Health Strategy

Education Unit Policy Policy Reform
Investing in Pakistan’s Human Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Resource

State of Education in Pakistan

Opportunity Lost
• Overall literacy rate (age 10 years and above) is only 58%
– Even worse for women and in rural areas:
• 69 % male; 46 % female • 74 % urban; 49 % rural

• Persons (age 25+) with at least secondary education – 16.8% • Average years of schooling of adults
– Pakistan: 3.9; India: 5.1; Malaysia: 6.8; USA: 12

The Enrolment Deficit
• Total population in 05 – 16 years cohort – approx. 44 million – Children enrolled in public and private schools – 25.7 million – Children enrolled in madaris – 1.7 million – Children out of schools – 16.6 million • Pakistan ranks second in global ranking on out-of-school children • 26 countries poorer than Pakistan send more children to schools • 2/3rd rural women never attend a school

High Drop Out Rate in Government Schools
• • • Only 63% students enrolled in Grade 1 make it to Grade V Only 40% make it to Grade VIII Only 27% make it to Grade X
%
100 90

80
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Overall drop out as a % of primary school cohort • Pakistan – 30.3% • India – 34.2% • Turkey – 5.8% • Malaysia – 7.8%

Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10

Poor Infrastructure in Govt. Schools
• Government schools with no/dangerous buildings: 10% in Punjab, 35% in Sindh, 23% in KPK and 18% in Baluchistan
– 15,996 schools have no building – 30,000 school buildings need major repair

• 35.4 % schools do not have a toilet
– for the ones that do, average comes out as 74 children per toilet

• 33.6 % do not have drinking water • 59 % schools do not have electricity • 40 % schools do not have desks

Poor Learning Outcomes
• Learning outcomes extremely poor in government schools. Recent surveys* show that in Grade III:
– Only one child out of three can construct a simple sentence in Urdu using the word ‘school’ – Only 12% children can convert simple words from singular to plural – Less than 30% can answer the most basic questions after reading a paragraph – 80% cannot correctly spell the word ‘girl’ – 11% and 35% cannot do single-digit addition and subtraction respectively

Growing Role of the Private Sector
• More than 35% children go to private schools – more than 50% in urban areas and 26% in rural areas • Most private schools are low-cost • Per child cost of education in private schools is 1/3rd of that in government schools (viz. approx. Rs. 8,380 per child)

• Average rural family spends 13 – 20% of its income on children’s education • Learning outcomes significantly better in private schools as compared with government schools

Madaris
• About 6.4% children (1.72 million) enrolled in madaris – About 200,000 are girls • Most Madaris offer a 13 year teaching programme • Textbooks mostly in Arabic; teaching mostly in Urdu or local languages • All Madaris affiliated with their Boards/Wafaqs, which are degree-awarding institutions – Shahadat ul Aalmia – recognised by government as equivalent to MA • Other degrees include: Shahadat ul Aaalia (BA), Sanvia Khasa (FA), Sanvia Aama (Matric)

• None of these recognised by the government for employment purposes

Technical and Vocational Training (T&VT)
• Total enrolment: 281,026 • T&VT enrolment only 8% of post-secondary enrolment in general education • Output from T&VT institutes insufficient to meet export or local requirements qualitatively and quantitatively • T&VT not connected to university education:
– In opportunities for higher education – In transfer of knowledge

• T&VT budgetary allocations a small proportion of provincial allocations for education

University Education
• Total Enrolment –1.1 million
– Public 948,764 (86%) – Private 158,918 (14%)

• Only 6.3% are university graduates (8.9% male; 3.5% female) • Number of PhDs produced is very low:
– Only 6,535 PhDs awarded by Pakistani universities since 1947 – Substantial increase in recent years (600 PhDs awarded in 2011-12)

• Quality of post-graduate research is poor

The Way Forward

PTI’s Vision
• PTI’s Education Policy aims to provide equal opportunity of quality education in a system which caters to every citizen and removes poverty as a barrier for children to realize their potential • We are guided by the concept of an Islamic Welfare State following the vision of Mohammad Ali Jinnah and the philosophy of Allama Iqbal

PTI’s 6 Point Education Emergency Plan
1. One Education system for all:
– – – Medium of Instruction Curriculum Assessment

2. Re-engineer Governance based on complete decentralization 3. Dramatically increase funding - from 2.1% to 5% of GDP 4. Adult education 5. Teacher Training 6. Information and Communication Technology

1. One Education System for All Medium of Instruction – Current Situation
Province Punjab Medium of Instruction • All govt. schools declared English medium • Effectively most are Urdu medium • English in elite public and private schools • Sindhi and/or Urdu till class 8 • English and/or Urdu in high schools and colleges • English in elite public and private schools • • • • Urdu in primary schools English and/or Urdu in high schools Urdu in low cost private schools English in elite public and private schools

Sindh

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Balochistan

• Urdu in all government and low cost private schools • English in elite public and private schools

1. One Education System for All Medium of Instruction – Current Situation The English – Urdu medium divide
• Enrolment in elite English medium private schools:
– Total (approx.) 765,000 – Approx. 8.0% of enrolment in private schools – Approx. 2.7% of total school enrolment

• Total number of children in school
– 25.7 million (age cohort 5-16 yrs) – 1.7 million in Madrasas

• About 100,000 students appear in O Level exams every year • About 1.6 million student appeared in matric exams in 2012

1. One Education System for All Medium of Instruction
• One system for all not possible unless all students in every province use one medium of instruction • At the same time, Pakistan has a legacy of British rule which cannot be ignored
• • • All professional colleges are English medium All government business is conducted in English An Urdu/Regional medium curriculum underdeveloped

• English is an international language of importance and gives an advantage to those who are proficient i.e. the elite • English as a medium of instruction in elite schools not only creates a class divide but also brings along a whole culture for the elite

1. One Education System for All Medium of Instruction – Cultural divide

1. One Education System for All Medium of Instruction – Cultural divide

1. One Education System for All Medium of Instruction – Cultural divide

1. One Education System for All Medium of Instruction – Cultural divide

1. One Education System for All Medium of Instruction - PTI’s Policy
• Mother tongue and/or Urdu to be the medium of instruction in all public and private schools up to Class VIII
– The change of medium of instruction to be phased in – Class IX to XII to be transition years
• Schools shall have the option to shift to English as the medium of instruction in preparation for professional / higher studies

– English to continue to be the medium of instruction for all university and professional education
• As a long term goal, Urdu curriculum and syllabus to be developed for higher education and professional universities

– English and Urdu to be taught as compulsory languages from Class I to XII

1. One Education System for All Curriculum – Current Situation
Weaknesses of the current Government curriculum:
• Based on descriptions, not learning outcomes • Necessitates rote learning rather than encourage understanding / critical thinking • Promotes stereotypes, discourages diversity • Disconnect from the context • State-centric worldview
– Economy, agriculture, civil society ignored

• Creates and reinforces social hierarchies as against awareness of individual rights

1. One Education System for All Curriculum - Comparison
Grade III – Curriculum Comparison
Pakistan Government Living Things Animals as living things Cambridge Biology (Humans and Animals) Know life processes common to humans and animals include nutrition (water and food), movement, growth and reproduction Describe difference between living and non-living things using knowledge of life processes Know that some foods can be damaging to health, e.g. very sweet and fatty foods Explore and research exercise and the adequate, varied diet needed to keep healthy Explore human senses and the ways we use them to learn about our world Sort living things into groups, using simple features and describe rationale for groupings Biology (Plants) Know that plants have roots, leaves, stems and flowers Explain observations that plants need water and light to grow Know that water is taken in through the roots and transported through the stem Know that plants need healthy roots, leaves and stems to grow Know that plant growth is effected by temperature

Animals and their environment

Characteristics of birds, insects and mammals

Part of a plant

Plant as a living thing Classification of crops

1. One Education System for All Curriculum - Current Situation
Flawed Curriculum

Substandard textbooks

Dismal learning outcomes
Inferior quality Teachers

1. One Education System for All PTI’s Policy - Curriculum
• Provincial governments to set uniform and world standard curricula for all government and private schools
• Committees of experts to critically review the curricula (and syllabus and textbooks) to ensure objectivity and comparability with global standards

• Aim to impart education for
– Character building – Environment and Health Consciousness – Employability

1. One Education System for All PTI’s Policy on Curriculum - Textbooks
• An immediate quality upgrade of textbooks required. • Textbook Boards to be restructured as stakeholder-led autonomous organisations • Textbook Boards and the private sector to develop a range of textbooks and supplementary reading material for schools to choose from • Each school to have a menu of books to teach in various grades
– Menu to comprise of books developed by private sector and by Textbook Boards

1. One Education System for All Mainstreaming Current Madaris
• Currently, five Madrassa groups
– – – – – Tanzeem-ul-Madaris (Barelvi) Wafaq-ul-Madaris (Deobandi) Wafaq-ul-Madaris (Shia) Wafaq-ul-Madaris (Ahle Hadith) Rabita-ul-Madaris (Jamaat-e-Islami)

• Engage with all to develop a phased mainstreaming of curriculum
• Mainstream by a mix of Inspiration and Incentives
– – – – Financial help for new teachers, sports facilities etc. Health Program for Children Work towards a time bound Integration plan Madrassa students to also take the Class VIII national exam

• Encourage integration with local communities

1. One Education System for All PTI’s Policy - Assessment
• All students in public and private schools to be assessed under one standardised assessment system • Each province to have an independent Examination Commission with Stakeholder representation
– To oversee conduct of all examinations from Class VIII, X and XII – To bring standards of all Regional Boards at par

• Operate with full transparency
– Rank and disclose school/districts performance – Disseminate data online to promote accountability

2. Education Governance
• Complete decentralization and de-politicization of the education system
– Delivery of education to be District based

• Federal government to oversee the National Objectives in the Education Sector • Provincial governments to provide Policy Guidelines, oversight and regulation only • Service delivery and management to be devolved to district and sub-district levels

2. Education Governance – District Level
• Establish fully autonomous District Education Authorities (DEA)comprising key stakeholders • Management functions to be divided into two categories: Aggregate functions and school-specific functions
– Aggregate functions to be performed by DEA – School-specific functions to be performed by School Councils elected by parents of current students

• Teaching cadre in the District to report to DEA only
– DEAs to reconstitute the entire teaching cadre in the District to make it more accountable for quality and performance

2. Education Governance
• DEA to invest in ICT as a key component to improve education governance
• DEAs to conduct periodic assessment of learning outcomes

• High schools to be focal point of management of primary and middle schools • School governance to be fully devolved to empowered School Councils • Large government schools/colleges to be managed by independent Boards of Governors
– DEA to monitor standards and performance

• All schools/colleges will have formula based funding available as a matter of right
– Based on student numbers and performance

2. Education Governance - Increasing School Enrolment /Reducing drop out rate
• Uplift all government schools to
– Minimum standards of Physical infrastructure, Facilities, Staffing , Teaching and learning aides
• Most primary schools are 2 room buildings where as a minimum of 6 rooms are required

– All middle, high schools to have science lab, computer labs, libraries etc. – Audio-visual facilities – Distance learning facilities

• Encourage private sector to play its role
– Voucher schemes – let the money follow students
• Encourage low cost private schools

• Launch awareness and mobilisation campaigns

2. Education Governance - Increasing School Enrolment
• Make schools a fun place
– Sports and extra curricular activities – Student exchange programs – Field trips

• Set up boarding schools for children from poor households
– At least two (one for each gender) per tehsil • Make special provisions for marginalised communities – Street children, working children, nomadic communities, mentally or physically disabled children, etc.

2. Education Governance
Proactive Disclosure
• Indicators for measuring performance to be clearly defined and announced
– Set yearly targets for various levels

• Detailed information on the following to be made available on websites, newsletters, official gazettes, etc.
– Budgets; Salaries and perks; Leave/absence/disciplinary proceedings; Examination results; Scores on random tests; Ranking on various indices

• Third party sample-based performance audit annually • Such information to be compiled for individual schools, sub-districts, districts and provinces

3. Funding
Chronic Under-investment in Pakistan

• Allocation for education
– as a proportion of GDP – 2.1% – was 2.8% in 1987-88

Regional Comparison - % of GDP spent on Education
6 5 4 3
2.1 2.6 3.2 3.3 3.5 4.5 4.7 5.2 5.3

2 1 0

3. Funding - PTI’s Policy
• Dramatically increase funding - from 2.1%* to 5% of GDP
– Funding of DEA’s, Universities etc. to be formula based
• On population • Children in schools • Student performance
Allocation (% GDP)
6 5 5 4 3 3 2.1 2 2.1 2.5 3.75 4.5

1
0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Fiscal Year 2012 2013

Allocation (% GDP) 2.1 2.1

Education Budget (Rs. Bn) 435 498

PTI Year 1
PTI Year 2 PTI Year 3 PTI Year 4 PTI Year 5

2.5
3.0 3.8 4.5 5.0

685
953 1373 1895 2427

4. Adult Education
• Adult education needed:
– As a human right – As a means for transforming individuals and societies

• Launch a nationwide campaign to educate the adult population • Providing adult literacy options to 42% (75.6 m) population that is currently illiterate
– Focus on age cohort 11 – 30 years (55.8 million) – Focus on workers in the formal / informal private sector – Different literacy packages for different age groups

5. Teacher Training
• Currently approx. 1.46 million (public and private) teachers
– 42% in the private sector

• With success of PTI’s education policy, an additional million + teachers will be required
– All these teachers will have to be trained / re-trained

• Re-think pre-service teachers’ education
– ‘Education’ to be offered as a subject at par with other social sciences – Intensive foundation courses of teacher training of pedagogy, leadership, management, etc. after recruitment – Use of ICT

5. Teacher Training
• Government to invest heavily in ‘in-service’ training • Support private sector in establishing and expanding teachers’ training facilities • Training institutes to offer wide menu of choices such as
pedagogy, leadership, management, etc.

• Special emphasis on sciences and mathematics teaching • Exposure to different teaching practices to be a core component of Teachers’ training • Enable and support visits/attachments/internships in topranking schools • Skill up-gradation to be a key factor in promotion

6.Use of ICT – A Paradigm Shift PTI’s Insaf in Mass Education
Education over the past 300 years
– – – – Content (Knowledge in School Text Books) Teacher as a guide Physical Location of a school School Time of Education

Education today • Content is available on the ‘cloud’, can be accessed by students directly
– Khan Academy model

• No Physical School, Teacher at home, and possibility of 24/7 self education • Mass availability of Tablet Computers to enable use of distance education facility

Special Initiatives
• • • • • Girls’ Education Sports and Extra-curricular activities English Language Program Skill Development University Education

Girls’ Education
• All Union Councils to progressively have a Girls High School • Upgrade all high enrolment girls schools from
– primary to middle – middle to high level

• Girls to be preferred as primary teachers
– Facilitate their lodging and transport where needed

• Incentivise enrolment of girls in primary, middle and high schools as per the regional context
– Provide scholarships – Arrange/pay for transport where needed

Sports and Extra curricular activities
• Make schools a place where learning is enjoyable – Encourage students to build upon their God gifted creative abilities
• Arts, crafts, writing, debating, computer skills etc.

• Sports training and competitions to be a regular feature and key component of education at all levels
– Intra and inter District competitions

• Summer and winter camps to encourage academic and co-curricular activities • Newsletters and student/teacher magazines to encourage writing • Student exchange programs
– Between schools and districts – Between rural and urban schools

English Language Program
• Special efforts to teach English as a language
– From Class I onwards – At all schools

• Special funding to hire and train teachers of the English language in rural / underdeveloped areas
– Extensive use of ICT to enable city based English teachers to train / guide new teachers in rural areas

• Develop English speaking, writing and listening skills through innovative techniques, such as
– Communicative language teaching (Far East model)

Skill Development
Current situation • 66% of the population under the age of 30 • 1.3% population of age 11-17 years are enrolled for technical and vocational education PTI’s Policy • Engage 2 million + youngsters for technical skills enrolment • Increase vocational education spending to Rs. 140 billion per year • Ensure international certifications • Focus on skills for women • Develop employable skills for domestic and international markets

University Education – PTI’s Policy
• Make the Higher Education Commission fully autonomous • Make universities autonomous by de-linking them from government • Make universities a hub for research • Increase university enrolment by establishing new universities and enlarging existing capacity • Focus on university education in sciences • Encourage collaboration with foreign universities

The End