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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. An object perceived as cold has a lower temperature than one perceived as hot. Temperature is an intensive property, meaning that it does not depend on the size of the system, nor on how much material it contains. An isolated system, one that exchanges no energy or material with its environment, as time passes, will tend to a spatially uniform temperature. When a path permeable only to heat is open between two systems, energy always flows spontaneously as heat from a hotter body to a colder one. The flow rate increases with the temperature difference and with a property of the path called the thermal conductance. Between two bodies with the same temperature, connected by a path permeable only to heat, no energy will flow. These bodies are said to be in "thermal equilibrium".
A map of global long term monthly average surface air temperatures in Mollweide projection.
Except under extreme conditions, the temperature of an object is proportional to the translational kinetic energy of its constituent particles. Temperature is measured by a thermometer, which may be calibrated to a variety of temperature scales. At the lowest possible temperature, 0 K on the Kelvin scale, −273.15°C on the Celsius scale, the amplitude of the vibrations is also zero. This lowest temperature is called absolute zero. There is no practical upper limit to temperature. Temperature plays an important role in all fields of natural science, including physics, geology, chemistry, atmospheric sciences and biology.
1 Use in science 2 Temperature scales 3 Thermodynamic approach to temperature 4 Statistical mechanics approach to temperature 5 Basic theory 5.1 Temperature for bodies in thermodynamic equilibrium 5.2 Temperature for bodies in a steady state but not in thermodynamic equilibrium 5.3 Temperature for bodies not in a steady state 5.4 Thermodynamic equilibrium axiomatics 6 Heat capacity 7 Temperature measurement 7.1 Units 7.1.1 Conversion 7.1.2 Plasma physics 8 Theoretical foundation 8.1 Kinetic theory of gases 8.2 Zeroth law of thermodynamics 8.3 Second law of thermodynamics 8.4 Definition from statistical mechanics 8.5 Generalized temperature from single particle statistics 8.6 Negative temperature 9 Examples of temperature 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links
Thermal vibration of a segment of protein alpha helix. The amplitude of the vibrations increases with temperature.
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a scale on which water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F (at one atmosphere of pressure). approximately the freezing point of water (at one atmosphere of pressure). The reason for this choice is that. a body is usually spatially and temporally divided conceptually into imagined 'cells' of small size. On the molecular level. or the energy of the particle due to molecular vibration or the excitation of an electron energy level. 2 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM . The thermal motions of atoms are very fast and temperatures close to absolute zero are required to directly observe them. For practical purposes of scientific temperature measurement. by the equipartition theorem each classical degree of freedom that the particle has will have an average energy of kT/2 where k is Boltzmann's constant. the free encyclopedia http://en. It explains macroscopic phenomena in terms of the mechanics of the molecules and ions. One application of this effect is the incandescent light bulb.67 °F. they used laser equipment to create an optical lattice to adiabatically cool caesium atoms. In the statistical thermodynamic approach. such as molecules and ions of various species. the International System of Units (SI) defines a scale and unit for the thermodynamic temperature by using the easily reproducible temperature of the triple point of water as a second reference point. It has the same incremental scaling as the Kelvin scale used by scientists. In thermodynamic terms. This is one reason why the human body has several elaborate mechanisms for maintaining the temperature at 310 K. If classical thermodynamic equilibrium conditions for matter are fulfilled to good approximation in each 'cell'. For instance. in which a tungsten filament is electrically heated to a temperature at which significant quantities of visible light are emitted. or electrons. Statistical mechanics approach to temperature Statistical mechanics provides a microscopic explanation of temperature. The translational motion of the particle has three degrees of freedom.Wikipedia. and thus relates temperature to work.Temperature . They then turned off the entrapment lasers and directly measured atom velocities of 7 mm per second in order to calculate their temperature. Absolute zero is defined as a temperature of precisely 0 kelvins. and local thermodynamic equilibrium is said to prevail throughout the body. which has been named the kelvin in honor of the Scottish physicist who first defined the scale. since temperatures only a few degrees higher can result in harmful reactions with serious consequences. Although very specialized laboratory equipment is required to directly detect the translational thermal motions. except at very low temperatures where quantum effects predominate. Temperature also plays an important role in determining the rate and extent to which chemical reactions occur. temperature is a macroscopic intensive variable because it is independent of the bulk amount of elementary entities contained inside. For study by methods of classical irreversible thermodynamics. and statistical assessments of their joint adventures. liquid. The unit symbol of the kelvin is K. Temperature also determines the thermal radiation emitted from a surface. Thermodynamics investigates the relation between heat and work. when scientists at the NIST achieved a record-setting low temperature of 700 nK (1 nK = 10−9 K) in 1994. Annual mean temperature around the world Thermodynamic approach to temperature Temperature is one of the principal quantities studied in the field of thermodynamics. using a special scale of temperature called the absolute temperature. For historical reasons. the particles of a species being all alike. The motion may be the translational motion of particles. thermal collisions by atoms or molecules with small particles suspended in a fluid produces Brownian motion that can be seen with an ordinary microscope. Temperature scales See also: Scale of temperature Much of the world uses the Celsius scale (°C) for most temperature measurements. but fixes its null point.15 °C or −459. which is equal to −273.15 K. as considered below. Moving particles carry kinetic energy. based on macroscopic systems' being composed of many particles. vapor pressure. the temperature at the triple point is independent of pressure (since the triple point is a fixed point on a two-dimensional plot of pressure vs. density.16 units of the measurement increment. gaseous or plasma.org/wiki/Temperature Use in science Many physical properties of materials including the phase solid. Real world systems are often not in thermodynamic equilibrium and not homogeneous. be they atoms. temperature). molecules. and electrical conductivity depend on the temperature. then it is homogeneous and a temperature exists for it.[note 1] The United States uses the Fahrenheit scale for common purposes. solubility.wikipedia. at 0 °C = 273. the triple point temperature of water is fixed at 273. Temperature increases as this motion and the kinetic energy increase. so that. unlike the freezing and boiling point temperatures. the average translational energy of a particle in an system with temperature T will be 3kT/2. temperature is the result of the motion of the particles that constitute the material.
there is spontaneous heat transfer from the warmer system to the colder system. its temperature remains constant as the system is supplied with latent heat. Absolute zero is the null point of the thermodynamic temperature scale. it will have a higher heat capacity than a monatomic gas. the system is at absolute zero. The customarily stated minimalist version of such a law postulates only that all bodies. and without change in external force fields acting on it. This is a matter for study in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. for a suitable range of processes. no net heat transfer occurs spontanteously. which cannot be achieved experimentally. Experimental physicists.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. hotness and temperature. between them. The process of cooling involves removing thermal energy from a system. found that there are indefinitely many empirical temperature scales. then at least one of the bodies does not have a well defined absolute thermodynamic temperature. through equipartitioning. a loss of heat from a closed system. without change of volume. the notion of temperature safely requires that all empirical thermometers must agree as to which of two bodies is the hotter or that they are at the same temperature.e. without change in its volume and without change in external force fields acting on it. to the frequency of the maximum of its frequency spectrum. because of the uncertainty principle. non-absolute. when comparing any two given bodies in their respective separate thermodynamic equilibria. and there is a thermally conductive or radiative connection between them. The quality is called hotness by some writers. which when thermally connected would be in thermal equilibrium.Temperature . however. Temperature for bodies in thermodynamic equilibrium For experimental physics. Heating will also cause. decreases its temperature. A definite sense of greater hotness can be had. When no more energy can be removed. any one given body and any one suitable empirical thermometer can still support notions of empirical. This is also a matter for study in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Thus a diatomic gas will require a higher energy input to increase its temperature by a certain amount. of thermodynamics. When two systems are at the same temperature. Temperature for bodies in a steady state but not in thermodynamic equilibrium While for bodies in their own thermodynamic equilibrium states. until they are at mutual thermal equilibrium. These physical facts justify a mathematical statement that hotness exists on an ordered one-dimensional manifold.Wikipedia. Basic theory As distinct from a quantity of heat. When a temperature difference does exist. Thermodynamic equilibrium axiomatics For axiomatic treatment of thermodynamic equilibrium. Microscopically in the description of quantum mechanics. its temperature rises. should be said to have the same temperature by definition. since the 1930s. Temperature for bodies not in a steady state When a body is not in a steady state. independently of calorimetry. Heat transfer occurs by conduction or by thermal radiation. and of properties of particular materials. without phase change. It can then well be that different empirical thermometers disagree about which is the hotter. this frequency is always positive. as a closed system receives heat. for example Galileo and Newton. hotness means that. but by itself does not establish temperature as a quantity expressed as a real number on a scale. by a universal constant. but can have values that tend to zero. Thermal radiation is initially defined for a cavity in thermodynamic equilibrium. but it does require that the relation between their numerical readings shall be strictly monotonic. such as oxygen (O2). This does not require the two thermometers to have a linear relation between their numerical scale readings. by conduction or radiation. i. this requirement is not safe for bodies that are in steady states though not in thermodynamic equilibrium. then the notion of temperature becomes even less safe than for a body in a steady state not in thermodynamic equilibrium. A more physically informative version of such a law views empirical temperature as a chart on a hotness manifold. have more degrees of freedom than single spherical atoms: they undergo rotational and vibrational motions as well as translations. or that they have the same temperature. any two suitably given empirical thermometers with numerical scale readings will agree as to which is the hotter of the two given bodies. also called absolute temperature. Except for a system undergoing a first-order phase change such as the melting of ice. This is a fundamental character of temperature and thermometers for bodies in their own thermodynamic equilibrium. it has become customary to refer to a zeroth law of thermodynamics. and if this is so.org/wiki/Temperature Molecules. For a system undergoing such a phase change so slowly that departure from thermodynamic equilibrium can be neglected. If it were possible to cool a system to absolute zero. Heating results in an increase in temperature due to an increase in the average translational energy of the molecules. from Wien's displacement law of thermal radiation: the temperature of a bath of thermal radiation is proportional. the energy associated with vibrational and rotational modes to increase. matter still has zero-point energy even at absolute zero. temperature may be viewed as a measure of a quality of a body  or of heat. Conversely. While the zeroth law permits the definitions of many different empirical scales 3 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM . Nevertheless. all motion of the particles comprising matter would cease and they would be at complete rest in this classical sense.
Temperature is measured with thermometers that may be calibrated to a variety of temperature scales. Many engineering fields in the U. intrinsic origin or null point is absolute zero at which the entropy of any system is at a minimum. Fahrenheit's scale is still in use in the United States for non-scientific applications.Wikipedia. it establishes that one kelvin has precisely the same magnitude as one degree on the Celsius scale. Although this is the lowest absolute temperature described by the model.16 K and 0. Absolute zero is defined as precisely 0 K and −273. Myanmar.wikipedia. The introduced heat ( ) divided by the observed temperature change is the heat capacity (C) of the material.. and it establishes the difference between the null points of these scales as being 273. Temperature measurement See also: Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology.15 °C. the second law of thermodynamics selects the definition of a single preferred. Liberia and the United States).01 °C).16 K = 0. A typical Celsius thermometer measures a winter day temperature of -17 °C. the specific heat is the measure of the heat required to increase the temperature of such a unit quantity by one unit of temperature. It has the symbol K. but the scale is offset by the temperature at which ice melts (273.S. 0 °C is better defined as the melting point of ice. In most of the world (except for Belize. Heat capacity See also: Heat capacity and Calorimetry When a sample is heated. the rest to other forms of internal energy.15 °C. Units The basic unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI) is the kelvin. the third law of thermodynamics postulates that absolute zero cannot be attained by any physical system. the free encyclopedia http://en. Its natural. For everyday applications. Matter is in its ground state.Temperature . it is often convenient to use the Celsius scale. meaning it receives thermal energy from an external source. In this scale a temperature difference of 1 degree Celsius is the same as a 1 kelvin increment. and contains no thermal energy.S.15 K). Most scientists measure temperature using the Celsius scale and thermodynamic temperature using the Kelvin scale. notably high-tech and US federal specifications (civil and military). If internal energy is considered as a function of the volume and entropy of a homogeneous system in thermodynamic equilibrium. specific to the material. also use the Kelvin and Celsius scales. whence called the thermodynamic temperature. In the United States. By international agreement the Kelvin and Celsius scales are defined by two fixing points: absolute zero and the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. Because liquid droplets commonly exist in clouds at sub-zero temperatures. For example. the Celsius scale is used for most temperature measuring purposes.01 °C. or absolute zero. however. when Gabriel Fahrenheit adapted a thermometer (switching to mercury) and a scale both developed by Ole Christensen Rømer. Other engineering fields in the U.16 parts of the difference between absolute zero and the triple point of water. and Comparison of temperature scales Temperature measurement using modern scientific thermometers and temperature scales goes back at least as far as the early 18th century. Quantum-mechanically. which is water specially prepared with a specified blend of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. It is the temperature at which all classical translational motion of the particles comprising matter ceases and they are at complete rest in the classical model. The amount converted into kinetic energy causes the temperature of the material to rise. which is the Celsius scale offset so that its null point is 0 K = −273. zero-point motion remains and has an associated energy.15 °C and 273. unique up to an arbitrary scale factor.15 K (0 K = −273. On this scale the freezing point of water corresponds to 32 °F and the boiling 4 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM . also rely upon the Rankine scale (a shifted Fahrenheit scale) when working in thermodynamic-related disciplines such as combustion.org/wiki/Temperature of temperature. to raise the temperature of water by one kelvin (equal to one degree Celsius) requires 4186 joules per kilogram (J/kg).. The triple point of water is defined as 273. This definition serves the following purposes: it fixes the magnitude of the kelvin as being precisely 1 part in 273. If heat capacity is measured for a well defined amount of substance. the Fahrenheit scale is widely used. International Temperature Scale of 1990. in which 0 °C corresponds very closely to the freezing point of water and 100 °C is its boiling point at sea level. thermodynamic absolute temperature appears as the partial derivative of internal energy with respect the entropy at constant volume. the zero-point energy. some of the introduced heat is converted into kinetic energy. absolute temperature.
the energy region of the interactions under consideration. Conversion The following table shows the temperature conversion formulas for conversions to and from the Celsius scale. Statistical physics provides a deeper understanding by describing the atomic behavior of matter. temperature may be measured directly in units of energy.wikipedia. in most gases. technology.Wikipedia. gases.5) × 40⁄21 4 Réaumur [°Ré] = [°C] × ⁄5 Rømer [°Rø] = [°C] × 21⁄40 + 7.Temperature . Kinetic theory of gases The kinetic theory of gases uses the model of the ideal gas to relate temperature to the average translational kinetic energy of the molecules in a container of gas in thermodynamic equilibrium. the free encyclopedia http://en. In general. It also determines the probability distribution function of the energy. For solids. The kinetic energy. The microscopic description in statistical mechanics is based on a model that analyzes a system into its fundamental particles of matter or into a set of classical or quantum-mechanical oscillators and considers the system as a statistical ensemble of microstates.5 Plasma physics The field of plasma physics deals with phenomena of electromagnetic nature that involve very high temperatures. of the particles. Theoretical foundation Historically. meaning for large ensembles of states or particles.e. temperature is a measure of the mean energy of motion.15) × 9⁄5 [°De] = (100 − [°C]) × 3⁄2 [°N] = [°C] × 33⁄100 9 to Celsius [°C] = ([°F] − 32) × 5⁄9 [°C] = [K] − 273.. a proportionality factor that scales temperature to the microscopic mean kinetic energy. the macroscopic and the microscopic descriptions are interrelated by the Boltzmann constant. Temperature determines the statistical occupation of the microstates of the ensemble. approximately. The thermal energy may be partitioned into independent components attributed to the degrees of freedom of the particles or to the modes of oscillators in a thermodynamic system. The Rankine scale. In monoatomic perfect gases and. is an absolute scale based on the Fahrenheit increment. 5 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM . In condensed matter. the number of these degrees of freedom that are available for the equipartitioning of energy depend on the temperature. However. As a collection of classical material particles. rigorous and purely mathematical treatments have provided an axiomatic approach to classical thermodynamics and temperature. In the fundamental physical description. In the context of thermodynamics.S. such as the modern metric system of units. is half the mass of a particle times its speed squared. It is customary to express temperature in electronvolts (eV) or kiloelectronvolts (keV). called kinetic energy. including both classical and quantum states. liquids. equivalent to about 1012 K. In this mechanical interpretation of thermal motion. the thermal energy is associated primarily with the vibrations of its atoms or molecules about their equilibrium position. vibrational and rotational motions also contribute degrees of freedom. In the study of QCD matter one routinely encounters temperatures of the order of a few hundred MeV. or plasmas.15 [°C] = ([°R] − 491. in the practical systems of measurement for science. where 1 eV = 11 605 K. to fulfill the requirements of the statistical model. a concept of classical mechanics. the kinetic energy is found exclusively in the purely translational motions of the particles. there are several scientific approaches to the explanation of temperature: the classical thermodynamic description based on macroscopic empirical variables that can be measured in a laboratory. the kinetic energies of material particles may reside in the velocity of the particles of their translational or vibrational motion or in the inertia of their rotational modes. In an ideal monatomic gas.org/wiki/Temperature point to 212 °F.67) × 5⁄9 [°C] = 100 − [°De] × 2⁄3 [°C] = [°N] × 100⁄33 [°C] = [°Ré] × 5⁄4 [°C] = ([°Rø] − 7. still used in fields of chemical engineering in the U. In addition. i. and a microscopic explanation based on statistical physics and quantum mechanics. from Celsius Fahrenheit [°F] = [°C] × ⁄5 + 32 Kelvin Rankine Delisle Newton [K] = [°C] + 273. and particularly in solids. and commerce. In other systems. and derives macroscopic properties from statistical averages of microscopic states. this purely mechanical description is often less useful and the oscillator model provides a better description to account for quantum mechanical phenomena. The microscopic definition of temperature is only meaningful in the thermodynamic limit.15 [°R] = ([°C] + 273. temperature is a measure of the mean particle kinetic energy. the kinetic theory of gases which relates the macroscopic description to the probability distribution of the energy of motion of gas particles. the kinetic energy is also referred to as thermal energy. using natural units. whether in solids.
The zeroth law of thermodynamics implies that any two given systems in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. but. Zeroth law of thermodynamics Main article: Zeroth law of thermodynamics It has long been recognized that if two bodies of different temperatures are brought into thermal connection. The ideal gas law indicates that the product of the pressure (p) and volume (V) of a gas is directly proportional to the thermodynamic temperature: where T is temperature. In this animation. but other statements of this basic knowledge are made by various writers. In a mixture of particles of various masses. These atoms have a certain. when the particle density is much less than . R = ideal gas constant). The pressure. In practice. The temperature of an ideal monatomic gas is related to the average kinetic energy of its atoms. it does not justify the idea of temperature as a numerical scale for a concept of hotness which exists on a one-dimensional manifold with a sense of greater hotness. n is the number of moles of gas and R = 8. lighter particles move faster than do heavier particles. the magnitude of its velocity. The second law of thermodynamics is used to define an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale for systems in thermal equilibrium. and root-mean-square particle speed v. one can define a scale for temperature based on the corresponding pressure and volume of the gas: the temperature in kelvins is the pressure in pascals of one mole of gas in a container of one cubic metre. an empirical temperature scale may be defined by the variation of one of the other state variables. volume. This basic knowledge is relevant to thermodynamics. A neon atom moves slowly relative to a hydrogen molecule of the same kinetic energy. but have the same average kinetic energy. and use other axioms to justify and express deductively the remaining aspects of it. The usual textbook statement of the zeroth law of thermodynamics is that if two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system. but other thermometers can be calibrated to this scale. divided by the gas constant. by itself. such a gas thermometer is not very convenient. This statement is taken to justify a statement that all three systems have the same temperature. The distribution of the speeds (which determine the translational kinetic energies) of the particles in a classical ideal gas is called the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. In statistical thermodynamics. A monoatomic gas has only the three translational degrees of freedom. they exchange heat accompanied by changes of other state variables. A pollen particle suspended in water moves in a slow Brownian motion among fast-moving water molecules. As a practical matter it is not possible to use a gas thermometer to measure 6 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM . m. For suitable systems. Left isolated from other bodies. average speed (slowed down here two trillion fold from room temperature). then they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. suggesting that temperature must also be greater than or equal to zero.org/wiki/Temperature Classical mechanics defines the translational kinetic energy of a gas molecule as follows: where m is the particle mass and v its speed. Reformulating the pressure-volume term as the sum of classical mechanical particle energies in terms of particle mass. The one aspect chosen by the latter approaches is often stated in textbooks as the zeroth law of thermodynamics. A temperature scale is based on the properties of some reference system to which other thermometers may be calibrated. such as pressure. the ideal gas law directly provides the relationship between kinetic energy and temperature: Thus.wikipedia. it can be deduced from the second law of thermodynamics that they also have the same average kinetic energy per particle. other approaches select only one narrow aspect of this basic knowledge as axiomatic.Temperature . when all other coordinates are fixed. Some approaches to thermodynamics take this basic knowledge as axiomatic. The temperature of a classical ideal gas is related to its average kinetic energy per degree of freedom E via the equation: k where the Boltzmann constant (n = Avogadro number. i.e. the size of helium atoms relative to their spacing is shown to scale under 1950 atmospheres of pressure. the two connected bodies eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium in which no further changes occur. Sometimes the zeroth law is stated to provide the latter justification.314 472(15) Jmol-1K-1 is the gas constant. conductive or radiative. This relation is valid in the ideal gas regime. One such reference system is a fixed quantity of gas. and the number of moles of a substance are all inherently greater than or equal to zero. where is the thermal de Broglie wavelength.
one between T1 and T2. Since an efficiency greater than 100% violates the first law of thermodynamics. As the number of coin tosses increases. In fact the lowest temperature ever obtained in a macroscopic system was 20 nK. Thus. Subtracting the right hand side of Equation 5 from the middle portion and rearranging gives: 7 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM . the combinations to ~50% heads and ~50% tails dominates and obtaining an outcome significantly different from 50/50 becomes extremely unlikely. The second law states that any process will result in either no change or a net increase in the entropy of the universe.T3) is of the form g(T1)/g(T3) (i. meaning f(T1. Second law of thermodynamics Main article: Second law of thermodynamics In the previous section certain properties of temperature were expressed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. To find this relationship. which is expected of any natural system. The efficiency depends only on qC/qH.Wikipedia.T3) = f(T1. Thus the system naturally progresses to a state of maximum disorder or entropy. On the other hand. resulting in the performance of work. This can only be the case if: which implies: Since the first function is independent of T2. where some fraction are heads and the rest tails. Entropy is often thought of as a measure of the disorder in a system. It has been previously stated that temperature governs the flow of heat between two systems and it was just shown that the universe tends to progress so as to maximize entropy. qH and the heat ejected at the low temperature. qC. A heat engine is a device for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy. For a very large number of coin tosses. A temperature scale can now be chosen with the property that: (4) Substituting Equation 4 back into Equation 2 gives a relationship for the efficiency in terms of temperature: (5) Notice that for TC = 0 K the efficiency is 100% and that efficiency becomes greater than 100% below 0 K. It is also possible to define temperature in terms of the second law of thermodynamics which deals with entropy.Temperature . work and temperature is first considered. however. in a series of coin tosses. This means that for a perfectly ordered set of coin tosses. et cetera. For example. qC/qH should be some function of these temperatures: (3) Carnot's theorem states that all reversible engines operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally efficient. It is possible. respectively. Because qC and qH correspond to heat transfer at the temperatures TC and TH. the free encyclopedia http://en. The work from a heat engine corresponds to the difference between the heat put into the system at the high temperature. or it could be 98% heads and 2% tails. A disordered system can be 90% heads and 10% tails. there are multiple combinations that can result in disordered or mixed systems.wikipedia.T3) = g(T1)/g(T2)· g(T2)/g(T3) = g(T1)/g(T3)). and the second between T2 and T3. a heat engine operating between T1 and T3 must have the same efficiency as one consisting of two cycles. a perfectly ordered system would be one in which either every toss comes up heads or every toss comes up tails. there is only one set of toss outcomes possible: the set in which 100% of tosses come up the same. The efficiency is the work divided by the heat put into the system or: (2) where wcy is the work done per cycle. This can be understood in terms of probability. where g is a function of a single temperature. Thus. this temperature must cancel on the right side. to extrapolate to absolute zero by using the ideal gas law. which was achieved in 1995 at NIST. it is expected that there is some relationship between temperature and entropy. f(T1.T2)f(T2. the relationship between heat. this implies that 0 K is the minimum possible temperature.e.org/wiki/Temperature absolute zero temperature since the gasses tend to condense into a liquid long before the temperature reaches zero. and analysis of the Carnot heat engine provides the necessary relationships. the number of possible combinations corresponding to imperfectly ordered systems increases.
it is possible to obtain a negative temperature. which was described previously. Eq. the free encyclopedia http://en. The change of this state function around any cycle is zero. the temperature T is given by: (8). When brought into contact with a system at a positive 8 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM . and switches to negative infinity as the slope turns negative. obtained under the hypothesis of ergodicity and orthodicity.Wikipedia. Eq. this temperature is 194.Temperature . On the absolute Kelvin scale. This relationship suggests the existence of a state function.6 K. which is numerically indeed less than absolute zero. In the quantum mechanical description of electron and nuclear spin systems that have a limited number of possible states. Generalized temperature from single particle statistics It is possible to extend the definition of temperature even to systems of few particles. This function corresponds to the entropy of the system. where entropy S(E) is a function of its energy E. defined by: (6) where the subscript indicates a reversible process. As the energy of the system increases in the population inversion. and therefore a discrete upper limit of energy they can attain.e. On the absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature no material can exhibit a temperature smaller than or equal to 0 K. the temperature function shows the behavior of a singularity. (7) can be derived from the principles underlying the fundamental thermodynamic relation. At energies higher than this point. but rather it has a higher energy than at positive temperature. At the point of maximum entropy.3 °F. i. The finite quantum grand canonical ensemble. but attains a maximum value when the spins are evenly distributed among ground and excited states. the entropy increases as well.org/wiki/Temperature where the negative sign indicates heat ejected from the system. and may be said to be in fact hotter at negative temperatures. Rearranging Equation 6 gives a new definition for temperature in terms of entropy and heat: (7) For a system. Negative temperature Main article: Negative temperature On the empirical temperature scales.(8) is the defining relation of temperature. that are isolated from others and do not exchange energy by virtue of the equipartition theorem. which are not referenced to absolute zero.5 °C which is equivalent to −109. The generalized temperature is obtained by considering time ensembles instead of configuration space ensembles given in statistical mechanics in the case of thermal and particle exchange between a small system of fermions (N even less than 10) with a single/double occupancy system. however. a system with a negative temperature is not colder than absolute zero. dry ice has a sublimation temperature of −78. However. both of which are forbidden by the third law of thermodynamics. as is necessary for any state function. this is not the macroscopic temperature of the material. like in a quantum dot. the spin degree of freedom therefore exhibits formally a negative thermodynamic temperature. after which it begins to decrease. For example. as the system becomes less ordered. Since temperature is the inverse of the derivative of the entropy. the temperature formally goes to infinity at this point.wikipedia. the negative temperature approaches zero asymptotically. once again achieving a state of higher order as the upper states begin to fill exclusively. S. a negative temperature is one below the zero-point of the scale used. As the energy increases further by continued population of the excited state. Definition from statistical mechanics Statistical mechanics defines temperature based on a system's fundamental degrees of freedom. As the energy in the system increases upon population of the upper states. A negative temperature is experimentally achieved with suitable radio frequency techniques that cause a population inversion of spin states from the ground state. the reciprocal of the temperature is the rate of increase of entropy with respect to energy. allows to express the generalized temperature from the ratio of the average time of occupation 1 and 2 of the single/double occupancy system: where EF is the Fermi energy which tends to the ordinary temperature when N goes to infinity. but instead the temperature of only very specific degrees of freedom. because the slope of the entropy function decreases to zero at first and then turns negative.
Examples of temperature Main article: Orders of magnitude (temperature) Temperature Kelvin Absolute zero (precisely by definition) Coldest temperature achieved Coldest Bose–Einstein condensate One millikelvin (precisely by definition) Water's triple point (precisely by definition) Water's boiling point[A] Incandescent lamp[B] Sun's visible surface[D] Lightning bolt's channel[E] Sun's core[E] Thermonuclear weapon (peak temperature)[E] Sandia National Labs' Z machine[E] Core of a high-mass star on its last day[E] Merging binary neutron star system[E] Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider[E] CERN's proton vs nucleus collisions[E] Universe 5.3 nm (long wavelength I.15 K difference between K and °C is without the precision of these values.01 °C 99.149 °C 0.5 nm (green-blue light) 100 nm (far ultraviolet light) 0. The Z machine's dominant emission originated from 40 MK electrons (soft x–ray emissions) within the plasma. the free encyclopedia http://en.616×10−26 nm (Planck Length) 0K 100 pK 450 pK 0.) 7.) 1. B The 2500 K value is approximate.001 K 273.897 77 m (radio.200 °C 5.149 999 999 55 °C −273.000 °C 16 million °C 350 million °C 2 billion °C 3 billion °C 350 billion °C 1 trillion °C 10 trillion °C 1. The 273.608.R.149 999 999 900 °C −273.400 km 2.417×1032 °C Peak emittance wavelength of black-body radiation cannot be defined 29.391×10−44 s after the Big Bang[E] A Degrees Celsius −273. Tungsten filaments' emissivity is greater at shorter wavelengths.R. F For a true black-body (which the plasma was not).3×10−3 nm (gamma rays) 1.15 K difference between K and °C is rounded to 273 K to avoid false precision in the Celsius value. The 273.4×10−3 nm (gamma rays)[F] 1×10−3 nm (gamma rays) 8×10−6 nm (gamma rays) 3×10−6 nm (gamma rays) 3×10−7 nm (gamma rays) 1.417×1032 K For Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water at one standard atmosphere (101. D Effective photosphere temperature.000 km 6.wikipedia.160 nm (near infrared)[C] 501. FM band) 10.18 nm (X-rays) 8.778 K 28 kK 16 MK 350 MK 2 GK 3 GK 350 GK 1 TK 10 TK 1.15 °C −273. E The 273.505 °C 28.9839 °C ≈2. 9 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM .org/wiki/Temperature temperature.03 nm (mid wavelength I.15 K difference between K and °C is rounded to 300 K to avoid false precision in the Celsius value.16 K 373. energy will be transferred from the negative temperature regime to the positive temperature region. which makes them appear whiter.1339 K 2500 K 5.Temperature .766.325 kPa) when calibrated strictly per the two-point definition of thermodynamic temperature.Wikipedia. C For a true black-body (which tungsten filaments are not).
C. 22.M. page 20. pages 411-451. London. Section 95. Springer. Medeiros. pages 1-2. pages 320-332. 1822-1854. Chapter VII. New York. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics. M.calphad. "Basic Principles of Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics" (http://www. Appendix G6 on pages 522-544 of Rational Thermodynamics. (1979). Ogg.pdf) .W. ISBN 3-540-15931-2. page 44. Heat. Johann Ambrosius Barth. Mathematische Annalen 67 (3): 355–386. 15. J. 21. de La Penha. ISBN 978-0-470-03037-0. Chapter 1. Caratheodory (1909).A. Longman's. page 17.S. M. Theory of Heat. Reif (1965). page 14. Introduction to Modern Thermodynamics. 14. "A restatement of the zeroth law of thermodynamics". Amsterdam. 27. (1872).OnlineMaterials /BasicPrinciplesByTWLeland. J. p. edited by J. H. 3. page 31. Collected Works. ISBN 0-444-85166-6. reprinted by Kessinger.com/absolute_zero. 26. Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids. (1986). The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics. section 22. C. Treatise on Thermodynamics. J. Serrin. 102.edu/labs/trl/1. in New Perspectives in Thermodynamics.pdf. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Continuum Mechanics and Partial Differential Equations. ^ Historically. pages 68-69. ^ "Absolute Zero" (http://www.uic. Wiley. ^ C. in Contemporary Developments in Continuum Mechanics and Partial Differential Equations. Longman's. ^ a b Serrin. (1884). 14. (1984).com/absolute_zero. 25. ^ a b Pitteri. it has subsequently been redefined in terms of the equivalent fixing points on the Kelvin scale.H. 1. Rigorously Constructed upon the Foundation Laid by S.G. 17.Wikipedia. 20. pages 3-32. Am. 23. third edition. 30: 294–296. G. Macmillan. translated by A. 10 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM . 31.. Moran. third edition. J. Macmillan. 28. page 29.com. (1986). (1994). ISBN 978-0-470-01598-8. (1884). Interscience Publishers. http://www. Green. Ltd. ^ M. Entropy and its Physical Interpretation. Thermodynamics with Quantum Statistical Illustrations.C. Leipzig. New York. 7. E. Historisch-kritisch entwickelt. Green & Co. ^ Tait.org/en/si/si_brochure/chapter2/2-1/2-1-1/kelvin." 16. 8.. 18. Longmans. ^ Gibbs. (1872).com/details. P.G. Green. Phys. 5. cited by Serrin. second edition.W. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics (5 ed.org/wiki/Temperature See also Scale of temperature Atmospheric temperature Color temperature Dry-bulb temperature Heat conduction Heat convection ISO 1 ITS-90 Maxwell's demon Orders of magnitude (temperature) Outside air temperature Planck temperature Rankine scale Relativistic heat conduction Stagnation temperature Thermal radiation Thermoception Thermodynamic (absolute) temperature Thermography Thermometer Body temperature (Thermoregulation) Virtual temperature Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Wet-bulb temperature Notes 1.Temperature . Springer. (1897/1903). (1872). ^ Planck. (1872). third edition. ISBN 0-387-90874-9. Retrieved 2010-09-16.A. Ogg. P. The Concepts and Logic of Classical Thermodynamics as a Theory of Heat Engines. London.). North-Holland. Leipzig. Since the standardization of the kelvin in the International System of Units. D. B. American Institute of Physics. Teubner. S. Berlin.bipm. M. Theory of Heat. Truesdell. 14. New York. p. Green & Co. Reech. Carnot and F. N. 29. page 3. Chapter 1. ^ The kelvin in the SI Brochure (http://www1. An Introductory Treatise dealing mainly with First Principles and their Direct Applications. page 45. ^ Beattie. (1961). ISBN 0-88318-797-3. page 10. ^ Bailyn. Masius. Heat. London.html) . ^ Landsberg. pages 155-158.T. Die Principien der Wärmelehre.calphad. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. (1875). ^ Kondepudi. J. ^ T. translated by A. Dugdale (1996. J. L.html. ^ Truesdell.C. page 7. ^ Maxwell. J. (1980). Taylor & Francis. pages 39-40. Macmillan. 6.php?ebook=6455) 2. http://www. pages 106-108.OnlineMaterials/BasicPrinciplesByTWLeland. 10. New York.1". Longmans. Leland.6. References 1. Rio de Janiero. Thermodynamics. ^ a b Serrin. Serrin. The Concepts of Classical Thermodynamics. Chapter VII. ^ Bryan. (1900). translated into English by M. "Untersuchungen über die Grundlagen der Thermodynamik". ^ Maxwell. edited by G. 0–444–41806–7. third edition. Philadelphia. in New Perspectives in Thermodynamics. p. 1998). ^ a b Truesdell. "Consequently we identify temperature as a driving force which causes something called heat to be transferred. J. M. London. (1914). (1962). pages 56-57.e-booksdirectory. (2008). Section 32. 19. edited by J. pages 42. Springer. the free encyclopedia http://en.. I. Bharatha. J. ^ Planck.C.A. The concepts of thermodynamics. C. ^ F. ^ a b c d Mach. p. Green. p. Theory of Heat. J. 4. Springer. (1978). (1977). P. the Celsius scale was a purely empirical temperature scale defined only by the freezing and boiling points of water. especially page 6. S. ^ J. 13. Oppenheim. ^ Maxwell. Springer. 73.A. Principles of Thermodynamics. 9. Calphad. P. ISBN 0-387-07971-8. (1907). ISBN 0-387-90403-4. August 1977. J.G. London. Berlin. 13. J. second edition. Treatise on Thermodynamics.. Shapiro (2006). 12. Jr. Heat. (http://www. 'An Outline of Thermodynamical Structure'. Amsterdam. Blakiston's Son & Co. 24. The Theory of Heat Radiation (http://openlibrary.org/books/OL7154661M/The_theory_of_heat_radiation) .C. McGraw-Hill. London. ^ Tait. On the axiomatic foundations of temperature. ^ Thomsen. London. 11. ISBN 3-540-15931-2. Chapter VII. John Wiley & Sons. London.uic. ^ Tait. (1884). ^ Planck. A Survey of Thermodynamics.html) 30.. Section 11H. ^ H. New York.J. 'An Outline of Thermodynamical Structure'. "1. Cambridge University Press.G. Green.wikipedia. 103-117.edu/labs/trl/1. Chichester. ISBN 978-0-7484-0569-5. London. Longmans. Longmans. Theory of Heat. page 32. ^ Maxwell. (1897/1903). Buchdahl (1966). M. Vol..
doi:10.aip. More informative links can be found here  (http://schools.P.5 Matter At High Temperatures. M. http://ltl.htm) . 391–397. Science 301. were roughly 20 km in diameter. of Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics. arXiv:1001...gov/) detector on the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (http://www.58±0. (http://sandia.Temperature . Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics.0037) . 37. "Microscopic aspects implied by the second law". Sands. It's noteworthy that this record's peak emittance black-body wavelength of 6.045 31(16) × 10−26 nm.org/link/?APL/96/113109. Addison-Wesley. (http://www. (http://nuclearweaponarchive.. Freeman Company. ^ A temperature of 450 ±80 pK in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) of sodium atoms was achieved in 2003 by researchers at MIT. 45. Physical Chemistry (8 ed.cern. Herbert (1980). Reading MA.1088/1742-5468/2010/01/P01003 (http://dx. New York.400 kilometers is roughly the radius of Earth. 41.pdf) (Chapter 1 lecture notes on Solar Physics by Division of Theoretical Physics. The Principles of Statistical Mechanics.5 K. Photons at the Planck frequency have a wavelength of one Planck length.. ^ The Planck frequency equals 1. 50. W. 3.2 and 1.org/Nwfaq/Nfaq3.fi/~sol_phys /Sol0601. pp.html) .pdf) ..org /link/?APL/96/113109) . Thermal Physics (2nd ed. 34. ^ The peak emittance wavelength of 2. ISBN 0-7167-1088-9.org/10.gov/news-center/news-releases/2006/physics-astron /hottest-z-output. Oxford University Press. doi:10. Oechslin et al. Kroemer.org /10. Oxford University Press. D. ^ Feynman. 44. http://link. and here  (http://cosserv3.gov/worldbook/star_worldbook. A 1989 measurement (http://www.897 77 m is a frequency of 103.org/abs/1002. "The finite quantum grand canonical ensemble and temperature from single-electron statistics for a mesoscopic device" (http://www.mpg. Kroemer. Link to Web site (http://umich. Appendix E.harvard. U.1007%2FBF01450409) .html) ^ Core temperature of a high–mass (>8–11 solar masses) star after it leaves the main sequence on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram and begins the alpha process (which lasts one day) of fusing silicon–28 into heavier elements in the following steps: sulfur–32 → argon–36 → calcium–40 → titanium–44 → chromium–48 → iron–52 → nickel–56.. The Planck temperature of 1.). H. 2003.iop. Thermal Physics (2nd ed. the average neutron has a vibrational speed of 30% the speed of light and a relativistic mass (m) 5% greater than its rest mass (m0). (2010).de /mpa/research/current_research/hl2005-10/hl2005-10-en.777. It's also noteworthy that at 350 GK. Wiley.B. 2006.fi/wiki/LTL /World_record_in_low_temperatures..html) by CERN (http://public. Further reading Chang.helsinki. (1938). Leanhardt et al.Wikipedia. Bibcode 2010ApPhL.html) .de/) . Citation: Cooling Bose–Einstein Condensates Below 500 Picokelvin.doi. 43..0±2. 11 of 12 25/01/2013 9:57 AM .C. "Measuring the temperature of a mesoscopic electron system by means of single electron statistics" (http://link.854 87(14) × 1043 Hz (which is the reciprocal of one Planck time). Link to news release. University of Helsinki).. the free encyclopedia http://en. E. J. ^ Tolman. (2010). Bibcode 2010JSMTE. deuteron-gold.doi.mpa-garching. ^ Kondepudi. pages 39–6 to 39–12. http://www. CODATA 2006 recommended value of 2. ^ Peak temperature for a bulk quantity of matter was achieved by a pulsed-power machine used in fusion physics experiments.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display. and proton-proton collisions to test the theory of quantum chromodynamics. R. ^ Results of research by Stefan Bathe using the PHENIX (http://www. 52. However.web. The 350 GK portion was a small volume located at the pair's developing common core and varied from roughly 1 to 7 km across over a time span of around 5 ms.003P (http://adsabs. G.gov/world/) in Upton. Herbert (1980).doi. arXiv:astro-ph/0507099 v2.96k3109P (http://adsabs. (1975).edu/abs/2010ApPhL.2342 (http://arxiv. (1987).de /~hw/astroandsolartitles. the star explodes as a Type II supernova. 1515. pp.0037 (http://arxiv.). Julio de Paula (2006).).2342) .6 solar masses respectively. ^ "World record in low temperatures" (http://ltl. of Physical Sciences. arXiv:1002. arxiv.org/abs/1001. 49.01.htm) .fau.org/10.org/EJ/abstract/1742-5468/2010/01/P01003/) .bnl.0037v2) ^ Kittel. 93. E.96k3109P) . ^ Balescu. Within minutes of finishing the sequence.616 24(12) × 10−26 nm.1063%2F1. ^ Prati. 48.org/abs/1001. 655.mpg. Physical Review Letters 96 (2006) 075003.wikipedia. Citation: Stellar Evolution: The Life and Death of Our Luminous Neighbors (by Arthur Holland and Mark Williams of the University of Michigan). p. Charles.org (http://arxiv. the theory of the strong force that holds atomic nuclei together. H.harvard. Foundations of Physics 17: 713–722. 9. 42.org/abstract/PRL/v96/i7/e075003) .aps. the iron and manganese ions in the plasma averaged 3. R.org/abs/1002. Leighton.tkk. Applied Physics Letters 96 (11): 113109. 46.1007/BF01450409 (http://dx. R.org/wiki/Temperature 32. Oxford: Oxford University Press.ch/public/Welcome. The neutron stars in the model were 1.bnl.uni-freiburg.003P) . Imagine two city-sized objects of unimaginable density orbiting each other at the same frequency as the G4 musical note (the 28th white key on a piano). and a concise treatise on stars by NASA is here  (http://nasa.org/pdf/astro-ph/0507099.phenix.bnl. the actual peak emittance wavelength quantizes to the Planck length of 1. Mech. arxiv.cern.edu/~cis/AST2002/Lectures/C13/Trans /Trans. and were orbiting around their barycenter (common center of mass) at about 390 Hz during the last several milliseconds before they completely merged.html) . pp. R.41 GK (309±35 keV) for 3 ns (ns 112 through 115). Dept.2) All referenced data was compiled from publicly available sources.gov/rhic/) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (http://www. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Bathe has studied gold-gold. ^ Peter Atkins.1063/1. doi:10. p.fi/wiki/LTL/World_record_in_low_temperatures) .01.2. Freeman Company.html) produced a value of 5. ^ Based on a computer model that predicted a peak internal temperature of 30 MeV (350 GK) during the merger of a binary neutron star system (which produces a gamma–ray burst). Haines et al.org/EJ/abstract/1742-5468/2010/01/P01003/. E.ch/public/Content/Chapters/AboutCERN/HowStudyPrtcles/HowSeePrtcles /HowSeePrtcles-en.iop.897 7685(51) × 10−3 m K used for Wien displacement law constant b.3365204 (http://dx.416 79(11) × 1032 K equates to a calculated b /T = λmax wavelength of 2. ISBN 0-7167-1088-9. New York. 38. Link to Sandia's news release. ^ The 350 MK value is the maximum peak fusion fuel temperature in a thermonuclear weapon of the Teller–Ulam configuration (commonly known as a hydrogen bomb). ISBN 978-0-19-517127-3. 47. 33. 51. volume 1. 35. Stat.html#nfaq3.1088%2F1742-5468%2F2010%2F01%2FP01003) ..tkk. ISBN 0-471-04600-0. Citation: Overview of the Sun (http://theory.physics. R. 39.mpa-garching.456 MHz ^ Measurement was made in 2002 and has an uncertainty of ±3 kelvin. The >2 GK temperature was achieved over a period of about ten nanoseconds during shot Z1137.org (http://arxiv. Link to relevant Web page. ^ a b Kittel. Peak temperatures in Gadget-style fission bomb cores (commonly known as an atomic bomb) are in the range of 50 to 100 MK.kis. 12 Sept. Retrieved 2009-05-05. In fact. Hasok (2004). Ion Viscous Heating in a Magnetohydrodynamically Unstable Z Pinch at Over 2 × 109 Kelvin (http://prl. A. M.2342v1) ^ Prati.edu/abs/2010JSMTE.S.3365204) . pages 148-154.qps.asp?prID=06-56) ^ How do physicists study particles? (http://public. Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress.aip. 22 Feb. (1963). W.web. Torus Formation in Neutron Star Mergers and Well-Localized Short Gamma-Ray Bursts (http://arxiv. 36. ^ The cited emission wavelengths are for black bodies in equilibrium.org/hermanga /images/Astronomy/chapter_21___stellar_explosions.html) .edu/~gs265/star. Charles. London.K. 40. An html summary (http://www. (http://bnl.. 1: P01003.A. et al. Citation: Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions. The term bulk quantity draws a distinction from collisions in particle accelerators wherein high temperature applies only to the debris from two subatomic particles or nuclei at any given instant.