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PHILIPPINE FOLK DANCES

Definition Folk dance is a form of dance developed by a group of people that reflects the traditional life of the people of a certain country or region. Folk dancing usually involves a group of happy people following dance instructions from an experienced caller. The dancers perform steps in certain formations, such as a circle or a straight line. Philippine folk dance has a long and diverse history. Each region in the Philippines features its own folk dances, originating from the precolonial era to the time of the Spanish occupation from the 1500s until the late 1800s. Most of these Filipino folk dances tell stories about historical happenings, ways of life, cultural influences and religious customs.

Origin of Dance Long before the Spaniards came to the Philippines, the indigenous people who mostly lived in the mountainous regions used folk dances in cultural celebrations, worships and rituals. They used music and dance to connect with the gods, appease their ancestors, pray for bountiful harvests and favorable weather, ask for healing, seek guidance during wars and ward off bad luck and natural calamities. They also danced to socialize and to express their feelings. Most of the mountain tribes from the northern part of the Philippines have carefully preserved their folk dances. The "Dinuyya" of the Ifugaos is a dance originating from the Cordilleras. It is regularly staged during festivals in Lagawe, Mountain Province. The Ibaloi also perform the popular regional dance called the "Bendiyan," which involves hundreds of male and female dancers performing in rituals.

Group Classification Folk Dances 1. NATIONAL DANCES - found throughout the islands. (e.g. Rigodon, Carinosa, Jota) Rigodon - Originated from Spain, this dance is commonly performed at formal affairs like inaugural balls where prominent members of the government participate and enjoy. Cariosa - Cariosa is a word that describes an affectionate, friendly and lovable woman. This dance is performed in flirtatious movements. La Jota Manilea - It is a dance named after the capital city of the Philippines, Manila, where an adaptation of Castilian Jota a floats with the clacking of bamboo castanets played by the dancers themselves. The costume and the graceful movements of the performers noticeably inspired by Spanish Culture. 2. LOCAL DANCES - found in specific locality. (E.g. Tinikling-Leyte; Subli-Batangas) Tinikling - Tinikling is considered the national folkdance with a pair of dancers hopping between two bamboo poles held just above the ground and struck together in time to music. Originated from Leyte Province, this dance is in fact a mimic movement of tikling birds hopping over trees, grass stems or over bamboo traps set by farmers. Dancers perform this dance with remarkable grace and speed jumping between bamboo poles. Subli-Batangas - This dance is one of the most popular dance in the Philippines and the favorite in Batangas. This dance is simply ceremonial in nature and this is performed as homage to the Holy Cross. The Holy Cross is known by the locals as the 'Mahal na Poong Santa Krus', and the Holy Cross -and-seek

plays an important role in the development of the dance. In fact, the Holy Cross is considered at the center of the dance and without the Holy Cross the dance will not materialize.

Benefits of Dancing Effective at improving body image, self-esteem, attentiveness, and communication skills.

It can also reduce stress, fears and anxieties, as well as lessen feelings of isolation, body tension, chronic pain, and depression. In addition it can enhance the functioning of the body's circulatory and respiratory systems.

Basic Movement Skills 1. ACTIVE - fast energetic movements. (e.g. Tinikling, Maglalatik, Polkabal) 2. MODERATE (e.g. Carinosa, Tagala) 3. SLOW (e.g. Pasakat, Amorosa) 4. SLOW AND FAST (e.g. Putritos, Habanera) Hopping - Springing into the air from one foot and landing on the same foot Jumping - Movement without a point of support or Spring into the air off both feet andland on both feet Leaping - A transfer of weight from one foot to the other. Push off with a spring and landon the ball of the other foot, letting the heel come down Bend knee to absorb the shock Pivoting - A traveling turn executed with thighs locked and feet apart in extended fifth position

Shuffling - A triple step similar to a Polka step with no lilt for example step forward leftand bring the right foot up yo the heel of the left foot. Brushing -To brush, sweep or scuff the foot against the floor Kumintang - a simple, classic gesture of rotating the hand and wrist and movement of arms which was believed to have been inspired by arnis. Sarok or salok - is an elaborate bow which must have been inspired by the womanacitivity of fetching water from a well. Sway - A tilt of the chest to the side, without lowering the torso Stretching from the side upwards Waltz steps - A ballroom dance in 3/4 time which first developed in Vienna as a fast paced dance to the Strauss music of the time, and eventually evolved into the slower version we now know as Waltz (or Slow Waltz).

MODERN DANCE

Definition Modern dance is a term usually referring to 20th-century concert dance, although it has also been applied to a category of 20th-century ballroom dances. Modern dance refused classical ballet's stress on feet as the primary catalyst for dance movements. It, instead, put stress on torso employing such elements as contact-release, floor work, fall and recovery, and improvisation. It was usually performed in bare feet, often with non-traditional costuming.

Origin

Modern dance is a dance form that originated in the early 20th century. Modern dance is a reflection of each individuals feelings and emotions which are transpired through the dance steps. Unlike the structured movements of ballet, modern dance is free flowing and sometimes improvised. In the 1900's European dances started to reject the confined rules of ballet. Instead, the dancers preferred a more relaxed style and performed barefooted. Thus, modern dance is in opposition to ballet whereby the dancers use the weight of their bodies to enhance movement Modern dance began to impact the United States in the 20th century when American dancers started to rebel against the restrictions of ballet. The pioneers of modern dance in America are Loie Fuller, Isadora Duncan, Ruth St.Dennis, and Ted Shawn.

Group Classification of Modern Dance Postmodern dance Postmodern dance occurred in the 1960s in United States when society questioned truths and ideologies in politics and art. This period was marked by social and cultural experimentation in the arts. Choreographers no longer created specific 'schools' or 'styles'. The influences from different periods of dance became more vague and fragmented. Contemporary dance Contemporary dance emerged in the 1950s as the dance form that is combining the modern dance elements and the classical ballet elements.[8] It can use elements from non-Western dance cultures, such as African dancing with bent knees as a characteristic trait, and Butoh, Japanese contemporary dancing that developed in the 1950s.[5][9] It is also derived from modern European themes like poetic and everyday elements, broken lines, nonlinear movements, and repetition. Many contemporary dancers are trained daily in classical ballet to keep up with the technicality of the choreography given. These dancers tend to follow ideas of efficient bodily movement, taking up space and attention to detail. Contemporary dance today includes both concert and commercial dance because of the lines being blurred by pop culture and television shows. Benefits of Dancing

It allows you to express yourself, to be aware of and use your body's movement capabilities

It will improve flexibility and fitness levels, it will tone the body, improve co-ordination, and sharpen your musicality skills

It can be intensely physical, enhancing strength and stamina Or it can be lyrical and calm, inspiring suppleness and fluidity It can both relax and exhilarate you.

Basic Movement Skills Laterals

In the Lateral, the dancer stands with head and spine in alignment, the supporting foot turned out. The arm over the supporting leg comes straight up next to the ear as the torso tilts, unbroken to the side, over the supporting leg. The opposite leg lifts pointed through the toes. The other arm swings up as the leg rises and parallels the straight arm next to the head. The body continues to tilt sideways from the pelvis in one unbroken line. A Lateral T shows the line of the torso and extended leg at a right angle to the supporting leg. A Low Lateral tilts the torso downward and the extended leg up in the air. Spiral

The Spiral is a torso twist that begins in the pelvis. As the body turns, each level is separately articulated all the way up the spine---pelvis, lower spine, mid-section, shoulders, neck, head. The head remains in alignment with the spine. The spiral releases in the same order: pelvis up to shoulders, neck and then head. Each movement is part of a smooth progression with the spine as its center. Stag Leap

The Stag Leap is a very high jump in a split but, although both legs are parallel to the floor, the front leg is bent from the knee inward. Most often the arms are either thrust up in a "V," palms facing out and down, or one-forward, one-to-the-side in a ninety-degree angle, palms down. Stag Turn

In a Stag Turn, the supporting knee is slightly bent; the other leg is up in the air and bent behind the body. The arm on the supporting side is thrust straight back, palms down. The opposite arm is thrust cleanly forward, palms down as the dancer turns around. Primitive Squat

A Primitive Squat is a hop that lands in a deep second-position plie---the feet are turned out heelto-heel and the knees are bent.

Flat Back

Flat Back is actually a series of moves but the basic movement makes a "tabletop" of the body. The dancer stands in second position---feet turned out heel-to-heel. The arms are down along the sides as the body bends forward from the hips without breaking the line from the top of the head to the lower spine. The bend continues until the entire torso is parallel to the floor. Then the arms come out from the sides in unison, arc completely forward and stretch out ahead of the torso parallel to each other, forming an extension of the flat back. Hinge

In the Hinge, the dancer balances on the balls of the feet, keeps a straight back and head and sends the knees forward as the torso tilts back and the arms are held straight out in front. The Contraction

Martha Graham loved Contractions in which the mid-section is pulled back against a movement. The action begins in the pelvis, and articulates up the spine as the breath is exhaled. The dancer aims to lengthen the space between each vertebra as the move progresses to the neck and the head, which are always in alignment with the spine. The Release

The Release occurs on the inhalation and also begins in the pelvis. The move travels up the spine in the same order as the contraction, restoring the torso to a straight alignment. It typically counters the Contraction. The High Release

A High Release, rather than ending with the spine and upper body in an upright, neutral position, tilts the breastbone up. The shoulder blades appear to rest on a bar or shelf. The head remains aligned with the spine and the rib cage remains over the hips. The lower back is not bent.

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