121
EXERCISE # 1
1.4 Clear from the figure fp=k ls Li"V gS A
1.7 e = 2tf = 4t sec
1
K =
t 2
= 2t m
1
y = 0.5 cos (2tx + 4tt)
1.9 e =
T
2t
=
2 8
2
t
=
3
t
K =
v
e
=
6 3
t
=
18
t
y = 0.5 sin (
 +
t
t
x
18
t
3
at t = 2, x = 8 , y = 0
 =
9
7t
y = 0.5 sin
(
t
+
t
t
9
7
x
18
t
3
1.10* Standard equation
2.5 By definition
2.6 V
AB
=
3
10 10
g 4 . 6
=
6400
= 80
sec
m
V
CD
=
3
10 8
g 2 . 3
=
4000
= 20
10
sec
m
V
DE
=
3
10 10
g 6 . 1
=
1600
= 40 m/s
2.7 P o A
2
2
2
2
4
40 . 0
P
= P = 1.6 watt
2.8 As <P> = 2t
2
f
2
A
2
v put values
90 = 2 10 f
2
25 10
4
4 10
2
2
10 4
100
2.9 P
av
= 2t
2
f
2
A
2
v =
32
2025
t
2
~ 625 w
WAVE ON STRING
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 122
2.10 f = 200 Hz
A = 10
3
m
= 6 10
3
Kg/m
T = 60 N
V =
T
= 100
sec
m
(A) P
av
= 2t
2
f
2
A
2
V = 0.47 Watt
3.1 Amplitude varies between A
1
+ A
2
to A
1
A
2
vk;ke A
1
+ A
2
ls A
1
A
2
ds chp ifjofrZ r gks xkA
3.4 By difination ifjHkk"kk ls
3.7 Second string is denser so speed will decreases.
nw ljh jLlh l?ku gS vr% pky de gks xhA
4.6 (A) V =
3
10 2 . 7
150
=
3
250
sec
m
~ 144 m/s
(B)
2
3
= 90 cm = 60 cm
(C) V = f f =
v
=
60 3
100 250
=
3 3
1250
Hz
5.5 (A)
2 =
4f
0
= 400 f
0
= 100 Hz
(B)
2
7
= =
7
2
f
v
=
7
2
f = 7
2
v
= 700 Hz
f = 30 Hz
5.7
1 T 1 T
n
2L m 2 ML
= =
( )
M
Sincem
L
=
=
{ }
1 800
2 0.01 0.5
= 200 Hz.
5.8
2
n
T
= 90
2
1 n +
T
= 150
2
2 n +
T
= 210
1 n
n
+
=
150
90
n = 1.5
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 123
2
n
T
= 90 =
2
n
V
2
V
=
n
90
=
5 . 1
90
= 60
4
V
= 30
(B)
L 4
V 3
= 90 and
4
V 5
= 150
and
4
V 7
= 210
(C) overtones are 2nd, 4th, 6th
(D)
8 . 0 2
v
= 30 v = 48 m/sec.
5.13
A = 1 10
6
m, T = 10g = 100N
o
1
= 2.6 10
3
kg/m
2
o
2
= 1.04 10
4
kg /m
3
3 6
1
10 6 . 2 10 1
100
v
=
=
sec / m
26
10
3
v
2
= 4 6
10 04 . 1 10 1
100
=
26 2
10
3
f
1
= f
2
26 6 . 0 2
10 n
3
1
=
26 9 . 0 2 2
10 n
3
2
(
=
3
1
n
n
2
1
Lowest frequency =
1
1 1
L 2
v n
=
6 . 0 2 26
10 1
3
=
26 12
10
4
= 162 vibration/sec.
2
1
n
n
=

.

\

3
1
One side 1 loop and other side 3 loop
So excluding the two nodes at ends total nodes is 3
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 124
EXERCISE # 2
PART  I
4. m = 10
4
kg/m, v =
30
k 1
e
= = 30 m/s
v =
T
m
T = mv
2
= 10
4
(30)
2
= 0.09 N.
9. (i)
2T sin
2
du
= dm.e
2
R
2T
2
du
=
m
Rdu.e
2
R T =
2 2
R me
V =
T
=
m
T
= eR
2
V =
t
e
2
L
(ii) V
P/R
=
t
e
2
L
V
P./G
V
R/G
=
t
e
2
L
V
P/G
t
e
2
L
=
t
e
2
L
V
P/G
=

.

\

t
e
2
L
2 V
P/G
=
t
eL
(iii) V
P/R
=
t
eL
V
P/G

.

\

t
e
2
L
=
t
e
2
L
V
P/G
= 0
10. n =
1 T
2L m
; n =
( )
44
T T
1 100
M 40
2
100
+
1.44 n' 1.2
2.
n 0.6 0.6
= = =
11. 2n
A
= 3n
B
2 2
A B
A B
1 T 1 T
2. 3.
2 2
r d r d
=
t t
A B
B A
r
2 2 1 1
.
3 r 3 2 3
= = =
T
= 384;
2
1 n
T
= 288
1 n
n
=
3
4
n = 4
Now, 4

.

\

L 2
V
= 384
Put L = 75 cm
V = 144 m/sec.
14. As, T =
20
YA
4 v
0
=
24 2
1
4
.
20
YA
.......(1)
and T =
20
YA
6 v =
26 2
1
6
.
20
YA
.......(2)
0
v
v
=
26
24
4
6
v > v
0
19. V
1
=
3
10 4
10
= 50 m/sec
V
2
=
3
10 16
10
=
16
10
4
=
4
100
= 25 m/sec
20.
f =

.

\

v
at lowest point
f =
mg
f
1
=
1
1
v
at highest point
f
1
=
1
1
+ g ) m M (
f
1
= f : no any change in source frq.
mg
=
1
'
+ g ) m M (
(
(
+
=
m
m M
1
(D)
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 126
23. n =
Mg Vdg
1 1
2 m 2 m
=
; n =
V
Vdg g
1 2
2 m
o
{ }
d
n' 1 1 2
1 1 .
n d 2 d 2
o
  o
= = =
` 
\ .
)
d
=
o
{ }
2 1
n' n
2
=
= 300
1/ 2
2 1
2
 

\ .
.
24. 256 =
1
Mg V g
1 1
2 m 2 m
=
...(1)
256 =
2 2
Mg B V g V g
1 1
.
2 m 2 m
o
=
...(2)
Equation (1) and (2)
2 1
1 8 1 1
.
8
7 8
o
= = =
25.
(A) X = 7.5 = 60
A
SO
= 3.5 = A sin Kx
3.5 = A sin

.

\
 t
5 . 7
60
2
A = 3.5
2
mm
A = 3.5
2
mm
(B) 3
rd
overtone which covers 120 cm length of the string
28.
v 1 T 1 T
n n m n Ad
= = =
A A B
B B A
T A
.
B A
t 2
=
2
4
t
t
=
2
1
= 0.5 m
= 1m
( = 2)
PARTII
7.
Steel LVhy Aluminium ,Y;w fefu;e
T = 104
o
1
= 7.8 gm / cm
3
o
2
= 2.6 gm /cm
3
A
1
= A
2
= 1 mm
2
V
1
=
1 1
A
T
o
=
6
6
3
10 1
10
10 8 . 7
104
V
1
=


.

\

3
200
m/ sec.
v
2
2 2
A
T
o
=
3
10 6 . 2
104
= 2 10
2
m/sec.
for lowest frequency
f
1
= f
2
1
1 1
L 2
V n
=
2
2 2
L 2
V n
3 50 3 2
200 n
1
=
1 60 2
200 n
2

.

\

=
2
5
n
n
2
1
So lowest frequency
f
2
=
L 2
V n
2
=
6 . 0 2
200 2
=
3
1000
Hz
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 128
8. 2f = 6, f = 3, T =
3
1
sec, v = 3 m/sec
3 =
T
= 1m
x = vt
3 = 3t t = 1
total time = t +
4
T 3
= 1 +
4
3

.

\

3
1
=
4
5
= 1.25 sec.
9. = 90cm = 0.9m
=
9 . 0
10 44
3
=


.

\

2
3
10 90
10 44
f =
L 2
v 4
=

.

\

L
v 2
60 =

.

\

v 2
v =
2
60
= 30l = 30 0.9 = 27
T
= 27
T = (27 27 ) = 27 27
2
3
10 90
10 44
(T = 36 N)
10.
2
1
=
1
= 2
2
=
1
2
=
2
1
2
1
= 2
2
1
V
V
=
2
1
T
T
= 2
/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /
4.8g 1.2g
T
1 T
2
x
T
1
= 4T
2
1)
T
1
+ T
2
= 60
T
1
= 48 N
T
2
= 12 N
Noe taking moments about right end
T
1
40 = 12 20 + 48 (40 x)
Put T
1
& T
2
x = 5 cm i. e 5 cm from left.
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 129
12. The frequency of transverse waves in a stretched string is given by
p
T
n ,
2l m
=
where the string is vibrating with p loops, T = tension in the string and m = mass per unit length of the string.
As the frequency of the wave in both strings (A vibrating with p loops and B vibrating with q loops must be
the same, so)
A C
0.3 m 0.75 m
A A B B
p q
T T
2l m 2l m
= =
A A A A
B B B B
l m l p
q i m l
= =
0.3 6.3 3
0.75 2.8 5
= =
So, p = 3, q = 5
No. of antinodes = p + q
= 3 + 5 = 8
13.
F
y
= T sinu = T tan u
x
y
T
~
c
c
y = A sin (et kx)
= 0.02 sin

.

\

t
e x
2 80 . 0
2
t
x
y
c
c
= 0.02
80 . 0
t
cos

.

\
 t
e x
80 . 0
t
At x = 0
x
y
c
c
=
80
2
t cos et
max
x
y
(
c
c
=
40
t
F
y
= (
c
c
x
y
T
=
40
10t
=
4
t
Ns
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 130
EXERCISE # 1
8. Let p & q be the no. of loops ;
A
L 2
P
A
T
=
B
L 2
q
B
T
q
p
=
B
A
B
A
L
L
=
5
3
Now for A
2
3
= 0.3 = 1/5
V
A
=
A
T
=
s 10 3 . 6
mg
3
= f = f
5
1
Where s is the cross section of wire
f =
3
5
s 70
m
Hz
Antinode = 8
9. f =
2
1
A
T
2
1
f
f
=
2
2
r
T
L 4
1
r 4
T
L 2
1
t
t
=
1
1
10. v =
x
100
0
o +
=
dt
dx
}
o + x dx
o
= 10
}
dt
t =
o 15
1
 
2 / 3
0
2 / 3
o
) a ( +
11. V
vel.
= 10 + 10 = 20
sec
m
when string is flat v = f
20 =
t
1
A
= 20 At = 10 m.
12. By definition
13. Iof
2
VA
2
14. Energy A
2
e
2
2
1
E
E
=
2 2
2 2
) 2 ( A
A
e
e
E
2
= 4E
1
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 131
15. After 2 sec.
D = D
1
+ D
2
= (2 2) (2 2) = 0
As their amplitude is same
P.E. = 0 purely kinetic
16. f =
L 2
5
g 9
now f' =
L 2
3
Mg
as f = f' M = 25 Kg
17. Energy tkZ E =
}
0
2
dmv
2
1
=
}
e
0
2 2
x
dmA
2
1
=
}
e 
.

\

0
2 2 2
kx sin A dx
m
2
1
=
}
e 
.

\

0
2 2 2
dx kx sin A
m
2
1
=
2 2
mA
4
1
e
As e = 2tf = 2t
2
v
=
T
=
t
m
T
Energy tkZ =
4
1
m a
2
2
2
t
m
T
=
4
T a
2 2
t
18. Maximum particle velocity v
max
= e A = 3 m/s
Maximum particle acceleration a
max
= e
2
A = 90 m/s
2
a
max
= v
max
e = e 3 = 90 m/s
2
e = 30 s
1
A =
e
3
=
30
3
= 0.1 m
k =
v
e
=
20
30
=
2
3
[where v is velocity of wave] [tgk v rja x dh pky gS ]
Equation of wave in string y = 0.1 sin

.

\

 + x
2
3
t 30
[where  is initial phase]
19.
2
1
=
1
= 2
2
=
2
1
= 2
2
f / v
f / v
2
1
=
2
1
v
v
= 2 =
/ T
/ T
2
1
2
1
T
T
= 4 (1)
Now moment about P : T
1
x = T
2
( x)
x = 4x x =
/
/5
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 132
20. V = e
2 2
y A
V
P
= 2t
f
2 2
y A
V
P
= 2t

.

\

V
2 2
y A =
5 . 0
2t
0.1
2 2
) 05 . 0 ( ) 1 . 0 (
V
P
=
50
3t
j m/s
21. v =
T
=
2 . 0 / 10
5 . 0
3
= 10 m/sec.
v = f
10 = (100) = 0.1 m = 10 cm
distance between two successive nodes =
2
= 5 cm
22. A
eq
=  + + cos A A 2 A A
2 1
2
2
2
1
A
eq
=
2
cos ) 3 )( 4 ( 2 3 4
2 2
t
+ +
A
eq
= 5.
PART  II
1. y
1
+ y
2
= a sin (w t kx) a sin (w t +s kx)
= 2a cos e t sin kx
y
1
+ y
2
= 0 at x = 0 ij
2.
2
= l l = 80 cm
3. V =
2
600
k
=
e
= 300 m/sec
4. q =
T
2
2
= 100 Hz
5. V =
20
100
k
=
e
= 5 m/sec
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 133
6. (n + 1)
2
v
= 420 ......(1)
2
nv
= 315 ......(2)
(1) (2)
V
= 105 Hz f
min
= = 105 Hz
7.
t 2
= a a =
05 . 0
2t
= 25p
T
2t
= b = 2 T = p
8. By equation lehdj.k ls
f =
04 . 0
1
and = 0.5
V =
04 . 0
1
0.5 =
2
25
by V =
2
2
25

.

\

=
04 . 0
T
T =
4
625
0.04
T = 6.25 N
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