196
EXERCISE # 1
1.3 cohesive force > adhesive force > i
u is obtuse. u li i i r 
1.5 After the portion A is punctured the thread has 2 options as shown in the figures.
or
Clearly, due to surface tension , the soap film wants to minimize the surface area which is happening in option
(ii).
Hence the thread will become concave towards A.
A ii^ i l ni i ini r , ni ii^ lii i i lilni i( r
i
ni, ni( ii, i i l  i i i  i i ^i i l liln (ii)  i( r 
n ii^i A i n (n ri i ^i
1.6 In the satellite, g
eff
becomes zero but the surface tension still prevails. Hence the water will experience only
surface Tension force which will push it fully outward.
li ^ r  g
eff
i ri ini r l  ni( ii ii rni r , n (  ni( ^ ^i i l
( + i i ii ^i
1.7
The small portion of film is approximately a straight part. Balancing forces on it:
F denotes tension. T denotes surface tension.
T 2 (d) is the surface tension force because 2 layers are formed.
So 2 F sin (du) = T [2 R (2 du)]
we get ; (sin (du) ~ du. for small du )
SURFACE TENSION
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 197
so F = T 2 R.
l i i i ii^ ^i^ iii ii r nii ; i n
F ni( i li n ni r T,  ni( i li n ni r
T 2 (d) i r ; i nri ii  ni( ii
n 2 F sin (du) = T [2 R (2 du)]
i  i i l du, sin (du) ~ du.
n F = T 2 R.
1.8
The FBD of disc is shown in the figure. The net upward surface tension force
= F
S
cosu = (T 2 tr) cosu .
so F
S
cosu + W = mg = W
disc
ri li  ni i FBD ii ^i r  + i i ^ (ii  ni(
= F
S
cosu = (T 2 tr) cosu .
n F
S
cosu + W = mg = W
disc
1.9 We know that surface energy
U
S
= T Area.
Here. as 2 films are formed because of ring. so
U
S
= T 2 (A)
= 5
m
N
2 0.02 m
2
. = 0.2 J
r in r l  +i
U
S
= T i i
ri , i l ( ii 2 l ni r n
U
S
= T 2 (A)
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 198
= 5
m
N
2 0.02 m
2
. = 0.2 J
1.10 In the shown diagram.
P
C
= P
B
P
0
1
r
T 2
+ gh = P
0
2
r
T 2
Here, we may not know in advance which tube will rise above the other, but lets say the liquid level is higher in
thinner tube.
so 2T 

.

\

1 2
r
1
r
1
= gh. T =
) r r ( 2
r r gh
1 2
2 1
as r
2
> r
1
; so we assumed correctly
l ^ li
P
C
= P
B
P
0
1
r
T 2
+ gh = P
0
2
r
T 2
ri r r ri ni r l i i i  ( n, i n i  + i ^i l ii ni  (i) 
( i n ii r 
;l 2T 

.

\

1 2
r
1
r
1
= gh. T =
) r r ( 2
r r gh
1 2
2 1
i l r
2
> r
1
; n r ri ii r 
1.11 Since the contact angle in both cases remains the same.
F
S
cosu = Mg T 2 tR cosu = Mg .......(i)
after doubling the radius
T 2 t (2R) cosu = Mg .......(ii)
= M = 2M.
i i lilni  i i i r
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 199
F
S
cosu = Mg T 2 tR cosu = Mg .......(i)
liii i ^i
T 2 t (2R) cosu = Mg .......(ii)
= M = 2M.
1.12 Water will rise to a height more than h when downward force (mg
eff
) becomes lesser than mg.
so in a lift accelerating downwards, g
eff
is (g a
0
). Hence capillary rise is more.
On the poles g
eff
is even more than g. Hence the capillary will even drop.
i i n ^ (ii (mg
eff
), mg  ri ni r ni  i; ii + i; n ni r n,
i i n (ln l  g
eff
, (g a
0
) r  n ii  ( ii + i ^i i (i g
eff
, g ii ri ni r
n ii  ( i l^ ^i
1.13 Insects use the surface tension force to keep floating.
i n l  ni( i i ^ n r 
1.14
P
A
has to be equal to P
B
.
P
A
,P
B
i ri i r 
P
A
= P
0
+ gh .....(i)
Now P
C
P
0
=
r
4o
soap bubble has 2 films i  2 l r 
and i P
C
= P
B
same air is filled i (i ii i ^i
P
0
+
r
4o
= P
0
+ gh ....(ii)
get n o =
4
ghr
1.15 When the capillary rise is h that means the force of surface tension (F) is supporting the height h of liquid
level.
Now if the whole capillary is taken out the liquid tries to come out due to gravity from the bottom point.
F
s
F
s
But force of surface tension F now becomes 2F in the upward direction. Hence 2F can support a maximum of
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 200
2h height even if is very high. So h will be 2h if > h & will be h + only if is lesser than h.
ii  h +i ; n + ni r ii n  ni( ( nr i 'h' +i; n rii ni r 
l ii ir lni r ni ( ^ ( ii l l ir lni r 
F
s
F
s
l  ni( F + i i 2F i ^i n 2F lin 2h +i; n rii ^i nl r n i r 
n h 2h ri ^i l > h i , l , h  r ni h' (h + ) i ri ^i
1.16
F
s
F
s
By balancing forces n T (2 ) (cosu) = d x h g
we get r in ^ h =
xdg
cos T 2 u
.
1.17* Force of cohesion keeps the molecules of a material bounded together and does not let them stick to the solid
as force of adhesion is lesser.
li ii i i i ii in r nii i l i  r n ;r i ri
ni r 
Hence
n (A) (B) (C).
1.18* Nature of liquid and material tube determine whether force of cohesion is more or force of adhesion is more.
The inner radius also determines the rise of capillary as
h =
g r
cos T 2
u
depends on radius r. .
If the length is not sufficient rise will be depends length also.
( i i nii i ii ,ii r liiln li ini r l ii r i i ii i inl
r lii ii ii  ( i lii ln ni r
h =
g r
cos T 2
u
r lii li ^i
l ii i i; i n ri r ni ( n i i i; ii li r ^i
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 201
2.3
Let (A) and (B) coalesce to form (C). ii (A) ( (B) l (C) in r 
By mole conservation : n i ii
P
a
. a
3
+ P
b
. b
3
= P
c
. c
3
....... (i)
Also i P
a
= P
0
+
a
4
........(ii)
P
b
= P
0
+
b
4
.......(iii)
P
c
= P
0
+
c
4
.......(iv)
Putting there values : lnii
3
0
3
0
3
0
c
c
4
P b
b
4
P a
a
4
P 
.

\

+ = 
.

\

+ + 
.

\

+
    0 c b a 4 c b a P
2 2 2 3 3 3
0
= + + +
also nii c
3
(b
3
+ a
3
) =
t 4
v 3
and i c
2
(a
2
+ b
2
) =
t 4
s
.
Putting there values : ii i lnii
P
0

.

\

t
4
v 3
+ 4T

.

\

t
4
S
= 0
3P
0
V + 4ST = 0 Ans. (A).
2.4 When charge is given to a soap bubble (whether positive or negative), these charges experience repulsive
forces due to the other charges. Hence they tend to move out. Hence the size of bubble increases.
i i i( i li ini r (ir ii ~ii ) ni r i( i i( ii ii lni i
i( ^i n r ir i i nli i ^i n i ii ^i
2.5
Equating pressures on the shaded portion : iiln ii^ i i i
1
r
4o
2
r
4o
=
R
4o
get in ri ^i R =
1 2
1 2
r r
r r
2.6
By equating volume in i n i :
3
R
3
4
t
=
3
r
3
4
8 t
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 202
get in ri ^i r = R/2.
Now pressure difference in A =
R
4o
A  iin =
R
4o
and that in B =
2 / R
4o
= 2 pressure difference in A.
i B  iin =
2 / R
4o
= 2 A  iin
2.7
P
inside bubble
P
A
=
r
T 2
and P
A
= P
atm
+ gh.
P
inside bubble
= P + gh +
r
T 2
gy.
P
iln
P
A
=
r
T 2
i P
A
= P
atm
+ gh.
P
inl i
= P + gh +
r
T 2
2.8 n
3
4
tr
3
=
3
4
tR
3
......(i) { volumes are equal in i r}.
and i AA = [4tR
2
n.4tr
2
]
where ri W = (AA) T.
= 4t[n
2/3
r
2
n.r
2
] T = 4tr
2
T. n
2/3
[n
1/3
1].
Now R
2
= n
2/3
. r
2
; so ;l W = 4tR
2
T[n
1/3
1].
2.9
P
A
= P
0
+
r
4o
; P
B
= P
0
+
R
4o
{P
0
= atmospheric pressure}.
Clearly P
A
> P
B
; so air will flow from A to B.
As r decreases; pressure will become more and hence more flow of air from A to B.
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 203
Ultimately bubble A collapses and B becomes bigger in size.
P
A
= P
0
+
r
4o
; P
B
= P
0
+
r
4o
{P
0
= (i i i}.
ni P
A
> P
B
; n (i A B i i (ilrn ri ^i
i l r  ri ni r n i ii ri ^i i A B i i (i ii (ilrn ri ^i
n i A   i ^i i B i ii i ^i
2.10
R = 4 cm.
r = 3 cm.
P
r
=
r
4o
; P
R
=
R
4o
{ outside is vacuum ir l(i n r}
The two bubbles are coalescing; so conserving the no. the moles.
i i i lii ini r n i ii
T
r
3
4
. P
3
r
t
+
T
R
3
4
. P
3
R
t
=
T
) ' r (
3
4
P
3
final
t
Putting i i P
final
=
' r
4o
we get r in ^
r =
2 2
R r +
=
2 2
4 3 +
= 5 cm.
2.11 Clearly the surface tension force on
Hemisphere = F
S
= (2T). (2tr) {2 layers are formed}.
F
S
= 2 500
m
N
2 3.14 5m.
~ 30,000 N ~ 3000 kg.wt.
ni , ^i  ni(
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 204
, ^i  ni( = F
S
= (2T). (2tr) {2 nr ^i}.
F
S
= 2 500
m
N
2 3.14 5m.
~ 30,000 N ~ 3000 kg.wt.
2.12
P
1
Before r
P
2
After
r/2
Lets say, initially, the pressure due to air inside the bubble is P
air
.
P
air
P
1
=
r
T 4
..........(i)
Finally, the radius becomes half ; so volume becomes
8
1
th and hence pressure becomes 8P
air
.
So, 8P
air
P
2
=
2 / r
T 4
.........(ii)
Solving (i) and (ii)
get P
2
= 8P
1
+
r
r 24
.
P
1
r
r
P
2
r/2
i 
ii ii  (i ii i P
air
r 
P
air
P
1
=
r
T 4
..........(i)
n  lii iii ri i ^i n in
8
1
ri i ^i n i 8P
air
ri i ^i
n 8P
(i
P
2
=
2 / r
T 4
.........(ii)
(i) i (ii) i r
in ri ^i P
2
= 8P
1
+
r
r 24
.
2.13 When the excess pressure at the hole becomes equal to the pressure of water height ;then only water will start
coming out of the holes : [atm pressure on both sides is same].
ili i, i + i; i i ri i ^i n ( ir ii ii ^i
[i i n (i i i i ri ^i]
hg =
r
2o
h =
rg
2
o
=
10 10
2
1 . 0
m
kg
1000
m
N
10 70 2
3
3
3

.

\

= 0.28 m.
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 205
2.14 Look at a very small element at the junction of 3 bubbles.
nii i li l r n i  (( i in r 
All 3 forces of same magnitude ( surface tension is same) are acting along the tangential directions on the
small element.
i lii nii (
\

AA = 4tb
2
n.4ta
2
{this is ve, hence energy is released} {r ~ii r n +i l n ri ^i}
= 4ta
2
(n
2/3
n)
U = 4ta
2
T (n n
2/3
). = 4ta
2
T
(
(

.

\


.

\

2 3
a
b
a
b
This U converts to K.E. r liln +i ^ln +i  l(ni n ri i ^i
Hence n
3
b
3
4
.
2
1
t
V
2
= 4ta
2
T
2
2
a
b


.

\

a
a b
.
V =

.

\

b
1
a
1 T 6
2.16* When ever two drops coalesce to make a bigger drop. surface area is reduced, hence energy is released.
ii ii i l i ini r  i i i ini r nii +i l n ri ni r 
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 206
EXERCISE # 2
7. p
1
r
T 2
= Pa ...(1)
p
2
r
T 2
+ hg = Pa ....(2)
Pa
Pa
P
2T
r
1
P
.
P
p
1
r
T 2
= p
2
r
T 2
+ hg
hg =
2
r
T 2
1
r
T 2
h =
8 . 9 10
10 75 2
3
3
3 3
10 1
2
10 5 . 0
2
=
8 . 9 10
300
3
= 3.1 10
2
m
14. PV = P
1
V
1
+ P
2
V
2
r
T 4
3
4
tr
3
=
3
1
1
r
3
4
r
T 4
t
+
3
2
2
r
3
4
r
T 4
t
r
2
=
2
2
2
1
r r +
r = 5 cm
EXERCISE # 3
1. r
1
= 1.44 10
3
m. r
2
= 0.72 10
3
m.
Equating pressures at points (B) & (C)
l (B) & (C) i i i
P
A
2
r
2o
+ (0.2) g = P
C
. and nii P
B
1
r
2o
= P
C
.
so ;l P
B
P
A
= 2o 

.

\

2 1
r
1
r
1
+ 0.2 g
= 2 72 10
3
m
N
(
(
72 . 0
10
44 . 1
10
3 3
+ (0.2) 10
3
938
=
72 . 0 44 . 1
) 72 . 0 ( 144
+ 1960
= 100 + 1960 = 1860 N/m
2
.
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 207
2.
r
h
= r
1

.

\

2 1
r r
L r
h
= 0.5 10
3
1 . 0
) 25 . 0 5 . 0 (
10
3
8 10
2
= 0.3 10
3
m ;
h
r
T 2
0
= gh T
0
=
2
10 3 . 0 10 8 8 . 9 10
14
1
3 2 4
T
0
= 0.084 N/m For Tube B i B l
For Temp 0C
r
T 2
0
= gh
1
r =
1
0
gh
T 2
=
2 4
10 6 8 . 9 10
14
1
084 . 0 1 2
0C nii l
r
T 2
0
= gh
1
r =
1
0
gh
T 2
=
2 4
10 6 8 . 9 10
14
1
084 . 0 1 2
r = 0.40 10
3
m For temp 50C
r
T 2
50
= gh
r = 0.40 10
3
m 50C nii l
r
T 2
50
= gh
T
50
=
2
ghr
=
2
10 4 . 0 10 5 . 5 8 . 9 10
14
1
3 2 4
T
50
= 0.077 N/m
2
=
0 50
T T
0 50
=
50
084 . 0 077 . 0
= 1.4 10
4
N/mC
Ans. 1.4 10
4
N/(m C)
3.
We know that force r in r l =
dt
V ) dm (
where ri
dt
dm
= rate of mass transferred. iiinln i i
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 208
Now
dt
dm
is also eqval to i r
dt
dm
=
dt
) Vdt ( ) b (
2
t
= tb
2
V.
so force ;l = V
2
tb
2
= pressure exerted by air on walls (i ,ii l(ii ii ln i =
2
2 2
b
b V
t
t
= V
2
.
when the thrust of this pressure becomes equal to the excess pressure
r ili i i ri ini r 
V
2
=
r
T 4
r
final
= 2
V
T 4
\

r
T 4
A A
(A = B i i i, ri r(i ini r )
r =

.

\

2
pv
T 4
Alternate
When force due to surface tension on bubbles is equal to the Force due to blowing air bubble leave contact
with ring (separate from ring)
 ni( ii ^ (ii i i, rni r ; r(i ii ^ (ii (n
i ( ^ ri i ^i)
F = 2 (2tbT) sinu (sin u =
R
b
)
F = 4tTb

.

\

R
b
= tb
2
v
2
R =
2
v
T 4
4.
balancing forces on the wire in vertical direction :
ni +( lii  i i n ln
2 (T) sin u = ()g. = T =
u
sin 2
g
=
y 2
) y ( g
2 2
+ o
so ; l T =
y 2
g
2 2
y + o
~
y 2
go
(for small y) ( y i i r )
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 209
5. Pushing force i( = <p> (Area) (i i)
=
) Rh 2 (
2
) h g p ( ) p (
0 0

.

\
 + +
= 2p
0
Rh + g h
2
R
Pulling force ii i( = (T) (2R)
Net force liii = TR 2 R gh Rh p 2
2
0
+
6. Pressure inside tube = P = P
0
+
r
T 4
P
2
< P
1
(since r
2
> r
1
)
Hence pressure on side 1 will be greater
than side 2. So air from end 1
flows towards end 2.
Ans. (B)
 i = P = P
0
+
r
T 4
P
2
< P
1
(since r
2
> r
1
)
n 1 n i i i  i i i 2
li ri ^i n i (B) r 
l 1 l 2 i n r(i i ri( ri ^i
Ans. (B)
8. P
A
= P
0
+
A
r
T 4
P
A
= 8 +
02 . 0
04 . 0 4
P
A
= 16 N/m
2
P
B
= P
0
+
B
r
T 4
= 8 +
04 . 0
04 . 0 4
P
B
= 12 N/m
2
for bubble A, PV = nRT
(16)
3
4
t (0.02)
3
= n
A
RT ....(1)
for bubble B
(12) 
.

\

t
3
) 04 . 0 (
3
4
= n
B
RT ....(2)
dividing eq
n
(i) and (2)
6
1
n
n
B
A
=
;
6
n
n
A
B
=
Ans. 6
P
A
= P
0
+
A
r
T 4
P
A
= 8 +
02 . 0
04 . 0 4
P
A
= 16 N/m
2
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 210
P
B
= P
0
+
B
r
T 4
= 8 +
04 . 0
04 . 0 4
P
B
= 12 N/m
2
A l, PV = nRT
(16)
3
4
t (0.02)
3
= n
A
RT ....(1)
B l
(12) 
.

\

t
3
) 04 . 0 (
3
4
= n
B
RT ....(2)
ii (1)  (2) i ii^
6
1
n
n
B
A
=
6
n
n
A
B
=
Ans. 6
9.
R
F
r
R
Due to surface tension, vertical force on drop = F
v
= T2tr sinu = T2tr
R
r
=
R
r 2 T
2
t
10. Equating forces on the drop :
R
r 2 T
2
t
=
g R
3
4
3
t
(Assume drop as a complete sphere)
R =
4 / 1
2
g 2
Tr 3


.

\

=
4 / 1
3
8
10 10 2
10 25 11 . 0 3


.

\

= 14.25 10
4
m = 1.425 10
3
m
11. Surface energy of the drop
U = TA
= 0.11 4t (1.4 10
3
)
2
= 2.7 10
6
J
Rise Academy, 607/608A, Talwandi , Kota (Raj.) 324005. 211
12.
2ra =
2
2
2Kq
a
+
2
2
2Kq
2a
1
2
a
3
=
2
Kq
r
1
1
2 2
 
+

\ .
a =
1/3
2
1
Kq 1
2 2
r
(  
+
( 
\ .
(
(
(
N = 3
PART  II
1. The excess pressure inside the soap bubble in inversely proportional to radius of soap bubble i.e. P 1/r, r being
the radius of bubble. It follows that pressure inside a smaller bubble is greater than that inside a bigger bubble.
Thus, if these two bubbles are connected by a tube, air will flow from smaller bubble to bigger bubble and the
bigger bubble grows at the expense of the smaller one.
2. Water fills the tube entirely in gravity less condition.
4. W = TAA =
= T2   ) r r ( 4
2
1
2
2
t
= 0.4 t mJ
5.
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