You are on page 1of 7

Lecture 9- Arterial System and Arterial Pressure

1. Role of Arteries - Arteries convey blood to capillaries - Large arteries : since they have wider lumen, so less resistance - Small arteries and arterioles: narrower lumen therefore high resistance sites. It regulates distribution of blood flow to capillaries.

There is deep falling of pressure at capillaries due to very high resistance And almost zero at vein Even though capillary has the smallest diameter but yet, it is not the highest site of resistance and therefore, is not the site with lowest pressure. This is due to the factor that capillaries exist in numerous numbers.

2. Velocity of Flowing Blood - Branching increases vessel number from the aorta to capillaries and the cross sectional area increases. - Total flow (cm3/s) are equal - Velocity= flow* CSA - Aorta blood velocity : 20-30 cm/s - Capillary blood velocity : 1mm/s

At the left ventricle, the blood pressure varies largely from 0-120 mmHg with large fluctuation. When the blood flows reach the large artery, the blood still fluctuate but at smaller range but yet higher which is around 80-120mm Hg. This is because arteries are delicate layer that they cannot compensate larger fluctuation. However the pressure is kept at higher values to ensure that blood is constantly flowing. If the blood pressure drops to 0 means that the blood flow STOP abruptly. 3. Elastic arteries as Windkessels

The Windkessel [elastic reservoir] model consists of four anatomical components: left ventricle, aortic valve, arterial vascular compartment, and peripheral flow pathway

These arteries distend when the blood pressure rises during systole and recoil when the blood pressure falls during diastole Since the rate of blood entering these elastic arteries exceeds that leaving them due to the peripheral resistance there is a net storage of blood during systole which discharges during diastole The Windkessel effect helps in damping the fluctuation in blood pressure (pulse pressure) over the cardiac cycle and assists in the maintenance of organ perfusion during diastole when cardiac ejection ceases The Windkessel effect becomes diminished with age as the elastic arteries become less compliant, termed hardening of the arteries or arteriosclerosis, probably secondary to fragmentation and loss of elastin The reduction in the Windkessel effect results in increased pulse pressure and elevated systolic pressure for a given stroke volume. Elevated systolic pressure (hypertension) predicts myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and a variety of other cardiovascular diseases.

4. Systemic vs Pulmonary Pressures

The pulmonary circulation is, overall, a much lower pressure system than is the systemic circulation The systemic circulation has to work against gravity, especially when a person is standing, and the system needs more pressure to do this! the pulmonary circulation is only as tall as the lungs The systemic circulation must also redirect blood according to the needs of the body using smooth muscle; in order to accomplish this task, the systemic circulation must be capable of generating significant resistance with smooth muscle systemic resistance generated primarily by arterioles is necessary to generate the high pressures required to drive blood through the high volume, long distance systemic circulation The pulmonary circulation, on the other hand, only needs to get blood from the top to the bottom of the lungs which are perfused by constant low pressure; there is very little redirection of blood within the pulmonary circulation

5. Arteriolar Tone and Capillary Pressure

Dilating the arterioles raise capillary hydrostatic pressure in the region because less pressure is lost due to overcoming resistance between arteries and capillaries. Baecause of the increased capillary hydrostaitic pressure, filtration increase and thus more protein-free fluid lost to the interstial fluid. Arteriolar constriction produces decreased capillary hydrostatic pressure and thus favors net movement of interstial fluid into vascular component.

6. Mean Arterial Pressure

Is defined as the arterial blood pressure averaged over time

Pulse pressure(PP) = Systolic Pressure Diastolic Pressure (change in pressure associated with each cardiac ejection) Valve closure is associated with a small backflow of blood into the ventricles and a characteristic notch (incisura or dicrotic notch) in the aortic and pulmonary artery pressure tracings. Diastolic pressure last longer than systolic which then cause the MAP to be close to value of diastolic than the systolic MAP= TPR* CO

7. Arterial Pressure Determinants - Physiological factors Cardiac output Total peripheral resistance

Physical Factors Arterial blood volume Arterial compliance

8. Compliance - A measure of rigidity of a vessel

A highly compliant aorta (i.e., less stiff) has a smaller pulse pressure for a given stroke volume into the aorta. Aortic compliance decreases with age due to structural changes, thereby producing agedependent increases in pulse pressure.

For a given stroke volume, compliance determines pulse pressure and not mean aortic pressure. Pulse pressure increased by decreased compliance (due to arteriosclerosis) or increased stroke volume Pulse pressure reduced when stroke volume (due to haemorrhage)

9. Laminar and turbulent flow

At the centre, blood flow is much faster than at the edge