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Conference on Promoting Innovations in Wastewater Management in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Development Bank.

Manila, Philippines, 29 31 January 2013 p , pp , y

Wastewater for Aquaculture: The Case of Mirzapur, Mirzapur, Bangladesh

Dr Masum A Patwary Environmental Advisor PRISM Bangladesh

Waste Water Treatment for developing country

Wastewater concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids. Conventional technologies for wastewater treatment are too costly. Do not allow - re-use of valuable energy and nutrients contained in the wastewater wastewater. In the context of developing world - Think about (a) Pollution Prevention and (b) Re-Use! Need to consider - Low cost, solution, Environment free, Eco-friendly, Integrated, Sustainable, Employment generation. generation

Low cost Wastewater Treatment

Duckweed-based wastewater treatment systems are inexpensive to install as well as to operate and maintain.

Nutrients will end up as fish protein (via duckweed feeding) and crop protein (via irrigation) irrigation). Key step in waste recycling, driven by photosynthesis. Energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions conditions.

Why Duckweed?
Characteristics of duckweed y Family: Lemnaceae 4 Genera: Spirodela, Lemna, Wolffia, Wolffiela Size: < 2mm to 20 mm 37 species identified p World wide distribution High growth rate High nutrient uptake Low fibre, high p g protein ( (30-40%) ) Duckweed a crop? Protein yield of selected crops
Crop
Duckweed Soybean

Parameters Temperature range N-removal (g/M2.D) P-removal (g/M2.D) Protein content (% DW) Fibre content Growth rate Harvesting/Handling Mosquito development Acceptability by animals

Water Hyacinth > 20 C 0.25 1.3 0.05 0.24 LOW HIGH

Duckweed 5 - 40 C 0.2 1.67 0.01 0.3 25 40% LOW

+
DIFFICULT

++
EASY

+ -

Advantages of duckweed: Effective nutrient removal/recovery Production of high quality feed Low mosquito count Reduced water losses via evapo( transpi )ration evapo(-transpi-)ration Reduced odour problems (high BOD) Possible cost recovery via aquaculture 7 or other feed applications

Production Protein Protein T dm/ha.y (% dm) (kg/ha.y)


17.6 37 6510 660 190 380 - 740 690 - 2670 1.59 41.7 24.9 23.6 16-17

Cottonseed 0.76 d Peanuts Alfalfa 1.6 - 3.1 4.4 15.7

Duckweed WWT and aquaculture in Bangladesh

0.7 ha

0.2 ha

A Case study of PRISM Bangladesh


PRISM Bangladesh is operating a duckweed based wastewater treatment system in Mirzapur Kumudini Hospital Complex (KHC) since 1990. Wastewater generated by the hospital, residential girls school and staff quarters are collected and being treated through the duckweed based treatment system.

DW protein = 6000 kg/ha.y Soy bean protein = 600 kg/ha.y

At a glance of the project


DESCRIPTION General Information System capacity User group Land used Primary Treatment System capacity Land used Retention time Dimensions Secondary Treatment System capacity Land used Retention time Dimensions Duckweed plug flow DW species grown DW standing crop d t di density it Methods of harvesting Estimated DW crop harvest Frequency of DW crop harvest Annual DW production Use of DW harvested Perimeter crops VOLUME/QUANTITY/UNITS 14 million liters. 3,000 persons. 2.4 hectares. 2 4 hectares 750,000 liters. 0.25 hectare 24 hours L-45m, W-45m,D-2.5m 12 million liters 0.89 hectare 20 24 20-24 days L-575m, W-9m,D-2m, (water depth-0.5-1.5m) Spirodella,Lemna minor,Wollfia 650 gm/meter2 / t Manual with net/ring harvesters 500 kg/day Daily 180,000 kg Fish feed Banana, vegetables, etc. Tertiary Treatment Dimension Treated effluent outputs Treated quality Ammonia (NH3) Nitrates (NO3) Phosphates TSS BOD Total lif T t l coliform count t Fish pond Land for fish pond Fish pond water area Type of fish culture Fingerling stocking rates Mix of fish Rohu Catla Mrigal Grass carp Silver carp Mirror carp Estimated fish production Frequency of fish harvest L-30m, W-10,D-2m 300,000 liters/day 1.22 mg/l 1 22 0.8 mg/l 0.09 mg/l 7.8 mg/l 8.2 mg/l <100/100ml 100/100 l 1 hectare 0.6 hectare 6 carps polyculture 10,500 no. 15% 15% 20% 20% 20% 10% 7,000 kg/year Weekly

Water Quality Performance


Parameter Monitoring
Location Concrete house Suction point Mixing point First bend Third bend Fifth bend Last bend BOD5 (mg/l) 319.95 236.11 125.12 89.21 30.44 16.16 9.8 NH3 (mg/l) 33.37 27.22 19.91 11.41 2.38 1.39 1.22 NO3 (mg/l) 1.4 1.4 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 SO4 (mg/l) 10.50 7.00 0.50 0.30 0.20 0.00 0.00 K (mg/l) 149.30 200.25 91.71 104.32 102.74 73.73 96.32 P (mg/l) 2.23 3.29 1.57 0.99 0.53 0.60 0.26 TDS (mg/l) 470.19 402.44 318.20 294.81 243.15 220.93 202.15

Heavy Metal Monitoring in ppm


Metals Sediment (Sludge) Border (Sludge) Desludging (Sludge) Polishing (Sludge) Start (DW) Swiss Sewage sludge l d (stnds. 1) 500 5 500 60 600 80 5 2000 -Swiss compost ( t d 1) (stnds.1) 120 1 100 -100 30 1 400 --

Pb (Lead) Cd (Cadmium) Cr (Chromium) ( ) Co (Cobalt) Cu (Copper) Ni (Nickel) Hg (Mercury) Zn (Zinc) As (Arsenic)

22-25 2.5-5 70-90 14 44-48 45-46 0-0.6 176-189 3.3-3.9

24-26 2-2.5 84-109 14-15 50-55 46-48 0-0.8 148-169 4.3-5.0

46-50 2.5-4 88-93 14 118-121 50-51 0-1.25 350-368 15.0-15.3

4-6 0-1 47-59 4 30-39 21-26 0 5-7 4.2-4.8

0-3 0-2 20-24 4-6 169-249 12-14 0 28-43 21.9-4.3

Average Annual Income and Expenditure


Description 1. Recurring operational Cost Land rental (2 ha) Staff salary and wages Field supplies (duckweed) Field supplies for Agri & Fish Energy/fuel cost (pump) Maintenance Miscellaneous 2. Total Annual Operation Cost Depreciation (10 years) Management Overhead (7.5%) Financial costs (9 5% on WC) (9.5% Subtotal Admin&Finance costs Total Annual Recurring costs Income from Farm Revenue: Sale proceed from DW fed Fish Sale proceed from Agri. /fruit Miscellaneous sales Total Income from sales 3. Operational Profit 4. 4 Net profit before taxes 128,778 25,000 3,600 157,378 -55,707 -107,138 -107 138 253,800 30,000 4,400 288,200 63,100 10,292 10 292 316,509 34,000 4,600 355,109 117,287 62,860 62 860 402,231 44,000 5,200 451,431 200,810 144,663 144 663 404,982 65,000 5,400 475,382 206,725 148,276 148 276 445,702 58,250 5,200 509,152 228,045 168,610 168 610 419,440 56,667 5,100 481,207 188,218 127,328 127 328 413,354 60,223 5,600 479,177 177,265 115,322 115 322 348,100 46,643 4,888 399,630 140,718 83,777 83 777 26,000 85,600 10,000 28,000 43,500 13,700 6,285 213,516 25,000 15,981 10,450 10 450 51,431 264,516 26,000 92,020 12,000 29,000 45,500 14,000 6,580 225,100 25,000 16,833 10,925 10 925 52,808 277,908 26,000 98,922 13,500 30,000 47,900 14,500 7,000 237,822 25,000 17,837 11,590 11 590 54,427 292,249 26,000 106,341 14,300 31,000 50,430 15,200 7,350 250,621 25,000 18,797 12,350 12 350 56,147 306,768 26,000 114,317 15,200 33,000 55,720 16,720 7,700 268,657 25,000 20,149 13,300 13 300 58,449 327,106 26,000 122,891 15,960 32,300 58,500 17,556 7,900 281,107 25,000 21,083 13,352 13 352 59,435 340,542 26,000 129,036 15,678 34,000 62,400 18,375 7,500 292,989 25,000 21,974 13,916 13 916 60,890 353,879 26,000 136,480 16,512 33,600 63,100 18,500 7,720 301,912 25,000 22,643 14,340 14 340 61,943 363,855 26,000 110,701 14,144 31,363 53,381 16,069 7,254 258,966 25,000 19,412 12,528 12 528 56,941 315,853 Year 1 (Taka) Year 2 (Taka) Year 3 (Taka) Year 4 (Taka) Year 5 (Taka) Year 6 (Taka) Year 7 (Taka) Year 8 (Taka) 8 years Average

1 US Dollar = 80 Bangladeshi Taka

Low cost resource recovery and sustainability


High quality duckweed crop for feed application in fish/animal supplement - livestock. Treated effluent for safe irrigation and reuse of water. Composted sludge can be used as agriculture fertilizer when not toxic. Biogas generated for energy. g g gy Productive utilization of fallow land and wastewater; and Duckweed wastewater treatment systems by turning wastewater into valuable duckweed meal return a net profit meal, against capital and recurrent cost. Because of this effective resource recovery, the duckweed treatment system seems economically more sustainable.

Aquaculture and sanitation


Flexible and can be set up both as small scale decentralized systems, as well as large-scale systems. Direct economical benefits from fish sales and integrated aquaculture (poultry feed) and other by-products (periphery crops ie; vegetables, fruits); Urgently needed high quality animal feed; The system provides incentives to install and optimally use sanitary latrines; Contribute to C t ib t t an i improved sanitation and h lth condition d d it ti d health diti due t reduction of to d ti f indiscriminate discharge of pathogens and contaminants into the environment; Reduce possible bad odors, usually are produced from wastewater; Reduction of mosquito breeding sites sites, Substantially improve employment situation of the local population in the immediate surrounding; Considering these positive effects, it is clear that duckweed holds great potential in wastewater and sanitation projects if combined with duckweed feed applications in aquaculture for developing world.

Recommendation: it is recommended that Government can consider the option of duckweed based wastewater treatment in new projects, or possibly also in ongoing projects, in the field of wastewater treatment and sanitation in the developing countries.