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2012

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GVHD: Th.S VN VIT EM


NHM SVTH : NHM 2
LP: L11CQVT02 N

TP H Ch Minh, Thng 12 nm 2012

B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

CHUYN THNG TIN QUANG:

B TN SC
S DNG B LC QUANG
GVHD: Th.S VN VIT EM
NHM SVTH : NHM 2
LP: L11CQVT02 N

Ni dung yu cu :
- Khi nim v tn sc.
-

Cc loi tn sc v nh gi cc loi tn sc.


Cc loi b lc quang

- K thut b tn sc s dng b lc quang (cu to, nguyn l hot ng, cc kt qu nghin


cu nh gi sau khi b bng b lc quang).

Trn Vit Dng


L Xun Dng

Nguyn c Duy ( Nhm Trng )

ng Tn t
Lng Cng oan
L Vn c
Hng nh Giang
V Vn Trng Giang
ng Hu Hnh

Trn Quang Hin

L Quang Hip
Nguyn Thanh Hip
Nguyn Trung Hiu

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

LI M U

Mng truyn ti quang WDM ra i to nn nhng bc pht trin to ln trong vn


truyn dn. Vi s ra i ca cng ngh WDM p ng c nhng nhu cu tng ln rt ln v
bng thng. Ngy nay cc h thng thng tin quang ng trc, cc h thng dung lng ln u s
dng cng ngh WDM, vi nhng tuyn lin kt im im, ri n nhng lin kt cu trc mng
phc tp hn ph hp vi nhng yu cu p ng mng c t ra. Tuy nhin, do mt s nhng
nh hng ln tc ng n h thng WDM nn nhng nh khai thc mng vn cha tn dng c
ht nhng u im vt tri ca h thng ny.
Nhng nh hng phi k n u tin chnh l cc nh hng ca tn sc i vi h
thng WDM. Tn sc lm hn ch khong cch truyn dn cng nh tc ca h thng WDM, gy
ra li bit lm xung cp nghim trng c tnh ca h thng WDM. Do vn qun l tn sc
trong h thng WDM v ang rt c quan tm.
khng lm suy gim gim cht lng dch v cn phi c bin php khc phc tn sc. C
rt nhiu k thut c th p ng c yu cu ny.
Trong phn tm hiu ca bi ny xin trnh by k thut b tn sc s dng b lc quang. Mc
d c nhiu c gng song do thi gian v trnh c hn nn bi bo co khng th trnh khi nhng
thiu st. Rt mong nhn c nhng kin ng gp ca cc Thy v cc bn. Nhm thc hin xin
chn thnh cm n!

Bi bo co c chia thnh 3 chng nh sau:


Chng 1 : nh ngha - Phn loi v nh gi cc loi tn sc.
Chng 2 : Tm hiu cc b lc quang.
Chng 3 : K thut b tn sc s dng b lc quang : nguyn l b, cc kt qu nghin cu nh
gi sau khi b .

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

ii

B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

NHN XET CUA GIANG VIN HNG DN

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

iii

B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

Mc lc
Ni dung yu cu :............................................................................................................i
LI M U.................................................................................................................ii
NHN XET CUA GIANG VIN HNG DN.........................................................iii
Mc lc...........................................................................................................................iv
1. Khi nim tn sc:........................................................................................................v
Cc loi tn sc v nh gi cc loi tn sc..................................................................vi
Tn sc mode ( Intermodal Dispersion ) : .................................................................vi
Tn sc sc th ..........................................................................................................vii
Tn sc cht liu ( Material Dispersion )...............................................................vii
Tn sc ng dn sng (Waveguide Dispersion).....................................................ix
2.3.Tn sc phn cc mode ( Polarization Mode Dispersion )........................x
1.Khi nim cc b lc quang hc :.............................................................................xiii
1.1 B lc c nh.....................................................................................................xiii
1.1.1 B lc Fabry-Perot :....................................................................................xiii
B lc nhiu mng mng:.....................................................................................xiv
B lc a khoang mng mng in mi (TFMF)..................................................xv
Cc b lc thay i c........................................................................................xvii
B lc iu chnh c Fabry-Perot...................................................................xviii
Cch t nhiu x.................................................................................................xviii
Cch t Bragg si (FBG)....................................................................................xviii
B lc iu chnh Mach-Zehnder(MZF)..............................................................xix
B lc quang m hc (AOTF):.............................................................................xix
1 K thut b tn sc s dng b lc quang.................................................................xxi
2.Mt s loi b lc dng b tn sc.................................................................xxiii
Giao thoa k Fabry Perot (FP)............................................................................xxiii
Giao thoa Mach-Zehnder (MZ)..........................................................................xxvi
KT LUN................................................................................................................xxxv
.................................................................................xxxvi
Ti liu tham kho....................................................................................................xxxvi
L11CQVT02-Nhm II

iv

B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

.............................................................................................xxxvi

1. Khi nim tn sc:


Tn sc l hin tng tn hiu quang truyn qua si quang b bin dng. Nu xung b gin
ra gi l tn sc dng, ngc li nu xung b hp li gi l tn sc m. Trong trng hp tn
sc dng, nu xung gin ra ln hn chu k bt s dn ti s chng lp gia cc bt k cn.
Kt qu l u thu khng nhn din c bt 1 hay bt 0 c truyn i u pht, dn ti
b quyt nh trong u thu s quyt nh sai, v khi t s BER tng ln, t s S/N gim
v cht lng h thng gim.
.

Hnh 1.1 Hin tng tn sc lm gin xung ng ra

Gi D l tn sc tng cng ca si quang, n v l giy ( s ). Khi D c xc


nh bi:
D = o2 i2

Trong i , o ln lt l rng xung ng vo v ng ra ca si quang ( n v l s ).


tn sc qua mi km si quang c tnh bng ns/km hoc ps/km. i vi loi tn sc ph
thucvo b rng ph ca ngun quang th lc n v c tnh l ps/km-nm.

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

Cc loi tn sc v nh gi cc loi tn sc
Tn sc tng

Tn sc mode

Tn sc phn cc mode

Tn sc cht liu

Tn sc sc th

Tn sc ng dn sng

Si n mode

Si a mode

Tn sc mode ( Intermodal Dispersion ) :


Tn sc Mode hnh thnh l do nng lng ca nh sng phn tn thnh nhiu mode. Mi mode li
truyn vi vn tc nhm khc nhau nn thi gian truyn cng khc nhau. Chnh s khc nhau v thi
gian lan truyn ca cc Mode gy ra tn sc Mode.

S ph thuc ca dmod vo s m trong hm chit sut c biu din theo hnh sau :
L11CQVT02-Nhm II

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B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

Dmod (ns/km)

1,0

0,1

0,01
0

1,6

1,8

2,0

2,2

2,4

2,6

2,8

Hnh 2.1 Tn sc (dmod) thay i theo chit sut

Tn sc sc th
Dchr = Dmat + Dwg = L. . Mmat + Mwg

Tn sc cht liu ( Material Dispersion )

Hnh 2.1 M t tn sc cht liu.


Do tn hiu quang truyn trn si khng phi n sc m gm mt khong bc sng nht nh. Mi
bc sng li c vn tc truyn khc nhau nn thi gian truyn cng khc nhau. tri rng xung do
tn sc c th o c bng thi gian tr nhm trong si quang.

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

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B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

V ngha vt l, tn sc do cht liu cho bit mc ni rng xung ca mi nm b rng ph ngun


quang qua mi km si quang. n v ca tn sc do cht liu M l ps/nm.km. S bin thin ca
16 M theo bc sng nh hnh H.2.2
tn sc cht liu
d (Ps/nm.km)
12

Dmat

Dchr=dmoddwg

1200

1300

1400

1600

-4

-8
Hnh 2.2 Tn sc cht liu dmode, tn sc dn sng dwg v tn sc sc th thay i theo bc sng.
-12
bc sng 850nm, tn sc do cht liu M khong 90 n 120 ps/nm.km. Nu s dng
ngun quang l LED c b rng ph = 50nm th rng xung quang khi truyn qua mi km:
-16

Dmat=M .
Dmat = 100ps/nm.km x 50nm = 5ns/km.

Cn nu ngun quang l laser diode c = 3nm th ni rng xung ch khong 0.3 ns/km.
bc sng 1300nm tn sc cht liu bng tn sc dn sng nhng ngc du nn tn sc sc th
bng khng.
bc sng 1500nm tn sc cht liu khong 20ps/nm.km.

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

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Tn sc ng dn sng (Waveguide Dispersion)

Hnh 2.3 Tn sc ng dn sng


i vi si n mode, khi ni n tn sc sc th, ngoi tn sc cht liu cn phi xt n tn sc dn
sng. Khi nh sng c ghp vo si quang truyn i, mt phn chnh truyn trong phn li si,
phn nh truyn trong phn lp v vi nhng vn tc khc nhau do chit sut gia phn li v v ca
si quang khc nhau(Hnh 2.3). S khc bit vn tc truyn nh sng gy nn tn sc ng dn sng.

Tn sc dn sng DW l mt thnh phn ng gp vo tham s tn sc D, n ph thuc


vo tn s chun ha V ( tham s V ) ca si quang. Tn sc dn sng DW c tnh theo
cng thc sau:

Vi: n2g l ch s nhm ca vt liu.


b l hng s lan truyn chun.

Vi

l ch s mode, c gi tr nm trong di
= n.k0 l hng s lan truyn dc theo trc si.
k0 = 2/ l hng s lan truyn trong khng gian t do.

l gi tr chnh lch chit sut. c gi thit l tham s khng ph thuc


vo tn s, = ( n1 n2 )/n1.
L11CQVT02-Nhm II

ix

B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

V l tn s chun ha hay tham s V hay s V.

nh hng ca tn sc dn sng ln gin xung c th c kho st trong iu kin


gi thit rng: ch s chit sut ca vt liu khng ph thuc vo bc sng.
2.3.Tn sc phn cc mode ( Polarization Mode Dispersion )
Tn sc mode phn cc l mt c tnh c bn ca si quang v cc thnh phn si quang
n mode trong nng lng tn hiu ti mt bc sng no b phn thnh hai mode
phn cc trc giao. Nguyn nhn chnh dn n s phn cc trc giao ny l do cu trc
khng hon ho ca si quang, c gi l s chit quang. S khc bit v chit xut s sinh
ra vn tc mode khc nhau, vn tc truyn ca hai mode khc nhau nn thi gian truyn cng
khong cch l khc nhau gy ra tr nhm . V vy PMD gy nn hin tng gin rng xung
tn hiu lm gim cht lng truyn dn. V phng din ny nh hng ca PMD cng
ging nh nh hng ca tn sc ng dn sng.

Hnh 2.4 Minh ha tn sc phn cc mode

S dn xung c th c xc nh t thi gian tr T gia hai thnh phn trc giao


trong khi truyn xung. Vi si quang c di L th T c tnh nh sau:

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

T =

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

L
L

= L 1x 1 y = L( 1 )
v gx v gy

Trong : ch s ph x, y dng phn bit hai mode phn cc trc giao.


1 c gn lin vi s khc nhau trong vn tc nhm cng vi hai trng
thi chnh ca s phn cc.
S lin h gia vn tc nhm vg vi hng s lan truyn c cho bi cng thc sau:
vg = ( d/d )-1
Do vy lng T/L chnh l s o ca PMD. i vi cc si duy tr phn cc th T/L
l hon ton ln ( ~ 1 ns/km ) khi hai thnh phn phn cc c kch thch bng nhau ti u
vo si nhng c th b gim ti khng bng vic pht x nh sng dc theo mt trong cc
trc c bn.
Nhng cng thc ( 2.13 ) khng th dng mt cch trc tip xc nh PMD i vi
cc si quang tiu chun trong mng vin thng l do tnh ghp ngu nhin gia hai mode
c sinh ra t s xo trn ngu nhin ca lng chit xy ra dc theo si. Vic ghp c
khuynh hng lm cn bng thi gian lan truyn cho hai thnh phn phn cc dn n gim
PMD. Trong thc t th PMD c c trng bi gi tr cn trung bnh bnh phng RMS
ca T thu c sau khi ly trung bnh nhng xo trn ngu nhin. Kt qu thu c nh
sau:

y lc l di tng quan c nh ngha nh l di qua hai thnh phn phn


cc c mi tng quan; gi tr ca n c th bin i trn di rng t 1m n 1km i vi cc
si khc nhau, gi tr c trng 10m.
i vi cc khong cch ngn nh z << lc , T = ( 1 ).z t cng thc (2.14), nh
mong i i vi si duy tr phn cc. i vi khong cch z > 1km, s nh gi tt nht ca
xung m rng thu c s dng z >> lc. Cho di si l L, T c tnh xp x thnh:

Trong : Dp l tham s tn sc phn cc vi cc gi tr tiu biu nm trong khong D p = 0,1


1 ps/ km1/2. Do c s ph thuc L1/2 nn s dn xung do PMD l tng i nh so vi cc
hiu ng GVD. Tuy nhin PMD c th tr thnh nhn t gii hn c ly xa ca cc h thng
thng tin si quang hot ng trn cc khong cch di nhng tc bit cao. Ngoi ra trong

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

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mt s trng hp PMD c th lm xung cp nghim trng c tnh h thng do dn xung


qua mc
Nh vy ta c th tng kt li nh sau:

Tn sc sc th ch xy ra i vi si n mode, i vi si a mode tt c cc loi tn sc u c


th xy ra.
- Tn sc mode: Do nng lng ca nh sng phn tn thnh nhiu mode. Mi mode li
truyn vi vn tc nhm khc nhau nn thi gian truyn khc nhau.
- Tn sc sc th: Do tn hiu quang truyn trn si khng phi l n sc m gm mt
khong bc sng nht nh. Mi bc sng li c vn tc truyn khc nhau nn thi gian truyn
cng khc nhau.
- Tn sc phn cc mode: c gy ra do s phn cc ca nh sng. Hai phn phn cc ca
nh sng c lan truyn trong si quang vi tc khc nhau

tn sc tng cng: Dt = Dmode + Dchr + Dpol

Kt lun : Tn sc gy ra nhng nh hng rt ln n cc h thng thng tin quang


tc cao ni chung v h thng WDM ni ring. Chng lm hn ch khong cch truyn
dn cng nh tc ca h thng, thm na chng c th gy ra li bit, gy xung cp
nghim trng cc c tnh ca h thng. Nhm hn ch v loi b chng, chng ta cn phi p
dng nhng phng php b ph hp sao cho c th b c ton din nht. i vi cc
h thng WDM chng ta cn phi ch trng hn ht n cc tn sc bc cao v tn sc mode
phn cc, chng l nhng tn sc chnh gy ra nhng nh hng xu n cht lng, cng
nh c tnh ca h thng ny.
L11CQVT02-Nhm II

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GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

CHNG 2
1.Khi nim cc b lc quang hc :
Mt b lc quang l thit b ch cho php mt bc sng duy nht truyn qua cn tt c cc bc
sng khc u b chn li.
Nguyn l c bn nht ca b lc l s t giao thoa gia cc tn hiu,bc sng hot ng ca b lc
s c cng pha nhiu ln khi i qua n,cc knh bc sng khc, ngc li, s b trit tiu v pha.
1,2N

Otical
filter

k(1kN)

Hnh 2.1: B lc quang

Ty theo kh nng iu chnh knh bc sng hot ng,ngi ta chia b lc lm hai phn : c nh
(fixed filter)v b lc iu chnh c(tunable filter). B lc c nh ch cho mt bc sng c nh
c nh trc truyn qua, cn vi loi b lc thay i c th chng ta c th chn bc sng
c php truyn qua n. By gi chng ta s tm hiu cc b lc ng dng c tnh cht li
phng ca EDFA, v cc b lc trong thc t u c c tnh ha theo cc tham s m chng ta
kho st y.

1.1 B lc c nh
Hu ht cc k thut dng to ra cc b ghp v phn knh WDM u c dng ch to b
lc quang.

1.1.1 B lc Fabry-Perot :
Nhng b lc ny c to ra da theo cc b cng hng Fabry-Perot(FB). Bc sng truyn qua
b lc c tnh theo cng thc sau:

2L / N = N

(2.1)

vi L l chiu di khoang, N l mt s nguyn. B cng hng FB ch cho php truyn qua nhng
bc sng no tho mn iu kin cng hng c d bo theo cng thc 4.1. Khong cch gia
hai bc sng cng hng k tip nhau l:

N N +1 = 2 / 2 L
Hm truyn t ca mt b lc FB tnh c t cng thc sau:

FPF

= [ m (1 R ) 2 ] /{(1 R m ) 2 + 4 R m sin 2 [( 0 ) L / v]}

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

(2.2)

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GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

vi m l suy hao bn trong, R l h s phn x, L l chiu di khoang v v l vn tc nh sng


truyn trong hc, bng c/n vi n l chit sut mi trng. R rng TFPF l mt hm tun hon, chu k
ca n (FSR) bng:

FSR = v / 2 L = c / 2 Ln

(2.3)

FSR

R=0,3

1,0

R=0,5
0,5
R=0,99
-1

Hnh 2.2

Hm truyn TFPF c trnh by trn hnh sau.


Cn lu vai tr ca h s phn x: H s phn x cng cao th cc c tnh k thut truyn dn th
hin cng r nt. K thut dng mng mng c s dng lm tng h s phn x ca cc gng
FP.
Bng thng 3dB ca mi nh ca mt TFPF nhn c t cng thc sau:
BW FPF ( BWHM ) = (c / 2 Ln )[(1 R ) / R ]

(2.4)

y ta b qua suy hao m = 1 . Phm cht ca b lc FP c gi l (F), c xc nh nh sau:

F = FSR / BWFPF = R /(1 R)

(2.5)

Vi FPF c phn x cao, F xp x bng s knh m b lc c th p ng c. Gi tr ca F


thng nm trong khong 20 n 120 v c th tng cao hn na.

B lc nhiu mng mng:


B lc ny ph thuc vo nh hng ca nhiu gia cc sng nh sng phn x t cc lp mng khc
nhau, c th hin trn hnh sau.

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

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GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

/4
/4
Hnh 2.3 nh hng ca nhiu trong b lc mng mng

Nu b dy ca cc lp ny bng 4 th anh sng bc sng s c dch pha tng ng sau khi


qua mi lp l khi gc ti bng 0. Sng phn x ngc pha so vi sng ti, chng giao thoa trit
tiu ln nhau. Ni cch khc l bc sng truyn qua c mng lc trong khi cc bc sng khc
th khng. Cu trc nhiu lp nh trn lm tng hiu qu v lm cho cc c tnh truyn dn ca b
lc gn l tng hn. K thut ny c s dng trong nhiu nm v c rt nhiu ng dng.
Nu mi lp c b dy bng 2 th sng ti v sng phn x ng pha nhau nn bin tn hiu
c tng ln. Khi cc mng mng c phn x cao c s dng to ra b lc khoang cng
hng Fabry-Perot.

B lc a khoang mng mng in mi (TFMF)


B lc mng mng TFMF (Thin-film filter) cng l 1 dng ca giao thoa k Faby-perot,trong cc
gng bao quanh hc cng hng c thc hin bng nhiu lp mng mng in mi c th phn
x c.B lc ny l b lc di thng ch cho mt bc sng nht nh i qua v phn x cc bc
sng cn li.B lc a khoang mng mng in mi (TFMF) gm nhiu hc cng hng cch nhau
bng cc mng mng in mi phn x nh hnh minh ha (trong hnh 2.4 trong bi bo co).S hc
cng hng cng nhiu th hm truyn t cng sut c nh cng phng trong di thng v c dc
cng ng .
Nhng b lc ny gm nhiu khoang FP, lm cho cc c tnh truyn dn ca b lc tin gn n
trng hp l tng.Mt b lc cng hng mng mng (TFF) l mt b giao thoa Fabry Perot. Vi
cc gng l cc lp mng mng in mi phn x. N hot ng nh mt b lc bng thng cho
mt s bc sng i qua cn cc bc sng khc b phn x li. Cc bc sng truyn qua c xc
nh nh chiu di ca hc cng hng. Mt b lc mng mng nhiu hc cng hng (TFMF) gm
nhiu hc cng hng c ngn cch bi cc lp mng mng in mi phn x nh hnh sau :
L11CQVT02-Nhm II

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GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

Hnh 2.4: Cu to b lc gm c 3 khoang


cng hng

Hnh 2.5: Hm truyn t cng sut i vi cc trng hp gm: 1,2,3 khoang cng hng
Hm truyn t ca cc b lc mang mng c mt,hai v ba hc cng hng.
Vic tng cng nhiu hc cng hng gip cho nh ca di thng cng phng v cnh sn cng
dc. y l hai c im mong mun ca b lc.
to cc b ghp v b tch, ta ghp cc b lc c ghp theo kiu cascade vi nhau nh hnh

L11CQVT02-Nhm II

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GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

Hnh 2.6: B lc ghp/tch knh c to t cc b lc mng mng in mi


Trong b tch, b lc th nht s cho mt bc sng i qua v phn x tt c cc bc sng cn li.
n ng vo b lc th hai li c thm mt bc sng na c truyn qua cn tt c cc bc sng
cn li cng b phn x li, v c tip tc nh vy.
Phn t ny c nhiu u im: di thng phng, cnh sn dc, n nh i vi nhit , suy hao
thp, nhy cm vi trng thi phn cc ca tn hiu. Cc thng s cho mt b ghp 16 knh c cho
trong bng
Mt b lc nhiu khoang s dng mng mng in mi (TFMF) l thit b c cu to t nhiu
khoang FP v s phn x xy ra do nhiu lp mng mng bn trong (Xem hnh trn). Cu trc nh
vy tn dng c mi u im v c tnh truyn dn ca nhiu lp mng phn x mng v nhiu
khoang FP.

Cc b lc thay i c
y l loi b lc c kh nng chn la bc sng truyn qua n. Nhng b lc ny l loi phn
t tch cc v chng i hi phi c ngun cung cp t bn ngoi. Tuy nhin chng ta vn kho st
chng trong phn ny v chc nng ca chng cng tng t vi cc loi b lc hc.
Mt tp hp cc bc sng i vo b lc, mt b phn iu khin vic la chn bc sng mong
mun.
Chng ta cn loi b lc ny cho 2 mc ch: lc cc knh bc sng trc cc my thu v xy dng
mt mng chuyn mch quang linh ng.
Tc iu chnh ph thuc vo kiu mng m chng ta s dng. Mng chuyn mch quang ang s
dng yu cu tc tng i thp, thi gian chuyn mch tnh bng ms. Cn mng chuyn mch
gi th c thi gian chuyn mch c s v thm ch l ns nn i hi 1 tc cao hn. B lc iu
chnh c cn c 1 s ng dng khc nh: trong cc ng dy tr, lazer si thay i c, cc thit
b o lng,
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B lc iu chnh c Fabry-Perot
B lc Fabry-Perot gm mt khoang c to bi hai gng c h s phn x cao t song song vi
nhau. nh sng i vo gng th nht, mt phn i qua gng th hai, phn cn li c phn x
qua li gia hai b mt ca hai gng. B lc dng ny gi l giao thoa k (interferometer) hay vt
chun ( etalon) Fabry-Perot.
Chng ta bit bc sng trung tm ca b lc c nh FP ph thuc vo chiu di L ca khoang
cng hng FP, N=2L/N. Nh vy th tng bc sng trung tm ta ch cn tng L. S tng ny
c iu khin bi piezoceramic. Nhng piezoceramics ny thay i chiu di theo in p c vo
chng, do bc sng lc cng thay i theo. Loi thit b ny c gi l b lc Fabry-Perot si
(FFB). u im ca b lc ny l c khong ng ln, tc iu chnh nhanh, PDL thp. Tuy nhin
n cng c nhc im l n nh v t s trit sng ph thp.
Cng thc 4.1 xc nh bc sng trung tm ca b lc FB, N=2L/N, y L l chiu di quang
hc ca 1 khoang, L=Lon vi Lo l chiu di hnh hc ca khoang v n l chit sut ca mi trng
trong khoang. Do , nu chng ta c th iu khin c n th cng ng ngha vi iu khin c
b lc. Tinh th lng c cha st c th thay i chit sut theo tn hiu in rt thch hp cho b lc
ny. Cc c tnh k thut ca b lc ny rt tt v n c dnh cho trng hp s lng ln.

Cch t nhiu x
Kh nng iu chnh ca 1 cch t nhiu x c xc nh bi cng thc : dsin=m vi m Z.
Trong thc t, cch thay gc l lm nghing cch t. Cc c tnh ca b lc ny u tho mn, trong
c 1 u im chnh l c khong ng rng.

Cch t Bragg si (FBG)


Cch t Bragg c s dng rng ri trong h thng thng tin quang. Mi s bin i tun hon
trong mi trng truyn sng (thng l bin i tun hon chit sut mi trng ) u c th hnh
thnh cch t Bragg.
Ta thy c th iu chnh 1 FBG bng cch thay i bc cch t . V ta c th thay i bng cch
dng lc ko v nung nng cch t. u im ca b lc ny l suy hao thp, d dng thc hin ghp
bc sng, bng thng hp v phn gii cao, cn nhc im l khong ng nh nhng c th
khc phc bng cch s dng nhiu tng FBG.

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B lc iu chnh Mach-Zehnder(MZF)
Cu hnh c bn c trnh by trn hnh sau.

Hnh 2.7: MZI c to thnh bng cch kt ni cc couplers 3dB


Ngi ta s dng cu hnh i xng ca 1 my o giao thoa Mach-Zehnder ch to 1 MZF iu
chnh c. Vic iu chnh c thc hin bng cch thay i chit sut ca 1 nhnh: nung nng
hoc s dng vt liu quang in. c tnh ca b lc ny rt tt.

B lc quang m hc (AOTF):
B lc ny t c s ch yu trn cch t Bragg cch t c to bi sng m. B lc ny
chuyn i sng TE thnh TM v ngc li.

Hnh 2.8 : Mt AOTF n gin


Nguyn l hot ng ca 1 AOTF: 2 ng dn sng Titan(Ti) ch to theo cu hnh Mach-Zehnder
c khc vo 1 bn dn LiNbO3. nh sng vo b lc c tch thnh cc sng TE & TM bng 1 b
phn cc ng vo. Sng TE truyn theo nhnh trn cn sng TM truyn dc theo nhnh di. B
chuyn i to ra 1 sng m b mt (SAW). Sng ny gy ra sc cng trong LiNbO3, to ra trng thi
xo trn nh k chit sut ca LiNbO3. Trng thi xo trn ny ging nh cch t Bragg ng. Do
s tng tc vi cch t, cng sut t mode TE vi bc sng tho iu kin cng hng c
chuyn thnh mode TM v ngc li. B phn cc ng ra c nhim v kt hp cc mode TE & TM
ng ra.
iu kin cng hng:

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= ( n)

(2.6)

m l bc sng c chn, l bc cch t to bi sng m v n=nTE-nTM l chnh lch chit


sut ca LiNbO3 i vi cc mode TE & TM.
Loi b lc c th iu chnh c c trng bi mt s thng s chnh sau:
Khong ng cn gi l kh nng thay i bc sng (nm): l tp hp cc bc sng m b
lc c th iu khin.
Bng thng (BW).
S knh lm vic: l t s gia khong ng v khong cc knh ti thiu c xc nh bi 1
mc xuyn nhiu yu cu.
Tc iu chnh: c o bng thi gian cn tng 1 bc sng cn thit.
Suy hao hay suy hao xen (dB): c tnh theo cng thc
IL12=-10log(p1/p2)
Suy hao do phn cc (PDL-dB): .
T s trit sng ph (SSR-dB): l t s gia cng sut max ca nh k cn u
tin v cng sut ca nh chnh.
phn gii: l dch ti thiu ca 1 bc sng m b lc c th pht hin
c.

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CHNG 3
1 K thut b tn sc s dng b lc quang
1.1 Nguyn l b ca B Lc Quang :
C ba k thut qun l tn sc c bn l x l ti u pht, x l ti u thu v x l trn ng
truyn. B tn sc bng b lc thuc k thut qun l tn sc trn ng truyn.

Hnh 3.1 :M hnh minh ha B Lc Quang trong h thng thng tin quang
Tn hiu quang truyn i xa trn ng dy s pht sinh ra vn suy hao v tn sc. Do thng
thng sau mt khong cch truyn c nh s c b khuych i nhm tng cng sut, bin tn
hiu.Qua ta thy vic gii quyt suy hao bng b khuych i l hon ton kh thi. Theo s
hnh 3.1 trn ng truyn sau b khuych i c b tr thit b b tn sc chnh l B Lc Quang.
Cch thc hot ng ca b lc c th khi qut nh sau : Tn hiu truyn i t B Pht Quang sau
khi truyn mt khong cch xa th tn hiu s nh hng nhiu bi suy hao v tn sc. B Lc Quang
t k st sau B Khuych i cho nn tn hiu sau khi c khuch i s tip tc b tn sc bng
thit b lc quang.Qu trnh ny c th lp li nu khong cch xa.Do pha thu s thu c tn
hiu khng c hin tng chng lp xung.
1.2 C s ton hc ca b bng B Lc Quang :
B tn sc bng b lc quang l gii php hiu qu nht nhm b GVD ( tn sc vn tc nhm ). Cc
b lc thng c s dng l cc b lc giao thoa.
Cho nn b lc quang c hm chuyn i loi b thnh phn pha v lu li tn hiu ban u.
Ta c phng trnh lan truyn xung nh sau:

A i 2 2 A 3 3 A
+
.

.
=0
z
2 t 2
6 t 3

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Vi A l bin ng bao ca xung


3 l tn sc bc ba, thng thng c th b qua 2 khi > 0,1 ps 2 /km , gii phng trnh trn ta
2
c :
1
A( z , t ) =
2

A( 0, ) exp 2

.z. 2 +

3 .z. 3 it d
6

(3.2)

nu b qua 3 th phng trnh trn khng c s hng cha


~
v A
( 0, ) l bin i fourier ca A(0,t). Ta vit li phng trnh (3.2):

1
A( z, t ) =
2

A( 0, ) exp 2

.z. 2 it d

i
2

2
Nh vy tn sc l do h s pha exp 2 .z. gy ra,vy mc ch ca b tn sc l loi b h s

pha tn hiu ng vo c th khi phc ti ng ra.

Nh phng trnh (4.2):


1
A( z , t ) =
2

A( 0, ) exp 2

.z. 2 +

3 .z. 3 it d
6

ta thy tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) nh hng n tn hiu quang thng qua ph pha l

i .z. 2
. Nu b lc quang m hm truyn t ca n loi b c pha ny th s khi phc
exp 2
2

li c tn hiu, nhng khng c b lc quang no c hm truyn t thch hp b tn sc do vn


tc nhm gy ra mt cch chnh xc. Tuy nhin vn c nhiu b lc quang c th b mt phn GVD
nh vo hm truyn t l tng.
Ta xt b lc quang vi hm truyn t H ( ) nu b lc ny c t sau si c chiu di L th tn
hiu quang sau b lc c th biu din bng phng trnh sau:
A( L, t ) =

1
2

A( 0, ) H () exp 2 .L.

i.t d

(3.3)

Khai trin Taylor pha ca H ( ) n s hng bc hai:

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[(

H ( ) = H ( ) exp[ i ( ) ] H ( ) exp i 0 + 1 + 1 / 2 2 2

)]

(3.4)

m
m
vi m = d / d (m = 0,1,...) ti tn s sng mang 0 .V hng s pha 0 v tr v thi gian

1 khng nh hng n hnh dng xung v c th b qua. Khi ny hm truyn t c th biu din
nh sau:

H ( ) = H ( ) exp[ i ( ) ] H ( ) exp i / 22 2

(3.5)

c th b dch pha do GVD gy th ta phi trit tiu thnh phn ph pha trong phng trnh
(6.4), hay ni cch khc l:

i .z. 2
exp 2
2

* exp i / 2 2 2 = 0

Nh vy ph pha ca si c th b bng cch chn b lc quang c 2 = 2 L v xung s khi phc


ch khi H ( ) = 1 v cc s hng bc cao hn bc ba trong khai trin Taylor ca phng trnh (6.6) l
khng ng k. Khi xung s c khi phc hon ton
A( L, t ) =

1
2

1
~
A( 0, ) H ( ) exp( i.t )d = A( L, t ) = 2

A( 0, ) exp( i.t )d

2.Mt s loi b lc dng b tn sc


Cc b lc c th c to ra nh vic s dng giao thao k. N hot ng nh l mt b lc quang
bi v c tnh truyn ph thuc vo tn s ca n. i vi vic b tn sc chng ta cn hm truyn
t H ( ) c pha ph thuc tn s, iu ny c th t c bng cch cho nh sng i qua li nhiu
ln gia hai mt phn x trong giao thoa.

Giao thoa k Fabry Perot (FP).


Giao thoa k Fabry Perot phn x, thng c gi l b giao thoa k GT (Gires Tournois), c
thit k gm mt gng phn x mt phn pha trc v mt gng phn x ton phn t pha
sau.
a) Cu to ca b lc Fabry Perot
B lc Fabry Perot bao gm mt hc c to ra do t hai gng song song nhau c phn xa
cao. y cn c gi l b lc giao thoa Fabry Perot.

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Hnh 3.2 Nguyn l hot ng ca b lc Fabry Perot


Tn hiu vo n mt bn tri ca hc, sau truyn qua hc, mt phn nh sng thot ra ngoi mt
bn phi v mt phn nh sng phn x quay li gia hai mt.
b) Nguyn l b tn sc ca b lc Fabry Perot:
Hm truyn t ca b lc ny l:

H FP ( ) = H 0

1 + r. exp( iT )
1 + r. exp( iT )

(3.7)

Trong :
H0 l mt hng s dng nh gi tng suy hao.
2

r l phn x gng trc.

T l thi gian i vng trong hc cng hng FP. V H FP ( ) khng ph thuc vo tn s,


cho nn ch c pha ph c thay i bi b lc FP.
Tuy nhin, pha ( ) ca H FP ( ) khc nhiu so vi l tng. y l hm c tun hon v t gi tr
nh ti nh cng hng ca FP. Trong vng ln cn ca mi nh, vng ph tn ti trong pha

thay i nh mt hm bc hai. Trong thc t, khi khai trin Taylor ( ) ta c 2 c cho bi


phng trnh sau:

2 = 2T 2

r (1 r )

(1 + r ) 3

Nguyn l b tn sc bng b lc quang: Khi nh sng ti b tn sc trc khi vo b lc


quang Fabry-Perot th theo nguyn tc hot ng ca b lc th n s cho mt phn nh sng i qua
v phn cn li s phn x lin tc gia hai b mt phn x ca giao thoa k v c mi ln phn x
nh th th nh sng s i qua c gng th hai ca giao thoa k kt qu l chm nh sng ra ti
ng ra gng 2 ca b lc u c cng ng pha vi nhau, iu ny thc hin c bng cch
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thay i chit sut n bng cch dng tinh th lng in t lp y khoang cng hng chic sut
ca tinh th lng in t s thay i khi c dng in chy qua hoc l thay i chiu di L ca
khoang cng hng bng cch dng mt cp in cc bng gm p vo hai mt ca khoang cng
hng
Hnh 3.3 : Qu trnh cng hng xung nh sng qua b lc Fabry Perot

V d : mt hc cng hng FP di 2cm (T); r =0.8 th ta c 2 2200 ps 2 ;c th b c GVD


cho 110km si chun.
Nhng do suy hao cao, bng thng hp ca b lc FP nn n hn ch trong cc h thng thng tin
quang thc t.

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Giao thoa Mach-Zehnder (MZ)

Hnh 3.4 Mch nh sng Planar s dng chui cc mch MZI(a), trong ca thit b(b)

Mt giao thoa ton bng si c th c to ra bng vic ghp ni tip cc Coupler 3dB nh hnh 3.3
Trong Coupler u dng chia tn hiu vo thnh hai phn bng nhau v ta c s dch pha
khc nhau nu chiu di nhnh khc nhau trc khi a vo Coupler th hai. Tn hiu c th bin mt
mt trong hai ng ra ca Coupler ty vo tn s tn hiu vo v chiu di nhnh. Hm truyn t
i vi mt cng l:

H MZ ( ) =

1
2

[1 + exp( i ) ]

Vi l tr trong nhnh di hn ca giao thoa MZ. Mt giao thoa khng hot ng nh mt b


cn bng quang, nhng ni chui chng to thnh mt b cn bng rt tt. Cc b lc ny c to ra
di dng mch nh sng Planar bng cch dng ng dn sng Silica.
2

Hnh 6.3a l s thit b c kch thc 52x71mm , suy hao ca mt chip khong 8dB. N gm 12
Coupler c chiu di cc nhnh khng i xng c mt ni tip. Chromium c t trn mt
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nhnh ca mi giao thoa MZ iu khin pha ch quang. u dim i vi loi thit b ny l


c im cn bng tn sc ca n c th iu khin bng vic thay i chiu di nhnh v s lng
giao thoa MZ.
Nhn hnh 3.3 ta thy thit b c thit k cc thnh phn tn s cao hn lan truyn trong nhnh
di hn ca giao thoa MZ, nn chng s tr nhiu hn cc thnh phn tn s thp hn i tuyn ngn
hn. C ch ny ngc li vi s lan truyn trong si quang ch tn sc.
Nm 1994 mch Planar vi nm giao thoa MZ to c tr ti a l 836ps/nm vi chiu di ch
vi cm, c th b c 50km si chun.
Gii hn chnh ca thit b ny l bng thng tng i hp (10GHz) v kh nhy vi phn cc ng
vo. Tuy nhin n c th hot ng nh mt b lc quang lp trnh c trong GVD cng nh
bc sng hot ng c th hiu chnh c. Trong mt thit b GVD c th thay i t -1006 n
830ps/nm.

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Nhn xt nh gi kt qu sau khi b tn sc bng B Lc Quang:


3.1 B bng b lc quang m hc OAPF:
3.1.1. Gii thiu chung .
S khi:

Hnh 3.5 S khi tn hiu quang trc khi b


Tn sc trong mt si quang n mode l c chai ca nhng h thng thng tin quang ng
di, n gii hn tc bit v khong cch lp li t hn . S suy hao trong si quang n mode, c
b bi s pht minh ra b khuch i quang si pha tp erbium (EDFA).Hu ht si quang n mode
c thit lp khng c s phn tn ti mt bc sng hot ng l 1,31 m. Khi h thng phn
chia theo bc sng (WDM) c gii thiu tng bng thng cp quang, bc sng hot ng
ti 1,55 m do vng suy hao thp ca si quang v vng bc sng hot ng ca EDFA . Ti bc
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sng hot ng 1,55 m phn tn trong mt si quang n mode c gi l tn sc v n s dn n


xung lan truyn v nguyn nhn gy giao thoa. Tn sc c to thnh t tn sc vt cht v s tn
sc ng dn sng nh Hnh 4a. Hin tng ca cc bc sng khc nhau truyn i tc khc nhau
do s bin thin ca ch s khc x ca si quang n mode c bit n nh l tn sc vt cht.
Hn na, mt t l ca nh sng cng s di chuyn trong lp bao ph ca si quang n mode, ci
ny c mt ch s khc x khc nhau so vi li v cho ra kt qu c gi l s tn sc ng dn sng.
Ti 1,31 m, tn sc ca si quang n mode l bng khng bi v s phn tn ca ng dn sng b
trit tiu t vt liu tn sc. Tuy nhin hot ng bc sng 1,55 m th tn sc l 17ps/nm-km y
l gi tr m rng trong pico giy, n xy ra trong mt xung vi chiu rng quang ph ngun quang
hc ca mt nm sau khi truyn thng qua 1km ca si quang. V d trong trng hp ca mt tia
laser c tn s duy nht v gi nh rng chiu rng quang ph do iu ch l ln hn nhiu so vi
chiu rng quang ph ca ngun quang c sn, trong B l tc bit, L l chiu di si quang n
mode, C l vn tc ca nh sng, D l h s phn tn v
l bc sng hot ng. Chiu di ca si
quang n mode vi h thng khc nhau c th hin trong Bng 1. Tm li, tng gp i t l bit
(B) s lm gim chiu di (L) ca ng truyn quang v ti bc sng 1,55 m, tn sc l yu t
hn ch chiu di khong lp li ca mt h thng truyn quang hc.

Tn sc vt liu
Tn sc ng dn sng
Tn sc nh sng
Hnh 3.6 - S thay i ca tn sc vt liu, tn sc ng dn sng v tn sc nh sng

Bng 1: nh hng ca tc bit v khong cch truyn.


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3.1.2. Ti u ha b b OAPF bng cch s dng k thut Minimun Mean


Square Error (MMSE).
K thut MMSE l mt c lng li bnh phng trung bnh nh nht c th c. c lng ca
MMSE th thng c m t nh l ti u. MMSE c th c s dng ti u ha cc thng s
ca b b OAPF bng cch so snh vi p ng pha ca mt b cn bng l tng hoc vi mt ng
ra ca b lc raised cosine (RCS).
+ Trng hp: Ti u ha ca b b OAPF bng cch so snh vi p pha ca b b l tng.
B b l tng c chc nng truyn ngc ca si n mode. p ng pha ca mt b cn bng
l tng nh trong hnh 3.6 .Pha ca n l i nhau vi p ng pha ca si n mode. K thut
MMSE c th c lng cc thng s ca mt b b OAPF cung cp p ng pha cho b b
OAPF tng t nh pha l tng cng nhiu cng tt.
Cc c trng pha ca OAPF c th hin trong hnh 6.2. B b OAPF ny c s dng b
tn sc ca si n mode ti 160 km. Cc c trng pha ca si n mode ti 160 km vi xung b v
xung khng c b c v trong hnh 6.4. p ng pha ca xung quang hc c b gn bng
khng tn s thp hn, t 193,495 THz n 193,500 THz . Tuy nhin, trong phm vi tn s cao hn
so vi 193,5 THz p ng pha ca xung khng c b hon chnh v kt qu l rng xung ln
hn trong khu vc bin thp. Chiu rng xung ln hn trong khu vc bin thp s nh hng
n cc xung trong cc khe thi gian tip theo v do gy ra can nhiu k t nh hnh 4f .
+ Trng hp : Ti u ha ca b b OAPF bng cch so snh vi ng ra ca b lc RCS.
c tnh u ra ca mt b lc RCS l ti a trong khong gia ca khe thi gian c chn v
bng khng trong cc khe thi gian khc.

Pha l tng ca b b ca si n mode ti 160 Km


Pha ca b b OAPF
Hnh 3.7: Pha ca b b l tng v OAPF ti 160 Km

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Hnh 3.8: Pha ca si n mode.

Pha ca xung khng c b


Pha ca xung c b
Hnh 3.9: Pha ca xung c b v khng c b.

3.2. K qu sau khi b.


3.2.1. Kt qu v phn tch.
Tn sc ca si quang n mode lm cho ph ca xung gc tri rng ra v gy ra can nhiu gia
cc k t n cc khe thi gian khc. 2n mu ( vi n l 7 bit ) ca iu ch OOK dng m ng
truyn NRZ vi tc 10Gb/s c gi qua khong cch 160 Km, v bit th t c quan st trong
trng hp xu nht, trong trng hp ny 2 mu 0001000 v 1110111 c gi. Bin cao
nht ca bit 0 trong mu 1110111 th cao hn bin ca bit 1 trong mu 0001000 nh trong
hnh sau :

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Hnh 3.10 - Quan st bit th 4 trong 7 bit trong trng hp xu nht


Kt qu biu mt ca trng hp ny l s chng ln ton b bit th 4 v li xy ra hon
ton.
B b l b lc quang th ng kch hoch b tn sc bng vic chn cc thng s ph hp. B
lc MMSE l mt k thut y ha hn trong vic ti u ha cc thng s ca b b. p ng pha
ca b b l tng v ng ra ca b lc RCS c dng trong vic ti u. Cc thng s t c,
c dng trong b b v b xung ng ra c trnh by nh trong 2 hnh sau:

Xung tn sc
Xung c b bng b b lc quang th ng
Hnh 3.11 - B xung bng b b l b lc quang th ng c ti u ha bi MMSE vi
p ng pha l ca b b l tng .

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Xung gc
Xung tn sc
Xung c b bng b b lc quang th ng
Hnh 3.12 - B xung bng b b l b lc quang th ng c ti u ha bi MMSE vi
ng ra ca b lc RCS.

Kt qu t c t hai phng php ti u trn c th hin ti xung nh sng thi im l


100ps c truyn qua si n mode vi khong cch l 160 Km, c b tr li thi im 100ps ti
rng ph. Tuy nhin phn bn phi ca xung th khng c b ht v gy ra can nhiu gia cc
k t, khin xut hin BER.
Xung ng ra ca b b trong trng hp so snh vi p ng pha ca b lc RCS th c b y
ti rng ph, nhng bin phn bn phi ca xung thp hn rng ph, b tri rng ra cc
khe thi gian k tip. Kt qu ny c th c nhn thy t biu mt trong hnh sau :

Hnh 3.13 - Biu mt ca si n mode 160 Km v b b lc quang th ng c ti u


bi pha l tng .
m ca mt trong trng hp ny th nh hn khi c so snh vi k thut ti u dng RCS
nh trnh by trong hnh sau :

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Hnh 3.14 - Biu mt ca si n mode 160 Km, Trc v sau khi b tn sc. v b b lc
quang th ng c ti u bi ng ra ca b lc RCS .
Tuy nhin, kt qu ny vn tt hn trong trng hp nu khng dng b lc quang th ng nh
b b. BER ca h thng c b bi b b trong trng hp pha l tng xp x l 10-1 .
Xung ng ra ca b b trong trng hp b lc RCS c b y ti rng ph. Cc gn
sng xut hin phn bn phi ca xung trong cc khe thi gian k tip. Tuy nhin, cc gn sng
ny th nh ( khi xung c ly mu ) trong khong gia ca cc khe thi gian nh kt qu trong biu
mt trnh by. Mt ny m rng hn s mt trong trng hp p ng pha l tng .Cc gn
sng khng xut hin trong khong gia cc khe thi gian k tip, t y, nhiu ti nh trn v di
ca mt th thp. T biu mt, BER c tnh di 10-9.
3.2.2. Kt lun.
Hin tng dch pha trong si n mode gy ra tn sc lm gii hn tc bit v khong cch
truyn. M phng ny gi s cho trng hp t nht ca h thng thng tin quang, y xung vung
c p dng v chiu di ti a ca si n mode l 160 Km, ti im ny biu mt c ng
khi k thut b khng c p dng. Cc kt qu tht ng mong i khi k thut b tn sc p dng
k thut b lc quang th ng. B lc quang th ng c dng b cho xung b tn sc, kt qu
l c b y trong rng ph ti thi im 100ps. K thut ny c ci thin hn khi p
dng MMSE ti u b b. Tuy nhin, ti bin thp hn trn phn bn phi ca xung, vic ng
dng b lc quang cho kt qu ph tri rng v sinh ra can nhiu k t nh hng n BER ca h
thng. Biu mt ca b b c ti u bi MMSE dng RCS c trnh by c BER < 10 -9 khi
vt qu 160 Km ca si n mode.

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GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

KT LUN
Qun l tn sc l phn vic v cng quan trng khi truyn dn bng h thng thng tin quang.
Chuyn B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang gp phn mang li mt ci nhn bao qut v b tn
sc trong phm vi ca n.Tn sc nh hng n cht lng ca cc h thng thng tin quang, v th
vic b tn sc l ht sc cn thit.
Thng qua vic tm hiu b tn sc s dng b lc quang ta hiu c cch thc s dng b lc b
tn sc nh th no. Tuy nhin, do thi gian tm hiu ngn, s hn ch v ti liu cng nh kin thc
nn nhng trnh by trong bi bo co cn c nhng phn cha hon chnh. Rt mong nhn c s
nhn xt nh gi t Thy.

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Ti liu tham kho


[1] K thut Thng Tin Quang II ca HVCNBCVT _Th.s Vn Vit Em
[2] Bi ging k thut thng tin quang I ca HVCNBCVT _Th.s Nguyn c Nhn
[3] Ti liu thng tin quang 1 v 2 ca Hc vin cng ngh bu chnh vin thng.
[4] C s k thut thng tin quang, 2000, Nh xut bn bu in_TS.Cao Phn, Cao Hng Sn
[5] H thng thng tin quang 1 v 2 ca TS. V Vn San

[6] Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics_ GOVIND P.AGRAWAL

CC T VIT TT :

BW

Band Width

Bng thng

BER

Bit Error Rate

T l li bit

LASER

Light Amplified and


Stimulated Emission of
Radiation

Khuch i nh sng bc x kch


thch

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B Tn Sc S Dng B Lc Quang

GVHD: Th.s Vn Vit Em

WDM

Wavelength Division
Multiplexing

Ghp knh theo bc sng

GVD

Group Velocity
Dispersion

Tn sc vn tc nhm

MMSE

MINIMUM MEAN
SQUARE ERROR

Thut ton li bnh phng ti thiu

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