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LENIN, HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM: FROM THE 1920s TO 1953
Marxism, Hegelian C. L. R. James
at the outbreak of World 1914?15, During having fled to Switzerland War Lenin V.l. in the work of the German immersed himself I, his Science of Logic,1 on which he wrote philosopher Hegel, especially in in 1929?30 hundreds of pages of notes. Published posthumously Russian been and later inWestern for over after even studies discussed have languages,2 Lenin's Hegel Notebooks a topic of relative sixty years. Yet they remain so many is surprising the years.3 This given and Marx which have appeared since the in the history of Marxism, and given work on dialectics, Materialism and in 1908, has often work. That work
1940s, given Lenin's the fact that Lenin's Empirio-Criticism been considered
importance other major (Lenin CW 14), first published to be a crude and drily polemical
a narrowly materialist "reflection theory" rather than the propounded more Hegelian Marxism can be found in the 1914?15 note which has too often been seen books, yet it, rather than the Hegel Notebooks, as Lenin's major methodological work. A few of Lenin's a 1920 especially substantial his 1922 Banner writings on Hegel were known during article on the trade union debate which his lifetime, a contained
of Hegel to the editors
Hegel's and unknown be published, Dialectics," 1914 period. Lenin's
of Marxism, works. But
and dialectics, and, more importantly, of the leading Soviet journal Under the a speech which called for the systematic study of the 1914?15 Hegel Notebooks lay unpublished
to during his lifetime. The first part of these Notebooks in 1925, was the essay fragment "On the Question of to the pre but it was for many years wrongly attributed of Hegel's Science of Logic," the most important was first published in in the Soviet Union Notebooks,
44: 79-129,1992. Printed Publishers.
part of the Hegel
Studies ? in Soviet
in the Netherlands.
an inauspicious year for free intellectual debate, for that was the of Stalin's victory over the last remaining opposition group within year led by Nikolai the Communist Bukharin. Party, the Right Opposition for the first Science of Logic" appeared "Abstract of Hegel's Lenin's 1929, time as Volume Nine of supplement cow's Marx-Engels-Lenin and commentary excerpts and seriousness to Lenin's a the Leninskij Sbornik (Lenin Miscellany), collected works, under the editorship of Mos Institute.4 Totalling over 150 printed pages of the of Logic, they showed of Hegel in 1914?15. A typical study contains paragraphs copied in longhand from sum these on the Science
depth notes page of the Hegel the Science of Logic, with Lenin's own marginalia, interspersed and critical assessment. Toward the end of mary commentary,
on notes, Lenin tended to write more of his own general observations the theory of dialectics. Thus, they are not simply notes, but an expres out of a new concept of dialectic sion by Lenin of his own working based year, 1930, additional notes by Lenin on Hegel from most of them on 1915?16, plus some other notes on philosophy, were published as Volume writers other than Hegel, Twelve of the Lenin Miscellany. This 1930 volume contained about eighty additional on his History of notes on Hegel, mainly pages plus a of Philosophy, mass of other far shorter sets of notes and commentary from 1915?16, on brief notes on Aristotle's including Metaphysics (about 9 pages), Feuerbach's Ludwig Ferdinand Lassalle's critique of Leibniz (about book on Greek philosophy 12 pages), and on (about 15 pages). in the related to Hegel on Hegel total about on on Hegel. In the following
Thus, the largest of the entries which were not 1914?16 is about fifteen pages, while the notes 230 pages. In addition, over 200 pages of miscellaneous
and issues, ranging from an 1895 philosophical to other notes on materialism The Holy Family and science Engels' to Lenin's made in the period 1903 to 1911, most of it connected 1908 and Empirio-Criticism, is included. The addition of book, Materialism this sheer bulk, three-fourths of it not even Notebooks, but simply of pages of books in which Lenin made and articles photocopies the centrality of Lenin's notes, has the effect of minimizing marginal 1914 return to Hegel. This effect becomes even more pronounced in
material pre-1914 set of notes on Marx
when the two philosophical volumes later editions of these Notebooks, into one single and 1930) were combined of Lenin Miscellany (1929 with an introduction volume entitled Philosophical Notebooks, hardly mentioning Hegel at all.5 since their history of the reception of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks a number of leading Western is very complicated. While publication ? Karl Korsch, Georg Luk?cs, Ernst Bloch, Henri Lefebvre, Marxists ? on the Notebooks commented C. L. R. James, Raya Dunayevskaya were or other aspects of Lenin's to Hegel, their comments relation The often and, in the case of Luk?cs and Lefebvre, apparently contradictory to Communist the author's public adherence constrained by orthodoxy. as a mani In his Marxism and Philosophy (1923), often regarded as opposed to "Leninist" Marxism, Korsch, identified with Lenin's Hegelianism. openly far from
festo of "Western"
It was repudiating Lenin, in 1930, that he repudiated Lenin's work as crude and only later on, a fairly In his The Young Hegel mechanistic. (1948), Luk?cs developed cen of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks, orthodox Communist interpretation tering around the issues of "materialism" and "practice." He seems to there were substantial differ the issue of whether dismiss completely ences between and Empirio and Materialism the Hegel Notebooks Criticism Bloch's by his creation while Lefebvre, Subjekt-Objekt at least implicitly in his 1930s writing to differences between pointing and Empirio-Criticism, did not and Materialism the Hegel Notebooks limitations. of a near-identity (1949) has similar between these two works.
text. And by the late 1940s, Lefebvre grapple very much with Lenin's to write a self-criticism idealist of his allegedly had been pressured
German and social theo and French philosophers Non-Communist or the members Maurice Merleau-Ponty, rists, such as Jean Hyppolite, were in the Hegel-Marx often of the Frankfurt interested School, But these 1844 Manuscripts. and inMarx's newly published relationship thinkers, who did debate so much around in the 1930s and 1940s to launch an showed virtu and Hegel, independent no interest in the Lenin-Hegel Their lack of interest in relationship. ally inside of Lenin and Hegel the topic also helped to keep the discussion of orthodox Communism. the boundaries the young Marx It was only in the United States in the 1940s that the discussion of
82 Lenin's ous Notebooks
to attain a genuinely rigorous and seri of Dunayevskaya. in Dunayevs level, especially Here, ? with James and Grace Lee her erstwhile colleagues kaya's dialogue ? in a minority the concept tendency within the Trotskyist movement Hegel began in the work of a break in Lenin's thought between earlier Materialism the Hegel Notebooks and the was posed explicitly for the
and Empirio-Criticism first time. However, the overall state of the debate over Marxism in the U.S. at the time did not permit the publication of an English edition of the Hegel Notebooks, in this regard. efforts despite Dunayevskaya's a number in the late 1950s, Dunayevskaya of Beginning published serious commentaries their discussion in the West on the Hegel Notebooks. The in the first two decades tortuous history of after their publica of Lenin's Notebooks. exercised of what
tion helps to explain the continuing obscurity That history also illustrates how Lenin's Hegel sometimes often subterranean influence on some termed Western Marxism.
of the founders
LENIN AND HEGEL KORSCH, In the launch
IN CENTRAL AND
the Hegelian to Antonio Marxist Gramsci 1920s, attempted a discussion in Italy. In the period of Lenin and Hegel 1924? several short texts by Lenin on Hegel in Italian 26, Gramsci published Communist of them was the important 1915 essay One journals.6 "On the Question of Dialectics" from was jailed by Mussolini Gramsci Unfortunately, fragment before be a the full Hegel Notebooks long time until interest introduction began revived the Hegel Notebooks. in 1926, three years to appear in Russian. It would Italian Marxists: The among 1958, burdened by an anti
Notebooks Hegelian Lenin's
did not appear in Italian until by Lucio Colletti.7
were published more in Notebooks Philosophical quickly a German other Western in 1932. edition languages, beginning with While Luk?cs' and Class Consciousness and Karl Georg History Korsch's are book Marxism and Philosophy, Hegelian refers directly to Lenin's still unpublished Hegel Notebooks. these books were written, at least in part, on the basis of Lenin's the two best-known Marxist in German in 1923, both published texts of the 1920s, neither Yet own
By this time his thought had evolved to Lenin." in which Marxism orthodox and Philosophy Communists." Marxism.LENIN. or economic are no action. mainly in late 1922. of his own return had been made by Lenin in the early 1920s.10 which to Lenin by then been expelled from the German Communist not specifically for his philosophical views. with speak and write."9 There unnecessary by either political action direct references Consciousness. just before Hegel public his May 1922 stroke almost completely him from then immobilized a few brief periods when he could until his death in January 1924. having never and his companions "spiritual legacy Lenin some things said in the heat of battle."11 Thus. Korsch cites Lenin's 1922 article again and writes: must "Just as political action is not rendered unnecessary by the economic so intellectual of a revolutionary action is not rendered class. Luk?cs' book. and Philosophy. was as one attacked between crudely and dogmatically "the Leninist interpretation by of . Korsch in 1930. and Philosophy. to in spite of abandoned. Lenin's statements on Hegel."8 Then. in Luk?cs' History and Hegel and Class was published a bit earlier than Korsch's book. both on the theory of the vanguard toward an open hostility party and on dialectics. A. The quote from Lenin reads: "We piece to his Marxism These who a systematic dialectic from a organize study of the Hegelian materialist in the concluding paragraph of Marxism standpoint. for both authors were young members Third A few indications International. In the only significant discussion of Lenin is on the theory and the concept of the vanguard party. which he had quoted in were now seen as only isolated ones made "in the heat of battle." 1923. although to a new edition of answered his critics at length in a long introduction his Marxism and Philosophy. return Lenin's HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 83 of to to Hegel in 1914. Korsch Party. a quote from Lenin's 1922 article for Under the Banner of placed as the frontis "On the Significance of Militant Materialism. Korsch within the scientific materialism national" whose here accuses Lenin of the "Marxism of having remained of the Second Inter of imperialism In 1930. He goes on to "sum up the philosophical dispute of 1924. Karl Korsch references to Hegel by Lenin did not go unnoticed by Korsch.
he does briefly discuss last important discussion Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. 1930 rejection of Lenin as a Marxist appears to have been philosopher made and Empirio-Criticism. available extremely mechanistic now overshadowed those brief post-1914 which had inspired him in 1923. book. Korsch does not show any awareness which did not appear in German until 1932. mainly on the basis of Materialism out his having read the 1914?15 Hegel Notebooks. Lenin's in Russian before 1927. he writes: The recent publication by the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute of Lenin's philosophical . Korsch issue: Lenin's only writings by Lenin on Hegel seems to say as much in a 1938 essay on "Lenin's Philosophy. But there is one additional possibility which is probably most to Korsch's 1930 since it is a real theoretical attacks. of Kant's critical which like himself "deviated this canon and of Hegel's idealism. Thus. It is also the party as well as the virulent and others. On the Hegel Notebooks. never that his possible attacks on him taking Lenin seriously 1926 expulsion from Deborin by Zinoviev. their importance and although he downplays as his main point of depar takes Materialism and Empirio-Criticism ture. of Lenin's fuller Hegel of Lenin. Korsch's Notebooks. Thus it book. cherished. for Korsch. immediately only text by Lenin on dialectics appears that. gaining and other Western languages beginning a wide circulation That is in fact the among Communists. and Empirio-Criticism. even peared: more most awkward. as a dialectical thinker."12 epistemology for this apparent WTiat accounts toward Lenin's change of views 1930? It is certainly possible Korsch that legacy by quoted Lenin on in 1923 only as a point of diplomacy toward his Russian Hegel comrades." where that when Lenin's Materialism and Empirio-Criticism he writes ap "There was not so much open hostility as indifference and. all in the name of central "Leninism. Materialism early mechanistic appeared in German in 1927."13 In his 1930 critique In the above-mentioned 1938 essay "Lenin's Philosophy.84 Marx ized and Engels' in Russia" from KEVIN ANDERSON materialism and those had already been formally canon who were to have alleged in the direction of idealism.14 with those whose have been just among applause would a kind of polite embarrassment." had helped to turn Korsch against Lenin by 1930. which Korsch cites in 1930." Korsch's of Lenin on dialectics.
but also of Hegel. Karl Marx. the As Patrick Goode writes. shows from dated 1914 the first germs of that particular significance the last phases of Lenin's and after his death the philosophical during activity assumed in Lenin's "materialistic thought of Hegel philosophy. revolution in an underdeveloped country. In this sense. Korsch writes an epitaph for Lenin's Hegel Notebooks outside Russia: with regard to their relevance toMarxism assumed A the belated formal revival of the whole of disowned idealistic dialectics the formerly of Hegel with materialism the Leninists of old bourgeois and proletarian revolutionary anti-bourgeois not only of bourgeois materialistic thought but of all served to reconcile tendency demands . but also Hegel generally."15 was seen as revolu as against 1923.LENIN.18 move away altogether. . in the 1923 edition and Philosophy.17 as against the "unintelligent materialism" of the Thus ment at the stage of West European develop and their revolution was the equivalent century. ness of Russian economic and philosophic development. . HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 85 papers which et seq. Korsch not only rejects to Lenin on Hegel."16 by the bourgeois In this vein. it was merely an expression Europe. as beginning of the road toward a new Marxist of revolution for dialectic part Western of the backward Instead. of the French "bourgeois" revolution of 1789. In addition. passed phase in the pre-war and Lenin and Feuerbachian materialism 18th century by Plekhanov to Lenin's idealism" of Hegel and other bourgeois of the "intelligent appreciation period of the nineteenth century philosophers earlier 18th century philosophers. which had been followed in thought by Hegel's century rationalism critique of both eighteenth turn to Hegel For Korsch. Korsch had by 1938 come full circle from the view he not only of Lenin. and Kant's the Russians only in the nineteenth were in 1914 was not seen any longer. By the 1930s. philosophy an ideological form in the 1930s. newly published had expressed of his Marxism 1938 book. where Hegel's philosophy stress here is on the "bourgeois character" both of Hegel's tionary. . he downplays a surprising degree Marx's This is 1844 Manuscripts. as it had been in 1923. written for an academic His rejection of Lenin on Hegel was thus also a general from the stress on Hegelian dialectics within Marxism in his seen publisher. for and of the Russian Revolution. "Leninism was merely Korsch But.Thus the whole the acceptance by of an apparently circle was actually to Hegel from Holbach by the repeated thought bourgeois philosophical of from the adoption which of the Marxist Russian dominated movement. Lenin's critical philosophy.
Lenin's and of the state and concept ? revolution it does not present Lenin as a Hegelian but. at least on the surface. Luk?cs' emphasis to Hegelian-Marxian contribution dialectics. For as as 196?. Korsch KEVIN ANDERSON himself had helped for a new genera pioneer B." Luk?cs concludes by stressing as a practicing dialectician "Leninism means that the theory only: materialism has moved more still nearer practical that it has become than the daily battles of the it could be at the Lenin of historical proletariat. Certainly assessment of Lenin as dialectician been at least as aware as was Korsch of Lenin's public 1920s on the need Luk?cs' he would statements private have in the to study Hegel directly. as we will see in a moment. time of Marx. who did remain in the Hungarian even after it was completely and who made frequent Stalinized.19 Party was. though Lenin as "the greatest is praised to have been thinker abstractly movement since Marx. quite different with respect self-criticisms.86 something which tion in 1923. This is seen in a postscript to a new edition of the . of the party. Even Marxist. Luk?cs spent most of the time until after 1945 in the Soviet Union. His 1924 testament to Lenin covers many living ? issues his own self-critique of his earlier left communist views. or even take up the issue of Lenin and Hegel. alleged Hegelian as well." by the revolutionary produced working-class and he writes that "the analysis of Lenin's policy always leads us back to the question of dialectical method. long after Luk?cs had read Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. Luk?cs remains a bit reticent on Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. surprisingly."20 is not on a claim that Lenin made an original Thus. claimed them as a major inspiration for his 1948 book The Young Hegel. late and. It is unclear whether this a seemingly of Lenin and Hegel was merely non-discussion prudent to the virulent attacks on History and Class Consciousness for response or whether it reflected idealism. to Lenin and Hegel. of imperialism. but he too may not yet early have known about the full extent of Lenin's 1914?15 Hegel Note or books. Yet more than lack of knowledge of Lenin's work on Hegel fear of attack by people such as Zinoviev may be at issue here. The Georg Luk?cs Communist pathway of Luk?cs.
These contribute the title of Lenin Miscellanies too. Logic Through on bread. 1929?31. Luk?cs may have considered in Luk?cs' second Hegel Notebooks The Young Hegel. . . . theless. Lenin was always to study Hegel's learning. Philosophical published to the IX & XII. Economic and Philosophical of Marx's the full typescript Manuscripts In the same period intellectual development. Istv?n book on Luk?cs' for the years In his biographical Mesz?ros.)22 between 1931/33. He also theoretical preparation the outbreak in Switzerland. life and thought by one of his former students. and "holiday" itwas whether a series of adventures he landed with the police." conception the work of art and social reality. . It has a major in 1929/30 under with Lenin's he gets acquainted Notebooks. on dialectics. 1924 book even geared writes: At up HEGEL where AND WESTERN Luk?cs once MARXISM 87 on Lenin. Lenin's Hegel Notebooks are here of Lenin's treated more work as an interesting biographical There is a discussion major book fact than as a major theoretical in dialectics. his life. since Lenin dealt only with Hegel's pheral None later works. He For the years 1933?35 Mesz?ros a project on The Young Hegel in the winter of 1937-38): is working (completed in the light of views of rethinking his earlier philosophical the period conceived during in Berlin. by D. and Philosophical Notebooks. impact on Luk?cs' of 1844. cally with Hegel's on Hegel are somewhat peri which preceded it. but flees writes: the Nazis and returns toMoscow. the most general as to practice. . beginning with the Science of Logic (1812?16). of a worker from Hegel's Logic or from the opinion (97?98) of war in 1914. use of this that his first task was to make he decided . Lenin's Notebooks to the topic of Luk?cs' book. again stresses that "for Lenin. Although Mesz?ros states that The Young Hegel was completed by . were constantly categories philosophical for it" (96). chronology writes: Mesz?ros The directed at the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute. greatly writings. after Once arrived. the [Marx's (Also 1844] Paris Manuscripts he tried to work on this subject but could not get very far with it. Riazanov.LENIN. In Moscow latter he works him shows modification epistemology of his of Hegel and of his view of "subject-object relations. This book deals systemati and the writings Phenomenology of Mind (1807) to have been The Young Hegel to a at least according inspired in part by Lenin's Hegel Notebooks.21 between and of the relationship of From 1931 to 1933 Luk?cs moves to Germany.
88 KEVIN ANDERSON in 1948 by a leading Western it is first published publisher. only a year after Stalin's death. published for the Europa Verlag. Hegel's generated causality is especially Science of Logic." in Hegel's Science the chapter on teleology of Logic.."23 suffered from as a in Moscow by far the biggest "Trotskyist agent" in 1941. should rank in importance and Marx. which Hegel was being as lectures in 1805?06. first time in East Germany 1938."24 Our concern here is with contains a brief The Young Hegel the fact that Luk?cs' is probably the first attempt by a major which chapter thinker to grapple with Lenin's Hegel Note Central European Marxist in The Young Hegel is one of the great works on the dialectic books. as the Phenomenology delivered just completed. a links human labor to the development chapter which than focuses on "the plough" as "more honorable passage where Hegel from it. This was undoubtedly in those years. involved For a notion the mature of internally of the Hegel . in 1954. thus overcoming analyze views both of conservative scholars and vulgar mate one-sided Hegel Hegel rialist Marxists. In his preface to a second edition. no self-determination ismanifested. Luk?cs' History the the affinities between Hegel and Marx. contrasted with mechanism "Teleology . Luk?cs writes He 1939 does on. Especially his book's publication factor in preventing in 1954 in East Germany. the book came under after its publication for whom. ." [where] (Hegel SL: 734) a passage to discuss in Hegel's Here Luk?cs teleology proceeds of the Idea. sharp attack by Stalinist philosophers are the Hegelian recounts: Marxists "The enemies as who Iring Fetscher would try to fortress of smuggle the Trojan horse of idealism into the beleaguered under the cover of Hegelian Soviet materialism dialectics. not mention including in late Autumn that the "book was completed the heightened he persecutions several months under arrest 1938." The passage was quoted those enjoyments which are procured by Lenin in his Hegel Notebooks. and it probably alongside concern and is to elaborate and Class Consciousness. Hegel SL: 747) Luk?cs historical notes that Lenin connected materialism. (Lenin CW 38: 189. Luk?cs this passage stresses therefore to Marx's notion of that for Hegel in the concept of teleology for human behavior. in a brief chapter entitled Luk?cs discusses Lenin and Hegel mainly He takes up an early version of "Labor and the Problem of Teleology.
which Luk?cs to the theoretical Luk?cs practice. view Marx. of practice." (350) Although immediately ? in Hegel's text this Luk?cs another key notion "the quotes ing of the theoretical idea" (Hegel SL: idea still lacks the moment practical a passage which Lenin does not quote ? the overall stress here 821). Rather admiringly is a logical it is on practice only. or practice. clearly followed Hegel's see the Theses on Feuerbach. of German writes Luk?cs. quotes Lenin's view that thus "[f]or Hegel a figure of logic. is of cardinal Here the for his entire philosophical system. from the practical follows." and that "Marx. quoting statements into "materialist dialectics. is developed.' lead in introducing the criterion consequence. is not on the move by Lenin." This section directly of Logic the book's concluding Idea." Here chapter on "The Absolute precedes once again the concept of activity in Hegel's stresses Luk?cs thought.LENIN. action." of practice into the theory of knowledge: this brief discussion by stating (Lenin CW 38: 217) Luk?cs concludes ? that all of this has shown that "man's economic activities in particular ? and branching out from there human praxis in general. having touched move work At Science quickly against as "idealist" ever since the 1920s. idea. Marx had held that "the the classical idealism was to develop forms seems of to on his own of a section of the this point. Luk?cs brings in Lenin's discussion entitled "The Idea of the Good. HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 89 are concepts Logic "teleology. praxis" (349) some other passages from the Hegel Notebooks. 1924 Lenin over the dialectic as a of activity." (351?52) importance concept whole." great achievement 'active side' of reality which had been rejected by the older on idealism. and idealism the discussion in his Thus. predominates in the sense of action is referred to positively only in which the more framework sophisticated despite we book are really not so far here from Luk?cs' of the latter as more "practical" than in The Young Hegel to Lenin's In passing references elsewhere . to cover himself the incessant attack There." where Lenin "translates" Hegel's here relates to Marx's Luk?cs that Lenin's discussion 1845 suggests "Theses on Feuerbach. terms "the concrete there what he now of the superiority finding follow practical over the theoretical Idea. Luk?cs materialism. in 'syllogism." (350) Thus. human that overcome the narrow After labor and human limits of mechanism.
" Lenin Then Luk?cs adds his own comment: "With his usual sides of the problem. Ernst in an East German edition. Luk?cs in Lenin's Hegel Notebooks which have been taken up many passages II by other since World War stressed theorists.27 Where Bloch's Marxist reading Bloch's Luk?cs Subjekt-Objekt. appeared the young Hegel. He cites Lenin's reigning Stalinist notion "On the Question of Dialectics" from the Philo to the effect that "[philosophical Lenin sophical Notebooks. and Empirio-Criticism Materialism and his Philosophical Notebooks In the 1920s Luk?cs had idealism and materialism." does the objectivity (510) Thus.26 gives us instead where mechanical and who of German had once social admired theorists the decidedly such as Wilhelm non-clerical Dilthey and out both 1915 C. Luk?cs invariably treats as very nearly equivalent to Lenin's Materialism and Empirio-Criticism the 1914?15 Luk?cs writes at one point that: "In Hegel Notebooks. another major work on Hegel and Marx. Philosophical versus materialism in a way that implies at least some critique of the of dialectical materialism. of Hegel's work. taking up the Phenomenology. such as the Philosophy and other works of Religion At this time Bloch. but did not always do so . orthodox Communist views like Luk?cs. of Luk?cs interpretation materialism and Hegelian dialectic concept Marxism cohabit. In Ernst Bloch 1949. who have usually Lenin Lenin's an break in 1914 with of Lenin's the old materialism. on political ranges over the Science of and the Philosophy of History." This is an incredibly one-sided interpretation by a (104) thinker who had attacked mechanical materialism in History and Class Consciousness. He makes it quite precision points clear that the idealist approach entails religious. quoting from the standpoint idealism is only nonsense of crude. neo-idealism Max Weber!25 seen Marx's dialectic more as the unity of In The Young Hegel. expressed issues. clerical necessarily overtones.90 KEVIN ANDERSON does address Luk?cs the issue of idealism Notebooks. metaphysical as well as Lenin's qualification materialism" that "[ijdealism is clerical essay fragment obscurantism. to the the foundations for a dialectical provides approach not discuss of knowledge. had written on the whole Logic.
apparently obligatory writes that the categories of Hegel's Logic are important in the work "of Marx and Engels. another point Bloch singles out the fact that Lenin concerned himself greatly with Hegel's idea near the end concept of the practical of the Science Similar to Luk?cs' in The Young of Logic. (13) Bloch makes Subjekt-Objekt. for example the radical student supporting to a 1962 West German of 1968. In the postscript edition of he wrote that "in the East today Hegel is no longer popular." a but few references to Lenin's central in Notebooks Hegel to his book. Hegel's espe thought lived on within not least by a cially in Lenin's work: "Lenin renewed authentic Marxism ." (425) But where Luk?cs over theory in Lenin's Hegel Note level of the primacy of practice with books. Zeitschrift f?r to Bloch's to Subjekt-Objekt." (162) In his 1952 preface to a new edition Bloch writes that Hegel was "one of Marx's teachers" (12) and that: "A person who would has no by leaving out Hegel dialectical materialism.. the 1960s. he claims the heritage of Hegel for Marxism. Massachusetts. . passages Bloch where goes on to Lenin writes such as when the more controversial up as well that Hegel's idealism is greater than crude Lenin wrote that "intelligent idealism is take connects Hegel. Bloch moved to West Germany." On the other hand. Bloch and practice. including the well-known Logic At in order fully to grasp Marx's Capital. despite the fact that Bloch the major official East German movement the book. as well as to return to the 'root' of Hegelian dialectics Hegel's Logic itself. writes. such as where he references occasional. materialism.. on philosophical a time controlled Philosophic HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM and his supporters 91 for journal. the decline of Hegelianism within European lamenting and especially German academic philosophy and sociology after 1850 in a chapter entitled "Hegel's Death and Life." study the historical-materialist of fully mastering prospect dialectic historical (12) In the text. they are not to Stalin. of Lenin and Stalin. 1952 Preface he According In actually composed much of the book in Cambridge. he the Marxist movement. approach this to the Marxist concept of the unity of theory the emphasis on practice: "Theory leads to concrete seems to leave the question at the practice. He also makes ones. but never gave up his commitment to Marxism.LENIN." (382?383) Bloch quotes several passages from Lenin's Hegel one on the need to study Hegel's Notebooks.
members on IN FRANCE AND IN THE 1930s: GUTERMAN World War that Lenin's discussion the eve of the Second first began to get some serious Henri Lefebvre and Norbert of the French Communist orthodox public by two un Guterman. one. wrote a 130-page . ambiguities. known even if in some cases a negative acclaim. societies cultures were Depression than before more decidedly anti-Hegelian." to materialism" at the end of of Logic. to Hegel relation by these theorists Lenin's Hegel Notebooks Nonetheless. Party.S.28 T?bingen of Lenin's Hegel Note in except for some passing references In Bloch's 1970 article on the one Hegel Notebooks. them very much. there is no mention As with the other Hegel Notebooks. Thus.. book Materialism and crudely materialist Empirio-Criticism as a great Marxist in Subjekt-Objekt critique of not seeming to acknowledge the possibility of a "positivism" (109). the during to turn more seriously theory. there is not as much were discussion was he did not in German had in the of Lenin's Hegel-Marx relationship. at least in whose intellectual but where. in Bloch's books his 1963 hundredth at all of the anniversary of Lenin's birth. the Science However. Bloch's work defends Hegelian more openly source of Marxist than does Luk?cs as a major idealism dialectics. while Hegelian during Bloch discuss certainly aware of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. and they remained a point of reference.29 important Central European Marxists this period whom we have taken up. The Hegel Notebooks were greeted with more in France certain quarters.92 closer Lenin to writes KEVIN ANDERSON intelligent materialism that Hegel "stretches than a hand or when stupid materialism. (431) In this sense. of the 1930s. intellectuals began of Marxian as one might have expected. to these theorists. despite the publication in 1932 and the interest that Korsch. toward an examination LENIN AND HEGEL LEFEBVRE It was Hegel Western in France Notebooks Marxists. Bloch also this is not without praises Lenin's similar to Luk?cs. and the U. lectures. and Bloch Luk?cs. of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks Thus. break or even a shift of emphasis between that work and Lenin's 1914 I have found no discussion other writings.
32 seemingly an Lefebvre joined the Communist Party in 1928 and remained unorthodox 1930s only member until he and Guterman of Lenin's 1958. Hartmann attack from the standpoint of science the type of dialectic employed by 1932 article is notable for its brief reference Hegel and Marx. introduction HEGEL AND WESTERN of Lenin's MARXISM 93 to a French in 1938. is known more for his critique of everyday life."30 In fact. During the first French introduced translations. as in Germany. Hegelian Marxism which he began to develop.33 On but also of Marx's Hegel Notebooks. and for his writings on alienation. George Lichtheim has written that "Lefebvre Hegel. in For example. the Party publishing . Marx's Dialectic. which on the Leninist of Marxism interpretation in those years as a doctrine the title Cahiers which Hegel Notebooks. published by the prestigious one of the leading French Marxist mard. the young Georges Bataille entered the debate over and Bataille. Lefebvre's study of both Marx's in the 1930s was crucial to the more and Lenin's Hegel Notebooks humanistic.LENIN." he was 1915 essay fragment although unaware that this fragment was part of a larger whole. theorists. another journal which they maintained for a the other hand. the not Hegelian published brief period. and other radical intellectuals were drawn to surrealism. under edition appeared de Hegel. there some articles on Hegel were in the venerable Revue de published et de morale in 1931. went back to the 1920s when in Hegel Lefebvre's interest he. The question was not one of rejecting Lenin. 1939 was was based centered already going against the official line. when he was expelled. including a much discussed Hegel's The following year. than for his discussion of Lenin and humanism and the young Marx. Bataille's to Lenin's "On Dialectics. death. when Alexandre Koj?ve began to give his famous seminar. despite their differences. sur la dialectique de L?nine Paris publishing house Galli on the analysis of capitalism's contra political and economic 1844 Manuscripts dictions. and Years the journal Philosophies. of the hundredth m?taphysique anniversary one by Nikolai Hartmann. "I began me to Marx. but rather of how to view Lenin's work. "Critique of the from the 1844 Manuscripts. who led this after the surrealist Andr? Science of Logic in 1924.31 Breton had shown him a copy of Hegel's While Hegel was not a topic of much interest in France until the late Guterman founded 1930s. Lefebvre." to read Hegel." critique was in Avant-poste. later Lefebvre wrote. each tended to Hegel.
as he had written carried not in the margins at the bottom of the page. Lefebvre had fought its departure and less scientistically inclined version of Marxism. to which we now turn.94 house KEVIN ANDERSON and Empirio-Criticism had rushed Lenin's Materialism into print in 1928. with Lenin's Hegel Notebooks.. Cahiers sur la dialectique de Hegel.34 Martin Jay expresses writes: Well to open from the PCF. that Hegel Hyppolite. As one of the first in France was crucial to read and of Marx for the understanding he was able to see the links of the 1844 Paris Manuscripts. And philosophically well before the impact on other Marxists of the Hegel Renaissance led by Koj?ve and he had taken to heart the lesson he had first learned from Breton. Third. The form in which published Lenin's Hegel it was printed by a major significant. as the first volume of his Collected Works to be published in a widely held view of Lefebvre when he French. of Hegel's here by itself in a Science of Logic. Philosophical Notebooks. unlike in . evident the Stalinist 1914 the most Lenin's editions.. Guterman and Lefebvre Notebooks literary Second. Lenin's concern with Hegel by editions which downplayed the more abstract title. This is their first and Lenin's is rather telling. but with a system of Lenin's tended to muddle using the Stalinist as against in the title itself. not a party press. not mixed This did not mean that the edition was without its own Notebooks?1 "Abstract Gallimard insisted that Lenin's problems. important manuscript. except in this one brief passage. which footnotes original text. and philosophical Gallimard.38 on Hegel comments be them. ." was presented in with other writings as in the Philosophical single volume. however. publisher. of Lenin's concept of dialectic. the Hegel between before his mind to a more rather than the Logic?5 What is an appreciation of Lefebvre's work is missing here. however. the importance appreciate in particular of the Phenomenology the young Marx and Hegel. In fact their non-discussion development of Materialism and Empirio-Criticism. While between Notebooks Hegel as the higher it implies that they see the Hegel Notebooks oblique. Lefebvre and Guterman write that Lenin's Hegel Notebooks show of his and Empirio "the progress since Materialism thought" Criticism?6 to any differences only reference and his earlier writings. to the work of Hegel was that these were Notebooks devoted is also very First.
as Marx and Engels had urged. that Lenin accepted Hegel uncritically. (12) is also toward a creative ? act. as an example Lenin's discussion Guterman and Lefebvre of the give final chapter of Hegel's Science of Logic. they write that "Lenin was not one of (7) At the for whom action is opposed to thought" (9). needs For that for Lenin in the Hegel Notebooks. For others.LENIN. support the comparison with the greatest philosophical works. seems (9) to move further away. Further. they claim. thought collide with one another: when all of the contradictions unchain themselves. their equilibrium and the rupture of this mechanical equilibrium" (15). is sometimes that [moment] when it is approaching. in the midst of the those men of World War I: and Lefebvre holocaust Lenin reads Hegel at the moment when the unity of the industrial world tears itself the fragments of this unity. Hegel's method dialectic. of departure for a materialist valuable for In this sense Lenin . problems "already to linking the Hegel Notebooks For Lenin in 1914 and after. when higher unity. They write that the virulent fascist nationalism anticipates the concrete ideology" (9?10). calling attention to the date of composition of the Hegel Notebooks. which is "a theory of real forces. For Lenin: [T]he critical reading [of Hegel] that one could not have except surmounts it. theory of contradiction apart. "the content of Hegelianism is the point some. phy Notebooks shed new light on the problem of how Marxism is to Hegel For most Marxists. Guterman HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 95 that begin their introduction by contending in Lenin's Hegel Notebooks: "The reader finds himself in the presence of ideas which. taken in all their significance." same time. neither is it true that he rejected Hegel. which was to have been realized. Lenin towards oneself judges Hegel with a severity one one's past. "The Absolute Idea": and legacy of Hegel to be rejected" (14?15). It is not. "his but Lenin faced in 1914 vision" drawn from the Hegel Notebooks "prepares his action" (10). these issues They contend are "posed in a much more and concrete manner" profound (15). Hegel's dialectic becomes materialist via Marxism. dialectical method is the only appropriate Hegel. them. violently The Hegelian shows him that the moment a when the solution. at the moment is critically appropriating classical German philoso for the working the class. of the 1930s. in the totality of their aims and interests.
Hegelian idealism has an objective His of religion aspect. the concept while contrasted both to that of the isolated way in which "the fascist the concept of the individual bourgeois a parody out of the actually the other hand. including as a they take issue with Hegel to three sets of issues in need of elaborated those "problems on which the but which need to be indications. remarks. of subject and object as well as within such as contradiction. Here one of the key issues mentioned is that of alienation. theory as Lenin the most idealistic However.96 KEVIN ANDERSON state Logic. that of theory and practice. issues presumably Lenin. and Lefebvre only. to be confused with the existentialist concept of "Nothingness" As against those Marxists who would reduce dialectic knowledge [gnos?ologie] was interested as much they argue. Third the development of dialectical problems. and. on most of their long introduction From this point is taken up with and "the relation of the individual for and other general problems in Hegel's thought and its relevance to Marxism. Lenin's Hegel Notebooks unfortunately the type of serious and probing discussion which they deserve. Guterman in the "living context" (50) of Hegel's (41)." "perspectives thought" not addressed very much by Marx. Because never of this. also point by Marxists "cannot be a simple operation" (16). Non-Marxist at totality such as Bendetto Croce are critiqued for having downplayed Hegelians of contradiction. They are those "problems already the theory of (19). These include categories such as consciousness and ideology. even get to Guterman according of their introduction. general concepts are each discussed and negativity some length. gave precise taken up again in light of contemporary philosophical thought" (19). materialism" (17). unacceptable. in addition. Second come by dialectical dialectical contradiction. to a theory of hold that Lenin dialectic . Engels and (19). founders of Marxism to the social" come "open (19). dialectics Instead. with only occasional to Lenin's Hegel Note references books. Hegel's concept of negativity state makes is totality and to the existing totality" (34). On as "the principal motor of the dialectical movement" is not. is at the same time most materialist^ 15) and the is of Hegel's Therefore any "inversion" of Hegel overtones. praxis. some existentialist With "metaphysician" First discussion. and Lefebvre's own statements at the beginning these the unity relativism. chapter that on the Absolute Idea.
of Lefebvre's later writings on the problem to it . Rapport and interaction of form and of the relative and the absolute. Hegel "In pushing rationalism it" (65). compromises Science of Logic ends in a closed totality Neither the view that Hegel's nor a critique of Hegel is abandoned. negativity. opens and reintegrates closed up consciousness Hegel. Unity and practice. it into in a sense. from the 1920s. as he was formal He HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM be reduced 97 to a set of in the method alone. They carried over by Guterman which key concepts and Lefebvre thought. and specifies this interaction. is given within Lenin's Hegel Notebooks and none could be found by this writer." casting it down. system of a contradicting by degree. they refer to Lenin Hegel's ? ? as Lenin saw to the movement of the reattaches consciousness Logic in this way the notion of the Hegelian universe. Materialism universal prolongs reintegrating human existence. subjectivity. having in the final chapter Hegel his thrown down negativity. interaction.LENIN. since at no point do they indicate where of Hegel's Science of their own view differs from Lenin's interpretation Critiquing once again: Logic. into daily life concrete (79) While no textual reference support such a conclusion.40 The in surrealist century. (52?53) has left in the shadows: The law of Hegel in thought). as if a mystical force from the depths. "mystifies is found reason: is that he fetishizes system" (59). Hegel's concept of consciousness. of the Unity In keeping thought totality" in with the the aversion twentieth to totality so characteristic contrast of French to the "open in the chapter on the Absolute Idea in the Science of totality at which point. an example nature of their of the problematic too often tends to impose their own interpretation introduction.39 they totality" of "Marx-Lenin" "closed Hegel's This closed (54?55). of the dialectic on Lenin's text. "Hegel hypostasizes Logic. Another major flaw in Hegel to the absurd. in their view. does have strong overtones of everyday life. however. of theory finite and the infinite. They write insists on certain that after Lenin laws which his study of Hegel: [Lenin] in a spiral (in being and development content. Nor can dialectic has made laws. possibly is therefore above are. In this way. for pushing where negativity can be found reason to the absurd in the text of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks.
They write: "To Nietzsche's for debates Throughout." to "The Category of their introduction is devoted to the focus of Lenin. For Hegel.' (85) This strong affirmation an attack on the "line of irrationalist from idealism. Ludwig Feuerbach's critique of Hegel's to repudiate not only "Hegelian idealism. They sum up the whole by discussing the categories movement Idea the Hegelian which one would sense" (134). they empha size Hegel's section on "The Idea of the Good" just before the conclud ing chapter of the Science of Logic." but also "the dialectic" (128)." (97) Also following Lenin. introduction while Marx held onto the dialectic. and Lefebvre's view But Guterman Idea are greatly is a bit different stressed here by from Luk?cs' Hegel. but not in alienation. and Nietzsche. Marx This is an effort to make Lenin and Hegel actual for the of the 1930s. philosophical mula 'Man must be surpassed. following "unites the real and the possible. An entire of Practice. aspirations forms (religion. Only Marx how a "larger and more effective" of reason results from a concept error was concept of alienation. .' Marxism 'Man is the one who responds: " as a humanism of Marxism is surpasses. as we have seen in Similar action and the practical discussion. since they emphasize that of Luk?cs. practice is connected to "the interaction of man and nature. as absolute. They defend notion latter exterior of a social of "which and individual poses versus before both and which liberalism the the nation values. . a section where. parallel non-revolutionary . text and the philosophical both Hegel's The Idea of the Good and was the the moment tradition: of utopianism within [human] aspirations alienate themselves. magic. (105) A final section of their introduction to the concept of is devoted They conclude a category found in Marx's 1844 Manuscripts." Hegel.98 KEVIN ANDERSON are contrasted to Heidegger and Lenin Hegel. unity of finite and infinite. and of in a "materialist of humanity . collectivity the individual must stand superior section aside" (89). the and fascism. (103) themselves inmystical as it does after that the materialist dialectic. demands to utopianism. Besides ? in a Hegelian Marxism self expect and nature. by preceded to Heidegger" the Hegelian-Marxian Kierkegaard (75). Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. These or sublimate are transposed. of form. mysticism). hold that the development of they shows the Idea is a process of various stages of alienation.
issue."41 Yet. was for Guterman the and Lefebvre their publication by Gallimard A focus on the for a broad statement on Hegelian Marxism. earth of what the human is also Rimbaud a quote from on the unity of "body and soul" (134?35). The Marx's best known result of Lefebvre's and Lenin's 1844 Manuscripts in 1939. As did Lenin is carried of . Idea as a unity of practice "saw the absolute and thought. based on Marx's characterization reject as the "money of the spirit. far from a close textual analysis of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. occasion fluid. their more is what stands out in character of Hegel's dialectic self-developing some overtones of both surrealism and albeit with account. unfortunately activity He adds the additional "Hegel did not elucidate action itself" (50?51). Dialectical Materialism. of Hegel's the Science of Logic. and their focus on Hegel's seems almost to Lefebvre Notebooks. In this way. Lefebvre's reading of Logic is somewhat different from that of Lenin. In addition. . are hardly to be found in Lenin's text. Lefebvre creative adds. being. published Lenin's in the 1930s with grappling is the book he Hegel Notebooks much Although of the this book never type of Hegelian to Lenin introduction and Hegel's idealism than did Lenin in his own Hegel mentions Marxism in the Hegel here stresses that in the Science of Logic Hegel Lefebvre Notebooks. serious concept type of distance is not is presented when their sharp critique of Hegel's problem of totality in the chapter on the "Absolute Idea" puts a certain between found and Marxian Hegelian thought. negation 1844 Manuscripts on the other hand." In this sense. of the and knowledge. a separation at least not on this in Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. as with Luk?cs. Hegelian particular Marxists who are surprisingly anxious to put a greater distance between which themselves Notebooks. once again a flavor of their surrealism of the 1920s. Even a which existentialism. abolishes "Hegel's system point here that in the Science of Logic in the end. it is two Western. . . (57) Other themes flow both contradiction and Becoming" more directly from Marx's while Phenomenology. human HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 99 being and nature. Lefebvre Hegel expresses great reservations about Hegel's central category. Hegel in Guterman and Lefebvre's developed over into Dialectical Materialism.LENIN. the bringing down to ? there spirit and religions had yearned for the nineteenth Arthur poet century symbolist and total human the latter giving Thus.
incessantly. dialectique. KEVIN ANDERSON which Stalinist philosophers have attacked something as have the Althusserians in the more recent period. Party publishing to the author.42 The last half of the bent where. period. situation inside Stalin's Russia. according Originally eight(!) volume "treatise on dialectical this project was never materialism.45 Lefebvre discusses Lenin and text but in a lengthy appendix. were hardly ones allowing for a very wide discussion. as part of an conceived. Communist from the early 1930s. France did. as against many stresses that the Lefebvre Marcuse. and 1939 could on Hegelian and did emerge such as Herbert interpreters to the human relation of nature Logic." (72) "rehabilitated" by him Economy on having It is further by Marx from 1844 as "the unity of idealism and Science of Logic that Hegel's suggested in 1858. the Nazi occupation drove underground both Marxism and Lefebvre as well as the elaboration The discussion begun personally.43 LENIN AND HEGEL The was first substantial again discussion in his IN FRANCE. Still other passages of Dialectical show the markedly Materialism as for example when he of Lefebvre's character Marxism. Hegelian describes was Marx's historical materialism materialism. even though the political in situation facing Lefebvre Unfortunately. chance" (137). the years of their publication. 1944-53 in postwar France of Lenin 1947 and Hegel Logique Logique formelle. issued by the official book .100 the negation. house. after having been previously as Marx and wrote worked on his well the Critique known letter of to rejected Political on. including the one on Lenin with a new urgency only in the postwar in 1938 and Hegel.46 Hegel The appendix begins with the well-known quote from Lenin's Hegel Notebooks: "Aphorism: One cannot understand Marx's Capital and in not in the main notes for courses by Lefebvre. and Capital. at least as against Luk?cs' of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks and discussion permit both the publication in part on their basis of a Hegelian Marxism in the book Dialectical Materialism.44 Marxism. 1938 Soon and 1939. Engels book exhibits other glanced through Hegel's a fairly obvious existentialist is one of "fatality or brute being at least in the pre-industrial world." Lefebvre wrote that the 1947 volume was based on lecture completed.
falling a thorough-going tends toward idealism materialism. recommending calling the latter "Lenin's testament. . Lenin had written particular part of his Notebooks.Dialectical this idealism materialism absorbs idealism sense. a half-century that "[T]his remark by Lenin is especially Marx!" (227) Lefebvre argues in the same directed against Plekhanov" (227) who. Thus. any unilaterality. understood Logic. and on understanding from Logic Lenin's as follows: of Logic. . Transition from the logical idea to a hand to materialism. quoting Hegel's Hegel Notebooks "This phrase is very remarkable. that Lenin holding to apply not only to Plekhanov. of "vulgar materialism" but also critique to his own early work Materialism and Empirio-Criticism.LENIN. without idealism and materialism)."48 a standpoint Dialectical Lefebvre out Lenin's Materialism. Objective one systematic to another. Resulting Dialectical materialism doctrine does not oppose it goes beyond from the unity of objective idealism and a thorough-going materialism. discussion of transition Science the writings of Hegel. He singles to Nature at the end of the finite and the infinite. Nature. also takes up central to Marx's 1844 stops short of the standpoint of a "naturalism or humanism" which is "distinct from both he had at the same time the unifying seemed closer in his and Lenin on Engels and reason. Stretching Engels was right: Hegel's . as a break with intended the above-cited earlier writings. mixing together . citations Without involves a content. as the insofar mate into in a latter rialism.47 Yet the central thrust of Lefebvre's argument here is for a critical recovery by of Hegel's suffice Marxists These dialectic: of dialectical without it rehabilitates. HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 101 its first chapter without having studied the whole of Hegel's not one Marxist after Marx." had criticized rather idealist of view "from a philosophers than a dialectical materialist also called attention to the 1922 speech by Lenin (227) Lefebvre the direct study of Hegel. to show the great and profound character to judge philosophical idealism ceasing (therefore an eclecticism. to which truth of both. as both a break and a continuity with Hegel Notebooks as Dunayevskaya have seen it (231) Other writers such Lenin's Lenin's the earlier 1914?15 that early work. Lefebvre also makes limited use of and Empirio-Criticism viewing (1908)." (228) philosophical Materialism In this book. vulgar materialist point one. (236) Here Lefebvre Manuscripts and constitutes idealism and materialism.
especially ? ? to note and Lenin that essential insists strongly on this point of thought. also drew much attention from practice. As to the relative importance of the three books which form Hegel's ? ? Lefebvre and Notion Science quotes Being. argument proof of Hegel's (280) Lefebvre on Essence Marxism books. of natural forces scientific is. the Logic. Lefebvre brings Lenin's Hegel Notebooks into the debate: "Notice how Lenin. James and Grace on this issue given Raya in the U. . that Lenin . though why Hegel. . and rationally legitimate dialectical method. of Logic Engels. As seems and we in both will to follow Engels' lead in giving great stress to the book to of Hegel's the applicability Science of Logic Note in his view of its importance within Lenin's Hegel see when we discuss the debates Lee between C. Dunayevskaya." to Jean-Paul is the one actually named. doctrine. a reference WTiile Heidegger is strongly suggested.S. a metaphysics and nothingness. Lefebvre argument to "social practice": "It is but also to practice.This . of a 'higher' unity. during this procedure is questionable." (258) Following connects Nature not only to in the Notebooks. occasionally to be points of difference between these two perspectives. the 1940s. which and the concept are thus degrees. in the 1940s between Existen As part of a philosophical debate what he considers mentions Lefebvre tialists and Marxists. materialism. however." (258) This as we have seen. . The first point which he brings up in this regard isHegel's concept of identity: . . but his real philosophy The modern the true core of the whole in the theory of Essence. as with Heidegger. the to the progression of the categories is of identity is necessary principle are the even has shown that contradictory concepts abstractly. L. R. leaves directly reflec 'existentialist' aside the disillusioning [d?sabus?s] and strongly " on 'sorrow and finitude' tions by Hegel (279) in the Logic. Without aspects the irrational of being level of a pseudo-dialectic (245) and becomes. only another expression theory of the interaction . Essence.102 system is a materialism KEVIN ANDERSON Lenin's turned upside down. wrongly attributing the passage toMarx: That I will of course of nature the detail of his [Hegel's] philosophy is full of nonsense in the second part of of nature is to be found gladly grant you. to dialectic falls back the Hegelian this rationality. . Luk?cs. or rather the positive about cause and effect. as a great realist.49 At a and Nothingness Sartre's Being (1943) later point in his appendix. moments practice then recognize element.
remains an open question. it is necessary why to Hegel directly at all. and reciprocally inter laws: transformation ? of opposites negation of the negation. Engels. relation as the reader to Hegel which had been opened is returned to a far narrower concept to official dialectical materialism. This form of presentation of dialectical tradition." (284) Lefebvre in a law of dialectics. or even to Lenin's Hegel Notebooks.LENIN. he remains very to be Hegel's hostile to what he considers concept of "the eternal and the absolute. tends to make the This of texts directly on dialectics in Hegel. returning of Engels: scientistic materialism three dialectical formulated "Engels ? of quantity into quality. Stalin concepts to return the reader is left wondering and Lefebvre. already well-known sense of doors closing becomes quotes Stalin's approvingly principle. commonality logic in Hegel and in the Marxian to the The appendix ends on a rather pedestrian note. With the five dialectical laws of Engels. and occasionally from Marx. devoted more HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 103 than to Essence. and discussion seem only a technical one." (283) The doors appear to open slightly again when Lefebvre concludes that since Stalin had added a "fourth" law of "these differences show that the dialectics. especially detailed . with only to "dialectical from Hegel." penetration (283) The doors footnotes to a newer now seem view of Marxism's to close. that of "development no real contrast has been drawn to Engels' laws question of dialectical a "fifth" adds provisionally spiral." "the least idealism" and was devoted (234) In fact. quotes often stresses the indicating the source. far from this leading Lefebvre into the final sections of the Science of Logic. for the specialist rather than for the Lenin since no discussion of Lenin's Hegel Note general reader." Much dialectic These (247) of Lefebvre's is taken up with long quotes on the appendix and Lenin." (284) But in the end or even Stalin's mechanistic "fourth" of dialectics. from Lenin's Logic. A second major difficulty with the foregoing discussion is its place ment in Lefebvre's book as an appendix. The even stronger dialectical when Lefebvre then "universal of dialectic. interdependence. Engels follow each other directly in the text. where on the Absolute instead to Hegel's Doctrine of the Notion space in the Notebooks Here Lefebvre what he himself quoted earlier ignores treatment of the Doctrine in the Science of of Notion Lenin was surprised to find that the concluding chapter Idea contained method.
the 1938 edition not republished Nonetheless. so hotly. of established Marxism is almost entirely That element of self-critique Lefebvre's books. Luk?cs refers frequently Throughout with Empirio-Criticism."51 to Materialism and this book. The form of tionally." one he embraces because of "the preponderant which uncritically place it to philosophical in "the imperialist materialism" gives epoch. until 1947 This 1967. almost covert. in Lefebvre's missing the Hegel Notebooks. journal taking . Logique was entitled "The Leninist Theory of Cognition and the dialectique. moment 1844 Manuscripts debating the significance of Marx's were here tied so closely to The fact that Lenin's Hegel Notebooks Engels on dialectics even to however uninten helped." rialism and Empirio-Criticism his "principal philosophical work. as we saw. a real sense of newness. who were at that very tialists.104 books evoke occurs much in the main KEVIN ANDERSON text of the book. of Modern Here Luk?cs Problems calls Lenin's Mate Philosophy. and Hegel a serious debate. there was. Whether intentional or not. published of of dialectical references regard to Lenin to opening little assistance book Luk?cs' French in polemical in 1948. Lenin's Hegel Notebooks."50 Despite his many concessions still for example there were materialism. By 1949. Critiques of established Marxism discovery. references to in an essay of "self-criticism" in the Party published retreats still further from Hegel. even Luk?cs was of very in France. in tone from that of Guterman is thus different and presentation this form of presentation discussion to their edition of Lenin's Hegel Note 1938 introduction In 1938. to Lenin's Materialism and Empirio-Criticism. of were strongly of creativity. Existentialisme The concluding chapter ou Marxisme. stated or at least suggested from a reading of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. did not of Lenin's Notebooks by Lefebvre ? those same intellectuals Existen among ? and left Catholics dissident Marxists. despite was accentuated the fact that problem by destroyed during the Occupation and was had been there were Logique formelle. to the for "idealism. one year after Lefebvre's Logique formelle. treatment of its more detailed text. Stalin!) (and to cover over their new and creative elements. La Nouvelle only occasional. Lefebvre Critique. other Communists official only With version a few in Lefebvre's Logique enough new elements to subject him to furious attacks from dialectique.
he writes that of the Hegelian dialectic. follow Marx's position and arguments. Hyppolite wrote: "Any reading of is sufficient to convince one of the influence of Hegel's Logic. for example. in his intro Genesis and Structure of HegeTs Phenomenology. understood. then taking place in Stalin's Russia.53 Hyppolite also wrote and in 1951. tion. HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 105 on the "rehabilitation" statements of his earlier back. John certainly known of the English edition of Hyppolite's Heckman. importantly Koj?ve book and Jean Hyppolite. however."52 Backing away once again from Hegel. first translating the Phenomenology. not only are quoted as Andrei Zhdanov Zhdanov's infamous state relationship. largely favorable Hegel Notebooks Where 1930s Koj?ve lectures popularized which were Hegel's Phe in published the greatest contribu on French commentary the major a probing in 1946. in both Dialectical Materialism and idealism by dialectical materialism Logique dialectique.LENIN. being not only went against the Stalinist image. also saw the rise of a left Hegelian as seen to some degree in the writings of Sartre and ism in France.54 Lenin's review of Luk?cs' The Young Hegel were it was Hyppolite and then writing who made to all of these writers. applauding Stalin's concept of genetics diversion toward liberalism. in his famous nomenology form in 1947. Stalin but even Stalin's chief ideologue authorities ment on the Hegel-Marx of Hegel that "the question article. but of many non-Marxists. from Marxism and by on both and assimilated The same period. that "it seems difficult without although he does to understand and the Hegelian dia having studied. and on socialist realism in art. most but in those of Alexandre Maurice Merleau-Ponty. major work. 1945 to 1950. Logique formelle. In this 1949 was settled long ago" is essentially the notion timidly advance assimilate Marx's dialectic supported by Lefebvre.55 preoccupations of him in the midst importance in tune with in an essay on Marx. writes translator duction: The could obvious was also fact not that Lenin but modify spent six months the Stalinist image Lenin accorded Hegel had the philosophical I reading Hegel of World War In addition the put forward. lectic. Capital ? as ? One realizes that one must master the Logic to Lenin observed In 1948."56 ." the main danger is one of "overestimation as a This rather sad 18-page essay ends by attacking Marxist humanism possible away the discussions.
in a 1979 memorial just after Marcuse's some of their early enthusiasm recounted for death. first by Frankfurt School member Herbert Marcuse." and to Karl was "tested by writes Marcuse. on. in his 1941 WTiile not addressing Lenin's Hegel Notebooks directly. 1941 TO 1953: TO THE JOHNSON-FOREST TENDENCY raised in the U. drew its name from social to also as the "State-Capitalist Tendency. R.S." the pen names of its two main the Trinidad-born historian theorists. Kautsky's the standards of positivist and transformed into natural sociology science.57 of of revolutionary Marxism. Dunayevskaya book: Marcuse's . in the 1920s. method Marcuse does to such an extent that "Lenin suggest that he considered it issues were also the hallmark Bukharin.59 Soviet Marxism Marcuse's book the some referred Reason and Revolution was the first Hegelian Marxist also the first to discuss takes up texts Lenin to be published in English. article written later. These book insisted Lenin's Reason and on dialectical Marxism Revolution. in his Soviet Marxism (1958). R. The sometimes group. and the Russian-born economist and former secretary to Trotsky. It received a warm Marx's leaders of the inside the American innovative from some of response a dissident minority "Johnson-Forest Tendency. which."58 Marcuse's not brief discussion but rather of Lenin some on dialectics shorter the Hegel Notebooks. Raya Dunayevskaya important Grace Lee Years wrote under the name Freddie Forest).106 KEVIN ANDERSON LENIN AND HEGEL FROM MARCUSE IN THE U. James (who wrote under the J. "revisionist" Marxism. Johnson). instead on concentrating in the Stalin and post-Stalin period. and it was 1844 Manuscripts. and culture critic C. A third (who theorist in the group was the Chinese-American philosopher (Boggs)." movement whose theorists produced Trotskyist and political theory.S. L. Marcuse of Lenin avoids any discussion and Hegel. Later wrote other. then living in New York." and the mechanistic also contrasts to the reformist the dialectic Marcuse drawing a contrast between materialism of Trotsky and Lenin's preoccupation with dialec Bernstein's of what Marcuse rejection terms "the tical methodology the "snare" of of common revival socialist Eduard in favor sense as the organon of knowledge. during the 1940s..
methods terms Marcuse's book a "tendentious review. even the left oriented uninterested "New York even intellectuals" of usually toward Hegelian thought. Science theoretical Bell a prominent ridicules effort of Logic similar attitude is found thought.S. radical movement. . In that lished seminal the HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 107 and re-estab that breath work. let alone Lenin's work limited the impact of both Marcuse's 1940s in or downright This Hegel Notebooks.61 (2) They critiqued and wrote on shop floor revolts of rank labor bureaucracy emergent same time. Notebooks. Defending positivism. what the facts are. of fresh air and vision of a truly classless of Hegel-Marx.64 A somewhat remarks by sociologist Daniel Bell. as examples of worker and file labor creativity. Hegel For the the most were part. Lenin's debt to Hegel. to discuss Marx's also among the first in the U. Dunayevskaya. Hook equally hostile for Hegel's apologetic" in some retrospective become 1950s.62 and that of the Johnson hostile the leading philosopher For example. the indebtedness society was the first of Marxism. Marcuse dialectic established the Humanism for we revolutionary to forget It is impossible public. a Marxist. Sidney Hook. two stinging attacks on Marcuse's wrote Reason then still in 1941. (3) At the some important contributions to conceptualizing the crucial they made were place of the Black revolt in the U. not dialectical.LENIN.S. most important for our purposes. . In a review in The New when it appeared and Revolution use of to Marcuse's Hook expresses hostility particular Republic. Marx's and. During a concept of Stalin's retical work in several areas: (1) They developed the Second Russia as a totalitarian state capitalist society. (4) They 1844 Manuscripts. time for the American published felt for Marcuse . Forest to critique of Auguste the positivist dialectics sociology Hegelian Hook writes that it "seeks to discover by Comte."63 In a second. scientific.60 when James and Lee did important theo the 1940s. who did not intellectuals until the of the New York member "a major for supposedly making Dunayevskaya to convince workers of Hegel's that a knowledge was necessary to understand In a rather Lenin. Tendency. Bell attempts to to the New York intellectuals appeared him as an "acknowl James' theoretical work by describing disparage ." indicates how unusual the Johnson revealing attempt at humor which ? must ? a have Black man and two women Forest Tendency theorists of the period. and opposed the from a left Marxist World War perspective.
108 edged KEVIN ANDERSON . were a left revolutionary went to work for the State Department. on the Logic notes to them. of organization. centering generally around a chapter by chapter discussion of Hegel's Science of Logic." on Dialectics. relation to Hegel." Dunayevskaya. on cricket.. they James and Lee viewed Lenin's Hegel Note "tendency. . writes James." and also ridicules that of authority Dunayevskaya her as "matriarchal. studied and understood the whole of Hegel's Hegel Notebooks were written without Logic.66 Dunayevskaya books. is because Hook plenty for us" (99). who aspect of the Johnson-Forest Tendency. and all three theorists began to study Hegel intensively. on Dialectics.. philosophy. For him. he concludes."65 by describing Bell's rather tendentious remark about convincing "workers" of the to study Hegel does hint indirectly at an important and unique soon Unlike Marcuse." during a Hook much. The first product of this effort was James' book-length manuscript.. need used not only Marxist it as part of a broad project of rethinking but also Marxist and even the concept economics.(l 71) it is from Lenin's 1915 essay begins his book with a long quotation as well "On the Question of Dialectics.(99) This.68 In his treatment of Lenin was an "academician. Trotsky. with frequent asides the French and the Lenin. politics. true of Hegel's dialectic that it is the most materialistic of idealisms. James but "there is focuses on in Notes . Russian and the contemporary Revolutions. Quite right. James writes: political scene. but to Marx.61 in mimeographed form in 1948.. Notes published a fairly discursive James's book has structure. 1844 By 1947. On Marx's equally to say of Marxism If it is possible that it is the most idealistic of materialisms." and there quotes fragment in the Hegel Notebooks: Lenin's aphorism "It is impossible completely James to understand Marx's having thoroughly that Lenin's (8) James writes period when Lenin pieces much in 1914 found himself in Zurich. He made . with . there wasn't the world Sidney and his once categories told me to breaking there wasn't and especially its first chapter. Capital.. Lee had translated parts of Marx's translated parts of Lenin's Hegel Note Manuscripts. texts in Marxist books as one of the most and important philosophy.
James connects "turn the imperialist war into a class war. spontaneist "Leninist concept of the party" a "noose around our necks. organizational zation unless (115) Further." have known the "free creative it. his discussion HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 109 of Hegel's concept of "leaps" or breaks in gradual. but also political and from this: "You know nothing about organi conclusions at every step you relate it to its opposite.LENIN. They are very rich in for a joint book on dialectics which was disagreements." (223) By the basis of Lenin's versus the and bureaucracy vanguardism James made Lenin and Hegel movements. an eclectic. of the vanguard party? To James.70 While most of the letters dialectics were have addressed been to a particular shared and studied individual." or at least "the task today is to abolish organization. The task of developing either on Hegel these concepts focusing on the issue of of mass workers' with Tendency. made the first com 1949." How is this spontaneist "as we content. thought In his in 1914?15. study of Hegel (138?39) James terms the traditional reading of Lenin and Hegel. James never took it much further. especially and March. on the issue of organization at least in part on and spontaneity. spontaneity a concrete issue for Marxist and practice. and constitute drafts never completed due to theoretical . Dunayevskaya translation from the Russian of the greater part of Lenin's plete English both the lengthy "Abstract of Hegel's Science Notebooks. theory this approach left many other issues hanging. but also "spontaneous activity and self-move (101) James are key makes to be drawn from Lenin's Hegel Note concepts not only philosophical." and to develop (117) concept ment" books. organization activity of the proletariat. or on Lenin. greater Johnson-Forest theoretic rigor fell to the other two theorists of the to Dunayevskaya. Having written however. but interesting analysis. Dunayevskaya During as part of an extensive on and Hegel three-way correspondence between herself.69 Logic. Lenin's showed a break in Lenin's and above all. spontaneity. not slogan only the notion of leaps. evolu this to Lenin's 1914?15 revolutionary tionary change." In February also wrote a series of analyses of Lenin that year. to be squared with Lenin's concept 1917 embrace of the soviets. his book State and Revolution." (100) To James. Hegel of and the much shorter notes on Hegel's History of Philosophy. James and Lee. At the same time. all of the letters appear to by all three.
" she is you practically skipped to James 2/18/49) yevskaya on Lenin's concern simplest categories.. and presses of causality. Lenin also breaks becomes what is effect. following Hegel. relationship between Appearance and Essence: "Lenin notes.110 Dunayevskaya's her companied Science Hegel's the first section on Dialectics. ." letter she asks section James of the next to "be patient" about of Lenin's Abstract. totality is found as "sundered completeness. seeing home the concept that what of totality is cause 71 and vice She concludes dialectic: a dialectician this letter to James with some glowing remarks on Hegel's What man's that Hegel the sheer genius of that else can explain was. "that appearance is also objective. .. of Logic. but he must appear Essence that even more emphasizes [appear is 'one of the determinations of essence'. . In her 1978 retrospective between piece." A few weeks the later. because on Appearance of Hegel [Schein]. cause and effect. with Lenin's remark a challenge in this first the translation less than a week with Being. In particular. Dunayevs kaya sums this point up: At this stage. Dunayevskaya completes translation of . with his previous concept versa. and politics economics." since to attempts to reduce appearance to "essence.. nothing defines and now as he enters difference. ." Dunayevskaya also ance] takes up the issue of causality in this letter." identity as "unseparated language which actuality and totality. those simple categories discussion impressed with Lenin's especially this offered Although receiving Essence. ." She adds: "I am ready to follow him [Lenin] into Notion. not only that . In a seeming critique of James' Notes translation she writes: "You will over enjoy these notes on Being which in your hurry to get to Essence. stressing the way in which breaks with the rigid empiricist distinction Lenin." (Duna In this letter she stresses the concreteness and "the necessity to begin with [the] in philosophy. Once James 2/25/49) she stresses the dialectical again. further. first KEVIN ANDERSON ac letter analyzing Lenin's Hegel Notebooks of the first part of Lenin's "Abstract of on the Doctrine of Being. that on Lenin's Notes on later she writes: "Herewith I am moving faster than I had counted on. 'contain the whole'." his commentary of Hegel's book." (Dunayevskaya to Essence.
with its refer ences to practice as well as theory. attempting leading interest him in helping her to publish her translation of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. The Idea had He revolution . even then Lenin found Hegel's Idea . of his own early work. Guterman a very long and enthusiastic I don't share and Lefebvre). once again to the fact that these notes are longer than all of the preced and calls this an "outstanding difference" combined. She calls attention Notion. and its treatment of labor in the section on teleology. he is the only with Machism. as passage. earthy character of Hegel's at least in Lenin's the Notion. reading of it. She concludes by arguing that Lenin's remark on section on the need must to grasp Hegel's Science in order of Logic be read alongside his remark in the next that "Marxists criticized of the twentieth to understand sentence of his and the rest of her Capital Abstract Humists to the effect at the beginning the Kantians in the Feuer century more than in the Hegelian manner. one in addition to Plekhanov who had bothered much Lenin was here making a sharp Thus. looking his new universal: fashion 1917 version." Dunayevskaya bachian (and Buchnerian) a critique of "Machism" in this argues that.LENIN. Materialism and Empirio-Criticism to Dunayevskaya. there appeared the until him pose the question the Russian correctly. preface by Guterman (with but I am impressed for Lenin's marginalia. I have Schapiro responds: on Hegel. Dunayevskaya During to art critic and historian Meyer Marxist Schapiro. issues in Hegel's philosophical sketch of Lenin's theoretical development during stress to the abstract a to She also attempts the period 1914 1917: Lenin was couldn't Soviets. masses State for a new universal. Lenin's Abstract HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 111 of the by sending James Lenin's notes on the Doctrine the third section of Hegel's Science of Logic." self-critique (1908). since Lenin also mentioned this critique of "Marxists" thus "evidently includes himself. was also in touch with the this same period. James had not given very much section on Notion. between Lenin's In the latter text. your great enthusiasm by the fact that Lenin was able to immerse himself from the war and to find some inspiration in Hegel during . . arrived 3/12/49) and unified the two and called it: the practice. The letter stresses the concrete. ing material view of Hegel and that in James' Notes on Dialectics. and supplied and Revolution. in the French translation read Lenin's Notebooks by N. (Dunayevskaya then Lenin to James. And to a man.
. be glad to help I will gladly submit them for lated the notes and written your preface. extracts from Hegel's Science of Logic. knocking doors with for a publisher 1949. in any case. her letters to James and Lee on Lenin's letter places them in the context Hegel Notebooks. Hegel's Science of Logic . University and Freedom. of critique She devotes particular Junius Pamphlet.] to understand of the that without comprehension To Dunayevskaya. Years later. Economics and his of Bukharin's the Transition Period. Debate.. It takes up major of Lenin's other writings as Lenin's remarks during the 1920 Trade treatments of dialectics such Another Union his the 1922 article for Under the Banner of Marxism. you to Oxford and other publishers. its first and particularly chapter[." None of these and other an English to publish edition of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks wrote: fruition during this period." in his his conclusion that none of the . ? when you have trans cludes: "But I will. 1916 critique of Luxemburg's to his a serious numerous analysis of Plekhanov critiques Science of Logic. had to wait until 1957 with Columbia Russian but publication Department. of Hegel's "to connect with what for having never to (Dunayevskaya was new attention written A James 5/14/49) letter attempts subsequent 1916 book] Imperialism [Lenin's Marxists had understood Capital for it is impossible whole of Hegel's Logic. Two weeks attempts came to in of Hegel's "Science of Logic" I completed of Lenin's Abstract the translation on many and meeting the I looked for it.74 my Marxism in that work as an appendix which The Hegel Notebooks appeared and not the actual included for space reasons only Lenin's commentary.112 philosophy history.72 on the eve of KEVIN ANDERSON the most event in his life and in all important perhaps He also writes that as notebooks or students of Lenin to publishing in his prospects."73 He gives further for whom Hegel on the difficulties of such a publishing and con reflections project. on dialectics after 1914. Dunayevskaya continues however." and suggests that she publish them in a later. "the of Russian theoretical Trotskyist are very exciting as well as excited and almost inspire me to reread ? I have always had a weakness. Dunayevskaya When philosophers affairs. have very little actuality for American opinion. he writes: "Your letters journal.
. Hegel. Even Lenin essentially situation in Russia drove him to the of Essence very conscious although [the] objective . . Marxists. to 1914 the whole to the categories of Being and Essence in Hegel's Science Previous rest of the 2nd International and all the movement. Very dialectic critique vicious against Hegel's idealism. but from idealists. The key to Lenin's them were . he seems to express inadequacy. Hegelian Lenin: to view runs the economy. by 1914. summing up a discussion ambivalence express more when "Marx's toward Hegel than does Dunayevskaya they write: in 1844 must be brought of the Hegelian in. "to a man" makes . James connects all of this to immediate spectives In a subsequent letter between James and Lee for the Johnson-Forest Tendency's to Dunayevskaya (5/27/49). She further connects the within the economic to where the worker. . James writes. Lenin's and Empirio-Criticism. However. according Idea to State and Revolution." They connect Lenin's debate with the Second International of Logic. rialism. enabled Lenin HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 113 as an immanent development from imperialism structure of capitalism." (James to Lee 5/20/49) earlier expressed caution about Dunayevskaya's critique of Materialism James continues. they studies to State theoretical per battles within Trotskyism. not materialism from (James to Lee 5/20/49) Therefore idealism.The movement to Essence notes on Logic is this relation Logic.75 difference between Lenin's Materialism and his Hegel Notebooks battle for plain materialism" lies in the fact writings on Lenin and James stresses that the (1908) "had to and Empirio-Criticism that in 1908 Lenin and that "reading the book over I find no In this sense. and later the bureaucracy fights to James from its state. Lenin moved from his Hegel and Revolution.LENIN. itself is in question. and the Second is the labor bureaucracy opponent Therefore: socialism avowed rialism. own workers' state the ideal into the real in his to protect the workers 5/17/49) In an apparent reply to some of Dunayevskaya's a reply which was addressed to Lee. In this sense. not from liberal his but not from Kantians. of the Logic had to clarify mate mate from dialectical vulgar materialism study materialists. (Dunayevskaya transforms the revolution. . International. revolutionary 1914 was not in the Realm before of Being.
of commodities too. ." they connect Notion one to be a "counter-revolutionary movement. but instead writes a Dunayevskaya to from the 1890s theoretical detailed positions analysis of Lenin's and 1917. you know of the most it is an aggregate is not an abstract universal." toward a "most merciless humanity tyranny. there. in the fetishism notion. Capital . they consider drives that the to "the dialectic of the party. I feel that we are still 6/10/49) In another we must concretize be letter. The dialectic includes. the issues differently posed even of the Absolute Idea.. No dialectic taught him to formulate. individual." This sharp of political parties is in keeping with the spontaneist framework critique same period Dunayevskaya of James' Notes on the Dialectic.114 in the realm of Essence is KEVIN ANDERSON the of the concrete subjectivity. But after some conversations this time) your correspondence. . break of a radical of Dunayevskaya's concept after his 1914? 15 study of Hegel. to Dunayevskaya (James and it is pretty good. says Lenin. a lot of ground covering & reading (carefully. A wealth of particulars." which which In addition. This is a revolutionary expansion movement. 1 [of Capital] but Notion. thought does not argue the point directly.And between that means also there is no separation logic and history of Ch. and understood. During the some issues surrounding in English reads and summarizes Lenin's on Imperialism. off the point. (Dunayevskaya and concrete. Logic. to Lee 6/19/49) a book clarify.. you find the best Idea. developing tend to dismiss Hegel's Doctrine of the Notion. Dunayevskaya from James. the and Absolute to James 6/20/49) In this evocation not only but of Hegelian idealism. She stresses the central importance of the Hegel Notebooks James thus seems dubious in Lenin's toMarxism: whole of the of Hegel You not even its first chapter the unless do not know Capital. objective stages. . logic and history . massive Notebooks to James (Dunayevskaya 6/8/49) James' next letter is somewhat to translate and comment You with are of Dunayevskaya's disparaging on the Hegel Notebooks: efforts G[Lee]. They writing "Lenin is more with concerned self-movement than he is with Notion. he writes: on guard That against would etc. it isn't only I believe. giving strangle (James the that L [Lenin] read impression (false) us. in the dialectic.
before 1914 self-determination of nations was a (4) Lenin sees imperialism creating an URGENCY slogan. He writes HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 115 analysis his Notes again of Lenin that she confine her immediately. Lenin's thought as a result of his having studied Hegel links the phenomenon of imperialism These are (1) after 1914 Lenin now Lenin as a specific sees monopoly to monopoly capitalism. Lenin now ties reformism capitalism analyzed by (3) to a new group of workers and "opportunism" created by imperialism to the of labor." almost He follows this up with another 6/24/49) (James to Dunayevskaya not by the way forget that we must attack letter which begins: "We must Hegelianism. she also outlines for the first time five specific changes in in 1914?15. . She uses meaning as well Lenin's "concrete empiric. that the absolute. an attitude which she con . which and monopoly: the aristocracy is opposed unskilled workers. . apparently the top of a copy sent to Dunayevskaya she writes: James "Yours of the 6th was (Lee to James 7/9/49)." the (5) versus merely an element of Marxism of knowledge. who had been silent." term describing Hegel's Ilyin's standpoint." (James to Dunayevskaya 6/28/49) next long letter to James uses the work of the Dunayevskaya's Russian that scholar religious Hegel came concrete the word Ivan Ilyin to show that Hegel stressed from the Latin word "concrescere. to of a letter she has addressed seriously. theorizing in his to grow." and also referring her to and Hegel on Dialectics. suggesting to "1200 words.LENIN."76 to characterize on Imperialism: and his Notebooks Hegel Notebooks The the moment of he looked at the world world with empiric catchword (Dunayevskaya concrete imperialism to James 7/6/49) of imperialism . Lee. but "post-1914 now "dialectics becomes on the question of self-determination. 1914 She begins her analysis by quoting Lenin's March wonderful." as something which could be taken over and used article on Taylorism under socialism (Lenin CW20: 152?54). relatively excited by the above now enters the discussion At letter by Dunayevskaya. which he writes "must be read and re-read. (2) newer and higher from the of capitalism." before theory 1914. that behind the new Marxian-Hegelian was something quite it was a new eyes he saw from different MONOPOLY. somewhat different stage Marx and Engels. In this letter.
as for example in Lenin's the Johnson-Forest point is in keeping with on dialectics to connect Lenin to and Hegel original . where probing on the Absolute at reaches the chapter Idea. inner revolu into the realm of Notion. The type of absolute to the stresses in the Absolute Idea chapter is connected by Lee tionists within the revolution. necessity. According Logic. he is completely can feel it in his comments to You and his selections. knowledge breaks to Lee. contemplated. Lee now velopment she begins by stating: "When another letter. to explain are He sees the limitations between mind we will of the and gain the relation the categories by which Lenin is saying.g. which are seen as a counter revolution emerging from within the 1917 Russian Revolution." (Lee Lee's second writes Lenin home. Some of the material was precious but the Bukharin disappointed to me off the track. Lee writes: Get connections. Lenin matter. freedom. in his discussion of Causality in Hegel's Science of with this kind e. empirically rationalization." and of Soviet emancipatory concept of revolution." She contrasts Lenin's Hegelian of his socialist thought.116 nects to a fundamental KEVIN ANDERSON within War I socialist Kantianism pre-World thought: They all thought socialization of understood. Freedom. seem to agree with Lee's analysis: "Your letter on me. not only to pre-1914 Marxism tion. of Stalinism She is referring to their theory of the rise state capitalism. empiricism. negating its original liberation Hegel liberatory content. "Don't stay in the realm of Essence. James fellow Bolshevik 7/29/49) inclination Tendency's concrete political issues in a fairly direct fashion. real. but also to the scientistic and positivist Marxism James does not Bukharin. when she writes that on the Absolute the final chapter of the Science Idea "is of Logic not against the reformists. this way before 1914. of the objectively the category of causality ? notion those subjectivity. labor There world was ? developing which they efficiency." (James to Lee 7/15/49) whole thing seemed to write on Lenin versus Bukharin continues and the de Dunayevskaya of Lenin's thought before and after 1914. in the objective just as Kant did. explained. of inconsistent scientific method. but against the counter-revolu directed.
Phenomenology of Mind. Lee and James did not really develop very much who had been on Lenin's Hegel Notebooks." the stamp of Hegelian (Dunayevskaya moves away from consideration From this point on the correspondence to discussions of the structure of Marx's of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks notebooks Capital. also ground these letters. in May 1953. the latter drafted by Lee. for the rest of her continued in them of the three. selves in Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. but also from but also distances Notebooks. as Marxist Humanism. One product this period was James' 1950 during and and Lee. this draft though it included was mainly concerned with Lenin's political and economic theory. the word Revolution. just after Stalin's death. were an especially composed to the important effort on her part in this regard. to James 8/30/49) dialectic. Al for a "Lenin Book." the word Absolute few letters deal directly every rather from Hegel categories but a subsequent letter by Duna Hegel Notebooks. only a brief and somewhat to work out in the late 1950s concept of dialectic which she proceeded Her lengthy 1953 letters on Hegel's Absolutes. interested the most of a general life to occupy herself with them as part of the foundation After very much. with Dunayevskaya that pamphlet superficial section was Dunayevskaya's on dialectics. State-Capitalism did not take up Lenin's Hegel confining itself mainly to political by pamphlet.79 more this period. addressed losophy of Mind. in the of dialectics 16-point definition briefly Lenin's herself not only from it. to as the Nevada on Dialectics. changes in Lenin's thought after his study of Hegel. While devoted mainly and Phi Science text of Hegel's of Logic. but World Revolution. letter form have also become group's theoretical co-authored discussions in the intensive theoretical exchanges of the far less frequent. yevskaya addresses there come the magnificent She writes that in "1914?16 philosophic than with Lenin's fails to bear and from then on nothing.LENIN." draft of material completed some discussion of the Hegel Notebooks. have Hegel The substituted used next HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 117 would time "Is it too much to think that we and Lenin permanent with revolution. Another in early 1952. them to Lee. absolutely nothing. State and Revolution'.11 By 1950 and 1951. but Dunayevskaya.1* or even Hegel Notebooks and economic issues. Idea. referred sometimes James's Notes She discusses document: .
. Ilyitch. she points to his stress on the way in which. Vladimir to overcome.118 We. for Dunayevskaya. however."(37) this was a part of Hegel's dialectic which could who wrote on Marxist Lenin." Lenin had also "stretching (36) However. take Marxism beyond self-security and self-repose. Lenin Idea chapter." (36) Dunayevskaya But. when Stalinism you didn't have transitions. Ilyitch. the Idea . theory before the totalitarian state. She points discussed By going Absolute in the develops [Befreiung] which Hegel "a subject is personal and free. Lenin's Hegel concept of subjectivity. one-party by a totally new in which revolt So we build with you from "absolute liberation. 3 decades after you and tried to absorb all you have left us we This writes is at a point in Hegel's and uses text where he breaks with [?bergang] or a transition" that rather than "a perfected becoming (36). (36) to the notion of liberation passionately: we of it is not true. where In a critical appreciation of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks. did ourselves positive can go in 1948 KEVIN ANDERSON and not only further further." writes Hegel. who have can tell you that. in the last paragraph of the Absolute a transition from Logic to Nature. totalitarian that must be overcome that is the new state. a Marxist of reconstituting the problem dialectic Notebooks help pose finding there in Hegel's The letters also take up Absolute Mind in Hegel's ." (33) Idea chapter. the end of that page is important.. "pure (37)81 Further.80 into the Absolute Idea in Hegel's Science of Logic.(37) Philosophy of Mind. when the Nevada Dialectics than Lenin so profoundly but further held forth than we on the in the negative. Hegel mentions calls this the "transition of the logical idea to Nature" which he terms a hand to materialism. intensively an area in Hegel's text which neither is moving into Dunayevskaya Lenin nor other Hegelian Marxists in much detail. my dear Vladimir lived 1953.82 She now writes: transition the term liberation the concept [Befreiung] when of he releases rise of the single-party You see. is an absolute liberation." everyone experiences revolutions seemed 1920?23 and include the experiences of three decades. written that the rest of Hegel's responds concluding paragraph "is unimportant. of the "self-thinking idea" a radical concept In this sense. "there is no transition in this freedom" but rather "the Idea freely itself in absolute To Dunayevskaya. to bring the new Now sufficient looks at the everyone society.
84 CONCLUSION After place sions ones today.LENIN. such as Lucio leading Marxist on them. However. Unfortunately. and Dunayevs went on to develop a discussion of Lenin's kaya another. and Lefebvre." where Aristotle's concept Lee's initial response to these that these notes Hegel's Hegel's history showing has a different was of the result of basis: the dialectical movement of from of the history the Absolute inMind. these discussions lying issues. 1950s. many theorists of the twentieth century have commented Colletti and Louis Althusser. as we have seen.. Luk?cs. these discussions themselves have extensively been shrouded in obscurity. In 1955. have failed to come to grips very well with the under . with James and Lee going one way. a fairly extensive and interesting discussion there has been of yevskaya. the Tendency dialectic was to break apart. the answer Notebooks which needs to be met by another. Dunayevskaya over the next three decades. Italy. the pure form of the movement. Lenin's "I think letters was quite favorable: our Philosophic to Notebooks. a period when Marxism are not by themselves to that crisis. further their view of the place of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks or even much on Hegel's in general. moved first together. Bloch. These continuing discus some of the theorists discussed involved above as well as new the Notebooks Notebooks this fact. tic Absolutes. the U. Tendency inMarxism. in the HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 119 was in deep crisis. new discussions in France.83 while James and Lee Notebooks Hegel in other directions. from Korsch to Luk?cs.S. even Despite relative obscurity of Lenin's continues despite the fact that. Hegel Stalin's of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks took death. represent comparable She adds that those of VL in 1915. deeper probing into Hegel's idealis the Absolute Idea and the Absolute Mind." (Lee to Dunayevskaya 5/22/53) of the absolute "was based on a slave society. In addition. and Germany. at least in the cases of Korsch. especially in the English-speaking world. and then separately. and the society Idea to Nature. to Duna and from Lefebvre Nonetheless. The remain obscure. moved inNature the same dialectical development as had been did not develop the theorists of the Johnson-Forest However.
Discussions of Marx's thought have long since escaped the narrow confines of the debates between orthodox Communists and West. This mispercep dialectics. party. On 1915?16 the other hand. concept of dialec tical materialism well found in his Materialism as his elitist concept of the vanguard to open the door his thought helped system which he created. in the anti-Marxist opponents equally ideological professional Lenin's remains to a great extent imprisoned However. for example. robs us of a complete something which not only of Lenin. At a time when Luk?cs and other Lenin's Hegel Notebooks surrounding persist new works are appearing on Gramsci. the rug that the turn of these philosophers and social theorists toward a more Hegelian was made possible. along with his and the national question. Perhaps the Notebooks remain obscure because they still cut the commonplace of Lenin as vulgar and simplistic on against image a thinker whose real talents lay elsewhere. of the Notebooks The misperceptions today. thought. Lefebvre. on writings the 1914?15 and Empirio-Criticism. there are independent elements within Lenin's and political writings which many theorizing are in need of a sharp critique. Both of these aspects to Stalin and the as of totalitarian on 1917 writings creative and innovative very important remain Hegel Notebooks. show us Lenin as a more Marxist thinker. Among the most problematic parts of the crude and mechanistic his work are. version of Marxism at least in part.120 KEVIN ANDERSON them. thought within those very confines. and his imperialism the state and revolution. of Hegelian and Marxist of his major works. it may become possible cult of Leninism in more discussions of his work. to this day the most NOTES * I would like to thank the following people for helpful comments and criticisms: Janet . it is too often swept under leading Western Marxists. Perhaps in the 1990s for the first time. contribution dialectics. Yet obscure to the discussion a his Hegel Notebooks. but also of the history of Marxist picture. as the bizarre state supported to engage is being destroyed. or of other writings of by their reading of Lenin's Hegel Notebooks Lenin their on Hegel. tion seems is compounded to undermine by the fact that the content official versions of Leninism. To be sure.
I am using edition: Hegel: the standard Science English of Logic. C. Lou Andrew Pierre Lantz.. Turin. issue of Riso was entitled Riso. Thought. p. Afary. publication in Soviet Thought Studies 32 (1986). to directly 1961. Paul.U. the Dictionary For example edited of Marxist Thought. London. to directly in the text as 1969. Kliman. Press. 241?47. 43?60. 1985. Douglas and Alan Wald. Vol. Vol. V. Turner." ideological ? serves only to cover up the central etc. especially an article Marxist Yoshitaro Omori well-known Japanese philosopher published to Reninizumu" entitled in the liberal intellectual "Hegeru journal (Hegel and Leninism) This particular 26 (1931)." of Lenin's Notebooks. includes a brief discussion 4 see Bud Burkhard's For details on the 1929?30 of the Hegel Notebooks. official Moscow of edition preface 38 of Lenin's is signed Collected Works. 1978. pp. 1975. cover which 1921?26.LENIN.P. Hereafter in the text as referred 38. 1. Marcel Liebman." Omori's article relied on some short pieces by Lenin on Hegel. mainly with Hegelian of Logic. the Hegel Notebooks briefly a student Merlin also of Henri London. Heinz Jim Thomas. Kellner.S." Theory." Lenin's to the point where minimized abstract praise they get less than half a page.. Martin Bud Burkhard. of Lenin's creative fact achievement genius. does discuss Life in the second volume. see Leonardo to Lenin's "Gramsci's writings Paggi: in Gramsci and Marxist & Kegan Marxism.C. In his Leninism under Lenin. by Tom Bottomore Note does not refer to Lenin's Harvard 1983. St. Routledge edited volumes thought of Theory 1979. Olga Domanski. Hegel 2 I will refer mainly to the best known English edition: Lenin: Collected Works. Bloomington. especially Hegel's the Philosophical Notebooks of Marxism-Leninism "Institute of Notebooks be using the term Hegel Notebooks rather than Philosophical on Hegel. of Gramsci's General in Antonio Gramsci: 11?12. Lefebvre. That central fact is that the Notebooks are concerned Science It is dialectics. by Chantal Mouffe. SL. I have not located of Lenin discussion any substantial by Gramsci 1966. 2. 4) Lenin: A Political Robert Service's massive three-volume hand. of the Hegel Notebooks. still in progress. Jay. 133?137. and introduced Lefebvre publication by Henri I will and Norbert also use Guterman. 3 et al. Cambridge. Progress Moscow.. Martin's Press. Publishers. HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 121 Peter Hudis. Sbornik. Osterle. of Logic" to refer to the Moscow-based Notebooks the term Philosophical edition including to do with Hegel. 1 trans. 2. A few years the later. Press. Paul Buhle. which on Hegel are notes the C. University Hegel recent Lenin's in its entry on Lenin. For a discussion of the relation the years on Hegel. pp. is when material from before the 1914 study of Hegel especially in among the 1914?16 sandwiched material. New York. by A. The endless ? in the preface for Lenin's for the "outstanding "invaluable richness. Indiana University Vol. Vols. Nigel Gibson. On that the Hegel Notebooks the other (Vol. Lenin CW 38. Press. defines 1978. study. Einaudi. in 1931. The extensive books study by Neil Harding: Political narrowly 2 vols. "Hegel Renais as well as on the sance. early pieces which have nothing 6 on Hegel. etc. appear Opere. the term "Abstract of Hegel's occasionally that I will to refer to Lenin's use of many None for this reason as Volume Science to refer specifically to those particular and will reserve notes. theory so ? Lenin's economic and social analysis of society" "By 'theory' I understand ? are passed over in silence. pp. 1981. ." "Leninskij bibliography: 5 in the six-page to the 1961 English For example. a term closer to that used in 1914?16 writings as edited the first French of this work. New York. Hereafter Humanities referred Miller. 1991. Press.
1923 and 1930. In his lengthy NLB. Feltrinelli Lucio Colleta. The clarification Sheehan's Humanities Patrick some authorship of this The English translation carries this Press. Milan. Helena Science. orig. and to synthesize into dialectical Lenin and Luxemburg ? that they Korsch's conviction could only theory. position. 1979. p. Korsch: Marxism pp. as well In my usage. 10 MIT trans. Revolutionary Theory. to Korsch: with respect the of philosophy and his claim that understanding the importance roots of the Hegelian and philosophy requires grasping as a classic of of Marxism and Philosophy has given rise to the interpretation Marxism as one of the creators of a of Korsch and has led to the picture 'Hegelian Marxism' to the dominant What has not been in opposition Marxist current that was orthodoxy. as Korsch. and other Russian Deborin of Abram philosophers I owe some of the above the 1920s. front against Social Democratic stituted a theoretical-political (p. Bloch. 11 Marxism and Philosophy. Editore. Communist in German journals during published from Professor Narihiko Ito of Japan. genuine represented revisionism. Lenin: Quaderni filosofici. Korsch: Marxism p. 123) Notebooks." which Hegel not take (p. Luxemburg. MacMillan. Karl Korsch: by Fred introduction London. and Dunayevskaya. 120?121. which would from the 1920s Marxist theorists Marxism meaning writings on such opposition from 1914 Kellner with Democratic Lenin "represented revisionism" am not using the term Hegelian but in a far broader to Lenin. correctly of Lenin's the complexities view. to Korsch's failure of these points with regard all in my suggests. Georg 1971. 1970. Korsch's defense of relation between Marxism perceived orthodoxy. instead as an appendix. as against the positivism genuine Marxism" I In this article of dialectics. 29. since the Marxism does not imply fundamental the term Hegelian opposition links Marxism and its unexplored thrust of this study is to show Lenin's Hegelian whole Marxism. 35) attempts is correct to stress Korsch's that he. Luk?cs. 14 See makes into 1975. with Western 9 and Philosophy. extent he to which saw himself Korsch believed he was merely restoring Marxist as part of a philosophical and front with Lenin the reformist socialism of revolutionary against and Class The publication of Luk?cs' History representing the Second which Marxist a position International. 272-342. p. account Goode in 1930 . by Rodney and Class Consciousness. Cambridge. p. Halliday. 1958. 109. is the Further. 13 Pannekoek: is included in Anton This essay London.122 KEVIN ANDERSON all of them of the 1920s. along shared by Luk?cs. strengthen revolutionary ? and con Marxism and Luxemburg Lenin himself. to consider Lenin's Korsch "does see it as a whole. 1923. which was of "Social in 1923. Goode: London. James. view. to a personal communication 7 e Hegel" su "Il marxismo di Con una introduzione V. Press. I. objects 1979). New Jersey. pp. Gramsci. and with Marxism and Philosophy. Luk?cs: History Livingstone. Lefebvre. University to the use of the term Hegelian Marxism Kellner editor Douglas Austin. Karl Korsch. to Lenin. is wrongly attributed and the Philosophy in her Marxism issue of 1985. Marcuse. orig. as those of other on. writings of Texas Karl Korsch: to the essay collection Press. 111. See to Paul Mattick. pp. 8 an introduction trans. Luk?cs. 123?25. that nor as Philosopher. Korsch: p. and its more scientistic concept in the sense of necessarily include Lenin's sense. 97. 12 and Philosophy. of Marxism Consciousness. Merlin Lenin Press. 150.
" find no p. Luk?cs edition in the text. Goode does not HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 123 German were unavailable stress to the fact that these Notebooks in give enough Nor does he mention the tremendous negative impact of Materialism on Korsch and Empirio-Criticism and other Western Marxists. 1948. offers theoretical in far Stalinism too Romanticism positions one-sided beginning fell back into Hegel's with reality" 'reconciliation' implies wrongly (p. argued away materialism and found and Empirio-Criticism. more of 1923 and Class Consciousness original History to the later period to Luk?cs' of The Young Hegel. "Korsch did not knew of them subject and Philosophy as he refers to them in Karl Marx. 1971. orig. 128. Concept of Dialectic. of Dialectic. 9. xi." (p. elements from Hegel in the two periods. by Rodney Merlin Economics. New York. 114?115.LENIN. in Luk?cs fashion turned from terms. Goode in his Karl writes Chapman in 1930. p. This is a brief but useful chronology former students. pp. an interesting after 213. I could of the difference See in the Philosophical Notebooks "Luk?cs on Lenin. . 139) 19 Michael L?wy's chapter to Bolshevism. The Young Hegel. pp. edition German whole discussion of the 1967. 29. it would make Luk?cs' of Lenin's thought similar to that of many of the other Western by Lenin. Press.  Manuscripts. almost for Luk?cs' reconciliation with blaming Hegel 1920s: "Now. sees Hegel's influence however. 137. a claim by Levine about either Levine of in The Young no provides the evolution a fashion. 17 Korsch: "Lenin's Philosophy. by Nicholas Jacobs. 1938. p. view Luk?cs' textual between or in Lenin: A Study of the Unity Hegel of His reference for his statement. 193? brief account of the twists and turns of Luk?cs' and political 1924. If true. This given had drawn to the Hegelian attention antecedents of more in the Manuscripts than in perhaps prominent anything the ? "Luk?cs and Stalinism" in his Georg Luk?cs From trans. p. by Patrick Camiller. assessment Marxists. 104. London. Lenin as Philosopher. Herder and Herder. to a vigorous is rather disappointing. to the "sworn supposed fidelity of Engels and Lenin by the 1930s. German Livingstone. NLB. L?wy Unfortunately. analysis." p. Iring Fetscher: 1971. What the appropriation of different instead. by one of Luk?cs' 22 Mesz?ros: Luk?cs' Concept p. 1972. 1979. which were else Marx wrote. Fetscher's (pp. 104?147) over Luk?cs in Eastern debates and Russia and Bloch in the 1950s is quite Europe informative." Studies evidence for such these two works a repudiation of in Soviet Thought. MIT Further Press. Korsch: but he Marx's that Marxism work. London. pp. London. Further page references directly 24 Marx and Marxism. by Luk?cs 20 Lenin: A Study of the Unity of His Thought. at the end of his revolutionary period. 115. 15 Korsch: "Lenin's Philosophy. directly 21 Istv?n Mesz?ros: Luk?cs' Merlin Press. 1924 and 1967. page references in the text are to this edition." in Pannekoek." See his Marx doctrine and Marxism. in the late metaphysical Materialism 18 (1978). 25 It is no doubt ? Luk?cs from this type of discussion to ascribe which has led Fetscher in the change ? the earlier. 135. 1975. Cambridge. This was less Hegelian that History and Class Consciousness later work than Luk?cs' such as was at stake was. 23 in the Relationship Luk?cs: The Young Studies and between Dialectics Hegel: trans. Luk?cs: trans. London. 16 Goode: Karl Korsch. 139. p. and Hall. 26 In one of the few treatments to Lenin. 18 Korsch: Karl Marx. orig. of Luk?cs' relation Norman has Levine in a contrary that "Leninism. p. and Thought. 195). orig. 87?88.
Georges m?taphysique in Visions Selected of the Foundations of the Hegelian Dialectic." and Contemporary in The "Henri Lefebvre essay Interpretations edited Marxism since Lenin. Klare. Subjekt-Objekt: Erl?uterungen Suhrkamp Verlag. Baltimore. 31 Le Temps des m?prises. New and Jesters: the Wars" and of discussion" Journal Essay. pp. in the text are to the 1962 1949. p. Totality. 1963. in depth in the 1930s. 1986 Madison. 13f. h?g?lienne. 13: T?binger Einleitung Bloch: Gesamtausgabe Suhrkamp Verlag. should be consulted Karl E. in high esteem" dialectic (21?22). by Allan Press. 29?52. synthesis. Press. Stoekl. Press. 1975. p. French edition 1932. 78. of Excess: of Minnesota ed. Frankfurt. edition 1938." "Critique French Marxism. 88. See of European at a attempt Press.154-55. 478-83. 30 in Modern Columbia Marxism Lichtheim: France. Bataille: pp. p. 41 (1981). Basic 1972. pp. 33 June and August de la dialectique Marx: 1933. Gang. of Western detailed which place Lefebvre and Schmidt's discussion of Lefebvre is found in Michael 1982. 285?316. and Iring Philosophy of Ernst Bloch. p. 49. in and of Marxism Kelly: Modern a study marred the Communist French by Marxism. Fetscher: Marx pp. orig. of Wisconsin. Avant-poste. 292-93. Jay: Marxism 36 and Henri Lefebvre: Norbert Guterman from later the rational showed. 105-15. though. 1935. University 1927?39. 6). 28 in die Philosophie. University Bud Burkhard's doctoral and French contains dissertation Marxism the most "Priests between detailed unpublished the Philosophies Lefebvre. original For edition. New University George York. Paris. 29 11: Politischen Bloch: Vorm?rz. and Mark Poster's pp. general A more accounts in the context Marxism. September indicating . Germany by the Stalinist St. orig. pp. 1970. 1966. zu Hegel. 1985. around Press.124 27 Ernst Bloch: KEVIN ANDERSON and of this work its extremely and background history negative see Wayne Hudson: The Marxist ideologues. Page references East German edition Hopkins University on those varieties that he has humanism also Kelly: Studies. 1970. original dialectique some delay by Gallimard in tion is datelined New York. 52. 31. Press. Martin in France" in his Marxism The Surrealists and Hegelian "Lefebvre. Pestzeit. "The Critique 38 (1931). Minneapolis. and Marxism. Jay's chapter the reception in East Marxism of California and Alfred 1984." "rapidly became to divert attention "tended which something as other even works Marxism. New York. University 1975. of Marx. The introduc Gallimard. Henri Lefebvre: ?ditions Stock. University Berkeley. cited in Kelly: Modern p. 1967. treatment of Lefebvre 32 du r?el. Paris. Messingen. 294. Lenin contribution himself of Hegel held Hegel's to "Introduction" to L?nine: Cahiers sur la de Hegel. pp. its overly narrow Johns focus 1962. Gesamtausgabe Suhrkamp Frankfurt. 34 in Modern that Lenin's Materialism French Marxism and Empirio writes Kelly the standard Criticism treatise on the subject" of "Marxist philosophy. Verlag. Henri the various debates left aside" "deliberately have nourished volumes which and alienation many "Hegel in France to 1940: A Party. Frankfurt." Writings. Jersey." Revue de de la dialectique Hartmann: See Nikolai "Hegel et la probl?me et de morale. Books." Bibliographical 11 (part No. Martin's 1982. 35 and Totality. and Dimension: Unknown European by Dick Howard as good New York. 109f. early 1). Kelly in French acknowledges "on Marxism (p. in Postwar Princeton Marxism Existential France.
and sensibility. Communist Sociales. Paris. which followed by Germany In Modern that the "prohibition of his French Marxism. the Pact including leading Communist in protest left the Party He did not in fact express or the Moscow Trials of the any major 1930s. Paris. the text. it carried 1940 it was although conna?tre on the "Otto" list of forbidden and seized by the Nazis. party was a major communism" in Dialectical Materialism. 1972. where potential as a field of liberation are central nature in Marx's themes Economic (63). Cape. against . See also Marx editor Oeuvres. Beacon Press. disagreements. reason why in Hegelian Marxism in the 1930s. in Marcuse's in Hegel's 1960 preface to a undialectical element appears philosophy" new edition of Reason and Revolution. Beacon 1982. see Jay: Marxism and Totality. One to Lenin Communist lie in the date of publication. 40 a somewhat similar notion of the "idea of Reason itself as the Interestingly. references issuing Subsequent are my own." including preface Marcuse sees as a major first appeared) what he now (as against 1941 when the book limitation inHegel's thought. p. Bordas. Schrader: "Marx's Pr?cis of Hegel's this International Maximilien Review Rubel's of Social comment pp. History (1977). intellectuals against such as Jean-Paul Pact. notes on Hegel issue and Marx's post-1858 Doctrine and Fred E. time it finally did generate reprint this edition until 1967.LENIN. Henri Lefebvre: Dialectical Jonathan Materialism. p. mystifi?e. by John Sturrock. Sartre's Lefebvre friend remained either Paul the Hitler-Stalin political its support for the notorious in of Poland and the Soviet Union. 41 trans. a member. see especially Joseph O'Malley in the Minor of Being Logic. Gallimard did not books a large audience. xii. edition 1939. political as a critical Marxist: limits of Lefebvre while many others. Boston." work no that the 1936 book by suggests 1936. London. to his Karl Marx: in a note Gallimard. Philosophie. a preface placed written to France visit in 1959. Kelly writes reason why Lefebvre to omitted reference any specific systematically that This only a non scholarly. Further references French 1968. 50?51. as found in the 1967 edition. All translations 37 in French An of the Philosophical did not appear from the edition Notebooks until 1955. by which 39 For a general discussion of this issue. 161. ?ditions 38 to these shortcomings in his Pour of the Gallimard edition Lefebvre himself points Gallimard la pens?e also writes that the de L?nine. After May came off the press in 1939. 1957. III. Party press. 22 pp. Paris. was the most Gallimard. pp." 423?431. He was edition of Lenin's Notebooks "almost received with Hegel complete indifference" sold" when it first by the intellectual public and that "very few copies were a 1938 date. page original directly 42 On in the text are to this 1968 English edition. banned Party had been by the Pact and the invasion Hitler-Stalin may Burkhard La Conscience reference the French government and dismemberment the fall of 1939. 1358-59. HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 125 to this introduction will be given directly in the volume. and Jesters. 49) book could be published under the circumstances. fearing (p. In the same passage of his 1960 after his lengthy to overcome that of "surrealism. 43 See Marcuse's Revolt. year because of of Lefebvre's makes after in his Counter-Revolution "Nature and Revolution" and chapter he argues: "The subversive of the Press. 1960. also shows the period Nizan. and Philosophical Manuscripts" 44 In his dissertation "Priests Lefebvre important Dialectical late in the and Guterman: result Materialism 1939. Boston." looks to "poetic language.
1959." Vol. Anthropos. Quoting the Press. Page references of in question. 53 Alexandre Introduction Koj?ve. 49 In fact Lefebvre's in the economic Collected Works. 50 to Lefebvre in his These attacks are summed up in a manner by Kelly unsympathetic holds "moved Modern that in this period Lefebvre French Marxism." Hyppolite: Presuppositions on Marx in his Studies This article originally in a and Hegel. was published Logique dialectique. Nouvelle Critique. (p. Hegel 59 Marcuse: failure Munich. xiii) 54 on Marx in Jean Hyppolite: Studies Included and Hegel. 1969. and Marx. 1988. edition the text are to the of Lenin's of Lefebvre's book. by John New York. Press. formelle. Logique Logique formelle. even 48 Marx and Engels: 1975." agenda of the subject." would entail a return to earlier notions (p. and Structure Phe Introduction Genesis of Hegel's xxi?xxii. 1958. Roth: Knowing Basic p. dialectique. 336. 449. University Michael S. Columbia University orig. Paris. book. New York. discussion constitutes Notebooks. 1946. Genesis and Samuel and John Cherniak and History: Cornell France. University was not apparently Lenin's Notebooks due to a dismissively Hegel . ?ditions Paris. essay first appeared in 1951. 128?29. Marcuse's Columbia Marxism. (Paris: ?ditions 1948). and humanism that while writing Hegel find that his work "suffers from a nostalgia for the humanism that deconstruction has made no implicit humanist he claims that his study "contains that 'd?pass?'. sharply even before Logique Paris. Marcuse: Reason have not been pp. to the Reading edition French orig. 227?284 Hegel are my own. The appendix which the second includes 1969. treatment in English of Koj?ve and Hyppolite Roth the subject of approaches some might in his preface rather defensively. trans. Evanston. 1969. she writes: "With himself. in parentheses in the next few paragraphs 1947. by edited Bloom. nomenology of Spirit. pp. p. O'Neill. id?ologique. Marcuse: p. Translations 47 in her Marxism and Freedom: From introduced this notion 1776 until Dunayevskaya 1958. 56 and Philosophical "On the Structure of Marx's Capital. Press. journal 55 to Hyppolite: John Heckman. field. in the Frankfurt School Soviet silence on Lenin's Hegel Notebooks is itself interesting. to discuss 1986. La Nef. International Publishers. appeared French journal in 1948. by Allan Jean Hyppolite. of Hegel.1 other discussion of Lenin and Hegel this period by members during are mentioned None in Rolf Wiggershaus: Die School. 58 and Revolution. 1974. New York. 1969 edition. This particular in a French Basic Books. orig. edition same passage as does Lefebvre. Given the interest of the members of this relative edition 1946. pp. French in Twentieth Appropriations Century of Hegel 1988 the most offers detailed Ithaca. 51. orig." (p. Frankfurter Verlag. New York. 399?400. 57 Reason and Revolution. 171) 3. edited and trans. New York.126 45 46 Henri Henri Lefebvre: Lefebvre: La Somme KEVIN ANDERSON et le reste. Books. ?ditions L'Existentialisme. he [Lenin] is as merciless. Press. Kelly inexorably from Marxism to neo-Hegelianism. critical du Sagittaire. scholarly able of to locate any the Frankfurt Hanser Schule. 52 Lefebvre: Contribution ? l'effort d'?claircissement "Autocritique: 1 (March 1949). 68) 51 ou Marxisme Luk?cs: Existentialisme Nagel." La of Spirit. Structure Phenomenology of Hegel's Northwestern Heckman. pp. Today. giving no quarter. 1947. 401. University on Hegel. p.
his criticisms 113?124. Theory Routledge. 91. 1941. pp." While Hook was critical on and Empirio-Criticism. p. Reason and Revolution. Marxist Newsletter Dunayevskaya: Philosopher." (microfilm). See Pollock: "State Capitalism: Its Possibilities in Critical and Limitations. 531?37... 1973. James: Notes Lawrence Hill. pp. p. 71-73.LENIN. 61 on this topic from 1941 onwards can be found Most of their key writings in the A Half-Century Marxist-Humanism: Collection. See for example Douglas uncritical surprise relatively to the 1985 Columbia Kellner's introduction reprint of Soviet Marxism. Development. in Lenin's he wrote at scientistic some materialist work Materialism after it appeared shortly length of Dialectical Journal Materialism. and Ria The Stone Tendency. dialectics for "Hegel's bewilderment was and oversimplification. Detroit. to Hegel. Hegel-Marx-Lenin. among were elucidated capitalism by Frankfurt in 1941. orig. New 360 (1941). L. Detroit. by Stephen Bronner and Douglas New Kellner. Wald toward Press. Bewick Editions. or over lively debate and substantially School economist the nature of the Soviet Union Marxism. critical HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 127 attitude toward Soviet Marxism. Westport. 1972. Wayne "A New Revision 1986 See also Dunayevskaya: of Marxian Economics. to her critics latter article such as Paul Baran and Oskar There was responds Lange. commentators official have expressed Many at Marcuse's stance in this book. 2 International. Wald writes that to Wilson. 63 Sidney 91. Method?". Society for the Sociology of Knowledge. "The Philosophy 141?155. The pp. orig. University different theories of state to the extreme North Carolina 1987. were of Lenin's book. critique an Understanding Towards Karl Marx. "Reason and Revolution. points antipathy two of the leading radical intellectuals of the period." American of Marxism? Economic Review 35 (1945). Raya Dunayevskaya of Its World State University Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs. Age. or Reaffirmation American Economic Review and "Revision 34 (1944). in English. Friedrich Pollock and the British in Trotskyist Tony Cliff 1948. Max Eastman and among Hegel . of their discussions of the young Marx. London." and Society. (Grace Lee): American 1947. a vehicle was Edmund Wilson. 66 One around p. in his two-part 15 (1928). 64 Hook: 595. pp. 660?64. 160) One the Trotskyist theoretician Rubin whose 1934?35 of Hook's Gotesky." The New Republic. of sketch.106-109. R. Bookmarks. 105 (July 21. Chapel Hill. 150. 62 see Alan Wald: For a general The New York Intellectuals. Marxist not explain This uninterested does Hook's earlier interest which article pp. York. Original edition 1948. left intellectuals in this period." to this attitude partial exception (p. directly 68 was rejecting Lenin's Hegel Notebooks was James that Hook because Hook implies an academic in Lenin. 65 Daniel p. 95?118. 1988. The Living Basic Books. 1980. ed. . co-authored by a worker member of the Johnson-Forest Paul Romano. Pagination in the text is to the 1980 edition. Worker. York. 11. 60 "Herbert Marcuse." of the Inter national 5: 2 (1979). and Cliff: State Capitalism in Russia. 1948. 1941). which centered interesting product was the pamphlet the concept of alienation. p. 1989. of Marcuse's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. (1935). of Philosophy. while it did not refer directly did of a defense include of the importance of "consciousness" action" for and "human Gotesky's The New Hook: review Bell: in a three-part article "Marxism: Science appeared critique 1 (1934). original edition 67 on Dialectics: C. A Rejoinder.
1949. Notebooks 25 Years James and Dunayevskaya. held by the Raya Schapiro Memorial 59 East Van Buren St." Dunayevskaya interest in Ilyin's work. which she 'too rough and incomplete'. Francke Ag.S. Bern. in the U." "Reflections p. I am unaware on narrow margins. as well as the letters themselves on these reflections in the discus be drawing follows. and Dunayevskaya. just published Hegel. See Lenin's tion. 9209?9327. Raya Dunayevskaya in the possession of Dunayevskaya Lee which were of any additional letters in other tion. In the text which addressee and the letters will be referred follows. date.128 not based violently KEVIN ANDERSON on Lenin's lack of discussion of Hegel. Lee's slowness she attributes something became which later. Maurice whom he terms "a great enthu Merleau-Ponty. The letters. 6383?6410. # 707." Notebooks for publication Notebooks than hardly more 75 on Notes In "Reflections on Notes from a Collection. pp. 5681. spaced were so important evidently no less than three theoretical-autobiographical wrote in the Raya Dunayevskaya included Collection." siastic for dialectics and to Kojeve's book on in France." and an admirer of L. 74 Guide to the Raya Dunayevskaya she writes that in 1949 Diary. This differences differences.1 will Dunayevskaya them available be found. p. 5688) of James and from a Diary. of Marxist-Humanism (1980). at Wayne Dunayevskaya's the ones from Schapiro are held by the Fund. Held Schapiro by the Raya to "a French Fund." (p. Dunayevskaya Uncatalogued not been to the Raya books and papers of Dunayevskaya which have donated 73. writing rejected anti-Hegelian was to Wald. in the same article took a since Hook that the year 1844 was when Marx position. pp. RD Collection. 8123? (1984). T. Dunayevskaya for the archivist Collection." Dunayevskaya complains to theoretical in responding to her letters.' (p. letters referred to in this manner According all surviving letters are held between have 1595?1734. she commentaries "Reflections on on Notes them. especially was aware also that Lenin Iljin: Die als first had Gotteslehre. of the pp. Hook the co Hegel according edition of Lenin's book. typed single a book-length on the dialectic. 50 and the Birth Phillips of Marxist-Humanism and the State-Capitalist Tendency" (1978). translator for the English 69 is held by the Raya Dunayevskaya The original Collection. RD Collection. Philosophie Hegels its 1946. Memorial letter also refers Schapiro's Dunayevskaya philosopher who is visiting New York. sion which 71 on Notes from a Diary. 116) In addition. pp. In "Reflections also tried to give of the Hegel the translation "to the SWP the considered [Socialist Workers Party]. Verlag. 1949. Dunayevskaya: 72 Handwritten letter to Dunayevskaya of March 12. 70 to by author. The Coal Miners' General Strike of 1949? letter to Dunayevskaya of March 26. All Collection. Empirisch-Konkret. essay apparent by only much on the Johnson-Forest one I have is the only been able to locate Dunayevskaya theorists' Tendency 76 For an edition Kontemplative "Das chapter expressed great debate over Lenin A in a Western and Hegel. 59. Fund. "once and for all. constitute They dialogue to Dunayevskaya that in the last decade of her life. 1492? typescript 1584. all also from a Diary: RD Collec in the U. only 73 Handwritten Collection to me. [Leon Trotsky]. . Chicago. see Iwan language. pp. by to Michael the Raya Flug." 'scribbles.S. Philosophic 5678?88. which made State University letters to Schapiro this period could not during to her seem to have survived. in the Collec been deposited collections.
was 1982. 1988. James Review and Grace Press. develops terminology as a key one for feminist to liberation from transition theory. The original Chicago. a writer 1976. [Befreiung] [?bergang] 82 sees totalitarianism here in the Soviet Union Dunayevskaya Obviously." (Dunayevskaya 78 in collaboration C. State Capitalism 1986. Bewick Editions. to this edition. in English a work which came in her Notebooks Hegel as included Lenin's Hegel Notebooks of them. The first thorough published Marxism and Freedom analysis (1958). New York. London. pp. 1735?96. after 1950 mimeographed its publication. are included in the these critiques of Lenin theoretical the work Verso. See for example the Twentieth Century. Women's Libera of Illinois Press. who remains Lee Boggs: York. Subsequent Chicago. 1989. 81 See the recent article by the Hegel scholar Patricia Altenbernd Johnson: "Women's in Practicing Liberation: Journal Dialectics. R. 1974. orig. left. living mainly a Black labor activist. James: The Artist World Marxist and culture from her husband. edition the was as a Socialist Workers Johnson-Forest Tendency Party left the internal SWP bulletin. Kerr Publishers. 80 Moment The Philosophic News & Letters. written with Raya Dunayevskaya and Grace Lee: and World Revolution. which notes by Dunayevskaya's includes explanatory colleagues. Trotskyist. beginning with Stalin rather than Lenin. whose as Revolutionary. book colleagues Facing until the early 1960s. became in Britain. to found Shortly a non decentralized the Correspondence Committees. Dunayevskaya However. included Parts of 1989 Columbia edition of Philosophy 84 Lee and James remained political during which period and tion and Marx's in her Rosa Luxemburg. L. 32. IL 60566 USA . L. Ideology. 79 in the Raya Dunayevskaya Included Collection. 65?74. Philosophy as can be seen of Revolution. Later. 83 Her 1953 the basis for all of her subsequent letters became work on dialectics. of Marxist-Humanism. Reality. University in some of her 1986?87 further writings. attempts in order to find "precisely finished the date of his reading Hegel specify when Lenin to James 6/16/51). of another extensive discussion of Lenin in her Philosophy She made and Hegel Logic. Lee. p. and Revolution: From Hegel Columbia University a fairly sharp critique 1973." Following Dunayevskaya Quarterly of Johnson 13: 4 (1989). orig. she developed of Press. to Sartre and from Marx to Mao. this shift in Hegel's pp. 1991. James. a translation translation which was of Lenin's also an appendix in the first published English but not his long extracts able to include only Lenin's from Hegel's Science remarks. LEAP. James. Lenin's treatment of Hegel. Monthly is extensively critic. letters are directly 1989. Dunayevskaya: to the 1953 references in the text. chronicled a noted took an activist Third within in the name and Revolution. 77 HEGEL AND WESTERN MARXISM 129 to in one fairly important letter written in 1951.S. Boggs the U.LENIN. non-party type organization. and Revolution and Evolution New of Sociology Department North Central College and Anthropology Naperville. R. in Buhle: C. 1958. they co-authored Detroit. This orig. critique developed in the RD Collection. Urbana.
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