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# Multi-rate digital signal processing

Jump to: navigation, search Multi-rate signal processing studies digital signal processing systems which include sample rate conversion. Multirate signal processing techniques are necessary for systems with different input and output sample rates, but may also be used to implement systems with equal input and output rates.

Contents
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1 Changing the sampling rate o 1.1 Downsampling o 1.2 Upsampling o 1.3 Fractional rate changes 2 Noble identities 3 Polyphase Decomposition 4 See also 5 References

##  Changing the sampling rate

The process of changing the sampling rate of a signal (resampling) is called downsampling if the sample rate is decreased and upsampling if the sample rate is increased. Integer rate changes are far more common than non-integer rate changes.

 Downsampling
Main article: Downsampling See also: Decimation (signal processing) Downsampling a sequence by retaining only every th sample creates a new sequence , the

## . If the original sequence contains frequency components above

downsampler should be preceded by a low-pass filter with cutoff frequency . In this application, such an anti-aliasing filter is referred to as a decimation filter and the combined process of filtering and downsampling is called decimation.

 Upsampling

Main article: Upsampling See also: Interpolation Upsampling a sequence creates a new sequence where every th sample is taken from with all others zero. The upsampled sequence contains replicas of the original signal's spectrum. To restore the original spectrum, the upsampler should be followed by a lowpass filter with gain and cutoff frequency . In this application, such an anti-aliasing filter is referred to as an interpolation filter and the combined process of upsampling and filtering is called interpolation.

##  Fractional rate changes

Changing the sampling rate of a signal by a rational fraction can be accomplished by first

upsampling by , then downsampling by . A low pass filter with cutoff is placed between the upsampler and downsampler to prevent aliasing.

##  Noble identities

The Noble identities describe the effect of interchanging sampling rate changes and filtering. Using factor to denote downsampling by a factor , we have and to denote upsampling by a

and

##  Polyphase Decomposition

The polyphase decomposition of a filter is represented by

where

An important application of polyphase filters is in decimation, where the downsampling following the decimation filter can be moved before the subfilters subfilter to be calculated at the lower sampling rate as Similarly, for interpolation, the upsampling calculated as .i , allowing each (per the Noble identities).