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# X

240 v

10 k

LDR PPC

60W, 240 V

## Z Diagram 7 7. Lamp Lampu

Diagram 7 shows a transistor circuit functioning as an automatic switch. The resistance of the light dependent resistor (LDR) varies from 2 k to 10 k with changes in light intensity. The lamp will be switched on when the potential difference across YZ is more than 4 V. Rajah 7 menunjukkan sebuah litar yang berfungsi sebagai suis automatic. Rintangan bagi perintang peka cahaya (PPC) berubah dari 2 k ke 10 k dengan perubahan dalam keamatan cahaya. Lampu akan dipasang apabila beza keupayaan merentasi YZ adalah lebih daripada 4 V. (a) What is the function of resistor R? . [1 mark]/[1 markah] i) Calculate the potential difference across YZ when it is completely dark. Hitung beza keupayaan merentasi YZ apabila gelap sepenuhnya.

(b)

ii)

(c)

Explain why the lamp is connected to a magnetic relay M. Terangkan mengapa lampu itu disambungkan kepada geganti magnet M. [2 marks]/ [2 markah] The circuit in Diagram 7 can be modified to be a heat-controlled automatic switch. By adding a thermistor and an alarm, explain the modification to the circuit so that the alarm will be switched on when there is a fire. Litar dalam Rajah 7 boleh diubahsuai untuk menjadi suis kawalan haba automatic. Dengan menambahkan satu thermistor dan penggera, jelaskan pengubahsuaian kepada litar itu supaya penggera akan terpasang apabila kebakaran berlaku. .. .. . [3 marks]/[3 markah]

(d)

8.

(b)

ii)

Type of radiation and reason Jenis sinaran dan sebab [2 marks]/[2markah] Half-life and reason Separuh hayat dan sebab

iii)

(c)

(d)

(e)

[2 marks]/[2 markah] .

MARKING SCHEME No Answer 7 a To limit the current entering the base of the transistor b i. V BC = 10 k x 12 10 k + 10 k =6V

## Marks/ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 marks

8 a b

c d e

ii. Yes Because V XY = 6V 4 V 1. The voltage of transistor of 12V is not able to light up the lamp which requires a voltage of 240 V 2. A magnetic relay is used to switch on the lamp in a 240 V circuit. 1. The 10 k resistor is replaced with a thermistor. 2. The LDR is replaced with 10 k resistor 3. The lamp is replaced with a fire alarm Total Isotope which decays by emitting radioactive rays i. solid easy to manage and carry ii. Beta ray able penetrate the fruit juice carton and less dangerous iii. Long half-life More lasting Strontium-90 (solid, beta ray and has long half life) Will be remove Its volume is less than the standard volume. Time = (3)(5) = 15 hours Total

7.

Diagram 7.1 shows silicon atoms, each with four valence electrons in its outer most shell. Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan atam silicon, dimana setiap satunya mempunyai empat elektron yang bebas.

Diagram 7.1 (a) (i) What is meant by doping ? Apakah maksud doping? ... [1 mark] Name the majority charge carrier in the p-type semiconductor. Namakan pembawa cas majoriti di dalam semikonduktor jenis p.

(ii)

(b)

... [1 mark] Diagram 7.2 shows a circuit containing a transistor used to detect the temperature of a liquid. The light bulb L will glow when the base-emitter potential difference VBE is more than 3 V. Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan litar yang mengandungi transistor yang digunakan untuk mengesan suhu cecair. Lampu L akan menyala bila beza keupayaan VBE tapak lebih daripada 3V

Diagram 7.2

Name the type of transistor used in the circuit in the Diagram 7.2. Namakan jenis transistor yang digunakan dalam litar dalam Rajah 7.2. [1mark ] When the light bulb L glows. Determine the resistance across the resistor R2, when the potential difference across the thermistor of 1500 is at its maximum. Bila lampu L menyala.. Cari rintangan melalui perintang R2, bila beza keupayaan melalui thermistor 1500 adalah pada keadaan maksimum.

(c )

[2 marks] (d) A thermistor of 3200 is used for a liquid so that bulb L will lit at its boiling point. Table 7.1 shows two possible resistors which can be used as R2. Termistor 3200 digunakan untuk cecair supaya lampu L akan menyala apabila mencapai takat didih. Jadual 7.1 menunjukkan dua perintang yang mungkin digunakan sebagai R2 Resistor P Q Table 7.1 (i) For each of the resistors P and Q, calculate the potential difference across the Resistor if the resistance of the thermistor is 3200 . Untuk setiap perintang P dan Q, kirakan beza keupayaan melalui perintang jika rintangan thermistor adalah 3200 . Resistance 1000 1200

[2 marks]

(ii)

Based on your answer in c (i), which resistors can be used as R2?. Explain your choice briefly. Berdasarkan jawapan anda di c(i), perintang manakah yang boleh digunakan sebagai R2. Jelaskan pilihan anda secara ringkas. [2 marks] Why the light bulb L will glow? Mengapakah lampu L akan menyala? [1 marks]

(iii)

8.

Diagram 8 shows a system used in a factory to ensure thickness of paper is uniform. Rajah 8 menunjukkan satu system yang digunakan di sebuah kilang membuat kertas untuk memastikan ketebalannya adalah sekata.

Diagram 8 / Rajah 8 The radioactive source, radiation detector and counter are used to detect the thickness of paper. The radioactive source contains a radioisotope. B particle is radiated. Sumber radioaktif, pengesan sinaran dan pembilang digunakan untuk mengesan ketebalan kertas. Sumber radioaktif itu mengandungi radioisotop. Zarah B dipancarkon. (a) What is meant by a radioisotope? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan radioisotop? [I mark]/[l markah] (i) What is a B particle? Apakah sebenarnya zarah? .. [1 mark]/[1 markah]

(b)

(ii)

State one detector suitable used for this purpose. Nyatakan satu alat pengesan yang sesuai digunakan untuk tujuan ini.

(c)

[I mark]/[l markah] Explain why the following radiation is not used. Terangkan mengapa sinaran berikut tidak digunakan. (i) Alpha particle zarah alfa [1 mark]/[1 markah] Gamma ray sinar Gama
[1 mark]/[1 markah]

(ii)

(d)

(e)

(i)

Which position shows least thickness? Bahagian yang manakah menunjukkan ketebalan yang tidak cukup? [1 mark]/[1 markah] State your reason for the answer in 8(e)(i). Nyatakan .sebab jawapan anda di 8(e)(i). .. [2 marks]/[2 markah]

(ii)

(f)

Now, the paper and radioactive sources are removed. Sekarang, kertas dan sumber radioaktif dikeluarkan. (i) What can you observe at the rate meter reading? Apakah yang dapat diperhatikan pada bacaan meter kadar? [1 mark]/[1 markah] State your reason for the answer in 8(f)(i). Nyatakan sebab jawapan anda di 8(f)(i) [2 marks]/[2 markah]

(ii)

MARKING SCHEME

NO 7 a b c

8 a b c D E

ANSWER i. Process of adding a certain amount of specific impurities (dopants) to a semiconductor to increase conductivity ii. Holes as majority carriers N-p-n transistor 12 3 = 9 V R2 = 9V 1500 3V = 500 i. Rp RQ Rp + Rt RQ + RT 1000 x 12 1200 1000 +3200 1200 + 3200 =2.89 V = 3.27 V ii. Q Because VQ is more than 3 V iii. there is a current flow The unstable isotopes which decay and gives out radioactive emissions. i. Radioactive ray that emit beta particles ii. Geiger muller tube i. alpha lose energy faster as they move through medium ii. gamma has a very high penetrating (low ionization )power and cannot be count. plumbum i. P ii. The count in the rate meter is the highest The thinner the paper, the higher the count in the rate meter i. The reading in the rate meter will be very high ii. less energy lose iii.

MARKS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1