublirae. that the gold may Set have Aake often the matrafs to help the diffblution. pleafe. called the fauce. but. which is to for colouring filler plates. then drythem before a gentle fire. And as foon as they are confumed. . or china bowl linen rags on them. SECRE. to every fait. which you put afterwards in* When this powder is to a crucible on a little fire. the fineil gold. turned conically by one of corners upon one of the long fides. and it is fit for gilding any fort of filver work you . The common 2. lay them on a marble ftone. 1. time to difTplve gently and gradually. fait. Then. forge it weakifh. Be very careful not to make the fire too flrong . with the fmalleft and not quite clofe. When the gold wet fome old coarfe quor into a glafs. and ftir it with an iron rod till you fee no more fire* Grind it then again as before. and two of XV. to trafs give. a glafs matrafs. grind them into a fine powder. pour this li 3. \. fulphur and pearl aflies. gilt with the above defcribed powder. lighted like fparklesof fire. when ycm want tq colour your gilt plates. 4. puc your gold in. as much as you poffibiy can. and is entirely diilblved.T To gildfill* er in S.

and half a pint of chamber-lye. Diilil from the reft an aquafortis \^i which. you have but to put this fauce It have a quart of water. to 3 The next Hep is to give the piece thus coloured the burnifher. When Set this to boil in a red copper pot. Should it then not look high coloured to your fatisfa&ion. after being well Take feven ounces of orpine terra-merita. Jnetker. or two at mod . with a ftricl charge not to ufe any vinegar in his burnifh. and put it in a retort. made hot. then vaporate the If in: the vinegar. . iron. thefe metals will affurne the colour of gold. DifTolve the whole in double diftilled vinegar. you mull tie your plate with a iifver wire. focotrine a^oes. there leave it for about a minute. and put it in the retort to diftil. then vaporate this vinegar. again in the fauce. Put all into powder. one and a half. A water which gilds copper and bronze. five or fix times. or filver. A fecret very ufeful for watch and pin makers. burnt copper and ammoniac fait. by which you hold it. as much. Stir well.A R T S and T R A D E S. and plunge it in the fame manner in cold clean water. as before. mlumen plumeum. four and a half. till you find it fufficient- ly coloured. four ounces . DifTolve equal parts of green vitriol and ammoniac fait in good double diftilled vinegar . A water to gild ft eel or iron. Take XVI 1 1. well gilt. With the liquor L 2 which . equal parts . does boil. copper. very clean. and then plunge it in . ticular fecret. gamboge three and a half. and mix all together let it infufe four and twenty hours and diftil. if you extinguifli. poltjhed. brnfs. then take it out again by the fame wire without touching it with your hands. common fait decrepitated. with fo much of pickle water as will cover thefe powders by two fingers. it will come out perfectly XVri. in which you mix a large fpoonful of the above powder. This receipt is a very good and par XVI. . product of the diftillation you fteep your metal after be* ing polifhed and made hot.

XXI.ilh. have only the exaft tneafures and dimsnfions of th place . or copper. be praclifed . 2. on a flow . on account of the wind. XIX. on that putty . take of thefe powders. cowpojition to lay on lead. black pitch of turpentine. as upon fteeples. and rub the copper figures till they are fufficiently filvered. you muft put your handkerchief before your mouth. and a 1 re (in. Have a care that the pewter which you are thus a gilding (hould be very clean. fire. lay a coat of it on yaur work. the common method of gilding cannot. domes. then with a piece of pewter oa the naked gold without either ikin or putty. to do that operation. Now. wetted in your fpittle. Now with XX. flcs. pounds oil .126 which iet it SECRETS fhall concerning come from the diftillation. it fome putty. of iilver. When the whole is dissolved and mixed we! to a kind of varr. 1. the fineft and moft delicate goldihuth's wire-brulh . lay a double gold or filver leaf on that place of the pewter . When done. Therefore. 2. apiece of leather. Melt together. and over that With a burniflier rub. Tofilver. ^To Jll^er copper figures. rub the fieel. and quite up behind your ears. &c. iron. and which you and may keep by for ufe. or gild. no matter which. or common fait or alum. Take one of then put over fkin apiece offkin or leather. 1. round your head. four ounces. made with either pearl or brill afhes. Wipe them well when done. that there Ihould be a paffage Jreierved on each fide of your face which fhould drive your breath along your cheeks. pewter. and manage it fo in tying it. and that your breath fhould net go over it. rab your pewter with it fo as to mark it with the flrokes of thebrufh. to dry in the fhade. Cleanfe well firil the figures with a ftrong lye. for a good while. and rub them with a composition of tartar and ammoniac ialt mixed (by means of aquafcrtz^wiih a little diffolution 2. 1. tin> or any other metal* in order to hold leaves of pe^u aft the ready gilt *vuhicb are applied on it ufefulfor gilding onhtgl A f .

rolled. 'To XXIV. When per fectly difTolved. lute well the phial. twelve drachms. and wipe it with a dry cloth kept onahorfe before it. XXI I \ . . equal quaRtities of terra merit a and geld With this com litharage. and laftly in the foap liquors. cut to them fome fine leaves of pewter. and melt the contents. and with a pencil paint what you will over with it. and the fame In a third difti put alfo quantity of the fame water. XXVI. In another difh put a penny-worth of wine lye dried in cakes. bronze in gold colour. and gold leaves. ha ving burniflied the place on which they are to be appli ed with the above competition. and. the lire for that purpoie. rub your filver plate. Grind together* blood-Hone and vermilion with the white-of an egg. add a diferetionable quantity of orpine and brafs filings . with a hair brufh deeped firft in the wine lye. The preparation of gold in Jhell. 2. and fet it in a pot full of allies . in a balket . it. lay it in the XX VII. on porphyry. mix all well. Rub the figure firft pofition paint the figure over. with a pencil. and two of ammoniac fait. Put all in a glafs phial. How to matt lurnijhed gold. When done. then in the pearl afh. and melt Add one ounce of crude mercury. with another iimiiar quantity of the fame water. XXV. lay the gilt pewter leaves on and they will iland fail enough. 1 Rafp four ounces of dry white foap in a diih. Take gum elemy. Pour a pint of warm water on it. and mix with lintfeed oil. bottom grounds. equal quantities.ARTS and T RAD E S. clean and whiten filver. Take ammoniac fait. XXli. Bruife this in a mortar for two or three hours . at home. with aquafortis > in order to cleanfe and ungreafe it well. Then. another penny-worth of pearl allies. you have no more to do but to car ry up thefe pewter leaves. and t$waras the end add a difcretionable quantity of honey. then. and at leifure. Then grind. into a fubtile powder. Thea. U7c . and wafh it afterwards with warm wa ter. Another to the fame purpofe. and gild them as ufual. 127 place intended to be gilt.

XXXI. and. lay one coat of drying varnifh. XXX. The <varnijh fit to be laid on gilding andfiller in%* Grind verdigrife. in which you (hall have infufed faffron for eight hours. done. on the WPUI firii. a Hntfeed oil. The method of bronzing. and lay a coat of vermilion on the work before bronzing. according When dry. one coat of brafs filings fize. N. of the other. Take any colour. and grind it either with oil. injhell. B. dilute the cnce of an unguent. Grind ctrufe-whne with this as a very weak ifinglafs water. take care not to boil it fo hard but you may bear fome on this is When weak gum-arabic water. XXIX. otherwife they would tarnifh and fpoil all the gold or fiiver. it is dill frefh fift fome after on it let it dry fo.128 SECRETS XXVII. make it weak. if the varnifh be fpike and fandarack. Black wood. . 1. Have attention to make your gum-waters for this fort of work always very weak . three pennyworth of fpal. with common water. XXX1J. With this weak water dilute your gold or filver . Take a little gum to adrag ant. without touching on thofe which are the fhades. touch the parts with indigo gum diluted in a very 2. A. or that which is dyed fo. and while . one of litharage. which you dilute in a good deal of water. in mixing it. or with gum. with a pen cil.fi ftgill of Before you apply it. thin it with a little oil . and boil the whole to the cor. then with and make the lame uie of > XXVIII. lay it on fuch places of your work as receive and fhevv the light. and. To gildfan dy gold. is the fitted to admit of this operation. too thick. Lay a few coats of it on your work. on marble. lay as you think there may be need of it. To exprefs thefe. quantity you intend to make ufe of with turpentine Take oil. The method of applying it is this. How to concerning to do the fame plain lurnijb fi'vcr. wade of oil of your hand without fcalding the place. The metbed of apply ing gold wood or plvcr. and varnifh it wards.

into water again. coaj. in the proportion often drachms of this. water. dilute fome bol armenian with iiin glifs. and beat it till it is Let it fettle its quan all come lay a into a froth. warn what remains with filtered lime fe. Put all or the fire. and fulphur. To make in (hell. after this operation. . To apply it. to or Jil<ver. Beat the white of an egg in three times of common water. I. The gold will remain fufpended in this regal-* water. and boil it . A little while after. it. Put in a glafs bottle. or again. warn it again and again in the fame manner. and to make a reparation of them. then apply your gold.. with a pint of river-water. If. tity XXXV. get the gold. with half an ounce ot common. Then flop the bottle well for fear the contents % fhould lofe their ftrength. X XX III. . and one drachm of ammoniac. by filteration alfo. till it looks fine. of it on the edge of your paper * Next. and let it dry . one ounce of white copperas. and fcrape it over the li 1. to every fequin-worth of the other. Take gold from the compofuion. and T R A D E S. 1*9 XX XI I. falts. in which you mall work it continually for the fpace of two days. Boil all together to the reduction of one half. get your water out again 1. quor. the fine writing. and. To gild paper on the edge.. How Mix .gold. together one ounce of aquafortis. out of gilt plates. throw a halfpenny in it. 2.ARTS 1. - XXXIV. you do not find it high enough yet in hue. Put this mixture into a proportionable leather bag. A wafer to gild iron with. and as much of white-al* urn two drachms of verdigrife. 2. and write what you pleafe. 2. take your plate out. To gild the iron with fire. pour in it double the quantity of common water . and burn it on a flow This done. and when dry burnifh it. Then pour all into a crucible. and all the gold will fi# itfelf to it. and one of fpring water. then put in to foak the plate from which you want to get the geld or filler out. well grinded on porphyry and amalgamated. make it red hot in the and plunge it in this liquor. and 2. and the fame quantity of common fah. and boil it.

burnifh it. To gild en vellum. Take A gilt without gold. in the feafon. but not Then breathing on the coat. with an equal quantity of yellow Grind orpine well purified from its earthly particles. Grind and mix together four ounces of bolarmeman. XL. Mix fome fa'ffronin powder with garlick juice. Another 'way. grinded to gether with a weak ifinglafs water. Gold and filler I. then put the . quite. burnim it.. Lay firfl XXXVIII.130 . and put it un When the time of der a hen which jud begins to fet. apply the gold leaf with cotton . Re-fill for gilding. grinded with foap fads. all out from again with chalidonia's juice and mercury . when dry. and apply the hot iron on it. To gild without gold. and gold leaves. and. XXXV]. ly. all well together. . then flop it well with maftich. SECRETS concerning Next. lay a coat of it on the vellum. Another way. in Jhell. lay another of bol armenian and ammoni Then pat the gold. or dry fafFron in powder. XXXIX. and put it a-digefting in hot horfe At the end of that dur. and let it dry a little. and. and a little olive oil . burac fait. and get it theinfide. the juice from faffron flowers. Take laltpetre. gum arabic. one of aloes. then the gold immediate When all is dry. with your hand. the compoiition will be done. the hot iron mall not have touched will Whatever go off by bruming. and wafa . and two of ft arch dilute it in water. when dry. a coat of 'ime and burnt ivory. XLII. Apply the gold on it . and . and let it dry. ttifh it. is come. Put two cr three coats of this on the vellum.g for the fpace of three weeks. term you may ufe it to gild whatever you like. Wet rub it L I 9^ gild on calf and jheepjkin When dry. XXXVII. the leather with whites of eggs. and fit hatching Open a hen's egg by one end. X gold leaf. before burniming it.

Sift it very fine. Take one ounce of zinc. all over with this pow<ier. XL IV. and as nmch ofcerufe. which grind white and black together with greafy cil. this is neither too fr< ih. it. whence pouring the water oft it you may then put 2 in the (hell. Take .fh and TRADES. and it let it be there a full lye. and. To . third part Grind all into powder.. talo. . To When gold . into a iubtile Grind together vitriol. Grind ail together on marble. penny-worth of linefeed oil. without gold. Take Mons-martirufns an oven till To whiten filver without the ajfijlance offire. or ftone you want to dye. dravy As whatever you will on tlie above-meiuio! ei wares. in the 131 them all will fink to the The gold together in common water. lead. dipped into the faid colour. Cover the me tal. and ufe !^nber. witn a little hair pencil. The filveris worked fame manner. plunge in chamber a XLV of it 1. hurrifh it. hour out. can be pulverifed. feed or r. XLV. g. and. on the then. a halfpenny worth of u nber.ut oil. Take it Mait go>d In oil. nor too dry. white Set To dye any metal. lay your gold on ii with cotton. To ivh i en copper. except Calt. and verdigrife. glafs. which you calcine well it Then dipping a with U. and as much of gold litharage . inftead of which you put white gild marble. yellow oc necefFary. when XL VI. Grind the fineft bol arrnenian you can find with lintOf this you lay a coat on the marble. foon as dry.ARTS wr. the falt^etre. And as foon as this is perf< clly drv Surniih it. of fublimed mercury. one drachm and XLV in I [ I . powder ammoniac filt. as a kind of gold fize. then rub with it what you want to whiten. when thoroughly dry. or ftone. piece of cloth orllufr in it. e all . bottom. apply the XLFU. which you pafs along your check befve taking the golJ with it. taking it 1 fire. cbryftal. china . &c. To apply gold a on glazed wares. faltpetre. Id colour. thus covered. rub the filver XL1X.

plunge turn as white as filver. till the hue pleafes you. It will C SECRETS HAP. The reft as above. 2. VII. i. previoufly tinged with a pale yellow. &c. or rather a darker. and dried. add a tincture of Bra in lime water. rut . Ancther way. and rub your wood with it. burnifh it with the 3. each time. Another red. a deeper red. made of Then. Then make your it and. Brafil wood very till it and boil itincom- has acquired an agreeable co lour . diluted in water. mix it with c"! of make it luke-warm. and. To Soak Dutch turnicl in water . Pound orchanetta into powder . IV. BONES. laft coat is dry. Mix ammoniac fall's powder. To whiten iron likejtl-ver. die <wQodin apurpli/h colour. terwards feveral coats of the Brafil wood-water. II . The /~>HOP composition for red. . I. water. then ftrain it through a cloth. or quick lime. in cold iron red-hot feveral times. Give your wood firft a coat of yellow. Soak the chopped Brafil wood in oil of tartar . and you will have a red oran- ged very agreeable. proceeding for the reft as above directed. When the burnifher> and lay another coat of drying varnim with the palm of your hand . in that diflblution. with it rub your wood. and quick lime. the wood being thus faffron. HI. and you will obtain a fil wood made purple. 4. If you want boil the Brafii wood in a water impregnated with a diffolution of alum. fine. relative to the art of DYING WOODS.tya S E C R "E T S concerning XL IX. give af \^ mon water.

.. Then give green. f A blue purpie. if the hue fee? s to you to be too ilrong. Boil all it a quarter of an hour in two quarts of water. and foak your wood in it afterwards. Boil in water fome grinded terra merita.ifli \\itH which and varnilh and \ TRADES. burnifh it as ufual. boiled for Four ounces of French M . Another finer yellow . proceed as above.alum. In three pints of this water difijive four o?i ces of turnfol.ARTS pii^e.. XII. and mix well uith this. with.ke tint fort >-f German turnfol which painters ufe o p . pivr it a other coa^ of a paler dye. two quarts of water. . Add. about a quarter of an hour in a quart of water. dry. give a coat of this dye to your wood with abrufo. Arivther. XI . your wood.v?-t^r. the reil. V. Four ounces of Brafil. and then ufml. Diflblve tflrnfol in tu o quarts of water. Slack lime in water. wnh ab >ut the bulk of a filbert of roch. and fet it in a vefTel When on the fire with weak fize to dilute it. 135 ~s ou tmy dye your wood. and put your wood a foaking in it fo long as you find the colour to your For liking.irt i< out of the ^rorinc^. Another y-tttovu. done. boiled together in and half a pound of India. A and of it to boii it one hour. IX.< VI. T. one ounce of common alum. ieveral CUTUS VI II. Difiblve it in '.ii t with fize. Tf berries. 'Ayello*w. A of Grind Spanifh verdierif?'nto a fubtiJ'e powder with iirong vinegar. VI T. blue for wood. woovis. polifn it with the burniftier. Then grind fome indigo on marble with that water. and jftrain it through a linen cloth. X. a*d doc. Give a cont of this dye to the wood an i. which is don6 When fov adding clear water to a part of the other. and when dry. two ounces of green vitriol. Then foak the wood in it. bun.

Chufe a good hard vvoocj. Infufe gall-nuts in vir. To dye in polijhed black. XVII. and give a coat of this. When apple. Grind lamp-black on marble with gum water. and grind it in fubtile powder on marble. Another way. Another eway.eg-. poliih with the ruflu-s. then let it dry. for exam beft bUck ink. To imitate ebony. then poliih it when dry.er rub vour ple. mix^d in a pot with common black. in the ivood with it. or hawthron trees. the c^ye of ebony. rub your wood till it fhires . The ho'ly is pene- . and not veiny.-k fized water. like ebony. Now take what quantity yon pleafe of it. wherein you fhall have then rub your wood with this (baked rufly naiis let .{hill fee it ^ell penetra ted wilh this black. Another way. polilh it with the burI nifher. XV. and wuen you . fuch as pear. -. it is proper to rub it fmooth with the rufhes. again a very fit fort of wood to tnke The method of dying it is this. where you leave it and is till it has acquired a perfect degree of blackneis. N* B. XVI. to your wood . and lei it dry give one or two coats of the aforefaid \v !. and dry. having great car not to let it turn brown. then put it in a hatter's copper to boil.ite over it. Form it fir ft into the (hape you intend to give it.nd fet it in a pipkin on the fire with a w. bhck. with a reed brufh. To dye wood in afine polifhsd white. XIV. with a brufh. < ive firft a coat of fize to then your wood. Put it next in a pipkin. dipped in melted wax. It dry.r. -f di as nail's. Before you perform this on your wood.SECRTS Take concerning XII. and blacken them. for then you facceed better in the imitation of the ebony. thefinelt Englifh white chalk. and burnifhwith the burnilher. A f w d'iys af. ?. When it is tolerably hot. made on purpofe. : XUI. Thefe being dry alfo. rub them with a bit of cloth then. Sosk bits of ol rufti/ iron. polilh and burnifli.

and a Jit tie alurn . and lay it again in alum-water. Jet it dry. tnke it XX. Next to this. If the black has got in as deep as a copper halfpenny is thick. To Pound powder. diluted with varniihj will produce a fine black. in quantity you like. and. work and fhape it as it to ftay. Put it in a clean pipkin. and reduce to it it into Add water continue to pound it. and jpolifh it as you would ebony. have remained there a defcretionary time. and oil of olive. and the fame quantity of brimWhen the wood looks of a fine black. Take expofed to the fun^ or before the fire. which you by leaving a little bit in a corner of the copper to cut and make the trial. new. take it out and dry it the fhade. this in olive water. with which you it comes into a liquid. purple. and poiifn as ufual. and boil till the water looks Give fiveral coats of this colour on the wood. Boil it after which you may put the bulk of a nut of Roman vitriol. This powder. a mortar.e pan. till it looks purple likewife. take it flone. and let it on the fire to warm. charcoal dull. + I. and grind into an impalpable powder on marble. cut in frnall bits. till colour for painting. when it is dry. put them in water. an^i fcrape it XXI. m Another ebony Hack. in dye *wovdfiller fajhicn. When dry. with as big as a nutmeg of fize. out from the pan with a knife. with rufhes. boil verdigrife in vinegar to the di minution of a third. put it in a ftor. and gix'-e new coats of this over the others on the wood till it looks black. Then take off the filth of the dye. Take India wood is XiX. When it mail oiu. tinjrlafs.ARTS and TRADES. A fine blacky Take of good ink whatever eajily made. 2. by degrees. take it out. Then foak it for three days in a<um water. 135 know penetrated fufficiently deep with it. Brufh your wood with this liquor . burniih it. then fet it in the fun to exilccate it into a cake. and well nealed. like xxii. mulberry-tree wood. r* . I XV IT. Another way.

2. and it will affume the colour of fuch of "thefe metal* as you will h&ye rubbed it with. in clerr water.Diiute next. burnifh it ss ufual. copper. rub a piece of gold. then polilh it. two. cut it in two or three bits.. Lay this white on the bl^ick ground tracing with it what ftrokes and oddities you like. with this oil anoint *jFo XXV. what undir lations one likes . . or a brufh. xxvii. till h remains fhiny. fome white in a white varnifh made with white gum. before your fize is quite dry. mfli it with the Chir. Givs feven or eight coats of fize to your wood. Slack fome quick lime in chamber-lye. To marble weed. with a rind of pork. filbert or copper. and put it to foak for forty-eight hours in three Q&nces of good oil of olive. r*. give a fine colour to the cherry -tree ivood. a brufh dipped in XX IV. or as many times as you think pro then polifh it as ufual. To give a piece of nut^ or pear tret. a mortar. fi. $XIII. . in order to preferve it per the brightnefs of the white. give a light rub with rufnes. TG immitate the root of nut-tree. ilrike here hi (ire and there a confufed quantity of fpots with When ciry. After this is done. i . fome roch cryflal \vitfv to warm in a new pipkin with a and give a coat of it en your wood with When dry. little fize. or (hell-lack. Repeat : one. on the wood thus prepared. Then with it form your undulations on the wol>d And. When dry.efe varn'fh. vargrinded with common water. Then. Take one ounce of you intend your cherry-tree wood after it is worked and ihaped a& it will it give it a fine luftre.^Givaiit a coat of black diluted in varnim. rub it well according to your fancy. Let this dry at leifure. in gold. then-wipe it.jj6 SECRETS Set it concerning XXII.three. when dry. 'To dye Pound very fine. and white fandarac. XXVI. orchanetta .ver. Then. and give a laft coat of iiiie tranfparent white yarnifh.

which. v. Give four coats of this . cinabar. Burn fome lamp-black in a (hovel red hot.thq it. and dilute it with fibly can. and lamp-black. black. ppliih them. and varnifh as before . you polifh as ufua!. then poliihe. When thefe coats are dry. to fucceed in doing it. umber. directed. they will eafily receive the burnifhing . n. then dilute it with a very weak. when with a brufh of hog's proper. According as you ihoc'd wr. chufing always a green or a yellow for the ground as the moil And. Lay two coats of this on your wood. 137 XX VI I. The wood XXIX. then burjnifli'it with . and fome other colours.d as directed Chap. with a mixture of vermilion. when dry. you may ad-. and. let the whole dry . put on with a pencil what other colours you like. mix well all this together . burnifhing tooth. diluted in leather iize. and give a firft coat of this on your wood. As for the jafper. t>f tallow. XXVIII. i. polifh as ufual. white marble you can find . art. that you rub now atf if you have^employ-'*' ed lake. which. when dry. and XXX* For the. and give another M2 Of . put the fize of a pea of lead in drops. as muck Grind and and the fame quantity offoap.fize water. 2. Prepare a brown ground colour. orpine. You mud only take notice. fize. but as for the verdigrife and azure powder. in doing then on a piece of white foap. on a white marble done.nt tais ground darker or redder. and jof per.A R T Have . polifh give the iad coat of white varnim. To marble. you will find moif difficulty mud only give two or three coats of different colours fancifully drawn and intermix ed. break Grind it as fine as you ppfand calcine it in the fire. you you iliall have laid colours.adventuring'. and variegated all your it with ruihes. bridles.! or diminiih the quantity of fome of theft colours. the fined To immit ate white mar He. then For the bignefs of an egg of grind it with brandy. then heat them. To imitate Mack tnarlh. being previoufly whitened with two coats of whitening. S and T R A D S.

Put -. you imy pcuih as ufual. i. . To fiften am her fine white arid pure wax .! ihvpcd in forms of coral.138- S E. with fmith's forge wa ter. The Turks. and put with thefirft in a new iron pan. powvsr. Then take it out. Whe .. 3Si {.into i: ilib^jSe powder.put your you find it foft to vour fatisfadion.n two laft them it \vafhthatpailevvithcoldwater. otherwife karabe* in a glafs veiTel. 7"^ e.got a fine r fed coral hue.t>:\ through a filk fieve. to whom trtefe forts of works vere carried. which will produce a iiue . Jump in the air.. after the proper time i>. Melt mcltrd a XXXII. and other forts of work. to rin end b*> the cheats which were pra&ifed with the merchants of Tunis and Algiers. | This fecret hss Veen worth immenfe Qbfer<vation. 2. it will be 'XXXIII. Or eiie call it again in w] er forts of moulds you like.I. in which you have mixed the And aveniurine ^ow-i.^rnfbr. and change it till Put the as when you put it in. iti". drying.C R E T S concerning of a fine andcl-ar varnifh. or ^r?^o. paid them But this branch of trade was foon put magnificently. Stir all well with a wooden fpatula. till the mercu ry is perfectly incorporated with the posvders. XXX. When amber in it. fams of money to x ldm who found it out.. :. as it in a dry place in the ftiade.!. &J very fine. to make figures of it. and give it what form and ihape you like. Let it li ne f i ther- reduced into a palp. in vv' a may judge pnece rive the quan. and leave it there till .'i till boil this cotm it comes very thick ien take it oii and mould it in mou'. in add cinn. it will harden. re made T<. along ingredients. If after wards you put come i.i's b'ood in tears. hard as you can wiihto have it.y of matter you have .:>/ erf^ioncfccral. i A . 2. ty of chryitaline vitriol ife well thefe as much of any feaL the fame quanti Pulververdigrife.. "TV take the imprtjfion Take half a pound of Mercury . who uied to buy thofecuriofmps. r rin.\har ) t i .nd pear! afhes. Reduee'goat's . and you mny keep it Temains quite clear tfbr ufe.

take the lump in your hand. &c. Prefs the lump well in that fkin. When you want take it with it. affiRed with the work ing of the i!g?rs. take it ofF and knead it in your bands with your fingers. done.. Hfc it up. as above directed . When there appears on it Ibme dropc like pear's. and tie it above with a ftring. As foon as the rrercurv begins to move. Pound it again. changing it the fame. and will feive you to fcal the fame letter. that matter. a couple of hours. lay as it to take the impreflion you like. and knead it with your ringers. in the proportion of two parts of mercury to one of filver. with which you pound it again in tb fame mortar. and T R A D E S. it will become pliable liks vax . and fet it in the air. the fame. foftens with the heat of the hand. with out any probability cf tiifeovering. Pound it well with a peftle of put it in a glafs mortar. for three csys.r having. five or fix times a day. and add a little water in which you ftull have diiTolved feme verdigrife. and reft. opened it. Then take you did the vinegar. it.'ith good vine gar. faoald even tho real one be laid on it. as you would do a piece of wax. Stir this.ARTS 2. open the fkin. and then pour it on the filver filings. where it will come sgain as hard as metal. ie of a kiiife fmoothen one iide of it with the flat blade. with chamber lye inflead of vinegar. XXXV. which you bring up all round it. preiling 'r all round and r v hen in the middle to make it take the imo'-fiton. To . as the original ft-al iiielf. in a crucible.. At the end of the term decant out the verdigrife water. afte. e on an irqr. thra it is hot enough . proceeding. changing visegaj: as foon as it blackens. for the It hardens in the air. and iilver filings In another. fo as to feparate and fqueeze out all the fuperfluous mercury which psiles And. and fmoothen one fide of it during that time. two other hours. plate. as before. Heat foms mercury Let this cool. to take the impreflion of a feal and place it over the fi. longer. on a wafh leather tkin. when none cornes out any through the leather. and replace it tf. and apply it on the leal. XXXIV. vvirh irs own coat of arms or cypher.

140

SECRETS
XXXV.
To get
birds

concerning
nuhite feathers.
t

with

mixture of femper- evi tutim-majus s juice, and olive oil, and rub with it the eggs on,.which the hen is All the birds which fhallcome from thofe egg*^ fetting. will be white feathered*

Make a

XXX VL

To /often

ivory.

In three ounces of fpirit of nitre, and fifteen of white wine, or even of mere fpring-water, mixed together,

And, in three or four days, put your ivory a-foaking. it will be fo foft as to obey under the fingers.

VI I. To dye ivory, thus foft ened. DiiTolve, in fpirit of wine, fuch colours as you want to dye your ivory with. And when the fpirit of wine (hall be Efficiently tinged with the colour you have
1.

XXX

put
is

in,

plunge your ivory in

it,

fufHciently penetrated with
gj_ve*that ivory

it,

and leave it there till it and dyed inwardly.

Then
2.

in a fheet of white paper, and cover it with decrepitated common fait, and the drieft you can make it to be ; in which fituation you mall leave it only twenty-four hours.
it

To -harden

afterwards,

what form you will. wrap it up

-

XX XVI II.
infufe
this
firft,

Another <way
it

to

foften

i=vory.

Cut a large root of mandrake
then boil
in

into

water.

bits, and Put your ivory in

fmall

boiling liquor, and

boil it too,

till it is

as foft as

wax.

XXXIX.
*!.

Another <way<

alicant kaly, and three quarters of a pound of quick lime, which you put into If, after boiling water, and let it reft for three days. that term, the liquor is recldifh, it isftrong enough ; if not, you muft add again of the above ingredients, till it

Take one pound of black

acquires that degree. 2. Then putting a foaking in this lye any bone, or ivory, for a fortnight, they will become as foft as

wax.
diflblve an equal 3. To harden them afterwards, quantity of alum and fcuttle fifti-bones powder, in water, which you boil to a pellicula ; foak your bones or ivory in this for about one hour only ; then take them out, and XL, Ta put them in a cellar fur a few days.

ARTS
.

and

TRADES.
in

XL. *To 'whiten ivory, which has Take roch-alum, which you dificlve
liquor

water, in a

Sufficient quantity, to render the water all milky Boil this it. into a bubble, and foakyour

with
ivory

in

hair brufli.

about one hour, then rub it over with a little When done, wrap it in a wet piece of linen to dry it leifurely and gradually, otherwise it would
it

for

certainly fplit.

XL I.
Take
ivory.
a
little

Ana t her way*

black ibap, and lay it on the piece of Prefent it to the fire, and when it has bubbled
it off.

a

little

while* wipe

XL II.

fo whiten grten ivory ; and whiten again that which has turned of a brown yellow*

1. Slack forae lirae into water, put your ivory in that water, after decanted from the ground, and boil it till it looks quite white. 2. To polifh it afterwards, fet it on the turner's whet!, and after having worked it, take ruihes and pumiceflones fubtile powder with water, and rub it till it looks all over Next to that, heat it, by perfectly frncoth. turning it againft a piece of linen, or iJieep's-ikin leather, and, when hot, rub it orer with a little whitening dilu

ted in oil Q} olive, continuing turning as before ; then with a little dry whitening alone, and finally with a piece

When all this is performed as direct effoft white rag. ed, the ivqry will look as white as fnow.

XL 1 1 1 To whiten tones Put a handful of bran and quick-lime together, in a new pipkin, with a fufficient quantity of water, and boll it. In this put the bones, ai>d boil them alfo till perfect ly freed from grcafy particles.
.
.

XLIV. To
Take

petrify

wood, b'j.

equal quantities of gem- fait, roch-alum, wliitc Mix all thefe vinegar, calx, and pebbles powder. ingredients together, there will happen an ebullition. If, after it is over, you throw in this liquor any po rous matter, and leave it there a foaking for three* four, or five days, they will politively turn into petrifi-.

canons.

XLV. ft,

142

S

E C R E T S
7*0

concerning

XLV.

Take one ounce

of quicklime. confidence of pap, with a fufEcient quantity of cham Put of this on the horn ; and, three or four ber-lye. hours afterwards it will be pf rfe&ly marked.

immitate tor tots -fall with born. of go.d litharage, and half an ounce* Grind well all together, and mix it to the

XLVL A preparation for tbeto^tois-JhslL
a mixture, as above, of quicklime, orpine, Mix wHl all to^ei^er, pearl afhes, and aquafortis. and put your horn, or tortois-fhell, a-foaking in it.

Make

XL V? I. To dye bones In green. Grind well a difcretionaWe quantity of verdjgrife, which you put with vinegar in a copper vefTel, and the bones in it. Cover this, and lute it fo well that no air cait come at the contents. Put it in hot horfe dung, and leave it there for a fortnight, after which time take
your bones out ; they will be coloured of a ane green, which will never rub off.

XLV
1.
all

I

T

f .

Another <way

.

Put fome verdiorife, weii grinded, in goat's milk, and leav? it till the milk becomes very green. Then put
together in a copper vefTH along with the bones ; co it well, then pi, ce it in hot horfe dung far ten d^ys, after which time you may take the bones oat

ver and lure

mor? fo, boil them in oil of nut; and the longer they boil in it, the more they will heighten in colour. and 3. To polifa them, you muft ufe elder's marrow juftre tfse-n with oil of nut.
:

perfrclly well coloured. 2. If ^ou will have them

XL IX.

To

dye bones,

and mould them
jhapes.

In all

manner of

1. Boil together twelve pounds of quick Urne, and one of calcined roch-alum, in water, to the reduction of one third of the water you (hall have put in. Add, then, two more pounds of quick lime, and boil it a-

gain till bottom.
2.

it Cc-n

Now let

T^ke

carry an egg, without its finking to the it cool and re-it, then filter it. twelve pounds of .that liquor ; put in half a
Brafii

pound of rafped

wood, and four ounces of fcarlet
flocks
;

ARTS

and

TR A D E

S.

143

jficcks ; boil all about five minutes on a flow fire, then Put on the decant the cleartft part of it, and put it by. of brafil and fcarle tabout four pounds of the firil f<eces water; boil it the fame length of time as the other, and decant Kkewife the cleared part of it on the other. Repeat this operation, till the new aJued water draws no more colour from the faces. 5 No^v r.fp any qum.ity of b v,ies. and boil them, when jafped, a rea'oiiable tune iv\ clear lime water. Put them in a nr-trafs ; and, T^nen take them out. over them, pour fome of the tin^e water, fo as to fo vk ihem Oiilv with it. Place the m-atrafs on a mild Add iome more f.iod bath, and evaporate the liquor. liquor, ami evaporate it a:^a.in the {'-me, conti ui g to add and evaporate the ti.yed liquor, till Uie laiped bones nre all turned i '.to a foft palu-. in iin or 4. Take this paftc, and moulc) it as vou like, Other mpuHs, x to make whatever t i g <>r fi.-ure vou want. Setii in the mould for a dtv or two, 'ill it has a; acquired the (hap;.- you >vmiM hnveit; tiien, to boil it in a water of alum ai.ti i'alioetre firit, i it, aftcrxvar'is in oil of nut. Nothing more lur^vifr^, s.id at the f ime time more agreeable, thrn -hefe u-*s, which look 'nconceilibly to be made of ho^e*-, win out con e'vi.-g how they can be made &ch, out of that mat ter, and in one folid piece.
i
;
'

i

;

fi...

L. To dye bones in black. ounces of litharage, and. t.ie fame quantity of quick lime. Boil all in common water, alono; with the bones. K-"ep always ftirring, till the water begins to boil. Tnen take it out, and never ceafe ttinin-g till the water is cold again ; by that time the bones wiii be

Take

fix

dyed black.
LT. Tofeffen bones. T- ke equal parts of R ^man vitriol nnd common f It, Di'Vil thefpirits out of t^. by the ale.nbic. or rather, by the retort. If in the water you get from the diilillarion, you put the bunes a-foaking, they will bccon<c as ibft as wax. Lll. 70 dye bones in green.

Pound

well together, in a quart of

iUong vinc^^r,
three

SECRETS
three ounces of verr' V a handful of rue. alcr?r with the bones you
well.
.

-conctmirig
->

h

of hraf fil'nps and
!

b
:

a

>

late v<

#!,
it it

v,
.

-

\o
.

aiui

flop

Csrry

ili;

r

i> le^viro
{hull

for a fortnight, or even more,

c..e

boiies

be dyed

green.

LIU. Afaitfor hardening f<ft louts. Take equal q./.u-ui s of WKvv>; ;,;,c, co^trrn crepiutedand gem i,tks. as weil as of ph>fn>:um
.

defac-

'Carinum. rock
all

and fheli a urns. Fulv^ifc, &\ together; then put it in a gtffcfVveffe! well flnn-el, v/ ,!cii Lury ii hot borfe duv^g, that t^e m $tu*r ilinnld melt into w^ter. Cor-iy?) it on warm r-rnbeis. Ti en r> "ke it ve'ui n ii to ^ dAc^iii-n *gair^, b\ .r.r^n? of tlift
;

-

'.

.

'.'u.
fit

ihfi
uV.
:

'MIS
j

fecon

:

1

t

-hif, v. is

fcr

K'

f
;

-

it

w

'iqui^ed f;r the a. d when you

nt to
it,

harden and

confc-li

^t-

a -y

:."*jrg,

fmear

it

over

with

L V To make figure:-,
1
.

or

<vf>fes,

<iv/fb

egg-Jbells.

eany quai.iuv of egg (hells, and a for two days, that they may place it in potters furnace, there be per ft 11 y calcined ; then rind them dry into
1.

Put

in a

cru.:ib

afubtile povvdf
2.

r.

arabick-watrr, and whites of eggs a liquor, with which you are to knead that powder, and make a pafte or dough of it. With that dough, to which you give the confidence 3. of potters clay, make and form whatever figure or vsfc

Next, with

gum

beaten together,

make

you

like,

and

fei

them

in the fun to

dry.

dye bones and i<vcry of a fine red, 1. Bo'l fcarlet flocks in clear wat^r, affiilcd with

L V. To

a

certain quantity of pearl afhes. to draw the colour the better; then clarify it with a little roch-alum,and ftraia this tincture through a piece of linen.

you mud rub them

dye, afterwards, any bones or ivory in red, firft with aquafortis, and then im mediately with this tir:c"lure.
2.

To

LV

I

.

T'o

make a

DifTo've two

ounos of

fafle in imitation of Hack marble. in a fpalr, on a gentle fire,
in

glazed pipkin.

When

perfecl fufion,

add

a third

part

fuppofing that they are not too confiderable to go into the veflel with the liquor. paint all over the figure intended to nut oil. and then in the gold. JL VII. ufe of thatyou can get. In this dye. Have next feme powder of German gold in a mell 9 and. be bronzed. or other figures 9 fo that the bronze may ft and water for t<ver. 3. till you have dyed it all over. and thus proceed from place to place. take the piece oft from the mould. Grind Englifh. well mixed and united. as fine as poflible with With this. Dip a pencil in the varnilh. And if thev be. in another. and boii them. fixe. Li VIII. which cheaper. and flir all well together. whea cold and dry. 1.plafter t t<vory. into fubtile Put it in it Pour upon powder. according to the hue you wifti to give the If you cannot get one of thefe two juices. which you muft keep there ready When both ftiall be ed for it.ARTS and TRADE S. into a mould of a fine polifh in the infide. put now your pieces of marble. with a fufficient quantity of wfiite-wine vinegar. take ibme fine bronze. LIX. or alabafter. and you will find that nothing can imitate fo wellblack marble as this deceptive compofition. one ounce of the fineft a glafs matrafs of three half pints half-a-pint of the bdt French fpirit N of . *- A receipt to dye marble^ or alabafier. and to every one pound of li quor. you may inftead is of the Ger a good deal man gold. and give as fmooth and equal a coat of this to your figure as you can. parfnips and purple lilies. Pound together. put one ounce of alum. *To bronze <wooden. take the pipkin ciFfrom the fire. 2. Then. 2. boiling hot as they are. Proportion the quantity of parfnips and lilies 'to each other. and let it dry. inblut or purple* in a marble mortar. For favingexpence. you muft heat one part of it as much as you pollibly can. make liquor. Pound. brown red. Come 'of the varniih defcribed in the following article. mixed and prepared. 'The warnijb fit for bronzing. fhell-lac. except black marble itfelf. 145 melt part of karabe. and throw the contents. then dye it with the liquor quite boiling hot.

and. 2. in order it may Obpenetrate the powder the better. and take the mnrafsand (hake it as it were forrinfmg. Note. the varnifh it done. Infufe. they will be perfeclly dyed. When you pour the fpirit of wine on the lac in the matrafs. four or five times a-day. when difiblved to perftdion. in which fet to infufe. A water to dye bones and wood. and they will take the co lour to perfection in that fpsce of time. ferve alfo to flop pouring by intervals. fet it on a gentle fand-bath. accord forne red 1. LX. Roman vitriol. for feven days. 'To dye bane. During that time. ing to the various colour you may require. andi<vory an e?ner aid green. then in alye of quick Ikne mixed with chamber lye. at the end of thofe four days. that the lac may have time to difiblve at leifure. 'To dye bones any colour. then. era fponge. and little at a time. LX 1 1 1 . for fear the lac (hou!dmvke a glutinous lump. LXF. . If you want a red dye inftead of verdigrife. negled not to {hake the matrafs. and flick to the bottom of the matrafs. powder and boil them. for twelve hours only? whatever you want to dye. Put in aquafortis as muchjfoj tenet as it can diflblve . in order to mix all well.to help fii ifhing it . and verciigrife. with a di cretion&ble quantity of roch-alum for either. with & cloth. Lay the bones In this liquor. In this liquor. Should your lac. LX1I. To whiten alalajler and white marble. and fo forth. fome fubtile pumice ilone's in verjuice . put either verdigrife or red or blue chalk. as if YOU were wafhing it. at different times. Boil theLonesflrft for a good while. put yellow. if yellow. be yet-undiflblved. and place it in the cool for four days. Stop it well. copper fil ings. or-any other ingredient fit to procure the colour. tver. put a-boiling what you want to dye. you want to give to the bones. for twelve hours. put 3.:q 6 SECRETS tonctrning of wine. cbferve to do it gently. Put the flrongcil white-wine vinegar in an earthen pan. thus continuing to do till you have introduced all the fpirit of wiae-into the lac. and in that water put a-foaking. . roch-alum. and it will take the colour perfectly.

The fame in Mack. give it four or five coats of varnifti. and* gall-nuts. Mix ' in red-wine Then add to this vinegar a fufficient quan vinegar. #~0 that you foften born Jo may caft it in a mould as melted lead. L XVII I. well the wood firft . Supply for the above ingredients. polifh it. LXVI.ARTS perfectly white. and boil as before directed. at the bottom. wood them. both in powder. 7*0 Smoothen and rub dye wood vermilion colour-. made with karabe an'd oil of fpike. rub the bone with this waih. then give it four or five coats of vermilion fubtiiely pulverifed. will 147 wet your marble with the liquor. Make a ftrong lye with equal quantities of pearl adies and quicklime. and boj! all altogether. when dry. When dry. or thereabouts then put them a-foakingin a lye of foap and verdigrlfe. For the green. irrthis They will foon turn into a pap. VIII. and let it dry. LX1X. fectly green. till you fee the wood. afterwards follow the directions prefcribed in Art. xiix. Rafp your horns. and. pomegranates' rinrfs. polifh it over again with rufhes and oil of fpike . and bones red. Then put pap whatever colour you like. have acquired the degree of colour you wifh to have Another way to dye woods Infufe for twenty-four hours your LXV. and put thefe rafpings in that lye. then with ink . and become LXiV. two parts of rochaUim. add to the vinegar a {ufficient quantity of vitriol. then for thelaft. rind caft it in what To dry and harden thefe figures ever mould you chufe. LXVI!. all in powder. in a fufficient quantity. To blacken tones < charcoal duft with wood-afties and water. tity of Brafil wood and roch-alum. or bones. and diluted with lime and curd-cheefe water. and TRADE it S. and in liii. . CHAP. and one of alumen plumeum* with which you boil the wood or bones to the reduction of two thirds. After the twenty-four hours infulion as above. till they are per . orpine-.

in order to enable you to ftrip them off the figure afterwards with more In which circumftance. on which you lay the laflrow. you mould it with plaiftcr damp. and fatigues itfelfj^which is detrimental to its taking a true and precife imprefiicm of all the turns and fnapes of the So chat at any rate. which is to contain the head Obferve. when it comes to dry. I. and by rows . make a pattern with a proper clay. or other forts of or naments about itj which require a good deal of trouble and nicety^ you cannot help making a great manyfmall parts and fubdivifions in your mould.cafl s figure. as for example. When the pattern is completed and the fculptor ryn O . which you cover pleafed with his it is ftill while with feveral pieces. rnake the pieces of the mould fmaller than larger. clay ought to be mixed with fand. how ever. it is always preferable to figure. of relative to the ART CASTING in MOULDS. To that effect you begin by the bottom part of the figure. I . yau cover them . the plaifter works too much. let us fappofe the fir d row from the feet to the knees the fecond from the knees to the beginning of the belly. that if the figure you are 3. and ought to be intirely determined by. the fize of the figure. from thence to the {boulders. the parrs of the pattern (brink. becaufe th dr>ing. *. is work. and adapted to. to prevent its cracking. and garniflied with little rings to afTill: all in pulling them off more eafily. For when the pieces are . that thofe diviiions of rows admit of no particular rule. fir ft. moulding have got sny draperies. the third from the beginning of the belly up to the pit of the jflomach. parts are made. or any other piece in bronze. viii. That muft. and lofe their fullnefs. You muft obferve. made too conficlerable. you JL fff cafl a fgtirc in bronze.ftttttft e SECRETS H A P. when all thefe fmall facility.

and in reverfe. 149 little pieces.ARTS over and TRADES. Then. Then. and France. if you want it for a bronze figure. Of this wax. which pro duces a great defect in the figure. wax pieces. . whether prepared or natural. larger by three or'four inches every way than the plinth or bafis of the figure. Six pounds of wax. as cording to that you are willing to give your metal. you have an iron grate. you lay another coat. are called cafes. and the other drugs above-mentioned. and with a brufh give them a coat of oil. the by warming thofe feparate them-to melt m The plaifler draws alib the "Aiperficy of the wax. do not content themfelves with imbibing it inwardly with oil. you aflemble all the fmall parts of it each in their cafes. and in French chapes. are added to it only to render it more traclable. fillet. This prepar ation of the wax. give them another coat alfo of wax. you let it reft till it is perfectly dry. jierfeft. is to render the wax-work. before wiA larger ufing it. which containing feveral of the ones. The mould being therefore thus imbibed with wax. therefore. On the middle of that grate vou erecl one or more h on you N 2 . rnuft be regulated according to the country and the feafon. the wax figure cafl in Aich a mould always comes out a little rough and like $our. with another brufn. to the thicknefs of a fixpenny piece. which is to be cafl in it finer and more For if you imbibe the mould with oil on'y. but they even make it drink as much wax as it can foak. more or lefs. however. half-a. of the thicknefs of a quarter of an inch. in the hollow of the mould. keeps naturally foft. For in the heat of fumItaly. becaufe the wax draws al ways the fuperficy $>? the plaifter. and putting motive. or hot climes. with wax made in flat cakes. 5. prepared as follows. it wax may be ufed alone. and one pound of Burgundy pitch. Then.pound of hog's lard. and is a great cbftacle to its coming out from the mould with that neatnefs it otherwife fhould. in doing this. 4. When the mould is thus made and completed. fuch as Spain. they who are curious in their work. as \vefaid. ac mer. fill all the hollow parts of the mould in prefling hard this fort of wax in them with your When thus fingers.

with holes to pafs other iron rods of the fize and length neceiTary to fupport the cere (in what you want to caft* 6. according to its pofidon and attitu Je. and mixed. with which you fiH up that bottom part of the hollow. which is to fupport the core when made. it Hands pret ty well too. rows*. and. from fpace to fpace. filled . than plainer can . - We (hall therefore proceed on the method of cafting on 7. on this firft bottom row of the mould* you place the fecond in then fill it likewife with the fame manner as the firft You take then the mould. S E C R E T S concerning bars. or bottom by thelaft wax in cakes. . when tVsey had v^ell fupportedit with iron bars. and covered it with them. and bored. which is called form ing . diluted very clear. and this they referve only for fmall figures. French ame or noyau] of ter's clay Formerly they ufed to make their cores with pot mixed with hair and horfe-durg well beaten With this compoft. left they ihould vary from their pofitionVhen you form the core* 8. and fill it as you go. and thofe which are caft in gold or filver. you pour phifter. and aflemble them on the iron grate round the principal iron bar. becaufeearth refifts better the power of that red-hot melted metal. was dry. till you come to the laft. they formed a figure together. contoured agreeable to the latitude and fituatiom of the figure.of the firft. efpecially for great bronze figures. as foon as the jirft fet which com pletes the bottom row of the feparate pieces of the mould is fixed. wr>$n plaifter is well beaten and mixed with brick duft alfo well beaten and ilfted fine. they took the wax with which they had filled the hollow parts of their mould.. This method is even prae~tifed row by feme founders. as we faid. you give them a tye round very hard with cords. plaifter cores. they fcraped it. your prepared plaifter. they dimirtifhed. length and crofs-ways. with plaifter. To form this. with brick-duft. as mentioned be fore. and took off from itsbignefs as much as When that core they wanted to give to their metal. When they are joined together. like the pattern . Then. that is to fay. However. Thus you continue to erec"l your mould from row to row.

to give more grace and expreffion to the certain flrokes. yon limit flop a certain time to let it take a confidence. to the intent of rendering them lighter. in that cafe. 12. with this difference. and give it more flrength and power to refill the effort of the metal when it comes 9.il folid. but even to that of the parts of that figure whereon The vent. or features only . and one by one. when there are draperies? and mucji matter is ufcJ. 10. the core fome iron rods through the holes perforated forth at purpofe in the perpendicular bars. covering the core* which is contain-/ cd in the infide of it. 'When . leaves the figure to appear all in wax. or thereabouts. The figure thus well called what is they are to be proportioned not only to the iize of the figures. You are then to proceed to the repairing of the gure and Jdnifh it after the original. Thofe pipes are cafl in moulds of what length you pleafe. and that in taking them off. and their attitude. bat of plaifter caft much leffer fize. and fometimes nearer. and filled with plaifler. the pieces of the mould have been 'thus erected one upon another. in adding or taking off. as for the difpofition of the limbs. row by row. Thofe which lerve for pouring. you begun at the top. mufcles. then cut to that of four or five inches. Thefculptor. according as he thinks proper. that in ere&ing them you begin at the bottom. has even an opportunity of perfecting much fome of the parts. They are hollow.ARTS and T R A D E S. in fufion upon it. in the fame manner as you proceeded to erecl them. one above another. wife. he can no longer ii prepared. then proceed to take off the cafes and all the frnaller parts of all When mould contained in each of them. in order to fupport the cort the better. whldh.holts are wax-pipes likethey are placed. at fix inches afunde>r. you are to place the pouring and the went holes The pouring holes are wax-pipes of the bignefsof an inch di ameter forfuch figures as are of a natural fize . are placed in a ftraight perpen dicular line. you pafs acrofs ing the core. otherwife they might as well be cr. 15* If the figure require it. when done. for mend or alter them.

15*

-

S

E C R E T

S

concerning-

12. When the various pipes are placed and foldercd againft the figure, with wax, fo that the end which is free (liould be upwards, and as much perpendicular to the figure as polEble, you place another pipe of the fame fize quite perpendicular, which is "to be fixed againft All thefe pipes, every one of the ends of the others.
ter,

both large and fmalK ferve for the pouring of the mat and calling of the figure. You arc to place three or four of them generally round the figure, which is de termined by its fize, bulk, and difpofition. 13. But at the fame time you are placing the pour

ing-holes, you muft not neglect placing alfo thofe which are to ferve for the vent. Thefe iaft are to be placed in the fame line as and with the others, at the diilance of four inche* only from them, and fixed likewife by one end to the figure, and by the other to another long and

perpendicular pipe, like thofe for pouring.
is

Now,

as it

neceffkry that all the wax, when you come to melt it, fhould, as we fhall mention in its place, come out entire ly from the mould, you muft not fail to place thofe forts

of vent-pipes on

all

mean bulk_of the
peries,

the rifing and diftant parts from the figure, fuch as the arms, fingers, dra

ff<r. C5V. from which the wax muft be got out with facility, either by means of particular vent-holes, fo formed a? to defcend to the bottom of the figure, or by means of thofe large ones placed perpendicularly along-fide ofit. -Obferve, always, to make the pouringholes which come to the face and hands the fmalleft of any, that they may not affect too much the features and and that likenefs, if any be intended, of thofe parts you may the more eafily repair thofe places with the
;

chifel,

when they

are fnifhed.

14. After thefe various pipes have been thus care fully fixed all about the figure, you muft fo ptace them

two of the main perdendicular ones fhould join to gether at five or fix inches higher, and above the upper part of it, and be terminated by a wax cup of four inches deep, and as much diameter, under, and at the' bottom part of which you folder them. This cupferves as a funnel to receive the metal, and introduces it into
that

the

pouriag-holes,

by means of

its

communKation
with

ARTS

and

TRADES.

153

with them, to convey it afterwards into all the parts of the figure at once, and form it. Therefore, if there be four perpendicular afcending pipes, you make two fuch cups, to communicate the metal to thefe pipes.
15. As for the vent-holes, you let them free above the top of the figure, and higher than the pouring ones, becaufe they want no cups. 1 6. When the wax figure is thus completely repaired and garnifhed, with all irs pouring and vent-holes, you

prepare a compofuion of putty, and crucibles' powder, well grinded, and fifted very fine, which you dilute With a brufh clear in a pan, like a colour for painting. take this conipofnion, and cover all the figure, as well This operation you re as the vent and pouring-pipes.
peat feveral times, ofeferving carefully to fill up all the cracks and crevices which may happe^in drying. When the wax is thus perfectly covered every where, you put with the fame brufh, another coiripofuioa thicker than the firft, and of a ftronger fort. 17. This compofnion is made of the fame materials as the other, buc with this addition, that you mix fome free earth along with it, and horfe-dung, quite clear from any draw. After having given fix or feven coats of this, you give another coat again, much thicker Hill, of a ftufF com poled of nothing but free earth and horfe-dung, and this being dry, you give half-a-dozen more of the fame, allowing time between each to dry. At laft, you put with your hand, and no more with the brufh, two other coats of this fame laft compofition, of free earth and horfe-dung, mixed in form of mortar, obfer^ing always that the one mould be perfeclly dry, before laying on the other ; and that there Ihould be no part of the figure, whether naked or dra peries, but what is equally covered with every one of the different coats we have mentioned. 1 8. Next to this, you muft have flat iron bars turned and bent according to the difpoiition of the figure,

which being fixed* by means of hooks at the fides of the grate on which it ftands, rife up as high as the pipes, and joining clofe to the mould, unite at top by. means of a circle of iron which runs through all the
hooks,

SECRETS

concerning

hooks, by which thefe bars are terminated. Then you furround again the figure with other iron bars, made in form of hcops, to prevent the others which go from top to bottom, and to which they are fixed by means of wires, from giving way; and, between every one ef thefe bars, both perpendicular and horizontal, there muft be no more than feven or eight inches diitance al lowed.
19.

When all

thefe bars are well fixed together,

and

enabled thereby to fupport and contain the mould, you take a compoft of free earth, horfe-dung and hair mixed together, in confidence of mortar, and with this you cover the mould and the bars all over, without attend ing any more to the fhape of the figure, fo that there appears no more but a fhapelefs lamp of clay, which ought to be of about four or five icrches thick.
?

20. When the mould is thus completed, you are to dig a fqaare pit fufficiently deep for the top of the mould to be fomewhat lower than the fuperfice of th'c ground where the pit is dug, and fufficiently wide alfo to allow room of a foot and a half, free all round the mould, when defcended into it. At the bottom of that pit, you conilrucl a furnace, on the top of which there is to be a flrong iron grate fupported by the arches and wall of the furnace, which is to be made of flone or bricks, as well as the four fides of the pit from top to bottom. 21. After the grate is placed on the furnace, -you defcend the mould on it by means of engines. Then, un der the pipes which are to ferve for pouring, as well as vent, you place pans to receive the wax which is to run off. This done, you light a middling fire to heat the figure, and all the place where- it ilands, with fo moderate a heat, that the wax may melt without boil ing, and come entirely out from the mould, without there remaining any part of it; which would not be the cafe if the heat be fo great as to make it boil, for then it would flick to the mould, and caufe defecls in the
figure, when you come to run the metal. therefore, you jud^e that all the wax is out, may know by weighing that you employed,

-

When,

which you and weigh
ing

ARTS
feg
it

-and

TRADES.

155

flop

again after it is in the pans, you take thefe off, and the pipes, through which it came out, with clay. Then fill all the empty parts of the pit round the fi gure with bricks, which you throw in gently, but with out order ; and, when it is come up to the top, make a

good

As the flame is inter brifk fire in the furnace. rupted by thefe bricks, it cannot afcend with violence, nor hurt the mould, and they only communicate their heat in going through all thofe bricks, which become fo hot, that they and the mould are at laft both red
hot, 22. Twenty-four hours after the fire has been lighted, when you fee that the bricks and the mou'd are equalfy red hot from top * bottom, you let the fire go out,

and the mould coot, bv taking all the bricks off. When there is no more any heat at all you throw fome earth in the pit, to fill the place which had been occupied with the bricks r *nd, in proportion as you throw it in you tread it with your feet, and prefs it againfl the mould.
23. In order tb melt the metal, you conftruct> jufl by the pit where the mould is, a furnace, the lower part

of which ought

to be higher by two or thr^e inches than the top of the faid pic, in order to cbt an a fufficient declivity from it to the pit for the running of the metal. Its conilruclion mud be after the form of an oven, with

good bricks and free earth, and fup ported by ^ood and There is a border r ifed all rouncl, ilrong iron hoops. fo as to rm.ke it capable to co: t.->in all the metal which On the fide which looks is intended to be melted in it.
towards the
pit, there is an opening, which is ilopped during the melting of the metal, and from that opening comes an earthen funnel praclifed, which goes toabafon of good free earth placed over the mould, and the middle- of which correfponds and communicates to thofe This bacups we have mentioned before (No. 14).

fon

is called And in orier to by the workmen cfchens. prevent the metal from running into thefe cups before the whole which is in the furnace is run into the efcheno> there are men on purpofe who hold a long iron rud ter

minated

1^6

SECRETS
in the

concerning

minated by one end them.

form of thefe cups, and Hop

24. When the metal is melted, you unftop the open ing of the furnace in which it is contained'; this runs
into the efcheno, and as foon as it is arrived, the men 'take off the rod with which they (lopped the cups, and the mould being inftantly filled all over, the is

formed

figure

one moment. 25. After the mould
in

is

thus fiUed with the metal,

you

let it (lay in that fituation for three or four days, then, at leifure, you take off the earth which had been thrown

which helps the mould to become entirely as you are fure there is no more heat, you break the mould, and the metnl figure appears furrounded with rods of the fame meta , flatting ou from j it, occafioned by the vent and pouri g-hok s, or pipes, through which the metal was int O'Ure^, and which remained filled with it. Thefe you muft faw off, in or der to unburden the figure of fo much, and get it out of the pit more eafily. Then you clean and fcower with water and grinding-ftone in powder, and pieces of deal or other fort of foft wood, and you fearch in all the holiow places of the draperies and other parts.
all
it,

round

cold.

As foon

1

r>

26.

When

the figures are fmall,
;

they are generally

wafhed with aquafortis and, when it has operated, you may wafh them again with common water. VVhen they
are thus well cleanfed, you repair, finifh, and fault thofe which require to be treated more highly than others ; for the large ones arefeldom fearched fo minutely. 27. After they have been as much finifhe.l as they are

intended to be, you may give them, if you like, a colour, as fome do, with oil and blood-ftone. Or, as feme others praftife it, you may make them turn green by means of vinegar. But without all that trouble, the bronze will in time take a natural varnilh of itfelf, and becomes of a blackifhhue.
If.
I.

How to gild fucb fort s

offigures.

They may be gilt two

different

ways

;

either with

The firft method 'gold in fhells, or with gold in leaves. is thehandfomeft, and at the fame time the molt lafting, To apply ii being always ufed for fmall fized works.
v

it,

But 4. Good copper ought when intended for iiatues. and heating it again over the fire mercury exhales. and filver in that fort When thefe are incorporated together. Brafs is made with copper and calamine.A RT it. repeating this four times. not molten. which comes from Egypt it renders the copper of a much : finer yellow than the calamine . 1. hot. hundred weight calamine renders one hundred per cent. heft gold. You mult guard alfo againft -ufing putty. you make a mixture of one part of the of mercury. IX. and the ftgure*remainsgilt. 6. to be beaten. metal whatever may be compofition of metals. This laft only of pewter to one hundred of the other. It is to be found in France and at Liege. . Copper may be forged either hot or cold. and other proper tools. O . For the fine bronze figures. and rub it with the compofition. Of the choice and Any figures. As for the compofition for making of bells. they are not fo ready to ufe it. to make it quick and then you heat and lay on a gold leaf. when in alloy with lead. III. uieri for the calling of though the general composition runs as follows. you fcrape the figure with fmall files. but. C H A P. it is twenty pounds weight pewter for each hundred of And the artillery pieces take but ten pounds copper. As for the other method it is only for large ilzed works. as it is both dearer and fcarcer. the alloy is half brafs. a great expence . 157 fever. S and T R A D E S. which whitens it. 3. brafs breaks when cold. The Egyptians who are faid to be the half copper. which founders call of procefs. inventors of that art ufed to employ two thirds of brafs againftone of copperOne 2. and fuifers the hammer only when 5. T^ere is a fort of metalic $one called Zinc. Calamine is a Hone from which a yellow dye is drawn. as it is both too hard and too brittle. and them on which one is not willing to the 2. you then heat the figure. compofition is pot good for the calling of figures.

twenty- four hours. Forty days after. Then. Then take thefe drugs out. if the cafk be double the common fize.C H A have P. which boil in two quarts of water till it is perfectly burfted. of an excellent tafte. a fortnight after. IX. while it is (till aboiling or in fermentation. throw arid to into the cafk a bag of black vine-wood aflies whiten the red wine. III. each one Bruife them coarfely. If you wint to make -red your white-wine. quarts of wheat.flowers. ciflc. To . To imitate a malvoifie. Three bag. To change red ivine into wukife. When you To make vin-bourru. in a wellclofed vefTcl. with brandy. tfo relative to the tajle WINE. it boils ilill. cloves and ginger. you muft put abng of white vine: woo ^ the afhes. take o*u the bag. YOU mufcat. then ilrain it through a fine cloth. Stir it well. and infufe for . IV. II. and having tied them in a linen cafk by the bung. then you will fee the effedh VI. To make cafk the wine put in at the bottom of the calk half a pound of milliard feed. SECRETS I. fqueezing a little the whole Put two quarts of this to get the creamy part out. or a pound. Take two liquor in a hogfhcad of white wine. and white into red. Take of the beft galangal drachm. with the addition of a little bag of dried elder. and flavour vf French make a <wi*e to and while the bag.tafte as good and as ftrong'as natural mal<v&ifie+ V.hole. your wine will . fhnke and let it fettle again . let them hang in the or four days after. takeout the vin-doux. have only to put in the cafk a little bag of elder flowers when the wine isjuil done pre fling.

and leave them there for forty days^ After which term you may take them out. 'To clarify in two flays new rwine when muddy. if it fhould get air. When this virgin-drop (hall have boiled. Stick a lemon with cloves as thick as it hang for fear of its turning dead. that the fun may aft with all its powor on the grains. in the X. which \ runs of itfelf from the grapes before prefling . them when they come to be prefTed. then fmear the cafk all over with tar. or fermented. VII. put to every fifty quarts of it one ounce of Florentine-orrice in fubtile powder. etberwife toft ing of the cajky and to give it both a tafte and flavour quite it can hold . you mufl twift fuch branches as are loaded with them. under the prefs. by the bung-hole in a bsg over the wine in the cafk for three or four days. by difftpating their fuperfluous moiilure.ARTS and T R : A- D E S. Two days after. take out the bag . and if from red you want to make it white. aad then A bottle it. Gather the grapes. procure a fweetnefs to the liquor contained in VIII. fo make a vine produce a fweet ivine. T'o make the wine keep mout or unfermented for the firft. and receive the frrfl drop which runs of itfef before prefling. and befides very wholefome. few days after take it out clear from its lye. cafk-. and hang by the bung hole. which put into a bag. fo that the water could not penetrate through any part of the wood into the wine. One month before gathering the grapes. Take Pweli'e months or virgin wine. you may do it by putting in the cafk a quart of very clear whey. To prevent wine from fufting. jT0 make afiveet ivine of a very agreeable flavour. IX. Takeadifcretionable quantity of fine and thin beech ihavings. Plunge thefecafks into a pond deep enough to cover them intirely with water. 159 VI. fo as to interrupt the circulation of the fap : then ftrip the leaves off intirely. and flop it very carefully agreeable. cafk and flop it. well. . and. and expofe them for three whole On the fourth day at noon put them days in the fun.

Hang by the Or elfe throw into the wine a cf virgin vine. little bagful of aihe* XX. Two or bung ofF till the next day. To correft a badflavour in wine. and replace the bung. To prevent winefrom growingfour. To rffiore a wine corrupted and glairy. it will be quite XIII. tH?d up in a bag. and it will turn black. XVI. half a poiind : fugar of rofes. of about one pound and a half. wherein the wine a. {lining' all as you pour it Take in. in the cafk. cr of leaves and twifters of vine. clean roch-aium in powder. To Fill a .*6o SECRETS concerning will out. as much . : gain pine kernels. or half an oil in the caik a tenth part offulphur. then put it three days after this. a piece of bacon. Put in a bag a handful of garden pariley and let it hang by the bung hole in thecafk. XI. To clarify a <wine tuhich is turned. XIX. it out. re/fare a wine turnedfour cr Jharp. X IV Mix ounce of To prevent wine from fpeiling and turning. To make a twine turn black. of brandy. XV III. and put either of them to infufe in the calk. and a quart of good wine. is Place in the cellar. XII. and turning in to vinegar.fermenting.-or not Mix all well. bag with leek'* feed. To XVII. honey whether fkimm^J. or elfe Put in the wine cow's milk a little faltiih or athe rinds and fhells of almonds tied up in a bag XV. TV . two pewter pots. for one weekatleaft. To prevent wine from corrupting. Put to infufe in the cafk a handful of gentian root tied in a bag. and put it in a calk of wine. Take the on again. prevent thunder and lightningfrom hurting <winz. clear. bung hole. eight pounds. Put on the bang a handful of iteei filings and another of fait. and the wine contained in them keep new for twelve months. Then take .

XXI. O a arid . or. or can be. liquortfh.A RT S and T R A D E S. and you will find it as good as ever it was. 161 XX. ore a wine turned. and of put three ounces in every hogfhead at Martinmas the calks are bunged up. one pound of hareVfhot. Or. and hang it in the wine. and three of each of <viz. from the belt vine branches . then Hop the cafk quickly with its bung. And. To make a new wine taftt as an old Take one ounce of melilot. and kin another^cafk overs good lye. To prevent wine from pricking. fortnight after taft'e it.. and mix all well altogeth er. and make k in the form of a rolling pin. take the fame quantity'of another good fort. or taftlng of the ca/k. Put in the cafk half a XXiV. let down the bag. To in the cafk clarify wine eafily. after hav ing well fkimmed XXVI. XXVI f. pound of fpirit of tartar. To corrett a mujiy tajle in wins* Knead a dough of the belt wheat-flour. and a fufndent quantity of ftee! the bottom of the bag. and throw quite boiling hot over that which is fpoiled and (linking . SiiirKeplace it in the oven to fioifh baking it quite. Draw that wine intirely out of its own lye. Half bake it in the oven. 1 XX 11. two of hepatick a'ocs . put it in a bag. pcnd it in the calk over the wine without touching it>. To full Draw a pail A XXII. Then. or a fhort thick ftick. throw in two ounces of common alum for every hogfhead. through bung hole. elfe. with following drugs. two quarts of boiling milk it. which you boil. To make wine Extract the this fair keep. and Hick it all over with cloves. the and celtick-nard. grind. To prevent wine from Pat in the cafe turning. to prevent it's fwimfilings. reft of it. berries in put the hang up a bag with four ounces of laurel powder. in proportion as you draw a certain quantity of liquor. when Put XXV. at ming on the top of the wine. when the wine is ft ill new and mout. To reftore a wine fufted.

Anctner -* method. arid they carry off all the bad tafle of the wine. will One month afterwards take them out. XXX. own upon that of good Pulverife three or four nutmegs. The. and tnke it quite out afterwards. and Sx them to the bung. Boil a quantity of honey in order to get all the waxy put out of it. 3s over you will find it better than ever. XX X f . Strain what remains a cloth. *and agreeable. XXXIf. fo that by putting it in again they may hang and foak in the wine. XXVIII. and let it ferment one fortnight. Of fuch a honey thus prepared put two quarts to half a hogfliead of tart wine.162 and S EGRETS : concerning !et it remain there Or elfe let it plunge in the wine for a few It days. - a^e very ripe medlars.rtve them with a thread. and. a quarter of a pint of ood wine vinegar faturated with litherage . and ftrain it through a double cloth. 7i comfit a four . Ta . or bitter tafle in ivtne. and open them in four rs. XXIX. without parting them afunder. the wine from reft ore its afpoiled lye. *To fvoeeten a tart win*. of iis it will render it perfectly If in the fummer. XXXIIL Tske. Another <way. Stop well the After that term bung. after having dlied the oven. or in ver fand . and there beany danger turning. and as many dry orange peels. throw in a ftone of quick line. Bcil a quartern of barley in four quarts of water to the reduction of two. This method has gone through many experiments. To Change wine. will correct any bad flavour the wine might have ac quired. in the 7"o prevent tartnefs in it month of March. and throw them in. two bnfonfuls of ri in the fun. and pour it a in the cafk^ (lining all together through with flick without touching the lye. Put in a hogfhead of fuch a wine. throw it in the calk* XXXiV. and it will foon lofe its tartnefs.

Then mix with it one ounce of Florentine orrice. te XXXVI. will hill our by that wirk or filter.out. Put all into a bag. and one drachm of coftus. XXXIX. and the wine remain. <F' give <wint a moft agreeable flavour. Tie all in a bae. You may again put forne of this win? into a cup made of ivv-wood and. which fufpenrl Then it op this well with in the middle of the cafk. If e" of thefe two fruits fwim. <iyine in It/s than twenty four hours .A R T XXXIV. To S and T R A D E in liquor. which boil and evaporate to the confidence of honey. and let it down in thecnflc by the bung-hole. and come out of the cafk at the bung-hole by the other and every drop of water which may happen to be mixed with the wine. then gum-arabic.-xch 70 ungreafe fait. them perfectly. and fix it to a . will A the bag. then the water will perfpire through the por s of the cup. its bung. : : XXX VII I. half an ounce. Throw in the cafk one wild pear. Bruife them coarfely.k. whiqh will hangout of the bung-hole. How XXXVII. after having previauflv drawn out a fufficient quantity of wine to prevent the bag from com This bae being thus fufpended by a ftnng ing at it. and there will drop from the bag into the wine a liquor which will give it a molt agreeable tafie. or apple. cut in i'mallbiis. and flop the cafe as found as ever. To wine for . it is a proof there is no water in the wine: for. fortnight afterwards take oif and you have a very agreeable wine. after having Tied very ripe. after which take it The next day the wine will be . Put into the cafica wick of cotton. and put them in a bag. and vine-brufh afhes. 163 it heighten a wine and give an agreeable fla-vou r . Take a pailful of mout. X X XV. S. it will fii. Take common by the bung-hole frir well the one quarter of an hour. of e. ^.. wuich fhouici fek in the wine by one end. flop it well. Take two dozen or thereabouts of myrtle berms. if there Le any. 70 feptrate the water from <wine. haz^l-tree (lick. find out ^whether or not there he water mixed in a cajk of<wine.

in the time when the lap afcends moil ftrongly : and receive in a cup tiie from that branch. they will now have to it. one dozen of old walnuts . make a piece offteel red-hot in the fire.tke this out. To reft ore concerning a wine. XL11.. XLI. Cut. and let it down in the wine. repeating the fame tHl XL. that tho* they formerly made much ufe of it. and give it to a man alreadydrunk. he will never relifii wine afterwards. XL II I. ard put another. Another ivaj. then take them out again. by meant of a wiie fixed to one of its ends. To in a Put the wine perfe&iy retlored. introduce it by tile bung ho-e into the wine. To prevent oe from getting intoxicated ivitk drinking. as foon as it is heated. three or four dead. calk one pound of Paris Then plainer. is it will have the fame tffecl. cure tkofs who are toe muck addi&ed to drink Put. Repeat this operation for Put in the i five or fix days running. in a fufficient quantity of wine. throw into the wine a ftick of brim 11 otic tied in a bag. as many times each day. and four pomegranate's j uicev twa . in the ipring. a branch of vine. having taken them out along with the bread* thread them with a firing. and leave it there two days: t. Then. and he or (he will be fo much difgufted of wine. XLV. Another methodt no lefs certain. Give that large eels. If you mix fome liquor which runs of this liquor with wine. Anet her way. Take white cabbage's. bag & root ot wild horfe-raoifh cut in bits. and. finally. and. which leave there till quite wine to drink to the perfon you want to reform. and hang them in the wine. till it is reftored to its good talte . quite an averfion XL IV. Fill a bag with wheat. and the wine will be pf rfeftly well rtitored. which you take off two days after . L-'t it down in the wine.j6^ SECRETS XXXIX. correff a bad tafte and fournefs in ^vcine. Put a-drving in the oven.

if before dinner you four or five tops of raw cabbages. A method of making people dmnk> ing their health. it Another way. bitter Another way. or any feed will abfolutcly mutton or goat's . beaks. will frave the fame effect.. gether for fome time to the confidence Take one ounce of this before you are going to drink. refult prevent the bad efFecls which from the excefs of drinking. and Whatever wine you may drink to excefs af<jrink it. drink a full glafs of that Uqupr. affirmed. ^ You may undoubtedly prevent the accidents refuhingeat. and as long. and take whatever ex cefs of wine you will en that day. prepared in the fame manner. in a glafs of wine. and drink afterwards as much. fqueeze the juice of them in a bafon. in fellad. tervaHs. LII. liquor. which comes from India. and Then.ARTS and T R A DBS. Another method. without tndanger Infufe fome aloe-wood. failing : Eat five or fix the fame effect. and burn them in a cru cible. to a perfect rednefs of the water in which it is a-boiling. whoever drinks it will foon be drunk. Jnotber way. Boil all to of a fyrup. you will not be in in a Pound toxicated. 1% two ounces of each. LI. fading. 2V . and give it to drink. LIII. cabbage. The whole body of the i wallow. with one cf vinegar. as you pleafe. Of" that . and put fome of that powder in a glafs of wins. mortar the leaves of a peach-tree. XL VI. The perfon wjitQ drinks & will foon give iigns of his intoxication. from hard drinking. or worm-wood. Boil in water fome mandrake's' bark. it will hnve no titecl upon you. X. XLVIII. 1 XL Take fome fwallows' way. Another way. It is aimonds this will have XL VII. that if you cat lungs roafted . When perfectly calcined grind them on a (lone. if you put ia the wine.

arrd pour it into a hogfhead of wine. II. which is green. may like* ife meet with fuccefs by giving. without milk or fugar. the breath from fmelling of wine* root of iris troglotida> and no one can difyour breath. tf&^v&r*$f^^ CHAP. Make LIV. a pint of the befl fpirit of wine. To prevent Chew a cover. fubtile the worft tar Grind into powder five pounds of crude tar. Take wine III. fuch a perfon drink a glafs of vinegar. or yew-tree. Ts recover a perfonfrom intoxication. the patient a glafs of wine quite warm to drink. whether you have been drinking LV. X- Concerning the compofition of VINEGARS. and let it dry. THROWand vinegar. . if you want it. And whenever you then Lake it out.*66 SECRETS concerning LI 1 1. To preferve wine good Take to the loft. in any it will not be long before it turns into To change wine intoftrong vinegar* and long pepper. it will foon turn into vinegar. otherwife give him forne honey. and put in it the bulk of your two fills of the fecond peel of the elderAfter it has infufed three days. ginger. wine. by wine or not. want to make vinegar. of ftroRg coffee. adding to it a large teafpoonful of fait. . I. That wine will keep good for ten years. iome Taxus wood. or thereabouts. tree. put a bag full of thefe drugs in tartar. or fame You cabbage-juice. of each equal Infufe all for one week in good iirong vinegar. To make good wing vinegar in a Jhort time. dofes. drain the liquor through a cloth. or a difh. To make very good andflrong <vinegar with of <wines.

Dry them all in the made. To off t! Take ttffte. excellent. Mix two drachms only of this powder into a ^lafs of while or red wine. VI. 167 Pour on it one pound of oil of vitriol. 3. e Put a drachm of hare's marrow in a point of wine* and you will fee the confequence. VII I. X. an J ilrain through a cloth. with the worft and moft fpoiled wine. good r of vinegar. as you take ofFof vinegar. and it will return to its primary V.ARTS taT. which is done by pouring a quaft of the beil vinegar into it. Another method to make fiich vinegar in an inftant* 1. put them in fo different VJI. and two nutmegs. long many difanft bags. in a cafk of bad and totally fpoiled wine. IV. and in its ftead put a cabbage root into that wine. and cyperus* df each one ounce: round pepper half an ounce. then let it fettle to the bottom. To render vinegar alkali. and unripe black berries which grow in hedges. and re duce them into fubtile powder. Put in the wine a red beet. and turn vinegar. tye if> and hang it by the hole. To . of each four ounces. in the fame fpace of time. To make* in one hour. Move then that bag in the wine. and ilir now and reftore. Take common rofes. Seafon a cafk. pepper. Pulverife each drug feparately. Then pour in your boiled wine and vinegars. and it will turn into very good vinegar. 2. An Take white cinnamon. Wrap up bung- the whole in a bag. and refill the calk with the fame quantity of bad wine. in lefs than three hours. Saturate any quantity of vinegar with fait of tartar. preparation of vinegar. You may then draw from it. Put them in fbt and feparate quarts of the bed vinegar. IX. ard of barberry fruits one. Stop the cafk. and TRADES. and keep it till the vinegar is done. To turn wine into vinegar in lefs than three hours. It will be a very fine vinegar. Then boil feparatelv fix quarts of good wine.fuch a wine to itsfrft tafte* e red beet. and fill half-way the cafk. and it will be quite four. and boil them two or three minutes. 2. with which you rinfe it. and 1.

and cure them of Put thefe raifins in a glaz-. Let all infufe for one night over hot alhes . Take one pound of damafk railins. Boil two quarts of good vinegar to the evaporation of one . Now . 1. 2. the belt rye-flour. If you hang the laft made cake in a calk of wine quite hot.i53 SECRETS operate the concerning on a larger X. Pound coarfely. t . fine XL ne receipt of the vinegar lio-'s called the Grand Confta- Vinegar. Bake it quite dry in the oven . &c. Strain it through a cloth. horfe chefnut's powoerputin a bag. XIII. you will turn the whole into vinegar ia lefs than one hour. quarts of wine. The i. To fame in one hsur^s time. it will not only mend it. Now if you mix this vinegar among fix times as large a quantity of bad vinegar in a fmall cafk. oven. Take dilute in the firongeft vinegar. add greatly to the lharpncfs tree ! of virjepir. and bottle it to keep for ufe. XiV. and make a thin round cake with it. then put it in a veffel. vetches (peas) have been boiled . The root of rubus idaeusi the leaves of wild pearacorns roafted in the fire .-J jar.en pound it into a quantity of -wine. it in a Heat and this fmall c. afterwards cork the bottle. XII. and bake it alfo like the firjL Reiterate this operation three or four times. fet it in the fun. but make it both very flrong and very agreeable. which powder. one ounce fecret for of long pepper. with their -Hones. or rattier bruife only. then boil it the next morning four or five minutes only. only to whitenefs. Anstker *way to do the fame. or any other warm place. then put or over a baker's 2. Afecret to increafe tbeftrength and foarpnefs of the vinegar. andfct it in the fun for a week. the liquor in which . &c. with which and vinegar you make aeain another cake as before. making good vinegar* given ly a vinegar -man at Paris. Take it off the fire and let itcool. and the fame quantity Put thefe in a pan over the fire with fix btpyfeikra. fk. as much ginger. two quarts of goo4 rofe vinegar.

When wafted of a third. 169 2. Then pour fome water over them. and proceed in the fam* manner as you do with pyretbra. the three days infuiion. then put them in the wine. then dry that as fine as poiTible. are alfo very good to make vinegar. Put thirty where vou leave them three days to ferment. A dry portable vinegar. Rdoak again as b^fore P . you muft take care to heat it likewife over the -Let the caflc be well fire.ARTS and T R A D E S. the cop per might communicate a dangerous quality of verdi- When. and heat this to whitenefs. you put Tome vinegar. before puttirg the vinegar in.* Before cv. and long The dofeof black-berries is not determined . but not fo much as the wine rinfed and perfectly clean. kettle-full XVI. The wild black-berries which grow among hedges 3. and dry fire. tartar with warm it XVn. or forty pounds of wild pears in a large tub. and the vinegar which refults from thefe XV. er ffovinaigreen poudre. ycu mufl let it reft in the pan in which it has boiled for two or three days. it it powder with good (Harp vinegar. *To good vinegar. you may take any difcretionable quantity of them. inilead of wine. T vinegar in a very ftiort time. make vinegar with water. Put a large boil and (kirn make g9od<vincgar witbfpoihdwiiw* of fpoiled wine on the re. ard repeat thi& every day for a month At the end of which it will make very ': is very good.lki^g the wine. Now and then add new wine in your cafk after having previcuflv heated it as before. before mentioned. to meliorate this competition. pepper. ginger. as grife to the vinegar. Wafh Soak well half a it. and let that quantity be no more than two or three quarts at a If you add a few quarts time. for during. til! the cafk is quite full. it will he the ftronger. and You will hav? very good ftop the veflel perfectly clofe. put it in a cafk wherein there is already fome very good vinegar. Add a few handfals of chervil over it in the caik. it. before they are ripe .A glazed earthen pan 1*3 therefore preferable to a copper one for boiling the wine in . pound of white and ptilverife water.. before the or in the fun. of real vinegar.. but they niuft be ufcd while red.

which pour over the other with the raifins. over the raifins. efpecially when travelling. and cover the tub over ofcoarfefugar. Thefe knots are to be fufpended by a thread fubtile and five in the cafk. 2. 3- To . and cover it. repeating this operation a dozen of times. and another knot of fevcn pugils of elder flowers. earry in the pocket. relative to LIQUORS and ESSENTIAL OILS. fins. I. SECRETS I. in order to promote the fermentation. very clean. The ci^er the wine. draw out all the liquor. in which you (hall put one pound of fweet almonds pounded with milk.* jo SECRETS concerning fore with vinegar. Twenty-four hours after take off the rai which will be fwelled. and dry it as above. then put them again in the tub. and open the fruit with a knife. ty**2^**t$^**j^ CHAP. fo much the better it is. rI ^AK 90 make as good wine as Spaniih wine. Put thefe in a large wooden tub. Boil fifteen gallons of rain-water. Three days after. and a knot of garden crefs-feed. and Prefs the cafk it. If the wine look too yellow. with two blankets. Heat fifteen gallons more of water. by acock placed at the bottom of the tub. or fix ounces of polychrett fait. of about fixteen or eighteen ounces weight. adding fix quarts of brandy to it. JL fins. and pound them in a large marble mortar. it Pour purified by draining through the filtering paper. which turns water itfelf inftantly into It is very convenient t* vinegar. one hundred pounds weight of dry raifrom which pick off the items. XI. and put the juice in the calk with two pounds of white tartar pounded into a powder. to preferve the heat of the water. By thefe means you mall have a very good and fharp powder. ground with an apothecary's prefs. you mud drain it through a jelly-bag. and throw in twenty-five pounds Stir all well.

and drain them. 3. in order to draw the better the dye of the cochineal. 7i . Jt is preferable to clarify the fugar well. To make it red. add Haifa pint. and td put it in the cafic inftead of the tub. and to every three quarts of this mixture put a quart or three pints of fpirit of wine. 4. If you think the cflential oil of anife-feed fhould whiien too much the Roffolis 9 mix it with the fpirit of wine. 4. fome water. Take next all the forts of fragrant flowers the feafon can afford. three pounds of clarified fugar. and an equal quantity of effential oil of cinnamon. Eight or ten days after it is fit for drinking. ftrain bottle and flop the Roffolis through a jellyit well. and upwards. thefe. and well picked. II F. one drachm . i7 t 3.A RT S and T R A D E S. Strain this through a jelly -bag. along with a littie alum powder. and let it cool till it is no more than lukewarm. Till the brandy has aflumed a proper degree of colour. add a few fpoonfuls of efTential oils of different flowers. a kettle on a flow fire. or fragrancy. each feparately^ in fome of that lukewarm water. or more. Boil firft them Then take to extradl their odorous fmell. and leave it there. well covered. coriander bruifPut all in cd. with one pugil or two of mufk. give it to your wine in a fufficient degree. 2. Spaniih raifins as much . < one pound . before putting it in the mixed waters. diflblve fome cochineal pounded in a certain quantity of brandy. none but the petals of each flower. one quarter of a pint of efTential oil of anife-feed. 1. one pound. Thus it maf keep for ten years. which put to digeft on a fand bath. and lump fugar pulverifed. To make the Roflblis. Infufe keeping. then bottle and flop it well. . Another *way to imitate Take fix quarts of white wine Spanim Narbonne honey. of fpirit of wine. coarfe fugar. Should your Roffolis prove too fweet and flimy !ti the mouth. bag to clarify Then it. IV. Pour all thefe different wa off. II. for three hours. prepared amber. If you want to increafe the fragrancy. ters in one pitcher .

green anife-feed and coriander. and put in one pound offugar. with ftarched paper. Then mix one drachm of ambergrife wi&an equal quantity offugar . then lute well the Let itreceiver. In the above prcfcribed RsJ/clis water add three or four grains of paradife . or more if you chufe. having pulver ifed . as much cochineal pulverifed . has fubfided. with brandy or fpiritof wine. and cover it till it boils. and let it boil live minutes.17$ S E C R T S Roflblis concerning IV. and the quarter part of a lemon. and throw in the white of an egg. 2. V. and as much of ambergrife in powder. a quart of good red wine. then diftii the liquor by the heat of a balneum marine. VII. to the above Roffolis one quarter of an orange pounded . put about fifteen grains of mufk. and one of water. one ounce of each . To make Amborfy. and keep it. and put it in a retort. Place this pot on a charcoal fire. ftirring always with a fpoon. A common RolTolis. put only half-a-pouncf. and. adding a crufl of bread and one ounce of anife-feed. 1. one clove . For the neftar. and pounded with fugar. a half of the fineft white bread. -To mufk it. Then uncover it. fix grains of coriander. Another Roffolis. Make next afyrup. and diluted with the fundamental Roffolis water above defcribed. Inftead of one pound of fugar. Let this reft thus for three days. VI. in a glazed earthen pot. fo make a which may ferve as a foundation to other liquors. with half an ounce of cloves bruifed . a little cinnamon and mace . Now beat the white of an egg with a little of your liquor. and mix it in the liquor. which burn over lump fugar pulverifed in an earthen till the flame difli or pan. and the upper pellicula of an orange pounded in a mortar with lump fugar in Add powder. as much cow-milk . quite hot at coming out of the oven. take the pot off from the firt. forae orange flowers. and as much of honey. dry for twenty-four hours. and all the joints. Put three quarts of brandy. Take one pound and VIII.

To make rafplerry. which When you find the liquor has infufe for fome time. I Take the ripeft rafpberries. and will have as good Refills as that which comes from Turin. as well as of the above-mentioned efFence of you r^mHer. a fufficient degree of fragrancy. or any other fort you pleafe to prefer. cherry. ftra*volerry.ARTS ifccJ &nd TRADES. and put all to dip eft for twenty-four hours on a balneum mar\<e. ftrain them through a linen cloth to exprefs all the julcs out -. X. 3. P a decant . If To mix with yourfirft compoand the fyrup of brandy. the above-mentioned eflence of amber. and fet it in the fun. When done. Boil your fyrup to conii&ence after the common me thod. Put this in a glafs bottle uncorked. in a fiove. For the reft proceed as above. and add a few drops of cflential of ambergrife. dnnlhcr <ivay. Mufcadine rof -water. acquired it oil XI. put it in a final! matrafs . add a quarter of a pound of jefTamine flowers. till cleared down. or other* fuch waters. till the water has acquired what degree of fragrancy yoi* ter. or before the fire. want it to have. liil it IX. Orange -flower 'water made inftanily. Put one handful of orange flowers in a quirt of wa with a quarter of a pound of fugar. with one quarter of a pound of fu^ar. Then beat the liquor by pouring it from one veffel into another. it. pour over it one ounce of-fpim of wire. Put half a pound of fugar in one quart of water. XIII. (train through a jelly-bag.f them. To make Eau de Franchipane. There will then refult a diiTolution which will congeal again in the cold. fition. XII. add as much I pi it of wine as you think proper. add fame more fpirit of wine to you defire to have it. e Put two'hand r uls of mufcacine roks in one qirrt of water. Rojfilis you want the to is be as flronger. Then . form your Riffolis. 173 the whole.

XIV. or three lemons. put a quart of com mon water. you may add fome mufk and prep. two. and cool When it the fugar is defolved. Take a Apricot wafer. you mu ft fqueeze three or four oranges. ft rain all through a cloth. To make Eau de Verjus *. and a quarter of a pound of fugar. the fame in ice as before mentioned. then take it off from the* fire and throw in your apricots. proceed with your oranges as with the lemons. &c. Peel and ftone them. flrain to cool in it through a linen cloth. To make orangeade way. are done in the fame manner. To half a. and put it to cool in ice as the others* On XVI.e. or two only if they be very juicy. make exceeding gocd lemonade.*74 decant SECRETS concerning it gently into another bottle. as you. Half an hour afcer pur in a quarter of a pound of lamp fugar. Boil a quart of water. Lemonade water at a^obeap ra. Squeeze z^fts* it You * A fort of four grape ufed ia f ranee a a fine acid i. Beat all together. . ^ozen of apricots very ripe. when you put the liquor in it. ice. without difturbing ihej^ces which are at the bottom. but little juicy. Add feven or eight with one quarter of a pound stffts of them be fides of fugar. cooling Strawberries. If u. pint of this juice. and mix a few drops of eifentiai oil of fulphur in the liquor. flrain the liquor. by pouring backwards and forwards from one and f velfel fet it into another. XVII. in a pail of the fummer. Then cut three or four ilices of leino in the bowl. . which being diflblved. XV.efe be good.T. a qusrt of water put the juice of three lemons. like. Diflolve half 2 pound of fugar in a quart of water rafp over it the yellow part of one.. II. -cherries. Pat c^ ^ qurrt of water three quarters of a pound of Fttjus in grapes picked out from the ilalks.n faucf . red an her. It is a fine draught 3. 2. with the addition of eight or ten If you love odour. XV.

if you like it. and in the liquor add feven or eight drops of effential oil of orange . adding a few drops of water to it while you Take one ounce XX. iblved. and all in the water. a quarter of a pound is generally the pro per quantity. the piftachio. fy it : XIX. Stop well the bottle . and the Spahilh nut wa ters. put half a pint only of it in two quarts of water with fugar to your palate. after having boiled. for fear the ftones mould give After having put fruit. Take a handful of coriander. handle it in the water. and (hake the phial when you ferve it in a glafs to drink. then drain it to purge it from the coarfeft grounds . with three Aveet and Pound all together in a marble three bitter almonds. XXI. mortar. . being only excepted. juice. and after having mixed h well.e wbi-e lurt p fugar in powder. the milk and almonds of either forts. to prevent its turning into oil. and about half an ounce of whole cinnamon. cool it. or more if wanted. which mix with the pafte. and. and. To wake orgeat -water. and. To make a cooling cinnamon water* Boil one quart of water in a glafs veiTel before the fire. ing it. Make all into a pafte with the peltle in the mortar. of melon feed. in ice. in ice before The ferving. pafs and repafs it through the jelly-bag to clari then cool it in ice. . a quarter of a Put tiiis to cool pint of milk pure as from the cow. Then take it off and put in two or three cloves. Add one quarter of a pound "of fugar. pound. are made in the very fame manner. when the water 71? XXIF. When done. which fliell.A R T V S and TRADES. Other waters. when the water is cold. ftr: in it through a flannel. for drinking. add about nve ounces offugar to the ilrained liquor. Squeeze well the grounds in it till quite cry. then add a quar ter of a pound of fir. as ufual. and put in a quart of water halfcooled again. without pound it a bitter tafte. 17-5 it firft in a marble or wooden mortar. according to As foon as the -fugar is difthe fournefs of the fruit. f make coriander water. Dilute this in a quart of water. pigeon. as ufaal.

flraiif. by putting the matrafs in the batntum marine. To make ccdrat water. fugar. Put them in a the pulp wherein the juice is contained. and boil it again till the fugar comes to \htptarl degree. with crofs-way. which Citron water. Set this on a good charcoal fire. is made in the very fame man ner as the coriander water. XXVf Have . it. and take them out. and flop well tbe veffel. and keep nothing but parts. the plume degree. a quarter of a pound of fugur. fo that it fhould breath no air. which. In a piece of linen put three other lemons parted into quarter* which tie and fufpend in the water. with half a pound or a pint of white wine.176 SECRETS XX II I. and make . hours increafe the fire fo as to procure a diftillation. At the end of twenty-four Bruife one pound of the XXV. The dnife-feed water. 2. two quarts and a half of water in a pan. In this water. a dozen of fine lemons.. and then new glazed bottle 1. XXIV. which put all together during that time in aglaff matrafs on warm afhes. Take a citron. and put them afide. then boil them till the wa ter has entirely extracted the tafle of the lemons. flrain it. Squeeze the juice out of thirteen lemons. 70 make cedrat another ivay. Cinnamon water* fineft cinnamon.fp1it into two Take out all the kernels. which Then put ftrain through a cloth. water has acquired a fufficient degree of cool. which clarify according to art. (trip of its peel. with . Boil one pound of fugar to earthen pan. &c. Beat well this water by pouring it backwards aud forwards from one veflel into another. and when it has a fuflkient tafte of the citron. and ferve it as ufual.. and cut in fiices Put thefe dices in a quart of water. anife-feed water concerning tafte. thus prepared put four pounds of a fyrup. and put it to infufe for twenty-four-hours in four pounds of diflilled rofe-water. XXVII. and keep this liquor in botties well flopped. then poar it in the pot over the le mons.

and two pugils of amfe-feed. or a hot houfe. as much cloves. and ftill wet with the fpirit. after the bread is out. a preferved half-peel of a whole lemon. 3.A RT S and TRADES. wherein there has been fpirit of wine or good brandy well foaked with either. put four or five ouncea of fugar in a quart of water and (train it through a jelly bag. flop it well. which begins to ferment. them together and fkim the honey. which flop well. When done fnfRciently you may know by putting an egg in. i. with the white of an egg. When done. and place Strain aihes to infufe for twenty-four hours. a flove. When you want to ufe it. and flrain. and boil all together again to the coniiitence of a fyrup to the pearl degree. Infleadof the fun. half an ounce of cinnamon. the liquor. XXX. ftop the cafk again. If &re. and fet it in the fun during the dog-days. then put in a table fpoonful or more of your fyrup. When fcum out. during all that time not to fUr the cafk. which poarid into powder and put into a quart of water. To make Eau d'Ange. in other feafons. cool. When the firft fire of the fermentation has fubfided. unftop the cafk to let the arifes like that of new wine. and fif teen cloves. and drink it. . with a nut-fhell full of amfe-feed and infufe for twenty. J*hiper-wat*r^ Put two pounds of juniper-berries with two quart* ef brandy in a itone bottle. then boil on a charcoal 2. and place it at two or three different times in a baker's oven. make ufe of the top of a baker's oven. Obfervc. put in this fyrup the juice of your thirteen lemons. Note. and add two or three grains of ambergrife. and when you may bear your hand flat in it without burning. you may. btat. Take half a pound of the bed cinnamon. Thefe be XXVIII. XXIX. quantities in weight. it and the hydromel is fit for keeping. Stop well the cafk. on hot ing put in the bottle. which Pour then the liquor in a cafe mufl fsvim on the top. and add one pound of fugar. To make good Boll hydromel\ Take honey and water equal other wife* metheglin. then bottle it.four hours.

Take half an ounce of Angelica. one drachm of each . Pat a quart of rofe. RofTolis. Jittle of mufk and ambergrife. three of orange. with half XXXiV. of coriander. half a glafs of effentia! oil of cinnamon. fugar. XXXI. and of green anife-feed. and caufe the water firft. the fame quantity cf &aace. OHferve the fugar fhould not be boiled too muck in clarifying. cinnamon and cloves. and then put all the drugs together in a varnifhed earthen pan.flowers . with This ground adragant to compact them. put concerning want to mnke it ftronger. Another Eau d'Ange. ufed alfo in making mufk vinegar. aloes. which incorporate all together for four or five hours on a flow fire. one of clarified gain. and add to this colatura fix grains of mufk. Then flrain 2. and a XXXill. and as many of grey amber. Boil three quarts of water. XXXII. of melilot. which would Infallibly be unboiled . the bulk of a bean of calamus arcmatica* with four grains of mufk. to prevent the corrupting of the liquor the cafe were you to imploy . after what quantity you like of brandy. which fet on a gentle fire to boil moderately to the evaporation of one third. A light and delicate very 2.178 2. and fantalum-citrinum.water in a glafs bottle with three ounces of benjamin. with A i proportionable quantity of fugar. as much cinna mon. Take and two and twoqfflorax. Roffblis. 1. With a is little gum the grounds you may make lozenges. you may. Decant the liquor by inclination. 1. then let them cool aAdd one quart of fpirit of wine. an . Another Eau d'Ange. If you it is SECRETS cold. it three pounds of Rofe water. clear. as prefcribed before ufing it. known undsr the denomination of Populo. and half an ounce of ftorax in pow der. for fear it mould cryftalize when in the Obferve alfo to boil clouds in it. four ounces of benjamin.< it Angelic water. of each one . Bruife coarfely what may be fufceptible of the mortar. i. a quarter part of cloves.

the whole coarfly bruife in a mortar. : /Then ftrainthe liquor. alfo very ripe and found. with two quarts of genuine brandy. Two ' very agreeable liquor. and two ouaces of fugar. or three ounces only of this effential fpirit in two quarts of brtndy. To every one quart of that juice put one of brandy. Then 2. of clarified fugar. next filter it through the paper. Putin a mortar and pulverife four grains of amber. Bruife all thefe ingredients IR a mortar. The . To make Take fix ' pounds of the beft and finert Kentifh cherrie* very ripe* found and without fpots two of rafpberry.feed mixed into three pints gill of fpirit of wine. Tne dof* is a pugil. the compounded Fau-dairette. XXXVfl. If you want your liquor to be ftronger. which taken with the point of a knife. 179 an ounce of cedar w^ood. according to your liking. as many grains of white pepper. feven or eight cloves. with the addition of a very fmall quantity of mufk and ambergrife. and without ftalks. and a pugil of coriander. and bottle it to keep for ufe. well flopped. and cover it over with feveral With this powder you may perfume fuch cor others. XXXV. for two or three days. Add one pint. You may however increafe or diminifti this dofe. and the fame quantity of red currants. two of mufk. DOSV and. with three quarters of a pound of fugar. in a matrafs or re ditill the liquor by the balneum marice. XXXIX. to accelerate the difTolution of the fugaij. Mafh the whole in a* ficve over a pan. -Infufe all thefe to gether. Wrap this powder up in a paper. To you need only fpirit to increafe. put a c feflential fpirit of anife. or thereabouts. you (hake lightly in it. To make Eau-de-Cete. 'The preparation ofmujk and amber* to have it ready when wanted to put in cordials. will make a tort. and fet them to infufe for twelve hours. cooled again. jfefrking it .ART S And T R A D E S. dials as require it. a few leaves of mace. then. at wiil> the quantity of the of wine. three quarts of boiled water. XXXVI. firft through the jelly-bag.

or half a pound of apricot. filtering XLI. &c. two pugils of Let coriander. or kernel water. The cinnamon water. white ratafia. ftones. fqueezed out of another of the fame drachm of cinnamon bruifed in a mortar. etc. brandy. wood and kernals. two juicy lemons.il fpirit of anife feed. no lefs at le^ft than Take two quarts. genuine cow milk. or almonds. and three pounds and a half of fugar. XXXIX. and one ounce a whole one.cid one pint of Strain all through the jelly. When fu- frier tly tally. with the juice Add half a fort. Put in one pound of the bed double refined lump fugar. one or two leaves of mace. put half a pint ofeffential fpirit ofcirnan. into three quarts of the bell genuine brandy. clarified fugar. four cloves broken into two parts.. cUfHied like that of anife-feed. and o*e of clarified fugar. which put altogether. through the jelly-bag. with twelve quarts of brandy. Pound three quarters of a pound of cherry. add four quarts of wa Then run ter that has been boiled and is cool again. both the red and white fort. as you like. In three quarts of once boiled.If you want it fweet. etc. half a pint of pod. a dozen of cloves. good Hypocras. more or twenty-four . or and cut in flires. &c. Add three pints of Strain all fpirit of wine. ?. drachm of cinnamon. half a golden pippin. lefs. peeled 2. or animated Put half a pint of efTenti. and next through the paper . called otherivife Eau-deNoiau. all thefe i'/fufe XL. and let it reft a reafonable time. beft wine. To make 1. water.SECRETS concerning XXXVIII.on. in Add one a (lone pitcher.bag. Stir well thefe ingredients together in your wine. bottle and Hop it to keep for ufe. it through the jelly-bag. To make a ftrong amfe feed water. or both together if you will . To make together a reafonable time. and then cooled again. feven or eight aefts of Seville orange. with one of boiled water. and ready to drain. five or fix grain? of white pepper bruifed half of zcapjicum'f of coriander bruifed. of the whether red or white.

exceeding good Ratafia. and a gill amber it as ufual. and a flick or two of cinnamon* Then pownd the ftones of the cherries. prcferve carefully what mall remain. you of muik put in the bag when you run it. a little mufk and amber. XLIV. prepared as Fill it half-way with fpirit of wine. An 1. This Hypocras may keep for a twelve month without fpoiling. as much of currants. put half a pint of cherry juice. and put them in. to make this liquor in- ftantly. in a clean glafs decanter. An On a quart thirty or forty are. or drink it . half-a-poundof lump fugar inftantly. more than the belt brandy . and at ivilL Put in a pint bottle one ounce of cinnamon. on the point of a knife. muft 3. And. let fall one drop or two cftheabove prepared eilence. ejjence of orange-flower water.A R T S and T R A D S. warm allies. to give an opportunity of (kimming it. when it mail have wafted two thirds. the Hypocras will be found 2. If you Want to perfume that Kypccras. in which pour dire&iy the wine with the fugardiffolved in it. it in. in half a Boil it one bubble or two only> pint of fpirit of wine. Di/Tolve one pound and a quarter offugar. XLII. a little pisgil and amber pdwder prepared. and. when perfectly diilblved. Q Stop well the pitcher. xxxv. little Hypocras. with three pints of good put white wine. and the fame of rafpberries. melt quart of good wine . a large glafs boitle. 'xxxv. or in Art. and. of good brandy. as nfentioned in this chap ter. then flop it fo that nothing can eva Set all to infiue for ievcn or eight days on porate. or thereabouts. a pugil of white pepper in grain. wood and all together. Art. fufficienr. flannel bag. 181 Then obtain the liquor through the twenty-four hours. Add a few kernels of apricots. To make good RofTolis. which . Bottle it again. When cone. Muik asd and at your liking. <?/* XL1II. When you want to make Hypocras in a good. a half an ounce of cloves . then run it through the flannel bag. two of green coriander. Add a few cloves. repeating the fame till it comes clear.

after all thefe ingredients are and let the whole infufe a con pie of months in the at the {hade. A . Decant. before ftopwarm adies. Pound one drachm of ambergrife. In increafing in due proportion the quantity of and the brandy. flannel. and its contents. benjamin. dnotber. An effence of ambergrife. it fine red. Put two grains of ambergrife. itsexpofition. XLV if. then bot flop it well for ufe. end of which you run the liquor through the flan nel bag. and the eflence is made. Note. in a matrafs with one gill and a half of good brandy. and put it on a pint of good fpirit of wine. and put it in digeftion in a balneo maStrain it through a piece of ri&> for two or three days. A fmelling 1. and during rainy weather. equal parts. when the fun ftrikeson the bottle. give it a very agreeable fra grance. 3. *ind Jhorttr way of making the fame. take off the bottle from the liquor. or refidue. Stir and ihake well the bot tle. in a thick and green glafs bottle. ^water. XLVJ. (liaking twice or thrice during thatfpace of time.i32 S E C R ET'S concerning" in. taking it off every night.you may make what quantity you like of this XLV. tle and next through the filtering paper. Add to it haif a drachm of mu& in bladder. during the dog-days. gravel. two or three times a. and ftorax calamite. and the dofes of each of the ingredients prefcribed. of brandy. in adding a * yon may make lo gum-adragaot to bind them. little zenges. it. on cut very fmall. a Hide cloves and mace. Set this bottle in the full South fun. XLV111. and bottle it to keep for ufe. and three of mufit.day. decant ping 2. bottle. which mutt be a new one. that the amber may diffufe in One month after. and Hop it for ufe. With the ground. glafs Three drops of this fmelling water in a common tumbler of water. Stop the matrafs well. and throw in a few grains of muik. Putin any quantity coarfely days on When the liquor is tinged of a in a glafs gently from the rcfidue bottle. Set this a-digefting for five or fix bruifed.

Boil afterwards that fyrupto the walling of a third. and others with (hrub. Bruife all. prefcribed in Art. will Some mixed with two of thefe fpirits. You may adapt another receiver. others again with arrack. diftil very gentle balneum mari&9 till you have got about one quart ofdiftilled fpirit. and hue receiver. T S and TR A D E S. both of the it has been a-digefting. for want of it. in a matrafs with to the receiver. which fkim and clarify with the white of an egg . A receipt to compofe one . beft brandy. . put in one gill only of the above Rcffblis. perfume the liquor with a few drops of eiTence of mufk and amber.A-. in which you fhall have put a cruft ot bread burn# to take off a certain bitter tafte. A pint of the fecond dijlillalion half a pint of the/r/?. others with brandy . 185- pint /?/* RoiTolis. or. There are fome who put acids. then ilrain through the flannel bag . Then unhue the receiver and keep the liquor. and. and the bolt-head. is no more than L. -a penny worth of green. and continue to diftil after Twelve hours the liquor by the heat of a as before.R XLVIII. Some make punch here with rum oly. when cold. anife-l^ed half an ounce of gingery two drachm*s*of mace. with which you can make forty. beaten up with a little cold water. or the fame a3. and. . and of the Add to it beiides a pint of fpirit of frft diftillathri. which boil alone. To make a RofTolis after that of Turin. others do not. I J TaTce two ounces of galanga . among the acids. lute it. half a one of cinna mon as much cloves one of coriander . Note. with paper and ftarch. er. and two of Florentine orrice. But what will come will be infinitely weak though perhaps not altogether very indifflrent. and put it to infafe with' three pints of tb. after being emptied. How to make Sharbat. a Perfian fpecies of punch. Take fix quarts of water. fome have it chefs . Adapt it well all the joints. XL i X. and others will make it with white wine. wine. There are various ways of making Sharbat. one mithen put in four pounds of fine lump fu~ pate or two gar. a long neck. gain. xlix. 2. After all this. of the bed genuine French brandy.

Some. in a quart of white Lifbon. and the extracted from all the odoriferous flowers . three quarters of a pound of lump fugaj in powder. two offantalut*one of cloves. diilblve half 3.ui zs we do our punch. cut ail the liquor. and filter them. rituous liquor. will make it with : trtceflential ipSrit ofmufk and amber only. of good Burgundy. and cut them in flices . and fet it to infufe for five or fix days in a lYiatrafs. and you will have a rnoft admirable liquor.c'ofe is. foaking in a pan with a pint. you may ilrain it through a flannel bottom of which you lhali have put feme almonds. put in boil ing water with (ugar. or red claret. others lemons. put with the cinna mon and fantalum one ounce only of white &i8amux> Pound well all and four whole grains of long-pepper. and fix of mufk. one part of fuch a iyrup to tenpa^ts of any fpi* Or again. at the and . When you want to make Hypocras.184 SECRETS . pounded LIT. with the zefts of oranges and lemons boiled together Li water with fug^r. 1. To render it ftlll more agreeable. Peel two large lemons. do Put all athe fame with two large golden pippins. if you would not have itfo fcrong. two drachms citrinum\ one of galanga of white pepper. concerning chufe tartar only. which put in linen and fqueeze it. Decant it next gently without difturbing the grounds. and others oranges . they make a weak Rc/fclts. bag. in fhort. on warm afhes. To make Vin-des-Dieux. It is the fame with refpecl to Iharbat. 2. fome again fqueeze a little of each of thefe two lafltarc fruits together in the fame bo\vl of punch. which put again in the tnatrafs* with Stcp twency grains of ambergrife. then fhake all well together. dn exceedingfine ejjence <?/'Hypocras. then mix both liquors together. LI. well the veflkl r and fet it in a cool place for rive or fix days more . and let fall fifteen or fixteen drops of the above etTence in it. Take fix ounces cf cinnamon . Or. to get . one ounre of grains of paradife. the famous They make it with the various fyrupa Perfjan drink. along with half a pint of fpirit of wine. fix cloves.-pcund of fine lump fugar. j. together.

if it be white wine half a lemon. five or fix Let thefe flowers hang tops of elder. and thus let it kindle and blaze till it goes out of itfelf. and two bay-leaves. with one pound of fugar.wine. LIV In a cafe of it-has . if you chufe you may add again a little orange-flowers for the fake of the odour. and it is an adanirable drink. QJi . efpeciaily when the weather is very cold. and. and nine. like the Hjpocras* if you will. by a firing. (that to fav. four. When the wine begins to be hot. then (train You may mufe the liquor through the flannel bag. and put in new ones. Infufe fome violets in cold brandy.dtar and. and eight or ten days after take them out You will obtain a wine which will not differ again. Repeat this When you *To make a-. then i^veeten that bran<iy according to difcretion . 185 and half a giil of orange-flower water. LIU. terwards through a clean cloth. with a pint of rofe water. Infufe namon LV. from mufcat. which (hould be double the quantity of cloves . LVI. cloves. by the bung-hole. ture. two or three tops of rofemary branches. andambejr it. before worked) introduce. add eight ounces of fugar. fet the fire to it with a bit of pa per. To . Esu-clairettey&tt//?. a little longpepper. till you arefatisfied with your tinc take the violets out. for twenty-four hours three ounces of cin Strain it af* bruifed in three pints of brandy. LVI I. three grains of pepper . Stop well the bottle and keep it for ufe. every one pint of claret.<wbite Hypocras.flowers dried up. When thefe have loft their colour. and add two ounces of good lump fugar. a dozen of cloves. Place that in the middle of a wheel-fire of Waiting charcoal. and keep it thu for two or three hours. A violet water. is new white. take them Out. Cover the pan. two leaves of mace. To imitate mvfca t <M>/#*.A R T S *nd T R A D E S. Burnti&jni* Put a quart of good Burgundy in an open pan. a little cinnamon. you muft prHs them gently . This wine is drank quite hot.

SECRETS riander. and two of water. To make Pound in a pitcher of five or fix gallons. three quarts of Diflil by the fandbrandy.y//r as it comes from Take one pound the Ifle -5/Retz. L VI i 1 . and then flrain the all liquor through the flannel bag. infufe one hur. the white wine.of genuine brandy. which you mull take away as foon as the white fumes begin to rife. becaufe they would undoubtedly hurt the liquor by whi tening 2. one ounce of when you flrain the liquor through the flannel bag. and eight almonds cut Let the whole be bruifed and put into a pan. one pound of apricots' kernels. two grains of whole pepper . you muft introduce one quart alfo i)f clarified To fugar. and Urain through the flannel bag. To make Eau-de~Fenouillette. in which laft. a in bits. of Florence fennel. one pound cinnamon . Hypoeras. Make mixture in i* fan. or fyrup. three pints of white and a half of fugar . this 3. Put it in an alembick with one ounce of good liquorice-root. or four gallons of the belt brandy. the greened and the neweft you can find. concerning little bit of ginger . and* wjisa tks dofes are large and wide glazed th&s introduced toge- . LX. it. five pounds of fugar . twenty-three leaves of mace . and eight drachms of cinnamon both bruifed. Let all infufe forty eight hours. two quarts of good eiTence. a grain of rnulk in the pucked end of it. fix the true Eau-de-Noiau. juft before mixing it with the other liquors. acidyx. bath. and one of fpirit of wine. and two of white wine. without Then bruife another pound reducing them into oil. and to every one quart of liquor add two grains of white pepper. in which you put only three and a half. with the wine poured over it . fUr. every one quart of this efTence. For the To make white Hypocras. of cherry-Hones. Then. wood and kernels all together. perfectly clear and tranfparent. Put LIX. with two lemons cut in fiices. with one of boiled water that has been fooled again.

one pugil. 3. and then throw it in the flannel bag. you may at this procefs feem too troublefome once mix the half pound ofbruifed almonds in your li quor. perior delicacy. brnife you may correct more cold water which had boiled. quarters . You may amber afterwards the liquor. prepared as mentioned in Art. to affift it even in which* you may add half a pint of pure and genuine cow But in obfervingthe firfl prefcription. fuch as mentioned in the above n. Should over the ground of almonds which was left in. which cannot runs quite clear. with a little powder of mufk and amber. fo that it only drops. and be in time to add either fome more efTence of fennel. of this This liquor is of a fitchapter. the juice of a Sevit orange. and pour your prepara 4. bitter or father tart. it for ufe. the preparing and greafing it. another pan. and fix times as much water which had boiled add the juice of two . and or fgur grains of whole pepper bruifed . little that defeat by the addition of a this. you run it for 'the laft time. {training. 6. one quarter . twenty-four grains of cinnamon . in order to feafon it as it were. therefore. or brandy. xxxvi. in the bag. bag begins to run clear. or two. fult lefs lye at the bottom of the vefFel in which you keep 5. till at laft it runs clear. ofbruifed five fix lemons. If it tafte and T R A D E S. Take half a pint of white wine. 187 thtr. to you. change the pan un der it. To make an hypocrat <witb water. half-a-pound of fsveet almonds. that you may judge whether or not all are right. put another clean one.ARTS &c. with five or iix quarts of crude water. and boil well with it. and all which was in it is almoft gone. then {train through a flannel bag. LXI. and re-ftraining it over and over again in that fame bag. obferve to put a funnel on the mouth of the pitcher or bottle which receives it and over It a crape in order to retain thefpirits which be before it When might evaporate. or fyrup of fugar. there remilk. by When. After which put in tion. two or three cloves. one leaf of mace . tafte the liquor.

LX I V. Keep that matrafs on hot aflies. then put in it fome dry powder fugar. makes the fugar which is in it re-foak and imbibe them again. and a quarter of a pint of milk.i 88 SECRET S~ concerning quarter of a pound of golden pippins cut in flices. This operation diiTolves the fugar. Should any tartnefs be prevailing. half of a Portugal orange with afew zefts. or lump fugar pulverifed. half a pound offugar . An admirable oil offugar* Rlnfe a matrafs with vinegar. Another oil offugar 9 without the ajfiftance offire* Take a lemon. LXlL Of the You liquors various liquors with which Hypocras may be made. and. : taking . a little am* ber. &c* adding to any of thefa wines the fame proportion of ingredients as above prefcribed and clarifying well afterwards by means of . Alteration. add fome honey or fugar But. The effect is fuch the vapours to rife about the matrafs . which by turn ing and whirling it as afore-mentioned. by means of the neck of the raatrafs which you hold in your hands with a cloth. and whirling it round and flat ways. 'turning. however. Turin fajhion. a little mufk. In three quarters of a pint of orange-flower-water put to infufe a little ftorax. the heat occafions and flop it not. Champaign. and reduces it into a fort of oil. and perfume it with a. fetthem a-boiling for half a quarter of an hour on the fire. Aroffblis. Mufcat. Mix all well. then you may add fpirit of wine till the tafte is come to the degree of ftrength you would have it. not like amber.* then ftrain it through a cloth.XV. which hollow and carve out inwardly. L. Spaniflr wine . two hours after the in fufion. Rhyne-wine^ Hermitage. Add next a pint of genuine French brandy. if you chufe to have it according to difcretion. pared powder of muik and amber. can make hypocras with either of the following <viz. Twenty-four hours after thefe ingredients have been put together. content themfelves with increafing only the dcfe of cinnamon. ftronger. LXill. ftrain it through a flannel bag. little pre* who do Some. .

and fufpend it There in a very damp cellar. and on the re LXVL maining fugar pour common water. and apply to it Put it in a clean glazed pip again the cut-off piece. Another oil effngar. of which fqueeze out the juice . Note. which. then pour brandy over to difTolve that powder. If you mix a little quantity of this precious quinteilence in any liquor or cordial. over a fand bath. and our health. and run them through the filtering paper. til and pour the liquor again in the matrafs over the iugar till the fugar becomes red. Pqjverife five pounds of the bdt double-refined.A R T S and T R A D E S. which is endowed with the moft admirable qualities for confumptive people. and when dry pulverife . A little of them. 1. 3. or them who are affected with a difficulty of breathing. oir the end of a large lemon. which has the virtue of preferving the radical moiilnefs of the infide. Take next all thefe red waters. till you have drawn out all the tinclure of the red fugar. then add fome more. then diftil the phlegm on a gentle fire to ficcity (ordrynefs). Now dilUl out all the brandy. or royal. which diftil alfo. 2. it is a very fine LXVI. Re-put the diftilled liquor Continue to difover the fugar again in the matrafs. which will happen at the feventh or eighth iteration of diftillation. fugar. to which of &at oil in liquors gives to any on it is added. then fill it with fine fugar. with a bafon under it. You will find fome red cryflals which pick up. Thus you will have an admirable quintessence of fugar. 189 Then taking out all the pulp as fkilfully as poifible. DifUl feme part of this firft. continuing fo to do. when done. a very fine flavour. An admirable e/fince ofrtdfugar. kin. which place ovsr a fire of charcoaL The fugar Cut having . on a flow fire to avoid burning the fugar. addition to it. put along with eight ounces of brandy in a large matrafs. will drop an exceeding good oil. which place all together in a cold cellar.I. Nate. Put again this diliiiled phlegm on the refidue. fill it up with fugar-candy in powder. exceffively good.

which ftratify from any flower with com- won fi'led to fea fait in a clean earthen glazed pot. 2. with rofe-water (lirring them each time. make another of flowers* flowers. that is. an* oil LXX. 1. which re two days . or any ether water. &v The odour and The dofe is one tafle. and emp ty all on it to drain the efTence from the flawers by prefTure. and carry it to the cellar. . which renew three times. which flop as perfectly as you can. Take EJJence ofjej/Jamine rofes and otherflowers . Put the effence in a glafs phial well flopped. A fortnight after this. that the rofe-water may imbibe and penetrate the bet ter the leaves of thefe flowers. it never will congeal. . When thus the top. afperfe them once or twice a day. and place in the corner of a (table plunged in the hoteft horfe-dung. to purify. which expand in the ftiade on paper* For two or three days. put h in a bottle .during which you are to leave them there. When this has been performed. cover it well. Bottle that effence and expofe it for four or five weeks in the fun. fome fvveet almonds in cold new ten times in the fpace of and thus continue to makeftrata/ufer Jlrata.190 SEC R E T S concerning having thus boiled one quarter of an hour only. at the end of which ? peel them and make one bed at the bottom of a veflel . every feJ in five days. you will obferve the efTence fwimming. LX VII I. How Take any to extratf the ejjtntial oil flowers you like. and lute all well. rofes of a good colour and frefh gathered. To draw Soak from jeffhmine. with your almonds . . rnornirg and evening. and dew of the evening. and that oil is good for the flomach. This you xnuft divide by means of a wick. on which receiver. of that eiTence is enough to fcent a whole LX X F . table fpoonful at a time. One fingle drop quart of liquor. next to this bed. catarrhs. Forty days afterwards put a crape ever a pan. or filtering paper.place the vef- a lalneo mari/e adapting a bolt-head to it and a Diftil the water. are both exceffively agreeable. colds. Pick nil the leaves. put them in a glafs* or varnimed veiTcl.

Diffolve. and you will obtain by diftillation. which fqueeze through a reiterate linen. . and one or two hours after. liquors. and fet them thus in a cold After place for two days. LXX in a Pound Bruife put it The oil of cinnamon. till the pot is full. . you take cff When the lail peels. in which add a little pounded . Set to infufe. Fifteen or eighteen days after. having fkirnrned all it. I 70 draw the ejfential oil of rofes mortar thirty pounds of leaves of rofes with three pounds of common decrepitated fait . Then put it in an alembick with its re Make a pretty fmart fire which will fend frigerator. It is of an excefiive agreeable The dofc is one drop only. of honey. which three different times. with a table fpoonful or two. firft the water. then take two good effence.A R T S And T R A D E S. L XXI 1 1 An effence ofjeffamine. or two drops of that oil gives more fmell a hundred times than thediftilled water from the fame rofes. an excellent oil of cin namon. 151 afimonds and flowers. boil it to it perfect evaporation of the water. half a dozen of lemon peels hi three half pints of fpirit of wine. grind three grains of ambergrife and one . over the fire. but next will coin e the oil fufcepuble of One congealing by cold and liquifying again by heat. L XXII the firft tartar. or two per pint of L XXIV. and fling handfuls of jeffamine flowers in it. that time take off the peels. one quarter of a pound of fuAfter gar in a quarter of a pint of common water. cinnamon coarfely in a mortar. . Renew and change the flowers till you can judge that the almonds are perfectly impregnated with the odour and fragraflcy of the flowers. moiften well this matter with common water. ftirring it with a ftick till reduced into a pap. off from the fire. ilrain the and bottle it. then extract the oil by the prefs. in a veffel well (lopped. and a-foakingin water. place the veffel on a fand bath. which fet in a cool place. odour. Cover the vefTel. then put all in a pot well luted. and put as many frefh ones in their ftead. Effence if Amlergrife . Eight or ten days after.

and keep it for ufe. with expreffion of the ani This effcnce is the greateil reftorative for old or mal. a half of benjamin . which put with the fpirit of wine in ft matrafs over a gentle fire till the amber is perfectly difiolved. which boil and fkim care a few cloves. enervated people. fpoonfuls early in the morning fading. Take one ounce and wine which pour over. and fome . decant the clear part from it iaa bottle . Jnteriourly taken. Virginal milk.19 & one of SECRETS concerning rnufk. put only two or three drops of it in half a ^lafs tumbler of water. ftorax Put all in as much. Pla/qe this pot in an oven. it has likewife the teeth by rinfing the mouth and rubing them with it. Then add of a pound of fugar. fame e&c't upon yourfelf with it. Put this in digeftion over hot afhes till the fpirit of wine appears of a fine red colour. put one quarter fully. which coyer cWefuIly with its lid and lute all round with pafte. There will fail fome ground at the bottom of the matrafs. it is done. Sevy thg fpwi up again. with four ounces of damafe raifins perfectly ftoned. and put it in a pipkin. and it initantly turns as white as milk. a little cinnamon. when the bread goes in and take it out along with it. and one of eaftern white balm. To Exteriourly ufed. it whitens the fkln if you wafh 3. like wife to halten the recovery of The dofe is two large table health after long illnefs. Then uncover it. night three or four hours after fupper. of capon and other fowls. ufe it. and ifcrain the liquor through a cloth. LXXVI. by taking away all the Fill it with lump-fugar pu-lverifed and mixed entrails. This effence might be made with the burning fpirit of rofes. LXXVI I.. and as much at Effencs LXXV. with three half pints of fpirit of 1. To every quart of water you want to employ. then 2. a thick glafs-phial. it cures the heats and burning of the extinction of voice. Note. Hsw to make the Hipoteque. Cure the infide of any fowl .

when you want it. How any fort ef liquor. therefore it will be fit to give a colour to any liquor you chufe. and. and fhakingit till you find it is coloured to your liking. by putting a difcretionable quantity of it into fome com mon water xvith a few lemon peels to give a pointe* The liquorice may ferve twice. Two or three hours after this infufion. and a few cloves. A ladles fine rouge. which boil all together four or five To co minutes longer. to colour LXXIX. Stop this bottle well with a cork. LXXX. or fix weeks . lour it.you may put half a pint of good red wine to each quart of water you have employed . and keep it to make ptifan. drain the liquor through a 1 . modified common water to take off the ftrength of th6 fpirit civet. not at all hurtful to their Jkin like other rouges. wax it and cover it with parchment* then txpofe it to the fun for a month. afterwards decant the liquor into another bottle bottle filled R m which.ARTS and TRADES. of rofe water drawn maritz. LXXXI. An exceeding Take twopoands. In five or fix hours time the tinclure will be very high . and the bulk of a filbert of alum. in fix quarts of water. a little a little cinnamon. made at A "veryfmall expeufe. . you like. of wine. X V cloth. you may again add a little brandy if L X 1 1 . in balnea or two quarts. Bruife into a coarfe powder fomefantalum rubrum> which put into a bottle with a difcretionable quantity cf fpirit of wine poured over it. by diflillatiou fine fmelling *wafer. by pouring fome of it into the liquor. per quarter of a pint of liquor. to which you may add one handful or two of coriander feed. An exceeding g$od ft ifart Boil well. and flrain it through a cloth. and an addition of one clove. with The above preparation offantalum rubrum. to give it a certain piquant. one pound of li quorice root . which put in a large with frefn rofe leaves. feme lemon zefts. may be ufed with fafety by ladies to heighten the bloom of their f&ce. wherein there always etoters * mixture of lead or quick fil<vtr.

and having unluted them. them you touch after having rubbed your hands with it. This water is of a charming fragrancy. the rinds of twenty-four oranges.. Put all together a-foaking in a large bottle with rofe water. as much wild rofes and Put all thefe together by themas much betony. two handfuls of rofemary.of rcfe leaves which has been gathered two days before* with two handfuls of fweet marjoram. have an alembic 3. two handfuls ofhyfop. That vinegar will have great virtues. next. When ready in which make a bed of one pound of rofes. Lute the veiTels again. two pounds of cy- prus. It even communicates the odour to. 2.. and place it in the fun for two days . the fame quantity of cinnamon and as much cloves. another bed of one pound of violets of march. fun. and diflil the li quor by the gentle heat of afand bath. add two grains weight of oriental mufk. When the water is entirely diihiled. fet having p&ured fome rofe water them again three days longer in the all this is done.194 which. or Impend 1. cool. two pounds of la vender. and efpecially that of preferving you againft an air infecled fay contagious and peftilential diforders. and cork it well. iThen pound a quarter of a pound of nutmegs. put n the/^rw a pint of rofe water. The receipt of the Eau-imperial. n* . and as much of ambergrife. and diftil it likewife as you did the preceeding waters. * v LXXXIII. and over it another bed of one half of your cremates . felves in a bottle well (topped. then over them. Adopt the receiver to the bolt head. LXXXIJ. and lafts a great while whatever part of your body you may rub with it. At the end of that term pound one pound . and diftil this water as you did the firft. let the veflels 4. Unlute again and put vinegar in the Alembic over the fame/k<:j. ami over it a bed of the other half part of your aromates with a fcruple of muik. SECRETS concerning for every one quart of liquor. and expofc it for feventeen days in the fun. Set a-drying in the fun fora fortnight. it will be far fuperior to it.

make a knot of it in a bit of linen. you may cool it. or of a very deep brown like chefnut colour. fyrup is done to its right degree if. give it what flavour youchu(e whether amber. or till in foort they are quite black. 2. or one ouncr.powder. and when cold. Such is the fyrup of orgeat. Then take a little honey with the point of a knife snd put it among i. of that fyrup and pour common water over it. it remains in the form of a pearl. 195 receipt of the fyrup of orgeat ofMontpellier. Then take it ofFfrom the fire. it wants to make it agreeable to L)(XXIV. After having boiled it gently three or four hours. which you bottle and keep for ufe.^ dilute well in it.. repeating the fame procefs feven"!or eight times. Put one pound of lump fugar in. till (baked in the beans. A receipt to make an Imitation of coffee. Put this knot in a pot over the fira with about a quart of water. in a pailful of ice and water. put at the bottom of a decanter half an ounce. having peeled it grain by grain. which mix ar. Take any quantity of fuch beans as they give to hdrfes among their oats. then pound the grounds well and pour all the water over it again. if you chafe. is called orgeat. which ftir all together and flrain again. to th mixture. then (hake the decanter well to mix the water and the fyrap to In the farnmef It is fit for drinking direclly. Vbe 1 . which you pound like the almonds and mix*' like them in the Strain all together through a piece of linen . which put into a pin to roafl over the fire till they begin to blacken. and you may add fyrup. in coffee houfes or 1 other places frefre foment. Take a pound of barley which you foak in water . Then take ofF the knot of barley. and boil it into a You will know that the fyrup over a moderate fire. and. letting one drop fall on the back of your hand. Now take them off frora the . or water. mufk e* other odour. put into the water one pound of fweet almonds. according as the palate. gether.ART LXXXIII. This water will look very thick. To make the draught which. S and T R A D E S. water. to that liquor. the beans turning them well with it.

L XXX VI. Then proping it on the top of a chaffendifh made on purpofe. Turn it with a woodea $ick while it is on the fire. half an ounce of eapz-mundata. Directions for preparing the true cnjfet.handful of fuch beans. Take Note. then grind it. 1. over a clear charcoal fire without flames. which clean and roaft as the beans in a pan till of a fine brown. iron drum made in the form of a lady's muff-box. with which imbibe them well in (Hiring and ihaking them in the pan as much as you can> and they are done.SECRETS concerting the fire. and in the pan again. coffee coal fire. To wfe it. fo as not to be diftinguifhed from it by the greatefl connoiffeurs. This coffoe may be drank cither thick or clear. and while they are quite burning hot put for every large . an iron pegg at the other. mix it half and half with the true coifee and make it as ufual. by putting it in boiling water and letting it boil five minutes. Thefe if you grind in the mill and make coffee of. to make each grain take the road more regularly and equally . Le terrified (vulgarly roafted) Sn an iron pan. a quart of rye. it will have the fame tafte and flavour as the true Moca-coffee. It is well and fufficiently roafted -when it is all of a dark brown. LXXXV. Another 'way. or the colour of tan. and lhake it now and then by toiling it up from the pan into the air. with a handle at one end. with fugarasufual. This coffee is much ufed among the people of quality who prefer it to the pure and real coffee to ftrengthrn the ftomach. By this door you introduce the coffee. aa you would of the other. 2. or in a glazed earthen pan. 2. which you fallen in by means of the latch. There is a much better method of roafling it whicli 5s infinitely lefs troublefome and more handy. Note. you roaftthe in which there is a char by turning the drum over it . by which coffee True mud coffee is by means of a certain It is excefiively well and regularly roafted. and a latch-door in the middle. efpecially when taken s Ziight before going to bed.

in mills which are made purpoiely for it. you then flop it by pouring on it the water which you fparecl on purpofe for it in the cup from the beginning. There are plain way of preparing taking red-hot tongs from the fire. it muft be confefTed. ceremony gives it. melt between them.d. from its ground into a filver. it ihould mauger all your cares. the coffee is 5. 6. or better in thofe leaden boxes of Germany with a fcrewing lid. and the powder you keep flill. before putting the powder into it. Some put fuperadditionally to it again one fpoonful of the moft perfect . therefore to avoid that inconveniency which would procure the lofs of the moft fpirituous part of the coffee. you muft take the water from off the fire and pour fame into a cup firft. then ftir with a long handled box fpoon. bringing it to the fire again. fmall 3. an admirable flavour and rnoft agreeable tafte. two or three large nobs of then they fugar. and. make three full dimes. you grind it. you let it boil gently. which would immediately make it rife and run over. avoiding to touch the bottom of the coffee pot. However it is dill much preferable to grind no more at a time than what one wants to life at once. . over the liquor of coffee. The liquor of coffee is made by putting one ounce of that powder to three quarters of a pint of boiling water to ones of coffee. 197 with the above-mentioned handle and thus the cof fee roaiis in the moft regular manner. make the Firft. as value of five or ten minutes. or four fmall And. during which fit for drinking. kept boiling. or other coffee pot. 4. the nice people who. Thislaft R 2 is exceilively good for head . Obierve that the ftrcngth of the powder occafions an efferyerfence in the water when you put it in boil ing . we faid before. When the coffee is roafte. If however. the powder in the water.ARTS il and TRADES. clofely confined in a leather bag. diftilledrofe-water. Then. they pour it clear following additions to it. which drop from the tongs into it This extinguifh the tongs themfelves in it afterwards. after an infufion of five or ten it is minutes. not content with this the liquor of coffee.

that fuch people might be found lower clafs as would rather renounce one meal than go without their tea even in the afternoon. S if. and There is not fo ftrong a gather them all yourfelf. the one for its the other for its ad is to I. without ever adding any fnfh water to the tea which remains at the bottom. in order to breathe and putting a them more perfe&ly. whd. the flavour. drink it nut of that very fame bafon. arr. This pnwder being put. ffrem not unworthy of our notice. to fay but little of them. while you keep your nofe over it. filling a cup with it tea fpoonful of rofe-water> you fet yourfelf a-breathing the fumes: and. The firft. E C R E T S concerning while boiling hot. But we have to mention two different methods of pre paring that liquor. LXXXVIT.on^ft the v fo neceflary an evil. : preference over the Englifh method . reduce the tea into an impalpable powder..19* head-akes. whkh. after the Japanefe fafhion. to do full juftice to them. bring it round again to you. and letting drop over the cup. whence the beft tea comes. pour boiling water over quantity of tea you like it: and after having covered it a reafonable time. in order to fpare the quantity without loling any o.f . method put in a bafon whatever then.. incorpo^rat^i with it in fuch a manner that it feems as if it nothing fubfides at the bottom. head-ake which can refift this operation. vantage in point of cecoromy. and where at is fo generally ufed. "We fhould not have offered Direfltons for the preparing of tea* to fpeak here of the jnethod of preparing the liquor of tea in a nation where as the ladies m*ke it one of their chief talents and anoft delightful paft-time and amufement . throwing an handkerchief over your head . and.be of fome advantage in'* country . may be faid to have right to clain* fuperiority in point of flavour. 2. fince By th:s means it is infinitely f&nher> which mjift. Thus you prevent the evaporation of the fumes.. in the boiling water. and become in fome meafure. The fecond is pra&ifed by the o^conomifts. evident that a much frnaller quan of this impalpable powder than of the tity is required leaves themfelves : therefore -that one pound mil ft go tinged it only.

with a long handle. To drink it you prepare it with either milk or wa. ta promote its effect.fugar. ought to have been firft re duced into an impalpable powder. all. or excefs of eating. aad pour it afterwards in cups to Diflblve in a lump. 1. then. they indeed make it as they would any In a coffee-pot they boil preparation of that kind. 2. and as it. who have no notion one of their amuftng entertainments and periodical object of vifiting. and let it throw one or two hubbies. firft their water. very ftrong tea. and cloves. The French. with a box-mill. will. pour the pafte on a very fmooth and polimed table. ter. after which they drink it by bafons full. Mexican-pepper. a phyfick itfelf. unftop all the conducts. as here we do water gruel.. and when you judge it to be fufficiently done. you firft diflblve it. One bafon. LXXXVIII. A receiptfor making of chocolate. when boiling-hot. have not a finer and more pow erful remedy againft indigeftions caufed by repletion of afTift the phyfick and Note. when this does boil. then take it afide from the fire to let it infufe about half a quarter of an hour. with a CH A P. they put in their intended quantity of tea. or two. fugar is turned into a fyrup throw in the cocoa. in which. that you may roll it and give it whatever form and fhape you like. 195 aeuntry where duties are fo immenfe on that comodityt f of making tea 3. copper pan fome puiverifed royalWhen the little orange water. Stir all well while it boils . the vanilloe. made on purpofe. the cinnamon. have a very bad method of making As they never ufe it bat on phyfick days. drank hot.ARTS and TRADE S. and every one of which. . Thofe who are not ufed to the regular and daily drinking of tea. you mill it to froth in the pot in which it is a-niaking. and free all the pafTages . of the flomach. in lefs than half aa hour.

is abouts. them agoin into another. or five minutes. or thereto fay.( 200 ) C H A P. to take oil ail the bitternefs of the nuts. and repeat this operation. as you doit. After -they have boiled in their laft water. thea a fyrup as ufaal. Note. In for the fake put the nuts in their (lead which leave to boil in the fyrup as long as you think proper. Orange-flower paftt* Boil in four quarts of water one pound of the When bare leaves of orange-flowers well picked. I. that When all are ready. take them out with a fldmmer. in which you are to put them one by one. throw off that green rind : and throw immediately. XII. SECRETS relative to the CONFEGTIONAII Y BUSINESS. thefe are deadened and foftened by this boiling. 3. I. in black. Put frefh water which boil again and throw away as the firft. a its blackening. Then . as you take them from the firit. nuts at Mi'Jfummer. take them out and throw them into cold water for fear From this water change they ihould turn black dill. the nut into a pail of cold water. if required. cold likewiie. and fet them to drain. but they fhould be very fparing in doing it as this ingredient might tinge the nuts II. to prevent the ATHER Preferred nuts . taking out after a few minutes of their being in. and preiiing them between your ftagers to purge them from all the bitter wa:sr they might dill contain. Some add a few cloves in the fyrup . third and fourth time. boil them four and throw the nrft water away becaufe it is bitter. 2. before the woody fhcll Cut open and begins to harden under the green rind-. Now make all lemons peels them which boil femeof fragrancy only.

afterwards to your liking. in a mortar with the juice fqueezed out of two lemons. Then take the flowers out. 1. quarter of a pound of jeflarmne flowers. and pound afterwards in a marble mortar.A RT S md T R A D E S. and boil it to a fyrup . waft* cure it irom all Hones. while it boils for two or three minutes. After five minutes boiling take It out and drain it. and put it in a pan on the fire with a pint of water to every three pounds of fruit. Now take it out and fhape it as you would like to have it. Then form tha pafte ia 2. which drain. etc. till confumed and wafted to the confidence of a pafle. and lhape it pafie in. Apricot pafte. this liquor Now put you in powder. more or lefs according to your 2. Put in three pounds of apricots. then tverjus half ripe. Boil them next in water till foftened. drain them on a fieve. * A -. Art* xviii. and they have given their odour to it. and pick them. and after they fhall have boiled a while. Boil one pound and a half of fugar into a fyrup. by pounding. Currant ten pounds of currants. VI. Skim them while on the fire. deterged of their fkin. like. and pounded in a marble mortar. Squeeze it through a fieve. Chufe * See j*. put the pafte and fpirit in. Put fugar in the water. Weigh adding more fugar the fhape again in the pan and boil it. then let it cool. . 17^. which fhall come from thefe flower* diflolve one pound of fugar. V. III. then ftrain them. In the juice. Then pound them ta&e. Then proceed as above for the reft. Pafte ofjeflamine. and put the Stir it a little. Have one IV. which put into a pan with one of clarified fugar. obferving only to chufe the ripeft apricots you can find.

ivbicJt foall be'poffiffidofallikeir t aft e. flavour andfragrancy. Rafplerry fyrup. Heat in a pan about half a pint cf water. Skim and clarify carefully the fugar. and ftrain it again in ano vefic'l. Apricottill fit for bottling* . fqueessing well the flowers. when you throw this away) . boil. i. ftaminas. When done. When the fyrup is together on the in come to its right degree. Now boil as many- pounds of pulverifed lump fugar. by throwing a drop of it in aglafsof water 5 the drop finks whole to the bottom. fkim and thicken it to a proper co^Mence. and let it cool IX. and dilute them with a mo derate addition of water 5 then ftrain them to divide the thick from the clear part. then put in*it fugar in the proportion to the quantity of flowers VIT. take it off from the fire. and fire boil the preferving pan.ithout running out along with the water. abate the fire. When ever you want to give the flavour of thofe flowers to any liquor. (which you may know if. what fhape fire for .202 wafte it S:E -C-RvE to T S concerning* thicknefs for a pafte. thro* which pour Thefe ing thefyrap. come to a proper confiftence. put all together again in the fame piece of linen. How > ycm may have. the quantity of fugar requifite to make that fyrup is generally one pound and a half. ther on that mild as foon as it is continuing to concocl all toge a while. To every four ounces of flowers. and form you like. < VIII. you ftrain this upon the flowers. according to art with the white of an egg beaten in water. and add the fruit pafte to the fyrup. being thereby quite deadened. Then bottle and keep it for ufe well flopped. to a fyrnp as there are of fruit. v. When done put your flowers in a glazed and cover it ever with a linen. to make fyr up $ with allforts offlowers. and fixes itfelf there. Then give the pafte. &c. - ther veiTel this fyrup. Obferve that all flowers whatever rruift be well picked of all their cups. and nothing but their leaves ought to be made ufe of. you fweeten it with this fyrup. To e*/ery quart of this clear Mafh liquor put one all pound of lump fugar pulverifed. the rafpberries.

which try as tlarify. take it off. fuch as cherries. after that juice fh a 11 have worked three or four days. X. and. which boil afterwards in a gallon of water till they are Let them cool. <verju$ in grapes. them through a fieve. Have and fieve then through a jelly-bag to get it finer. and bottle it for ufe. let it cool. with four pounds of fugar. with this of fyrups. then all reduced almoft to a pulp. A general manner of making fyrup s Pick . All and others. when at that degree. pour through the holes of the fkimmer. and 2. without however burning it . rics. Cut in fmall bits fix pounds of Very ripe apricots. applicable to al~ moft all forts offruits y efpecially currants. fir ft. and. difference only. it let cool. which put in a preferving pan. which put into a preferving pan. rafpbermay be made in the fame manner. and boil the whole to a fyrup.prescribed trials. above-di reeled in a glafs of water . have fou r pounds of fugar. Apricot-Jyrup. ftrain ic through a fieve in another veiTel. pound in a marble mortar. No\v for every two quarts of fuch liquor. All this being well executed. then through the flan nel bag to get it as clear as poffible. and put it in the preferv the fire. with a little common water to help the diflblution of it. 203 IX. Now ftrain again this fqueeze ing pan on liquor through the jelly-bag. Note. Skim. and bottle it to keep for ufe. add four pounds of fugar. that they are not to be put to forts work . which pick out of Strain it its ftalfcs. To this juice. through a two quarts of XI. and fqueeze them through a iisve in a commodious vcfieL Carry this vc/Tel to the cellar placing it on a itool. Boil it thus to the confidence of caramel. the meafured liquor which you muft boil alfo to a perfel fyrup according to the afore.A RT S and T R ABE S. melt over the fir?. and boil it according *o art to a fyrup. and. or any fufpended flielf from the ground . a quantity of red currants of ail their ttalks. when done.

To make the fame with cherries. from which the tails only. in which continue to ftir the cherries. pier Boil. and not mafhcd in the Put . XIV. have teen picked. which boil all together to perfection. and when this ftands ter. and put in four When pounds leaft. Put eight pounds of cherries. and for potting. Prefs out the juice of them. done. of lump fugar pulverifed. the trial of the glafs of water. XIII. XI I. and that the fyrup might hereby be fkimmed till done to perfection. Put afide two pounds and a half of them in a dim. ef rafpberries well picked. and boil all fo that the bubbles fhould cover the fruit.SECRETS work in the cellar. which to obtain. Boil all together to thicknefs. the fineft cherries. is concerning f oon as the juice but employed dire&ly as fqueezed out of the fruits. Boil all to a fyrup. to a ftrong fyrup. XV. you keep inceflantly ftirring. then the cherries are fit to pot. as mentioned above. when come to a fyrup. and fqueeze the other one pound and a half remaining. taking Then add four pounds care to avoid maihing them. in a preferving pan. either with or without their flones. then add fix other pounds of the fineft cher ries. and not the flones. Another <way toprejerve cherries 9 with or without ft ones. to evaporate their fuperfluous moiftnefs . which you know when a drop of it put on a plate runs with difficulty. To make liquid currants-jam* Pick four pounds of currants. from which take off both tail and ftones. and clear them of their ftalks. diffolve four pounds of fugar . and. put in the two pounds and a half of whole currants along with one pound and a half of juice of the fame. Now. fit all i* done. four pounds of fugar. in an earthan pan over a very moderate charcoal fire. To make the liquid raf ry jam. being cold . and put it in a preferving pan with a pint of wa- Have two pounds of and four pounds ot fugar.take the pan out of the fire.

for it would be apt to candy. When all is done. Pat them in gently at firft. with a penknife : and. you powder this over the verjus which is in the pan. they are not fo Stir them therefore a apt afterwards to break. but in a dry preferving pan only. little in the fagar. fimmer : . to keep up a gentle and regular fire. elfe it would firft turn black. take it offdirec~lly from the fire. boil. four pounds of <verjus in grapes. Open out again with a fkrmmer. then throw it in the fuContinue gar. with the fame. little while before the fyiup is ready. when this is dene to the proper degree. ^-Take care alit fo not to do the fyrup too much.A RT S and t R A D E S. according to rules and proper trials. verjus a-draining in a fieve. put them again On the fire. to compleat fect the making of the fyrup. <verjus taking : A give a good brifk fire. as you do them. and put them a-draining in a fieve. and then yellow. Throw thefe grains. XVII. for fear of fqueezing them . into a bowl of dean and frefh water. and with a very particular care. and when they have thrown in their and per juice. and fet all on a gentle fire. not to lofe the juice which comes out of it when cut. whence throw them ntxc into a pan of boiling water. on which it can only fimmer and not boil. when the heat of the fyrup has once feked them. it mult not be thrown in the cold water. for. let it not boil but only and. *The fame <voilh powder fugar. when that is the cafe. af ter the verjus is picked. and clarify four pounds of fugar to a fyrup. 2. This S will . While this is in the water. Then to every one pound of <verjus t add another of fugar. take them 1. Tie versus jam. fore. and finim it quickly. If you want to do the fame with powder fugar. pick out all the ftones. fuch as we mentioned. 2. till you fee the a good green and. while you diftblve. when the <verju s begins to fwim on the top of the water. XVI. and the ftones taken out as be 1. and cover it with a cloth to cool gently. fet your 3.

and put it in very dry pots. you muft. When you the fire. for the fame reafons therein mentioned sl~ ready. and put them a-drain- ing in a ficve. in which. whether double or fingle. for the fpace of* two hours. before the rifing of the fun . Peeled verjus. XIX.. while the fu^ar is ftill boiling. for And by this method they are done to perfection them who want a liquid preferve. five or fix minutes. To prefer <ve March. iindt . when done to the confidence of Stir and afyrup. to preferve the juice. Peeled wrjus is made as follows. Then make a fyrup with two pounds and a hnlf of fugar cla In this lyrup. calendar. throw in the tvcrjus from the bowl. or thereabouts. boil it gently. Chufe fome *fine ripe verjus. and pick them well their tails and green which is about them. take the violets out of it with afkimmer. rified. mud attend to the To make a dry preferve of the fame violets.double or jingle violets. be very expeditious in finifliing it.when you as in the preceding receipt. fpeed. . till they sre put them in another pan over a very flow- charcoal fire. come very fine and green. at diitances of times. according to art. take them out immediately from X K.so6 will SECRETS make it concerning tmtft. boil and clarify. while boiling. But whoever wants a dry preferve of the fame. following prefcription. v-iolets and plunge them all well under the rifing bubbles Let them not boil more however than of the fugar. want to make a dry preferve of Marcbviolets. gathered on the fame > day. -ind. Have one pound of violets. for fear they ihould lofe their co of all lour. then throw into a dry bowl. iUrirjg them inceflantly with your hand. which peel carefully with the point of a penknife and (lone. as foon as they nre come to the degree wejuft now mentioned to make them liquid. or cold. and finifh it with Let it cool. till it turns green. as many pounds of fugar as you have of fruit. fome of the dering over them. Then table cloth.Then diilblve. XVIII. andpow-. throw the 3V.

and give them five or (ix bubbles more. and you may pot them in that {late. or flick. bladed-knife. Then fet them again on the fire. When you have thus prepared four pounds of them. and finifh them. Another way to make them liquid. and let them cool. If you want to make the bed ufe of the fame clarified fugar.A R T S and TRADES. one by one. which introduce at the point of the apricot. take fugar. They will be what is called Liquid. and there let them foak and lye for five or fix minutes. and then pufti to make it come out at the tail. When XXIII. that is when co!d. drained. take them out with a fkirnmer. (weighed after Honing) have a large and wide pan of boiling water on the fire. By this means they throw off their fuperfluous meiftnefs and take the A certain while after. them from the fugar with a fkimmer. XXII. in fmall quantities at a time> in order to dry and candy them* XXI. they will then be liquid as in Art. Then boil and clarify four pounds of fugar. 207 Uneft royal loaf fugar. and the fruit of which has fiill all its hardnefs and Take out the ilones. When done. till you feel the Hone. As foon as after which. tak ing great care that they fhould not fpot in the water. at the end of which term you mu(l put them again on the fire. and give them two or three bubbles. take the pan from the fire. put them again into the boiling fyrup. while you put the fyrup on the fire to boil. but not ripe. and fet them adraining. take it out. which fervcd to make dry prefcrved violets. Haw . by means of a fmallgreennefs. or even till the next day if >oulike it. Chufc a quantity of apricots. When blanched. juft turned. after which Jet them reft two or three hours in the fyrup as they are. xix. and put in your apricots foftly. To prtfwvt apricots. yoa may do it by putting half a pound. of thefe flowers in the fame fyrup then boiling on the fire. or thereabouts. when neither too ripe nor tso green. and fet them a-draining on a fieve. and make it into a fyrup. in which throw them in order to blanch them.

e* is called mi-fucre. and putting a 1. otherwife called. through a fiik fieve. and have not had time to wither. paper. you may put them in boxes with white brown . that you may be fure they are all very frefh.SECRETS XX III. throw them in cold water towafh them well. adding one fpoonful or two if requifite. To prefers* green ap rtcots Gather yourfelf your apricots when green. and when equally dried and cool ed. till the time they are fit for being potted in liquid. fo that they may not touch one another. When thus prepared. handfal of this fait in a napkin. them of their down. and put them in the ftove to dry. you muft always proceed from beginning to end as above-dire&ed. till they are all donerii 2. but that of opening them in two from the beginning. fold the napkin lengthways. or fome forts of fmall light willow grates made on purpofe powder them again with fugar as before. admit of the fame mode of operation. and fet them a-draining. bringing the long fides of it over the aprbcots. to make them into dry or liq. and the peach. which pour over them when This procefs is with intention of curing thus agitated. {hake and roll them backwards and forwards with the fait in the napkin. powder on them. Note.uid preferves. How When what you want to concerning to make a dry prtfwve of them. feme of che fineft loaf fugar pulverifed. inftead of which you take them again once more out of the fyrup. and when that is obtained. All forts of plumbs. en~orei!les (in ears). When dry on that fide. and turning them the other fide upwards on a fieve. of vinegar. in genteel term' of art. . make them in dry preferve. or in ears. XXIV. After having thus well walked them in that water. take them out from the Hates. and taking the ends of it gathered one in each hand. either whole. with as many apricot* as you think you can well manage . Then pound fome fait in a mortar and make it as fine as you poffrbly can. which changes nothing in the procefs of the operation. Some like to have them done in halves. then range them on flates at regular diftances. and continue fb to do with the reft. .

They will immediately turn of a very fine You muft not prefs on the finifhing of them . having put in your apricots. till reduced almoU to a Strain ail pulp. to art. they are fufficiently done. if this get an eafy admittance in the apricots. Now take the pan from the fire without delay. according fyrup. in other pure and clean cold water. But the firft method we have recommended with fait. during which they foak in the fyrup. When you wart tour preferve to keep. then put them in. To make the Cotignac liquid Suppofe you to have fifteen pounds weight of quin ces. . afhes. you inuft have thre pounds of fugar. water.A R T S *nd T R A D S. is the beft. Then boii fomc water. and a galIon of water. put them into new cold water. When your apricots are preferve their greennefs. after which put them a-draining on a fieve. make a and clarifying. after hav Put your gal ing taken away the cores and kernels. in this fituation. the moft expeditious. by in talcing ane or two with the fkimmer. and take the fugar. S 2 through . boiling. get the down off the apricots by means of a lye made with greenwood. fet them again en the fire. and finim them as fad as you can. and thrufting a wooden toothpick. Pare the quinces and cut them fmalJ. you cannot do your fvrup with Icfs than pound for pound of fugar with fruit. lon of water t -boiling. and let them boil there. in which they wafh them once firir. with the (kimmer. to w(h thm well in it over again. a little lefs may do. take them off from the fire. let them boil very gently. XXV. and that which procures them the finefl green. throw offtheirmoiftnefs. I. After they have thus refted a while. foft. take the apricots from that boil ing water into fome cold. that they may 3. and then twice afterwards. and giv* them a couple of houri reft. or very fine fkewer . green. on the contrary. and. all of which you manage as follows. Note. wherein they are to be kept boiling till they become and which you take care to try now and then. and throw them in. as many pounds offugaras you have got fruit. but if they be not to keep. or pear!. by difTolving. and. There are fome people who.

throw in one ounce of wholfc fyrup of capillaire^and immediately throw the into cold water. bits. for fear it mould burn at bottom. How . throw away riptft. . it S concerning and fqueeze it well into a bowl. and letting it fall on a plate. and put in the preferving pan. well all the Put juice out of the hudds. fet jannutes afterwards the coiignac is done. to let it cool and. Then take the pan from the fire. to exprefs. fame pin over the fire to boil it to perfection. your juice. through a clone. III. pot the marmalade. till it the caramtl be almoft in powder . which laft throw away. for every half-pound of fugar. efpecially towards the end : when it begins to thicken. this isthe cafe. ilir well this liquor. yoa may fee the bottom it is tiijne to cf the pan quite plain. the into a knot. To know when it is done. and fqu-eeze the others between your hands. to boil on a clear and fmart fire. which you know. all the while it is a-boiling. and put both the hudds and the juice in the preferving 'gltl not to pan. with a wooden fpatula. four pounds of lump fugar* . and put it again in the. When on the fire in the preferving pan. then. with four pou-ids of fugar. and in five jilly. half clone. ftraiii all through a calendar. and entirely uncovered. and boil it gently. N-ote. P-are four Another <way. or thereabouts. and Ikim it ftirring as before with the fpatula. When you perceive it may have wafted a third. pounds of quinces which cut into Whn ( when by ftirring the jam hard. XXVI. If you pot the peel and kernels and boil them in that manner in the water.to make Boil fome fugar.again into the pan to bo l. with a fufncient quantity of water to foften them by The add boiling gently. XXV N : Kraic it through a fheer-cloth.5>ro SECRET clot!*. the belt and the Fick the grains from the ftaiks. XXVII. Tal^e any quantity of black grapes. till taking feme with the fkirrmer. jam will foaner be red. To mak< Raifmet. theiV. it fhall rife up like a Then pufh on the fire.and continue boiling the whole til] it is. put .

Ten minutes after. by cooling it becomes folid. In proportion as you prepare them thus. and if. In this decoction.'. mixing among them. or three quarters of a pound at leaft. On the contrary when the fruit is pared and prepared as before men tioned. when all your fruits arc prepared. Chufe the mofleven quinces not ftoney. crooked. put your other quarters. and vul Cut them into four. Boil this gently. after which you pot it into (lone jars.then pare and cere If you. and letit cccl. When you. . 211 a plate. take the pan from the fire. or two. and boil them in the preferving pan. I.but do not cover them fora day. and. throw them into cold water. meet any (tones in the quarters cut them them. off too. and let all reft a while. When fufficiently done. Then is the time to take it off from the fire. take it out with the (kimmer. fuch of them as are fmall. Save the peels andcorts . 9"0 do the fame in white. then fqueeze on it the juice of a lemon to whiten the quinces : and. and unfit to go along with the others. boil all in a fufKcient quantity of water to make a ftrong decociion. and in a (hort time the quinces will become moft beau tifully red. make a fyrup-. To do the : 2. put your ffiiitin it boiling. or garly called female quinces. and otherwife ill formed. or there-abouts. and. when this is Ikimmed & clarified properly. take them off the fire. till fufHciently done tUen. and pot them . While they are thns a-draining.fee they are come to perfcdlion. eight quarters as you like beft. fmifti th?nvquick!y. fetung them. 7^? prefer'<ve quinces in red. .A R T putfome on it is a S and T R A D E S.again on the fire. fign it is quite furrkiently done. which pafs when done> and (traiti through a ftrong cloth into a pan. put as many pounds of fugar as you had fruit. I i XXX. XXIX. and put it a-drairiihg on the (ieve. you muft throw it into boiling water. fame preferve in white. 2. XXKL To . you rnuft net make the decocYion of the parings. after. and there let it continu?to boil on the fire.

then fet them l. from this water. by thrufting a pin or a fine fkewer When done enough. them.:>ds in while boiling. and which you try now and then. and throw your alrro. By doing as above. Chufe Rou/e/et-pczrs. To Mufcadine. take them out with the fkimmer* and throw them into 2. after hav ing foftened them by boiling in water. A a-draining in a fieve. preferve of green almonds* Prepare a lye of pearl afhes. with the point of a knife. which (hould be neither too ripe nor too green . fe moiftnefs. xxiii. and othtr of pears. 2 i Now make a fyrup. Before boiling them. and let them reft a while to throw out their fuperfluoui When that is done. XX XI II. Make next a fyrup. in which warn your almonds to rub their down off. and take the fagar. fo as however.sia SECRET preferve Rouffelet. them next in another common clean water. them again on the re. then finifh them as expeditioufly as yea can. you muft put pound for pound of fruit and fu gar. Note. obferve to ftrike them to the heart from the head. frefh water. you muft. with refpeft to apricots* five or fix XXXII. with as many pounds of fugar thefe as you have pears. becaufe . forts S concerning XXXI. then tajce them from the fire. in which you pat and boil them minutes 3t firft. in which they are to boil till foftened. fkim them out in fomeof them. you will have a liquid preferve of pears . to-compleat them quickly. If you want to keep for fear they fhould turn black. and throw them into cold. a compote of almonds. Warn. 1. which pare very neatly. put no mor than five or fix ounces of fugar to every pound of fruit. When properly done in the boil ing water. not to open themfelves. They will immediately recover their green . To make *To make thefame into a compote. but if you want to have them dry. fol low the dire&ions given in Art. and boil in water till properly done. Then boil the fyrup into a pretty ftrong confiftence. whence throw them into boiling water.

To make dry portable cherries. When all fhall have become quite cold. put the When done. which put a-difiblving on the fire in a point of wa<ter. throw your cherries quickly in. Stop then the diftillation. or in buds. or even in grapes or bunches. through a fieve. unlutihg them. but on the contrary. put them in alembic with two Lute well the veflHs. me XXXV. Then have one pound. in a baker's oven. or one pound and a quarter at moft. and put them in a very light and thin fyrup. fome fagar all over them. take all off let cool. Plumbs may be done in the fame manner. Now take them out again from this water. XXX IV. and you may lofe nothing. and powder. by de priving them both of their {tones and tails. range them on flates. make thebeftyou can of them. Prepare four pounds of fine Kentijb cherries. and you did before . and make them boil thus in the fugar about ene quarter of an hour. When this begins to boil. and place them in the ftove. When from the fire. after the bread has been taken out. and box them when cold. or till the fyrup begins to they are fufHciently done. and powder them over with fugar thicken. Note. and. dry them alfo in the fame manner. to keep forufe. but you muft turn them all on the other. and may be carried as any where. Few perfons are acquainted with the thod of making it. Have four or five pounds of orange-flowers . fqueczing over them the juice of a fmall lemon to whiten them. throw them afterwards in cold water. No fooner they are dry on this fide. for them to take the fugar. and fe* them a-draimng in a e v placed over it* After . bout two quarts of good water. putting three or four of them ne in another. and difUl a* gallons of water. afterwards by the nefs which the liquifies fufBciently fruit returns. after which put them a>drairiingin a fieve . not much more than luke warm. then. let the veffel cool . of fugar. fkim the flowers out of this fyrup. for want of this cenveniency. that *The prefer<ve of orange -flower s t whether in lonfe leaves . This fort of preferve is very agreeable.ARTS it md TRADES. or. orange-flowers a-d raining on a fieve.

in order to mix well. XXXVT. On the next day ikim them off again and repeat the fame operation over again exactly as you did the day before. put thema-drying in an oven. bits in a preferving pan. If you have put four pounds of apricots I. and repeat the fame again. turn them on the other. change thefe flowers immediately into cold. . Thefe flowers will aflume a greater whitenefs if you fqueeze the juice of a lemon into this feccnd water. \*hen Cdine to a proper fyrup. which clean of all hard Cut them ia fmall knobs. and When cold. or fmall boards. give them a few ftrokes of the peftle only to bruife them a little. Note. XX XVII. Then drain it. They who hare no alembic. To make an apricot t or peach. I . till all is done. having left them twenty-four hours uncovered. when dry on this fide. which you have prcvioufiy ia weighed. which wfcfh and clry in a cloth. Chufe the ripeft apricots. and equally. with the fame fort? of flowers. and proceed for the reft as directed in the preceding article. throw in your pound of orange-flowers. and fit to put in boxes. psper them over let cool. ilir all well with a fpatula. or jam. then let it cool again. and when done. then put the jam into pots . and then pat your flowers a-foaking again for twentyfour hours in it. the flowers along with the fyrup.SECRET 3 concernin After they are well drained. or feme other boiling water. muftboil their flowers in a large quantity of water in the prefsrving pan. and put them a-draining for the laii time. jam. Now clarify three pounds of royal fugar. and rotten parts. flare?. being deprived cf the opportunity of having orange-flower water. till only lukewarm. and having powdered them over with fugar. To make a marmalade. and. A marmalade of orange flowers. 2. not to maili them quite. after which fcatter them on tin meets. which boil in five or fix minutes. fpots. take one pound of them. aa ufual. At lad fkioi them out once more from the fugar. and to whiten them fqueeze the juice of a lemon over them. and having put them in a mortar. and. boil that fyrup for five or fix minutes.

fo as not to have them diflclve however in the water. ft . put your fruit in.ART It. with two or three roatfed. now and then till you find your When this is the cafe. XXXIX. XXX VI 1 1. or in tin moulds. . and make exceffive nice tarts with it. and put them a-draining. and cherry jam* AH thefe fruits mud be fquet zed through a fieve. and mix all well for the fpace of five minutes over the fire. and let them reft a certain time to evaporate their fuperfluous moiflnef*. 2. mix a couple of fpoonfuls of this marmalade. much Icfs have the flavour of the XL. make a fyrup with as many pounds of fugar the fire. 1. and take it off from the fyrup is cooled. and truow in the juice. as you have fruit. fine and tran- you pot it. you may. pot. put among your right weight. two pounds of lump fugar pulverifed. To make rafpberry* Currants. or baked. apricots thas reduced to one half. and lufceptible of drying quicker. after the French way. then clarify the fugar. While this is doing. which (lir well with a fpatula. Thefe jams may alfo be made into pafte . on dates. S and TRADE S. Chufe fuch ripe apricots as are fit to eat. nothing can be more delicate. which you bring to perfection afterwards as diredled in the laft receipt.put intopafte This fame compofidon. reduce them by boiling over a gentle fire to two pounds only. and. apples. and give them a bubble or two in boiling water. fparent. you may put a quarter a pound more fugar. let it cool* and 2. if you will. more pellucidous. or again with pears baked under afhes. which you muft find out by weighing pan and fruit together. mafh them through a fieve. When the jam is well done. than the prefcription. Peei their Ikin off very neatly. You may alfo. then take all off. When done. then put all again on the fire for ten minutes in order to make the fruit take well when the fugar. There is not more exquifice eating. to of one pound of fruit paile will fo every the : but it rruft be con fe fled that fruit. if you require to have them clearer. An apricot jam.

and in the middle. and wet well picked. put the currants in. and put the preferving pan. with three or four quarts water. awl pour the contents in a fieve toflrainoffail the liquid. 2. which make into a pretty ftrong fyrup.*t6 SECRETS concerning XL. and boil it . ilifFolve in water four pounds of loaf fugar. quarter of a pound of orange flower^leavei as fmall as you can. after picking. till taking a drop with the ikimmer. XLI. and make into a ftrong fyrup. may employ four They who want deal of jelly at pounds only of fugar to fix of currants. Put this liquor again in the pan and boil it. Then it is fit to pot. Cut in fmall all in a cloth to ftrain it through.*lly. afterwards. then take it off the fire and let it reft a while. To mak* a Put it ripe <verjus which ckk from its ftalk. throw it in. to a j. take the pan off from the fire. four pounds of currants after picking. and have a great a fmaller expence. Now. you may add the Juice of one lemon. into a jelly. XL1 1 1. and pouring it on a plate. They muft however obferve to do the jelly rather more than when in the preceding cafe.liy. Seme time after. Take one To make the conferee cf orange-flowers. which chop over by fqueezing the juice of a lemon. and when deadened. rn a pan with a couple of piaffes of water. fiir it all round. Take the fugar. two pounds of fugar. XL III. Have and boil fo hard as to have them all over covered with the bubbles. Six minutes after fuch beiling. Then. put four pounds cf fugar which boil. Then put the juice on the fire with the fieve to drain. To make a good currant jelly. to fpare the fngar. Then. it congeals as it cools. the fruit and the fugar are put pound for pound. To make an apple jetty tavern in of bits a dofcen of gold rennets. which boil lo the reduction of one half. to this. In the mean while clarify. to pot it . and draw all the juice from the apples. and even the rafping of one half of Throw its rind. Let it boil for tv-o or three minutes. and proceed as above. To give a points to that j. with .

prepared as before directed. *fU . then throw in your rafpings of lemon or orange. br even both together. or cafes. both round the pan and in the mid dle . and almonds. and fUr receipts. or lozenges. or one pound a quarter of fugar. and. (iirring all well together with the fpoon. on fleets of paper. Therefore ftir them well till they have confumed all the fugar . becaufe it are done. and proceed. conjointly or feparately. for fear they fhould ftick to the pan. you muft wet with a quarter of a pint of When it is thus wetted and pounds d boiling water. 217 and having thrown in your orange flower. and .'T R A D E S. Prepare fome fugar in to a fyrup not quite fo (trong as recommended in the laft Take this from the fire. Poland in a mortar one quarter of a pound of violets well cleanfed and picked. Have into oil. take it off the re. mix all well with the fame fpoon and put part of this competition imo paper moulds. then place them ov< r a fmall fire to diffolve all the little knobs of congealed fyrup which remain about the pan. having ftirred all well. Then throw in two pounds of XLVI. A conferee Put your *witb rafpings of Portugal oranges and lemons. put two it it in the moulds and make your drops. which. conferee efviohts. which ftir well with a fpatula. rafpings to dry in a plate whether filver or china. and is a fign they all Ibould absolutely (tick to the a great care that they fnould not turn take notice when they pop. Take T the pan from the fire. then having melted and clarified two pounds of fugar into a Orong fyrup. XLIV. in every other refped for the reft as directed in the precedent article.ARTS with a fpoon . and ftir it till there is none left. it does not fignify. flrain it through a flannel cloth . XLV. and form the reft into drops. Make and almonds a-la-praline* a ftrong fyrup with one pound. To make almonds. while you are a pounding. let it reft and pour in afterwards what yo'H A have exprefTed from the pounded violets. with a fpoon.

and when all In the mean while. Some tirro after. then flcim them out of it and pat them in a ficve lo dr. . one of your chefnuu* that part without peeling them yet. and at* certain diftance of it. fugar. or before a clear fire. Now a: J d fo:ne more clarified fugar to your thin fyruo. which boil together to a Wronger one t^en put your maroors in. take the maroons from the fire. then peel them one after another a? expeditioufty as you can while flill burning hot.farther than the wiJth of your hand. To Slit the wherein there is lump fugar pulverifed and When it is well covered over with very fine. to make them throw all their reddifh liquor without put ting them any more over the fire.fet them en the fire again a. off the fire. currants r+fplerries . let them reit ib that they may" take the fu^ar. Best one. and. one by one. make iced maroM*. then take them. and roll it afterwards . You may thus ice all forts of fruits in a difh fifted fufccptv- bottom and lofen it at then throw them into boiling water.k and rr-uddy look in the fyrup P : . fkin of every water. whites of eggs with orange flower* water. XLVUT. or two. When you thii. XL V II Ue of icing.iin. boil all till the fvrup .S C R T S etncermry and cover them with a cloth. only to dry it. and put them in a dry fieve.n crn -!'onf rs call a-la-plume. graftsf flra <wlerrits and ttherfucb like fruits. put them all into it. and let them reft. boil fome neiy are peeled.nd comes to b? wh. put then* in boxes. when they hav? well c eanfed themfelves in this water. Jf it do. While the fynap look* . in which boil them gently for ten minutes. when cold. take off with a Hummer and put them in a light this th ? m fyrnp. To whitfri cherries . but only and mrerly into the boiling water which you juft took cut. then deep your fruit in. tnke a fpoon and caufe a certain agitation v^ith it in thefyrup by Hirring it on one fi 'e of the pan lo as to csufe a thi.k they have bofledfufficiently take a few of them and try whether or not a pin gets eafily into them by tha flit you have made. Then take ^em off the fire. put it on a (heet of paper and fet it in the furs.

beaten with orange fiowrr-water . it is a proof that it done. water ing them at the ft me time fo as to make them izuo a put in the preferring pan oce fu-frkient quantity of water to ii&olve it. thu* loa<id witli thefc . tig S6ok thus. an2 a half. XLIXi To maketbt Rfcyal-ma/Tepini. Then put the ihe<. and drefs it with your fpatulaon fmall boards covered with fagar. Take one pound of fweet almonds which throw in a bowl filled with boiling hot-water. When.ART Jf *xd T R A J> fi S. Now pound of fugar with a on the q-uits it fire.\s t us been worked all through this pro- that form let grow quite cold. you fee it fmoothening without facking to your fingers. and give each of them by idelf half a doz&fl of ftrokes of the pefde ic a mortar to render that pafte more delicate. adding alfo as you pound it thus. then put it on afheet of paper. When the pafle it is all employed and dreiTed fa take every one cake one after another fingly. per pound or pound. 2.t of paper. Set the pan again Jfind of p*fte. and drefk it again on the fame boards as before either in oblong cakes. Then drain them. then put them on a fieve over a i . in troduce in the paite. peeling of them. Whea v v one h. p&fling' your hand on the pa fie. while you pound it. if you chufe. Boil it to a~la-p/ume. a little orange or lemon peel preferved. and then take it from the fire to dilute your pa&e ito it. to help the In proportion as you peel them. roll it again next in pulverifed fugar. Then you roll it again in the puiveriied fugar. in the form of rnall oblong cakes of what (las yost is like. Now take it from the fire. or in roa-nd When done take and fieep i: in whites of eggs rings. of pafte. take yoar marooni gently one by one between two forks. and pound them in a mortar. draining U Well when you take it out. You nrav likewife. and fauce them well in that thick part of the fyr up. half the white of an egg or a whole one if requifue. throw them into another bowl filled with cold water. and turn your pafte over and over till the pan freely without a^y adhefion at all. and.

1*0

S

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Pv E,

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concerning

^ma/epins, in an oven, fo moderately hot as not, to afFeft them too much, and give them only a faint

very

colouring.
3. They who want their maffepins to tafle of. the bluer almond?, may introduce one quarter of a pound, or even half a pound of bitter almonds among the pound of fweet ones, from the very beginning and for the reft, proceed as directed from the time of

peeling.

L. 70 make Sa<v oy
I:.

bifcuits*

Separate the whites of four eggs from their yolks* Beat them by themfelves to a very hard froth, at which
time, you then put the yolks previoufly well diluted, and continue beating all well together. Now introouce half a pound of fugar pulverifed, and beat them
all

together again. When you are ready to drefs you bifcuits, have a quarter of a pound offuperfine flour, which incor porate by beating well, then drefs it on a fheet of paper in the form you like beft, either round or ob long, and ice them over with fugar in powder to pre vent their running. Put them in an oven, no hotter than for maflepins ; and, after a reafonable time they wHl
2.

be done.
make Bitter almond-bifcmft a mortar three quarters of a pound of When bitter, and one quarter of fweet, almonds. thus pounded, have eight or nine yolks of eggs which
LI.

Pound

in

beat up and mix with your pafte of almonds, and tvv*o pounds of pulverifed lump fugar. This pafte muft be a good deal harder than that of the Sa> c*y bifcuits. Then, with the end of a knife taking fome of that pafte, you place it in rows on a meet of paper, in what form or (hipe lou like, and ice it with pulverifed fugar ; then put it in the oven as you do the Savoy -bifcuiu or majjepins*

LIT. 70 make meringues. B?it well into a hard froth, four whites of eggs then introduce in them four large table fpoonfuls of fugar
:

iata

A RT

S

and

T R A D E

S.

a**

into a fibtile powder, and a tea-fpoonful of orange. Jlower-water, with a little mufk and amber prepared. Put this pafle on a table, and roll it with the rolling double thai pin to the thickncfs of a crown piece, or thicknefs at moft. Cut it in the form and fize you or little more, and take it out. like, bake it

halfway,

Make

a ftrong icing with the white of an egg, fogar order tt pulverifed, and the juice of a lemon, in whiten that ice which you thicken as a ftrong pap by means of the fugar in powder, fteep your piece* of cut one, and fet them to dry under the lid of pafte one

by

ihe (love covered with

fire,

on the top of

it.

*l be fame <ivitb cinnamon, or chocolate. H&rixgues, with chocolate, or cinnamon, arft Pound and iift into fubtlle powdef siade as fallows.

LIII*

The

and

diitiiidlly each by itfelf the cinnamon, and aquan* thy of the above defcribed pafle, after a thorough Then mix thefe two powders and a difcretiondrying. able quantity of fugar together in the fame mortar, by means of whites of eggs beaten," continuing to pound t^e whole till the paile be firm and however flexible. Nowfpread it with the rolling pin to the thicknefs you like, and cut it kvtfce fh*pe and form 'you pleafe, then bake and ice it as ufuai. - If you- will not have your meringues'too hard, bake them on one fide only, and ke them on the other with orange flower- water and fuWhen you dry them let it be with the lid of the gar. ftove, and take care not to make the fire tooftrong, left
it

(oould blow the ice. ^
Nofe.

When

properly dryed, the ice
1

is as clear

and tranfparent as

real glaft.

With

the chocolate the

fame procefs

is

to

be

bferved as with -the cinnamon. -.

XilV, Another wayofifingy

tnt*i<ved fof the f&ke offer*

For t'ie fome fcruple

tain fcrupulous ptrfvns.s fake of them who, in time

of Lent

hart

to eat

m^Tes wherein

their enters

any thing

belonging to eggs, you

may contrive the following meth

od of

i:ing.
ditto,

to a glafs

Take fome gum adragant> which put in* tumbler with a Uttle common water and orange-

When perfe^ly diffolved,

ftraia it

Tz

through

SECRETS
a cloth, and ufe

concerning

your

it inftead of whites of eggs for pounding* Then for pafte in the mortar as above direded. the laft icing, ufe flower- water &ad

orange

fugar, pal-

verifed as above.

LV. To make gimblettes. Suppofe you take one quarter of a pound of flour* then one ounce and a half of fugar in pcwder, or two eunces at inoft, will be quite Sufficient with two or three yolks ofegps and one white only, then a little orange Hewer- water, with a very Jitile quantity of mulk and
all together, fo as to make 3 obtain which you difcretionally increafd the quantity of fiour if necelTary. But fhould it becomefo (tiff that you could not manage it to put in rings ; then you muft put it^tt th mortar, and fofteu it with a few ftrokes of the pfcftle tnd a little orange flower; or even mere purap water. Then you fpin it
ftifF
;

amber prepared. dough with it

K iead
|to

in rings

; which, when made, you throw IT to boiling water and p;ive a bubble or two ; and afterwards, drefs it on fheets of paper, and bake it till it is dry and

brittle..

LVT. To one pound of fugar to a fyrup a-la-plume\ then throw in half, or three quarters of a pound of flour. Stir quickly aH together to make a dough, arter having previoufly taken the pan off from the drefs fire, then take this pafte out of the pan and it on aboard, or table* covered with puiverifed fugar. Knead it quickly, and pound it next in a mortar with the white of aa egg, a little mulk and amber prepared, and orange flower- water. When it is thus knead an4
Boll

pounded prettv
of-

ftiff,

make

a ijnall apricot- i^one >

it into fmall balls of the fize then throw them into a paa

filled with boi'.in? water. Firit they fall to the bottom : but, as foon as they rife on the top you mult (kirn them out of this water, and put them a-draining in a

Then range them on a frieet of paper, or tm, and piare the.n in the oven to bake and make them
fieve.

take a

fine colour.
-..

if,

when baked, you

fcad

any

difficulty in ta*

king

A RT
it,

S

And

T R A D E
;

S.

223

king them out of the paper
then
fet the fheet

wet a napkin and wring
it,

of paper on

foon after they will

eafily

eome off.

LVIL fo make lemon lozenges. one, or two, whites of eggs, which beat with fome orange flower-water. Then add as much pulverifed fugar as they will foak up, to make a pretty ftiff pafte of it. Introduce alfo the rafpings of lemoa peels. All being well incorporated, roll it all into imall balls of the bignefs of your thumb, which range on a
Take
fiieet

them

in the

of paper and flatten afterwards a oven to bake.

little,

then put

LVI1I.

to prefers e orange peels all the year round* but efpeciallv in the month of May Cut fome orange* in fpur quarters and peel thofe Then put the peels to foak in water for quarters.

HVW

about tenor twelve days ; after which term, dry them between two cloths, and put them in a caldron with a Sufficient quantity of honey to half cover them. Boil them thus one minute or two, fHrring them inceiTr Then take them off the fire, and let them reft antly. till the next day, when you put them on again, and let boil ten minutes cr a quarter of an hour. For fix or feven days repeat the fame operation, taking great care inceffantly to ftir, turn and re-turn them all the while they are on the fire. On the eighth day change the honey, and in the frefh honey boil them as long as it would take you to repeat your creed, then pot them with that new honey in which they boiled laft, and keep them for ufe after having added fome cinna mon, cloves and white ginger, mixed and both reduced
into fubtile powder.

with whatever fruit it may le quantity you pleafe of any fruit, which peel and boil well in water, then ftrain the juice through a fieve, or a flinnel. Now weigh ten pounds
pafte

LI X. To make a

Take whatever

f that pafte
ifed.

of

fruit,

Mix

firft

five
it

*f

fruit*

and pat

and ten more of fugar pulverpounds of fugar with ten pounds a-doing en the re \ then mix fear

more

**4

SECRETS

concerning-

When done, put srore pounds of your fugar. a fpoon (on iron plates prtvioufly powdered with *f the pounds of fugar which were lef=) fome of thai Set thefe to dry oa pafte from diftance to ciitance.
a-chafFendifk, in the fan, or in the open air, turning and re-turning them ofien> and powdering them morn When thefe little cakes ing and evening with fugar. are perfe&ly dry, put them in Dutch deal boxes and

in white papers, that they
Note. In the fame
rant*.

manner you ma^ make

ferve of rofes, boglos,

not touch each other. the con* <even red cur burrage,

may

&&

LX.

<

quantities of quinces and odoring apThe pulp is prepared thus: peel theie yte's palp. Then pound fruit?, and dear them of their kernels. them in a mortar with rofe waier, and ftrain them

Take

nGrt**ft*fa

equal

through a
la.

fieve.

degrees, Hit ring

it all

Prftthe pafle on the fire to dry by the while with a wooden fpata-

Then add

as muc'* fugar in
ic^
till

powder
it

pulp, and goon in doing confidence of a palle.

as you h- v hai acquired th

LXF. Qujaf/s-JBrn-,- and other fruits. Boil, in a Sufficient qaan^iiy of water, both the fle& the peelings of your fruits to perfecl foftnefs.
i

let

fh*f,

or

the d^codion by refiierce.

clarify

in the fun,
f-ttled,

When

boorc the decaM it and

Ending
boil

a

to the liquor the proper quantity of fugajy to a jelly.

LXri. Gtw*

Btfcuitt.

four ounces of fugar in powder, one pound f flour, a little coriander and aniiefeeds in powder,, which mix with four eggs and as much Juke-warm water as ne^ds to make a dou^h of the whofe. B *k st in the oven ; and, when baked, cut it in five or &x
flice*

Take

which you bake again.

Take
Itv

LXtlT. Queen* $ cakes or lifcuitt. twelve ounces of flour, one pound of fine fu^ar out thre* potrder, and twelve egg>, ftfom wiiich uke yolk*,

ne

put four ounces of fugar pulverifed fine. after hav ing glazed bake it in a flow oven. Another particular method ofmaking cakes. which you put round a difh and half bake in a luke-warm oven. veral paper cafes. and mix weii all together. it.ARTS and T R A D E S. finifh baking them. till it comes Some add yeft to make to a thick bin running pafte. Beat. Macaroons. or two. to mix it more equally and make it take the better. which ought on a fheet of . L XV. When all is to be a little firm. Pound well one pound of fweet almonds. Take one quart of double cream. which beat in a mortar along with their fhells till thefe latter be perfectly difiblved. A cream mads without jirt. to LXVF.well it and coriander-feed in powder. and having ranged them on a fheet of paper. When the pafte is half done. and as much Beat all well and add a little brandy fugar in powder. Take two whites of eggs. When . mixed fbread the pafte in a fneet of paper. or tin ones.paper . and yolks. in which. of runnet. Introduce one pound of fugar and beat ail well in a foft pafte. Ail being. and put it to bake. which beat well to a froth Add oae after having taken away their germen. though not To much flour as fugar. and the quantity of one Stir all round together thimbleful. with a difcretionable quantity of coriander anifefeeds. cut it in fmall round pieces. fpread the pafte. Wafh and clean' well a dozen of eggs and wipe them Then break them and take their thoroughly dry. A method of making cakes exceeding fine. Now add fugar and flour. LXVJI. If the runnet be good the cream will take in one hour. oven to bake : LXIV. moiftening them with rofe-water. of the width of two fingers and twice as long> which put in an but take care that it be not too warm. glaze it over with fugar in powder. quarter of a pound of the fineft Hour. it Divide this pafte into felighter and rife higher. whites only. well mixed. and.

and a little frcih butter. after having rafpel fomc fagar on it. thenfeth gently on warm cinders to take without boiling nor clifturbing it any more. A* i* you fecit begins to render the butter take the fire . To Take one qt>art makt wipped cream. As foon as ic begins to quake. and ilir. and fpill on it a doaen drops of orange L XV 1 11. It is tobefcrved cold. when it boils and begirs to rife pour of eggs in. pour in the diiH. ftrain them through a cloth. glaizs it over with fugar in powder* LXX. When that is com* pleated. . never ceadig to ftir it it! Order its 10 prevent rifmg fo far as to run over. Ttien you colour it in pafTing a red-hot (hovel c^rr it. to fcive u on the table. which. introduce by degrees one quarterof a pound of fugar in proportion as it melts. to.and. cruarter of a pound of fugar pulverifed very Wipe it with a handful of fine white and dry willow In proportion as it . -.twigs tied together on purpofe. -LXXI. Tc make &n txcfeJing gni Boils/ cream.' you are ready to ferve it on the table. the yolks and fugar in your cream as you thit>k it maf And. or good new milk from the cow whicb t^)il with a crum of ftalc bread rafped very fine. ferve it. foon as out of and. or tvvo^ fpoonfuls of orange Mower-water and a fine. com?s to a froth take it and put itin a bowl. J . m L XI X. Take cream much fait require. in which add onr.SECRET S When fgar over flower. having diluted fomc Put a* yolks of eggs.water. . or dilhes. Beat in a difh two whites of eggs and one yolk. a quart of nnlk and 'cream mixed half and half. and a pap-fpcon/ai of rofe water. while you beat. ftir it continually with a fpoon . A cream *wbick cuts at a nc&pudding.. In orie hours-time it generally is fufFicicntly taken. of good Iweet cream. *xccrmn&'. Anttbtr . rafp feme k.

like. with one quarter of a pound of fugar. take it from off the fire and ferve it. . II. and put them on warm alhes only. The apricots-eompot!e. as you go on. fluke the lire. as man/ foop plates with it as yea have gnidls. clean and whole. which you ftir in gertly with the fkimmer. and bf LXXIII. minutes. then take them out and throw them in to cold water.iin on the fire to boil five minutes. not to (kirn the fruit well when in the pan. *Tbe rafflerries cctnpotte. When the cream is conecalcd. . gether Then fill put a little runnct in it. A T F )rget Curnnts admit of the fame procefs. put in about . having made it luke warm on the fire. This cream is that which is called by t*>c name of It may keep vcr-jf cream blanc-manger\ or cuftard. after it Is done. or flewed fruits. which you now and der to fur> the n*oJfTifs which rifes. after which. int cold water. C'e^n them wtll one by one of all their down.ftnH a lye with pearl a{h?s .ARTS *nd . or fix. and a fes* Stir all well to fpoonfuls of orange flower-water. L X X I Another fart cfa cream. little while after. and ftir it a little. and. Then boil fame water in a preferviug . and let all reft. a doecn and Peel a half of bitter almonds. Mike . and. well for two days. and pound as much as poflible. pan gently in which the fruit is. and mix all well. t\ke it ojf igain and let it cool before ferving. when that lye have boiled five. then fet it ag. covered with anotbet* then ufe to take up in or plate. the very fame preparation. LXXH.a quart of green apricots. T RA D *S. wetting and diluting them at the fame time with a little milk: then drain them through a flannel and put the product of that fquecing among three half pints of good new milk from th cow. Boil half a pound o( fugar into a f > rup to a la plumt degree. and throw them. in which throw one pound of rafpberres well Take the pan off from the picked. Of Summer Compottes.

and the is done. take the kernels away from theflones. moiftening them now and then with a drop or two of vinegar. Another way of doing the fame. Stone them. plums. When they are ferve. and fhake them backwards and forwards length ways. boil all about one quarter of an hour. according to the quantity of When the fyrup is ready. Put what quantity you like of apricots in a napkin with a handful of fait. and having fplitted them. let cool and ferve. take them out. them gently in that fugar for ten minutes or thereabouts. You may *uJhen ripe. Now. ftir and ikirn them . them quickly. Take any quantity f either peaches. broiled. then put them in fugar in which : they are to boil fuch. and the LXXV. and. then take the pan from off the fire. more or lefs. Then clarify a pint of fyrup . more of To do Jame fruit^ as well as peaches. boil into a fyrup half a pound of fugar.SECRETS tonterr&ng ferving pan. throw in the fruit and the kernels all together. compfftte LXXVI. To make a compose ofthe fame fruits as above> and even plums. when it boils. pour them all into a fieve to drain . if there be any more ikum. Then take them out. LXXIV. finifh till they turn green. fet them again on the fire to boil eight or ten minutes longer . till you can thruft a pin into them eafily* When this is the c&fe pour them all in a iieve and let them drain. fruit you have to flew. and. Then warn them in cold water boil them afterwards to ioftnefs. peel them if you like. When then fkim them out from that water into cold. fruits reft gently to gather the fkum with a card and let your When a while to throw off their water. By thefe means yoa take off the down much fooner from them. making this it Take out you judge they may have done it. though they tafte the fruit when they are not peeled. or apricots : . together. they have been there a little while. put in the apricots and boil. take it off again. and put them in to blanch.

nt we fuppofe two pounds. Take U . take it out with a fkimmer. in which boil it gently over a flow fire . When all is done. 239 broil them on all fides over a chaffing. Take off the fkin of about then flrain it out and put into boiling one for about two or three minutes only after which having taken them out of this water and drained. and fufficient water only to Set them next on the fire and help melting the fugar. which throw i thfe mean while into cold water. boil them one minute or two. eight or ten minutes in it. Pafs them in the boiling water without peeling them. Peel them next as faft as you can. L XX VI I. let them cool and ferve.plums are The way. Compottes of verj u s /* grain. and throw it in the mean while into cold water. then take them out and let cool. Sainte-Catherine and 6t her plums. and when the verjta begin* L XX IX.ARTS apricots And TRADES. two pounds tfperdrigon plums. iit-di-werd. fqueeze the juice of a lemon. Take any quantity of the above-mentioned plums. When you are ready to ferve them. To make a compotte of perdrigon -//*/#/. fame for mirabelles.d ilk : of bright and live coals. a pound or two ofverjus in grain and the fineft you can find . purple andblacl damafk. Note. and let it cool. over them. and put them on a filver plate with one handful or two of fugar pulverifed. and put it into boiling water. efpecially the mirabelles> then put them in a fyrup of half a pound of fugar. Whenever a plum is LXXV1II. made in the famfe not ripe enough you may let it do a little longer in the water in which they are boiled previous to the fyrup. Skim it cut again and put it in a fyrup of one pound of fugar. taking care however they Should not come to mafh in it. fkim them. fend fiaiih them like the ptrdrigoits. you rang* them in three quarters of a pound of fugar boiled into a When they fhall have boiled pretty ftrong fyrup. or orange. ftone it carefully with the point of a tooth-pick. Then take it out from the fire.

throw them into cold water. Mujcadint grapes may be done juft in the fame manner. Then put them in boiling water. fear it Take care not to do ihould turn black. LXXXI. then let cool and fcrre them. but take great care not to do the lyrup tofr much. fcrape their tails. that is to f As for '. befo_re peeling. and Blanquettes. the^. Lxxxii. You prepare in the f\me manner the forts of pears called Rouffehty Martin-fee. take them out of that water to pat them When they have been there into cold again. it coo much ia fyrup for Note. it. and in the peeled verjus which you boil alfo till you find it fufficiently Then pt <5one.at 30 SECRETS LXXX* concerning begins to turn green. fkin and put it a bowl in proportion as you d< clarify one pound of fugar. and the ftones out of two pounds of in Take the ruerjus. In proportion as you prepare them.trr. fHr and fkim them. Jargonelle. which boil in to a fyrup to a-la-plumt degree. n* . * while take them but to drain. and put them af terwards in one pound of fugar boiling. Add the juice of half a lemon . But ri3 t't'y are larger tKa i the mufcat. l t no fort of difference in the compottes of them. end of them. and. wherein leave th^m till the f/rupbe almoft compleated : then remove the pan from tlit fire. *Tbe compottes of pears called mufcat/>* fff and arid cut off the tnoft early* Peel two pounds df thofe pears. uke them out and drain them. finim it quickly like the other compotes. When cone. you may blanch :m in w. Compottes vfpeehdverjus. when they are foftened and aJmoft done.

ciih of bright and live coals: and. fuck as Beurre. To do this yoa Broil your pears over a chaffingproceed as follows. in which you put them and boil to a fyrup. Bzidery. Let the apples do thus between thefe two fires till the fugar turns all A LXXXV. Portuguefefafiion. &c. quinces are prepared in the fame manner when The white quinces are brft boiled in wa M-la-lraife. take them from the fire. *s* LXXXII. LXXXVL A . and ferve them either warm or cold. Now melt a quan tity of fugar proportionable to that of your pears. before being put into the fyrup.) offome lighted charcoals put on it. MefTire-jean. Mm 'as you like. (and cover it with fuch a Hd as can admit. compotte nf quinces. Franc-real. When done. core them. B?rg*m6ite. pears. apples bu the imdjdle into two halves. and core them. The Compotte of apples.ARTS and TRADES. when fufficieruly done. by means of a rim raifecl round k at the t^p. Doublefleur. L XXXIV. and put them in a weak fvrup. Bon-chretien-d'hyver. and them well. in which boil them a little while but not too much. A You may put of the large fize compotte of pears a-la-braife. &c. efpecially above-mentioned. Vmelongue. Cuta few brown and in caramel. Then peel and core them. ter nrft. The compotte of the largeft forts of'pears. place them a moment on the naked coals. Set this plate on the (love with fire underne-uh. as for the other forts of conipottes. Then put them on a filver plate with fugar under and over them. all forts a-la-braife of pears. Squeeze over the juice of half a lemon. till they are done. and throw them into cold water. Mouille-bouche. LXXX1H. Boil in water any quantity of the above-mentioned Then peel them. without however being burntt Such conipottes are ferved hot. Anradotte. that you may ped them the more eafy an i to colour them. which is made with the fame quantity of fugar as for pears.

.SECRETS A Cut ceneerning LXXX.. and take the quarters out of the fyrup. one by Then fet cne. into quarters. jelly -cvmpottt of apples. and. When Hiay keep for five or fix days. while chop five or fix more apples to pieces. a few golden pip In the mean pins. then fet it on the fire with the quarters of pippins which yoa flrain all Then them thus gently for fear they done. when cold you take it and lay it on your This corn-pott^ apples which you thus cover with-it* firfi prepared. Cut a A compotte of apples a-la-bouillonne. and range them in order on a difh. then when the liquor is almofl all wafted. your fyrup again on the fire and boil it till it come* into a jelly. and ferve them. pare and core. and boil them with the parings of the others water. take the pan from off the fire. in two quarts of throagk a Rannel . The compottes of calvil apples arc made in the fania way.VI. and for the quantity of fix or eight apples. Range them in the pan. put one pint of water and a quarter of a pound of fugar. Cover them over and fet them on the fire to boil. Boil fliould mafti. in that liquor put one pound and a quarter of fugar. drefs them on a dim. C KA F. and throw them into cold water. LXXXVJI. few apples into two halves and core them.

I. fo as to let it be well penetrated with the fteam of the water. and the bulk of a-nut of ammoniac fait. Asa'&fl fpott from any cloth or fiik fluff. and fpread the boiling water into a bowl ftained part. III. takes off " extremely ^cil the greafyVi. Mix all well together. cloth of whatever half a pound of crude honey. Take new laid V. or pnrts. black foap and bullock's gall. and the fpot will difappear. wtith alkaline fait. upon every fort "offluff. will be found to return intirely free from the iron mold II. PUT Then rub the places with forrel's juice and fait till they are perfectly and thoroughly {baked with it. Such' linen wafhed afterwards in the lye of wood-cfhes. To take eff'all forts offpots colour it from may be. you may take all off as you would a drop To Rub of wax or tallow on a cloth. A general receipt A agalnft all fort* cffpots.CHAP. To take off iron -molds from linen. of your linen over it. Againft pifs-fpets. water impregnated U 2 . per and a hot iron. the yolk of a egg. and put fome on the fpots which happen to be on either fjlk or cloth. or a bit of red hot charcoals in a filver fpoon. fpots it had before. Then IV. SPOTS relative to the art of taking out and STAINS. take cjf carriage-wheel* s greafe from clothes. Boil fome chamberlye and wafh the place with rinfe it with clear water. After hav ing left it there a while. Then with blotting pa the place with butter. S c R E T $ XIII. wafh the place with clean wa ter. it.

The time which is fpent in lamenting over an accident. or Jdtce. and the above ball. Prejudice always did. rub any fpotand warn it afterwardi with clear VIII. which fet to dry for one day and one night. Againft ink-fpbts. Againft oil. and alway will. immediately the place with lemon's. is but too often the aSy one which could have faved and prevented . if you pour off that liquor on any eil fpot and rub it well with it in and outlide. alum and tartar pounded all together in a mortar and lifted through a very fine filk fieve. IX. with warm water you will tBtirely ungreafc . When all ii mac/e into a pafte. two yolks of eggs. then let it dry. pets* wa/hingballto take *Jff or foft foap which mix and itorpprate with vine brufh aihes. A Take fuller's earth. a piece of white foap which you fttave very fine and put in a quart bottle with a wide mouth and neck. cab bage-juice and bullock's gall a difcretionable quantity. that fpot will Utirely disappear.SECRETS Take eonccrmng VI. it made. form your balls with it and it VII. them dry ted in the place with water. time.pot s. white chalk. well the fpot with oil of olive. and in ihortj one ounce of fait of tartar in fubtile powder lifted. To ufe them. whether on cloth or linen. (bake it and exAfter that pofe it to a fouth fun for four days. To take Rub out pitch and turpentine fpot f. and wafh it again with clear water. wafhing Then. Add to this the bulk f of a nut of ammoniac fait. or with white foap diluted in vinegar* Wet X Another mere fimple remedy againft ink fpilled.- the place. the following compofxtion of foap. prove fatal from the minuteft to the inoft interefting circumftanc* 5n life. Stop the bottle well. or again with. j'uft' hppened before oar own eyes. half filled with lye.

on the other hand. it much water in your ink-horn. What reafoning thus once dictated naturally. provided it has not laid any time on it. every two or three fqueezes. But if it have laid fome time. let the time be ever fo longs pro vided it is foil web by pouring a little frefti clean water . fix. in 50 or a loo gallons nothing. Senfe only and judgment muft be confulted in the execution. provided you change the water in abundance.ARTS And TRADES. while you have it on. filk. that if you put ink. four. ard there fqueezed and : dipped in again. As for example. mufl weaken it to fuch a degree as to walh it off at laft intirely. $35 prevented the dire confequeaces of it. may do . lace. ftill more fo: as you will if three. here it is recommended. it may im mediately be taken out with a tea fpoon fo dexteroufly that any water at all ihall hardly be wanted afterwards. &c. But. nay perhapa repaired it intirely without leaving the leaft fear behind. and let a whole pitcherful be ufeci if necelTary. cloth or velvet. By parity of reafoning it mull be obvious that if on the fined fiik. if twenty if fifty times . poured inftantly on the place. Ink never does nor can fpoil the cloth. the place dipped in to a bafon filled with water. a whole phial of ink mould be fpilled. If the rufRe. had vie ran inilantiy to the remedy. as the down of the cloth pre vents the immediate foaking of the ink or any liquor indeed (except oil) through and through. If the ink be fpilled on a green carpet table. be at liberty and not aftually worn oh. if the ink be fpilled x>n a ruffle or apron. then be fuch indeed that it will be no more ink at all. well known. by degrees and not all at once. at all. &c. xnuflin or lace ruffles. ftff. &c. and was onJy that inftant fpilled . What could a pint of ink do in a quart of milk ? a great deal of mifchief without doubt. : And unleftitlies there todrincfs. apron. an undeterminate greater quantity of water than there was ink. or linen on which it is it is fpilled. five. reiterated experience fince proved therefore. as there is make it too pale if twice. let one hold the affected part between his two hands over a bafon and rub it while another is pouring gradually water from a decanter .

who has a common fhare of good fenfb and underiUnding. they will difappear : becaufe the volatil ity of that fpirit exhaling into vapour. if there be any fpot of ink. equal quantities of water. the next morning the. till perfectly Then. on account of its homogeneous quality. Then. and put feme under and upon the place. the (hovel fome^afhes from calcined fheep's troters. it communicates its volatility. you will at la ft bring it to its natural colour as if no fuch accident had ever Thefe few circumiiances explained. carries along with it the oil of thfcSfpot to which. it into pills Dilute all with a little water. four ounces of clay. if not quite.fpot ought to be gone : but.SECRETS concerning water at a time on the place. and prefilng hard to iqueeze it out of the cloth into the fpoon again. To Beat the the . free from <3uft. carpet well firft with a ro:l. Mix With Turkey carpits to tbsir frft llocm. XI I. ftrtfttrt gold and jll-ver laces to their formtr beauty. make Jpots. bullock's and jack's this compoiiiion rub your gold or filvcr and you will fee it changing colour direc~l!y. take them out with a lemon. A preparation of balls againftfpots* Take half a pound of foap. and one of quick lime. heat on. are happened. If the fpot is frefli and juft done. let it remain fo for one night. XIV. renew the precept.Forflkr. and other filk-ft ujfs. fufficient to guide any one. If you rub the fpots which are upon a filkwith fpirit of turpentine. gall. laying fomething heavy upon it. With thefe rub the and wafh the place afterwards. Againft oil pots f en fat in. how to adl on this principle in others. by penetrating and fubdividing it infinitely. XlU. and gathering it up each time with a fpoon. or with &rrelj and w*fti refiore XV. even on paper. XI. and or fmall balls.

f the water off.bruih. To take tfofome offfrom jilks and camllet. with the fmoaking hot crum of a white loaf: and. and wafh them afterwards with the faid bran and . about the fame quantity in fubtile powder. and beat it foundly with a rod. Put on each wax fpot. renew it till all the wax is foaked out of the velvet. and put on frefh. will reflore a tapedry to its prifline ftate. on the fpot of wax . Shake the reft the place afterwards with clear water. XVI I . the fpot will difappear. To take off all t be fpot s of wax from velvet of any colour y except the crimfen. which boil in water itrain through a cloth. Take XVI IT. Then fmear the work over with the above. rub the carpet very hard all over any. Take bullock's gall. then. To ther linen.defcribed pafte. foap and honey. one pound . in fach places as you want to clean. and apply. to wfe it make an infufion of bran. the crum of a flale loaf. Next. fome foft foap.ARTS and TRADES. with a rough hair bruih. in which mix it well. or filk embroidery. XIX. ivajh a gold or Jtl<ver. or any fluff whatever. three ounces of each . XVL To make their colours Shake theirfirft brigbtnefs'. when cooled. into a pafte. by wafhing the place witk clean water. and cut a thick (lice oat which toaft. which leave as be fore. Then with the fame rough hair bru&i get this and brufli it iit alfo. and let it dry where you rubbed it with When dry. the fetes clear aed a likelyhood of being a fine night. and let it be When you are ready expofed for ten davs in the fun. get all that chalk out again. 'when been tarnijbed andfpoiled and clean well the tapeftry by rubbing it all tapeftries refume have ever with white chalk which you leave on it for about one day. This operation afterwards with the foft cloth. let the carpet be put out for two or three fuch nights. when you find in the evening. fit. on ei and render it like new. Put all in a glafa vtflel. while burning hot. and fet in the fun till grown warm . and Florentine orrice.

XX [I. the ope XXI. like a thick pap. boil it along with the cloth in that lye. offfrom filk without any mixture of indigo r blue whatever. thn the cloth will have refamed its primary XXIII. fpot is XX. having fbikvd thus thr< e davs in thf cold. and put in a handful of dry moth-mullein's two bullocks galls. Put this powder in clean water. xxiv. after which pafs it through the polifhing and luftring prefs. when dry. . walhall the fpo^of auy white cJoth whatever.' with & few days in the fun.SECRETS concerning bran water. and firit time. 7i revive the colour cf a cloth. Boil all together till the leaves go to the bottom. and the fine work will be aft and bright as when new. renew it and the efFccl will furpriie you. If the fpot. four ounces of adragant. you find it not high-coloured enough. and. Wipe then well the places with a white cloth . Then fet this water for leaves. in a pint then put in a piece of or a pint and . and rub the wrong fide of the velvet. renew certainly will at the fecon.i-h&!f of water whne (pap. put on each brandy. both of which pulverife. 70 colour velvet in red. and one of Arabick gums. not quite gone at the it ration. you may with it. and wrap the work in a clean napkin to fet it in the fun to dry. ther veiTel. and. and woollen fluffs. rub it off and brufh it. and let it thus foak afterwards for fourteen or fif teen days. Then putting in it whatever colour you want. which dilute in a cup with good Of this pafte. 9"<? take tbeff off Take French itarch. sr* . wherein let it cliilblve for two cr three Take After which time. colour. To take tbefpots offrom a white clotb. days. renewing this till it receives no more al teration in its colour. Pour one quart of water on one poundof burnt potTwelve hours after decant the water ciF in ano aflies. with another pound of a!um . fleep a fponge in the liquor. Ifr after being dry. Boil two ouncfs of alum for half an hour.d.

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