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Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005.

186
EXERCISE # 3
3.4 Heat lost in time t = Pt = ML
t - - +-i -iln = Pt = ML
L =
M
Pt
3.17 v =
q 9
2
r
2
. (r
0
r
w
) g integer
= 180 m/sec.
h =
3
10
49
81
8 . 9 2
32400
=

m
3.21 For minimum value of m, the final temperature of the mixture must be 0C.
m n- -i l l-i i ln- ni 0C ri i ilr |
20
2
1
10 + 20 80 = m 540 + m.1. 100
m =
640
1700
=
32
85
gm.
3.22 T = 2t
g

when the temperature is raised length changes to



(1 + o AT)
when the lift accelerates upwards
g
eff
= g + a
new period of pendulum,
ni-i ni r , ni i;

(1 + o AT) l(ln n ri ini r |
l- i -(i + i i ri
g
eff
= g + a
i i i(n i, T

' = 2t
a g
) T 1 (
+
A o +
T' = T
) a g (
) T 1 (
g
+
A o +
= 1
or i a = g o AT = 10 20 10
4
50
= 1 m/sec
2
w
eff
= m (g + a)
= 60 (10 + 1) = 660 N
3.23
O H ice
2
m m

= 0.15
m =
08 . 0
92 . 0 15 . 0
H
lost
= H
gained
15 S 100 =
80
08 . 0
92 . 0 15 . 0

S = 0.092 cal/gmC.
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 187
3.24 100
0

A
=
0
6
0
10 10 11



100
= 11 10
3
= 1.1 10
2
3.26 As steam has comparatively large amount of heat to provide in the form of latent heat we check what amount of
heat is required by the water and ice to go up to 100C, that is
(m
i
L + m
i
S
w
AT) + m
w
. S
w
. AT
= [(200 80) + (200 1 100)] + (200 1 45)
= 45,000 cal.
That is given by m mass of steam, then
m
s
.L = 45,000
m
s
=
540
000 , 45
=
6
500
= 83.3 gm
therefore 83.3 gm steam converts into water of 100C.
Total water = 200 + 200 + 83.3 = 483.3 gm
steam left = 16.7 gm.
l ii i ^ n -i - i l iii -iii - (i r , r- r nin n r l nii ii
i 100C n i r n lni -i ilr | (r r -
(m
i
L + m
i
S
w
AT) + m
w
. S
w
. AT
= [(200 80) + (200 1 100)] + (200 1 45)
= 45,000 cal.
m -i i ii ,ii i ^i r , n
m
s
.L = 45,000
m
s
=
540
000 , 45
=
6
500
= 83.3 gm
n 83.3 gm ii 100C ii - ini r |
ii = 200 + 200 + 83.3 = 483.3 gm
i r ; ii = 16.7 gm.
3.27 Heat liberated when 300 g water at 25C goes to water at 0C :
Q = ms Au
= (300) (1) (25)
= 7500 cal
From Q = mL, this much heat can melt mass of ice given by
m =
L
Q
=
80
7500
= 93.75 g
i.e., whole ice will not melt.
Hence, the mixture will be at 0C
Mass of water in mixture = 300 + 93.75 = 393.75 g and
Mass of ice in mixture = 100 93.75 = 6.25 g
300 g i ni-i 25C 0C n i - li +-i :
4.1 Since o
s
< o
b
there will be less contraction in steel as compared to brass.
l o
s
< o
b
r ni --i - i i n i - - ri ^i|
Q = ms Dq
= (300) (1) (25)
= 7500 cal
Q = mL , ;ni +-i, i -iii i lii ni r (i ri ^i
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 188
6.1 Gas thermometers are more sensitive than liquid thermometers because coefficient of thermal expansion of
gases are more then liquids.
^ ni-ii, ( ni-ii ii ^ iri ri ni r i l ^ i i nii i ^ ii (i ii ri ni r |
6.2 Coefficient of thermal expansion of gases are more than liquids
^ i nii i ^ ii i -i (i ii ri ni r |
6.3 Conductivity of metal is more so it expands more as compared to liquid initially.
iin i ini ii r n n i - ii iln ri ni r |
EXERCISE # 4
1*. Let
0
be the initial length of each strip before heating.
Length after heating will be
-ii ^- r - - -i i i;
0
r |
^- i i; ri ^i -
l
B
= l
0
( 1 + o
B
AT) = (R + d ) u and nii
l
C
= l
0
( 1 + o
C
AT) = Ru

|
|
.
|

\
|
A o +
A o +
=
+
T 1
T 1
R
d R
C
B
o
B
o
C
u R
d
T ) ( 1
R
d
1
C B
A o o + = + [ From binomial expansion ] [l, - ]
R =
T ) (
d
C B
A o o
or i
T
d
R
A
and nii
C B
1
o o

2. The temperature of ice will first increase from 10C to 0C. Heat supplied in this process will be :
Q
1
= mS
i
(10) m = mass of ice
S
i
= specific heat of ice
Then ice starts melting. Temperature during melting will remain constant (0C)
Heat supplied in the process will be
Q
2
= mL L = Latent heat of melting
Now the temperature of water will increase from 0C to 100C. Heat supplied will be :
Q
3
= mS
w
(100)
S
w
= Specific heat of water
Finally water at 100C will be converted into steam t 100C and during this process temperature agai n
remains constant. Temperature versus heat supplied graph will be as follows :

T
e
m
p
Heat supplied
i ni-i r 10C 0C n ^i| ; l>i - i ^; +-i :
Q
1
= mS
i
(10) m = i -i
S
i
= i l(li- +-i
lii i ni r | li i i ni ln rni r | (0C)
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 189
; l>i - i ^; +-i ri ^i -
Q
2
= mL L = ^ i ^ n +-i
ii i ni-i 0C 100C n ^i| i ^; -i ri ^i :
Q
3
= mS
w
(100)
S
w
= ii i l(li- +-i
nn 100C i ii 100C i +-i - l(ln n ri i ^i nii ; ii ni-i l ln rni r | ni-i ( i
^; +-i i ^ i i ri ^i :

T
e
m
p
Heat supplied
3. k
1
=
C 0
Hg
Fe
|
|
.
|

\
|

and i k
2
=
C 60
Hg
Fe
|
|
.
|

\
|

Here ri = Density i-(

2
1
k
k
=
C 0 Hg
C 0 Fe
) (
) (


C 60 Fe
C 60 Hg
) (
) (

=
) 60 1 (
) 60 1 (
Hg
Fe
+
+
In this problem two concepts are used :
; - i n i ^ - l ^ r :
(i) When a solid floats in a liquid then
-i ( - n ni r ni
Fraction of volume submerged (k) =
liquid
solid

This result comes from the fact that


in i i -i ii^ i rni r (k) =
liquid
solid

r -i n ii
Weight ( = Upthrust -i(
V
Sol id
g = V
submerged

l iquid
g

V
V
submerged
=
liquid
solid

(ii)
C 0
C

u
=
u + . 1
1
This is because
Volume
1
(mass remaining constant)
i r i l
Volume
1
( -i ln rni r)

C 0
C

u
=
C
C 0
V
V
u
=
V V
V
C 0
C 0
A +
=
u +
C 0 C 0
C 0
V V
V
4. Let m be the mass of the container.
Initial temperature of container, T
i
= (227 + 273) = 500 K
and final temperature of container, T
f
= (27 + 273) = 300 K
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 190
Now
Heat gained by the ice cube = Heat lost by the container.
i.e., (mass of ice) (latent heat of fusion of ice) + (mass of ice) (specific heat of water) (300 K 273K)
= m }
f
i
T
T
S.dT. .
Substituting the values, we have
(0.1)(8 10
4
) + (0.1) (10
3
) (27) = m
}
+
300
500
) BT A (
dT or 10700 = m
300
500
2
2
BT
AT
(
(

+
After substituting the values of A and B and the proper limits, we get
m = 0.495 Kg. Ans.
-ii m n i -i r
n i ili ni-i T
i
= (227 + 273) = 500 K
nii n i ln- ni-i T
f
= (27 + 273) = 300 K

i ,ii in i ^; +-i = n ,ii ii ; ^; +-i


i.e., ( i -i) (^ i ^ n +-i) + ( i -i) ( i l(li- +-i) (300 K 273K) = m }
f
i
T
T
S.dT. .
-ii i ln-iiln r- in ri ni r
(0.1)(8 10
4
) + (0.1) (10
3
) (27) = m
}
+
300
500
) BT A (
dT
i 10700 = m
300
500
2
2
BT
AT
(
(

+
A ( B -ii i ln-iiln nii n i-ii i i ^
m = 0.495 Kg. Ans.
5. Given li r A
1
= A
2
or i
1
o
a
t =
2
o
s
t
a
s
2
1
o
o
=

or i
s a
s
2 1
1
o + o
o
=
+

6. Heat released by 5 kg of water when its temperature falls from 20C to 0C is,
Q
1
= msAu = (5) (10
3
) (20 0) = 10
5
cal
when 2 kg ice at 20C comes to a temperature of 0C, it takes an energy
Q
2
= msAu = (2) (500) (20) = 0.2 10
5
cal
The remaining heat
Q = Q
1
Q
2
= 0.8 10
5
cal will melt mass m of the ice, where
m =
3
5
10 80
10 8 . 0

= 1 kg
So, the temperature of the mixture will be 0C,
mass of water in it is 5 + 1 = 6 kg and mass of ice is 2 1 = 1 kg.
5 kg ii ,ii - n -i ;i ni-i 20C 0C n l^ ini r ,
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 191
Q
1
= msAu = (5) (10
3
) (20 0) = 10
5
cal
2 kg 20C 0C ni-i n ini r, ni +i ni r |
Q
2
= msAu = (2) (500) (20) = 0.2 10
5
cal
i r ; -i Q = Q
1
Q
2
= 0.8 10
5
cal -i m i li i ^i
m =
3
5
10 80
10 8 . 0

= 1 kg
n l-i i ni-i 0C ri ^i|
;- i -i r 5 + 1 = 6 kg nii i -i 2 1 = 1 kg.
7. When the temperature is increased, volume of the cube will increase while density of liquid will decrease. The
depth upto which the cube is submerged in the liquid remains the same, hence the upthrust will not change.
F = F
V
i

L
g = V
i

L
g (V
i
= volume immersed)
(Ah
i
) (
L
) (g) = (1 + 2o
s
AT) (Ah
i
)
g
T 1
L
L
|
|
.
|

\
|
A +

Solving this equation, we get


L
= 2o
s
.
ni ii ini r, i i in i l ( i i-( i- ^i| nii ^ri; ri n i ( - i r -i rni
r n -i( l(ln n rni r |
F = F
V
i

L
g = V
i

L
g (V
i
= i r i in)
(Ah
i
) (
L
) (g) = (1 + 2o
s
AT) (Ah
i
) g
T 1
L
L
|
|
.
|

\
|
A +

; -ii i r r- in r
L
= 2o
s
.
8. Net heat given/sec i ^; +-i, . = 1000 160
= 840 J/S
if it takes time t then l r - t ni r ni
840 t = 2000 4.2 (77 27)
t = 500 sec = 8 min 20 sec.
9. EAQ = 0
Heat lost by steam to convert into 0C water
H
L
= 0.05 540 + 0.05 100 1
= 27 + 5 = 32 kcal
Heat required by ice to change into 0 C water
H
g
= 0.45
2
1
20 + 0.45 80 = 4.5 + 36.00 = 40.5 kcal
Thus, final temperature of mixture is 0C = 273 K
EAQ = 0
0C ii - r n ii ,ii ii i ^i -i
H
L
= 0.05 540 + 0.05 100 1
= 27 + 5 = 32 kcal
0 C ii - r n i i( -i
H
g
= 0.45
2
1
20 + 0.45 80 = 4.5 + 36.00 = 40.5 kcal
l-i i ln- ni 0C = 273 K
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 192
10. S = 2100 J kg
1
C
1
L = 3.36 10
5
J kg
1
420 = m S Au + (1) 10
3
L
420 = m S (5) + 3.36 10
2
420 336 = m(2100) 5
m =
125
1
1000 = 8 gm.
11.
A
mg
= Y o Au m =
g
A Y u A o
= 4kg.
U =
3
2
10
AY 2
L F
= J
12. A =
W
YA
|
.
|

\
|
The graph is straight line passing through origin the slope of which is
YA

.
n ^ i ii r , i ii i - l ^ ni r nii li i
YA

r |
Slope i =
|
.
|

\
|
YA

Y =
|
.
|

\
|
A


|
|
.
|

\
|
slope
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
6
10
0 . 1

4
10 ) 1 4 (
) 20 80 (



= 2.0 10
11 1
N/m
2
13. Terminal velocity v
T
=
q 9
g r 2
2
(
s

L
)
and viscous force F = 6tqrv
T
Viscous force is the only dissipative force. Hence,
dt
dQ
= Fv
T
= (6tqrv
T
) (v
T
) = 6tqrv
T
2
=
2
L s
2
) (
g r
9
2
r 6


q
tq
=
q
t
27
g 8
2
(
s

L
)
2
r
5
=
5
r
dt
dQ

.
i-in ( ^ v
T
=
q 9
g r 2
2
(
s

L
)
( i F = 6tqrv
T
i l i ri ( i r ;l +-i - ri i (iln)
dt
dQ
= Fv
T
= (6tqrv
T
) (v
T
) = 6tqrv
T
2
=
2
L s
2
) (
g r
9
2
r 6


q
tq
=
q
t
27
g 8
2
(
s

L
)
2
r
5
=
5
r
dt
dQ

.
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 193
14. e
n
=
m
k
=
m
/ yA
=
m
yA


1 . 0 1
) 10 9 . 4 ( ) 10 n (
7 9



= 140 n = 4.
15. In equilibrium,
ii(-ii -
mg = qE
In absence of electric field,
l(n n -i i i l-iln -
mg = 6tqrv
qE = 6tqrv
m =
3
4
tRr
3
d. =
g
qE
d
v 6
qE

3
4
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
tq
t
=
g
qE
After substituting value we get,
-i ln-iiln
q = 8 10
19
C Ans.
16.
L
L T

A
=
A
AL = o L AT
mg = K AL
m =
YA
L
g L
A
11 6 5
10 10 10 10
m
10



=
40 C 30 C
m = 3.14 ~ 3
PART - II
1. As we know that thermal capacity of a substance is defined as the amount of heat required to raise its tempera-
ture by 1C.
i l r- in r ii i +-i iilni ; i liilin r l 1C ni-i i l i( +-i r |
2. According to the mass-energy equivalence, mass and energy remain conserved. So, when water is cooled to
from ice, water loses its energy so, change in energy increases the mass of water.
-i +ii -n -ni i, -i ( +i l-in rni r | ;l ii - i ri - l(ln n ri ni r |
ii i +i - -i ni r, ;l +i - l(n ii i -i ni r |
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 194
3. T = 2t
g
l
2
1 d
2
1
T
dT
= =
l
l
21 = 10.5%
4. Let time taken in boiling the water by the heater is t sec. Then
-ii l ri- ,ii ii i ^- - t ^ni r | n
Q = msAT
2 . 4
836
t = 1 1000 (40 10)
2 . 4
836
t = 1000 30
t =
836
2 . 4 30 1000
= 150 sec
5. AU = M s Au = 0.1 4184 20 = 8368 = 8.4 kJ
6. Elastic energy stored in the wire is ni - ln -i-i l-iln +i
U =
2
1
stress strain volume
U =
2
1
ln l(ln in
=
2
1
L A
F l A
AL
=
2
1
FAl
=
2
1
200 1 10
3
= 0.1J
7. Retarding force acting on a ball falling into a viscous fluid
i ( - l^ ri ^ i n -
F = 6tqRv
where R = radius of ball,
ri R = ^ i lii
v = velocity of ball, ^ i ( ^
and nii q = coefficient of viscosity ini ^ii
F R and nii F v
8. Youngs modulus =
Strain
Strees
^ ^ ii =
l(ln
ln
Strain l(ln =
Y
S
2
1
Volume
wire in stored Energy
=
Stress Strain
2
1
=
in
+i ^lrn ni -
ln l(ln
=
2
1
S
Y 2
S
Y
S
2
=
Rise Academy, 607/608-A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) -324005. 195
9. Terminal speed of spherical body in a viscous liquid is given by
i ( - ^i ii (-n i i-in i l i i ini r |
v
T
=
q
o
9
g ) ( r 2
2
where = density of substance of body,
ri = (-n ii i i-(
o = density of liquid. ( i i-(
From given data l ^ i i
l Gold
l Ag
T
T

) Gold ( v
) Ag ( v
o
o
=
v
T
(Ag) =
2 . 0
18
9
2 . 0
5 . 1 5 . 19
5 . 1 5 . 10
=
= 0.1 m/s
10. Let us consider the length of wire as L and cross-sectional area A, the material of wire has Young's modulus as
Y.
-ii ni i i; L nii -i i- -i i A r nii ni ii i ^ ^ ii Y r |
Then for 1st case Y =
L /
A / W

n i- l-iln l Y =
L /
A / W

For 2nd case, Y =


L / ' 2
A / W

l,ni l-iln l Y =
L / ' 2
A / W

l' = l /2
So, total elongation of both sides = 2' =
n i i i l(-ni = 2' =
11. The forces acting on the ball are gravity force, buoyancy force and viscous force. When ball acquires terminal
speed, i t i s i n dynami c equi l i bri um, l et termi nal speed of bal l i s v
T
. So,
^ - in ^-( , -i( nii i r | ^ i-in i in ni r n r ^ln i(-ii
- ri ni r | -ii ^ i i-in i V
T
r | n
V
2
g + kv
T
2
= V
1
g v
T
=
k
g ) ( V
2 1

12. F =

x A Y
and nii F
2
=
) 3 / (
x ) A 3 ( Y

= 9 F