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forming using image processing technology

Qu Ying-dong

a,

, Cui Cheng-song

a

, Chen Shan-ben

b

, Li Qing-chun

a

a

School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin, China

b

School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200030 Shanghai, China

Received 27 May 2003; received in revised form 3 August 2005; accepted 19 October 2005

Abstract

Image processing technology, which offers a new approach for on-line deposit dimension measurement in spray forming, has been developed

in this paper. First, an adaptive smoothing operator is used to eliminate noise based on analysis of the resource of image noise. Second, a new edge

detection operatorSobelZernike moments operator is used to detect the edge of deposit image. Lastly, the characteristic deposit dimension such

as outer diameter of a tubular deposit is calculated. Test of this new image processing method shows that the whole running time of one image

processing is less than 0.987 s, while the relative error of deposit dimension measurement is lower than 0.32%, indicating that this is an on-line

accurate measurement method for deposit dimension in spray forming process.

2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Spray forming; Deposit dimension; On-line measurement; Image processing

1. Introduction

In spray forming process, liquid metal is atomized by high

speed inert gas into variously sized droplets, which are then pro-

pelled away from the region of atomization and sprayed toward

a moving substrate to forma near fully dense and near-net shape

preform [1,2]. The dimension precision of the near-net preform

can be improved by using process control technology. To achieve

this goal, the deposit dimension should be measured before con-

trol technology is applied. In general, measuring technologies

for deposit dimensions can be classied into contact measure-

ment and non-contact measurement. The deposit surface is in

semi-solid state during spray deposition process, so non-contact

measurement is more suitable for measuring deposit proles.

As one of the non-contact measurement technology, image pro-

cessing technology has many advantages: (1) non-contact mea-

surement has no interference with the spray forming process;

(2) based on image processing technology, deposit dimensions

in different positions can be measured simultaneously; (3) using

advanced image processing technology, deposit dimensions can

be measured quickly and accurately, meeting the requirement of

E-mail address: quyingdong@163.com (Q. Ying-dong).

on-line process control. In earlier reports about image process-

ing technology, infrared thermal imaging camera has been used

to measure deposit surface temperature, static nozzle tempera-

ture, transient nozzle temperature and melt temperature during

spray deposition [3,4]. However, many problems must be solved

such as wavelength choice, optical access, contamination, signal

attenuation and system calibration before using infrared ther-

mal imaging technology. In this study, a normal CCD camera

has been utilized to measure the deposit dimensions. The image

processing algorithmmust be strictly chosen in order to measure

deposit dimensions quickly and accurately [5]. Edge detection

technique has been developed as the critical part of image pro-

cessing process for deposit dimension measurements.

Edge detection is an essential technique in many image pro-

cessing applications such as object recognition, motion analysis,

etc. From the view of accuracy, this technique can be classied

into pixel-level and subpixel-level edge detection. Early edge

detection method employed local operators to locate edge with

approximately computing the rst derivative or second deriva-

tive of the image gray level step in the spatial domain, Prewitt

operator, Sobel operator, Marr-Hildreth operator and Canny

operator are examples of pixel-level edge detection methods

[6,7]. Recently, some new edge detection methods using neu-

ral network technique and fuzzy reasoning technique have been

developed [8,9]. All these methods are in pixel-level, which

0924-0136/$ see front matter 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.10.004

196 Q. Ying-dong et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 172 (2006) 195201

Fig. 1. The scheme of image processing system.

can quickly locate the body edge in an image, but with low

precision.

Subpixel-level methods can overcome the problem of loca-

tion accuracy. One of the early techniques for subpixel edge

detection was proposed by Hueckel [10]. In the recent years,

Ghosal et al. introduced a new edge detection method, which

only requires three masks to evaluate four parameters of an ideal

step edge based on Zernike moments theory. The main advantage

of this method is the run time of image processing can be reduced

33% compared to moment-based-edge operator [11,12].

The advantage of pixel-level edge detection method is short

running time, while the advantage of subpixel-level edge detec-

tion method is high precision. In this study, a new method

that combines pixel-level detection with subpixel-level detec-

tion to locate object edge has been introduced. This method is

called SobelZernike moments operator, an on-line measure-

ment method with subpixel detection precision.

2. Eliminating noise from original image

The scheme of image capture and processing systemis shown

in Fig. 1. In spray forming process, noise to image capture is

apparently evident, which not only has a negative inuence on

the quality of image, but also make the measurement inaccurate.

Based on the following description, an adaptive smoothing oper-

ator is used to eliminate noise in an image: over-spray of metal

powders is the main source of noise, which attenuates optical

signal intensity and result in unclear edge between object and

background. As the second source of noise, random noise exists

in the image too. Normal average smoothing method is available

for eliminating random noise, but makes the edge faint. Adap-

tive smoothing operator is a completely different method from

average smoothing, capable of both eliminating noise and mak-

ing the edge sharp. The details of adaptive smoothing operator

can be given as:

To calculate the gradient of every pixel G

x

(x, y), G

y

(x, y)

G

x

(x, y) =

1

2

[f(x + 1, y) f(x 1, y)] (1)

G

y

(x, y) =

1

2

[f(x, y + 1) f(x, y 1)] (2)

To determinate the weight coefcient

w(x, y) = exp

_

G

2

x

(x, y) + G

2

y

(x, y)

2k

2

_

(3)

To calculate new prey f

t

(x, y)

f

t

(x, y) =

+1

i=1

+1

j=1

f

t

(x + i, y + j)w

t

(x + i, y + i)

+1

i=1

+1

j=1

w

t

(x + i, y + i)

(4)

where k is used to decide how much change of gray level of

an image can be considered as an edge point, parameter t is

iterative times. In this paper, when selecting k =2 and t =1, the

image qualityis improvedwell. Fig. 2(a andb) shows the original

images of a spray formed tubular product and the image after

eliminating noise, respectively.

3. SobelZernike moments operator

Any image processing singly using pixel-level or subpixel-

level operator can not realize the operation of both quickly and

accurately detecting object edge simultaneously, but the new

edge detection operator we proposed here, i.e., SobleZernike

moments operator, can make it. This approach consists of two

steps: at rst the pixel-level Sobel operator is used to approxi-

mately detect all probable edge points; secondly among all the

Fig. 2. Images of a tubular deposit by spray forming. (a) Original deposit image and (b) image of deposit after eliminating noise.

Q. Ying-dong et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 172 (2006) 195201 197

found edge points, the subpixel-level Zernike moments operator

is used to relocate the edge with subpixel precision.

3.1. Using Sobel operator to quickly detect all probable

edge points

The details of Sobel operator are given as:

Calculating partial derivative in x and y directions

S

x

= {f(x + 1, y 1) + 2f(x + 1, y)

+f(x + 1, y + 1)} {f(x 1, y 1)

+2f(x 1, y) + f(x 1, y + 1)} (5)

S

y

= {f(x 1, y + 1) + 2f(x, y + 1)

+f(x + 1, y + 1)} {f(x 1, y 1)

+2f(x, y 1) + f(x + 1, y 1)} (6)

Calculating the gradient according to Eq. (7), and determining

the edge point

g(x, y) =

_

(S

2

x

+ S

2

y

), g(x, y) > t (7)

Selecting a threshold t, if g(x, y) >t, then point (x, y) is considered

as an edge point and herein t =60.

All edge points must be marked, thereafter these points will be

used for edge recognition by Zernike moments operator. Sobel

operator also can be expressed as the form of two masks as

shown in Fig. 3. These two masks are used to calculate S

x

and

S

y

, respectively. The edge image by Sobel operator is shown in

Fig. 4, where the white line is the deposit edge. It can be seen in

Fig. 4 that the edge line is very thick and some false edge points

are present in this image.

3.2. Zernike moments operator [12]

The main idea of Zernike moments operator is to calculate

four parameters for each edge point, as shown in Fig. 5: k is

the step height, h the background gray level, l the perpendicular

distance fromthe center of the circular kernel andthe edge makes

Fig. 3. Masks of Sobel operator.

Fig. 4. Edge image by Sobel operator.

an angle of with respect to the x-axis. The edge point can be

determined from parameters l and k. The edge position can be

calculated by parameters l and .

First of all the masks for calculating Zernike moments should

be deduced. Two masks are enough to get edge parameters l and

. Since edge location accuracy can be improved by enlarging

mask size, two 7 7 masks are deduced before the edge point

is determined. In this study a new parameter, the amplitude of

complex moment instead of parameter k, is used to locate edge

point together with parameter l.

3.2.1. Deducing masks and calculating Zernike moments

Zernike moments of an image f(x, y) is dened as:

A

nm

=

n + 1

_ _

x

2

+y

2

1

f(x, y)V

nm

(, ) dx dy (8)

where (n +1)/ is a normalization factor. In discrete form, A

nm

can be expressed as

A

nm

=

y

f(x, y)V

nm

(, ), x

2

+ y

2

1 (9)

indicating that in a discrete image the neighborhood of a point

should be mapped onto the interior of a unit circle for evaluating

Fig. 5. Two-dimensional subpixel step edge model.

198 Q. Ying-dong et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 172 (2006) 195201

Fig. 6. Circular kernel dened for a 7 pixel 7 pixel area.

Fig. 7. Mask of Zernike moments A

20

.

Zernike moments of this point. The complex polynomials V

nm

(,

) can be expressed in polar coordinates as:

V

nm

(, ) = R

nm

()e

jm

(10)

where R

nm

() is a radial polynomial dened as

R

nm

() =

(1)

s

(n s)!

n2s

s!

_

n+|m|

2

s

_

!

_

n|m|

2

s

_

!

(11)

If an image is rotated by an angle , the following relationship

between Zernike moments of the original image A

nm

and the

rotated image A

nm

will be given

A

nm

= A

nm

e

jv

(12)

It is clear that Zernike moments merely acquire a phase

shift on rotation and their magnitudes remain constant. This

property is useful for rotation invariant pattern recognition and

matching. In order to calculate parameters and l, the masks

of A

11

, A

20

should be deduced. According to Eq. (10), the

orthogonal complex polynomials can be written as: V

11

=x +jy,

V

20

=2x

2

+2y

2

1. Fig. 6 shows the unit circle divided to 7 7

homogeneous grids. The masks canbe calculatedas makinginte-

gral for V

11

, V

20

on dashed area of every grid (see Figs. 7 and 8).

Fig. 8(a and b) shows the real component and imaginary com-

ponent of the complex mask of, respectively, each numerical

value in two masks are weight index that are acted on corre-

sponding 7 7 neighborhood pixel points. Here, assuming f(x,

y) to be constant over each pixel, convolving these masks with

the image points can get Zernike moments A

11

, A

20

for whole

image.

3.2.2. Calculating edge point parameters l and

According to Eq. (12), the following relationship can be given

A

11

= A

11

e

j

(13)

A

20

= A

20

(14)

where A

11

, A

20

are Zernike moments of the original image, and

are Zernike moments of the rotated image with angle .

Fig. 8. Mask of Zernike moments A

11

. (a) Imaginary component and (b) real component.

Q. Ying-dong et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 172 (2006) 195201 199

Based on the theory of Zernike moments, A

11

, A

20

can be

calculated as

A

11

=

_ _

x

2

+y

2

1

f

2k(1 l

2

)

3/2

3

(15)

A

20

=

_ _

x

2

+y

2

1

f

(x, y)(2x

2

+ 2y

2

1) dy dx

=

2kl(1 l

2

)

3/2

3

(16)

When an edge is rotated for an angle , it will be aligned parallel

to y-axis, therefore

_ _

x

2

+y

2

1

f

The left item of Eq. (17) is the imaginary component of A

11

.

Using Eqs. (13) and (17), we can have

Im[A

11

] = sin()Re[A

11

] cos()Im(A

11

) = 0

therefore

= tan

1

_

Im[A

11

]

Re[A

11

]

_

A

11

can be calculated when A

11

and are known:

A

11

= Re(A

11

) = Re(A

11

) cos + Im(A

11

) sin() (18)

Solving Eqs. (15) and (16), the step edge parameter l is given:

l =

A

20

A

11

(19)

3.2.3. New criterion for edge point

In Ref. [12], the edge parameters l and k are considered as

criterion for edge point determination. In this paper a new crite-

rion, i.e., magnitude of complex moments A

11

, is introduced to

judge edge point with l together. The new criterion amp is given

by

amp =

_

Re(A

11

) Re(A

11

) + Im(A

11

) Im(A

11

) (20)

The reason for using amp to substitute k derives from the

characteristic of mask A

11

: the absolute value of a real compo-

nent is symmetrical relative to y-axis, and the absolute value of

the imaginary component is symmetrical relative to x-axis. This

characteristic is similar to that of masks of Sobel operator. The

criterion of Sobel operator is the magnitude of two masks, so the

magnitude of complex moments A

11

are taken as criterion too.

When amp >30 and l

by SobelZernike moments is shown in Fig. 9. Compared to

Fig. 4, the edge detected by Sobelzernike moments is thinner

and there is no false edge point, demonstrating that the edge

location precision by Sobelzernike moment is better than Sobel

operator.

Fig. 9. Edge image calculated by SobelZernike moments.

4. Calculation of deposit dimensions

It is essential to establish the orientation between 2-D work-

piece coordinates and corresponding 2-D image coordinates for

calculating deposit dimensions. Once this relationship is estab-

lished, the real dimension of a deposit can be calculated from

the captured image of the deposit. Herein a simple calibration

method is introduced.

Firstly, two coordinates system are dened as follows:

2-D workpiece coordinates O-XY

For the workpiece coordinates, the intersecting point of the

axes of the mandrel substrate andthe central axis of spraycone

is dened as the origin point of the 2-Dworkpiece coordinates

O-XY. The mandrel axes is dened as X-axis, while the axis

of spray cone is dened as Y-axis.

2-D image coordinates o-UV

For the image coordinates, the left bottom point of the

image window is dened as the origin point. The bottom line

of the image window is dened as U-axis, while the left ver-

tical line is dened as V-axis.

Calibration of coordinates is described as follows:

in the 2-D image coordinates, kx and ky, slope coefcient of

X-axis and Y-axis, are calculated, respectively;

in the 2-Dimage coordinates, ySize and xSize, the real size of

per pixel in kx and ky direction, are determined, respectively;

in the 2-D image coordinates, the position O

of the original

point O is determined.

The above ve parameters are determined as kx =4.89,

ky =0.20, O

Fig. 10 shows the relationship between the 2-D workpiece coor-

dinates and the corresponding 2-D image coordinates.

In spray forming, the metal (alloy) melt is broken by gas jets,

and the resultant droplets spray deposit onto a moving substrate,

forming a bulk near-net shape product. In the 2-D workpiece

coordinates, the central axis of spray cone is set as Y-axis, and

this position is the most fast accumulative position of deposit,

200 Q. Ying-dong et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 172 (2006) 195201

Table 1

Real diameter and detected diameter of a deposit

Position no.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Measured dimension (mm) 88.07 86.92 86.72 86.02 85.78 85.04 84.78 84.35 83.97 83.77

Actual dimension (mm) 88.18 86.76 86.95 85.92 85.85 85.31 84.69 84.18 84.13 83.63

Relative error (%) 0.12 0.18 0.27 0.12 0.08 0.32 0.10 0.20 0.19 0.17

Table 2

Run time of image processing

Position no.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Run time (s) 0.987 0.981 0.981 0.979 0.979 0.979 0.977 0.977 0.974 0.974

Average time (s) 0.979

so the deposit dimension in this position can be taken as the

characteristic dimension of the deposit. The steps of calculation

for deposit dimensions are as follows:

in the 2-D image coordinates, point O

point for image point scanning along ky direction until reach-

ing the edge point edge 1 and edge 2;

number of pixel num between point edge 1 and edge 2 is

calculated;

the real deposit dimension is calculated as:

Size = num ySize

5. Test of the image processing system

Test of the image processing system was done on a spray

forming facility at Harbin Institute of Technology. A tubu-

lar deposit was spray formed from aluminum alloy melt. The

deposit dimension for measurement was the outer diameter of

the tubular preform. A computer with a Pentium-II CPU was

used to run an image processing program that is implemented

by Visual C++ language. The purpose of this test was to examine

the measurement precision and run time of this system. Outer

diameter of the tubular deposit were measured in 10 positions

Fig. 10. Relationship between 2-D workpiece coordinates and corresponding

2-D image coordinates.

by the image processing system and compared with the real

dimensions. All the dimension data are listed in Table 1, and

the run times of image processing are given in Table 2. Table 1

shows that the absolute value of the minimum relative error is

0.08%, while the absolute value of the maximum relative error

is 0.32%. Table 2 shows that the maximum run time of image

processing is 0.987 s, while the minimumrun time is 0.974 s, the

average run time is 0.979 s. All the run times are not more than

1.0 s, exhibiting the new image processing technique developed

in this work can meet the requirement of on-line measurement

of deposit size in spray forming.

6. Conclusion

A method for deposit dimension measurement using image

processing is described in this paper. This approach con-

sists of three steps of eliminating noise, edge detection and

deposit dimension calculation. A new edge detection operator,

SobelZernike operator is introduced for on-line and precise

edge detection. Testing of this new image processing system

demonstrates the advantage of fast processing with a run time

less than 0.987 s and high precision with a relative error of mea-

surement no more than 0.32%.

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the National Natural Sci-

ence Foundation of China under the project Interface Bond-

ing Fundamentals and Its Inuencing Factors of Spray Cast

Clad Rolls (No. 50174022), and supported by National

Defense Key Lab of Metal Precision Hot Processing under the

project Research on Intelligent Control Approach of Deposit

Geometry Feature Using Machine Vision Technology (No.

51471040101JW0301).

References

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[2] Q. Xu, E.J. Lavernia, Fundamentals of the spray forming process, in:

Proceedings of 2000 International Conference on Spray Deposition and

Melt Atomization, Bremen, Germany, 2000, p. 17.

Q. Ying-dong et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 172 (2006) 195201 201

[3] P.S. Grant, B. Cantor, Infrared thermal imaging measurement of deposit

surface temperatures during spray deposit, Powder Metall. 33 (1990)

144.

[4] R.S. Miller, S.A. Miller, S.D. Savkar, D.P. Mourer, Near infrared mea-

surements in close-coupled gas atomization, Int. J. Powder Metall. 32

(1996) 165.

[5] D.E. Lawrynowicz, E.J. Lavernia, Sensors and techniques used to mon-

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[6] D. Marr, E.C. Hildreth, Theory of edge detection, Proc. R. Soc. 207B

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Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8 (1986) 679.

[8] X.Q. Yang, M. Li, Using Hopeld neural network and 2D evolutionary

operators to detect image edge, Proc. SPIEInt. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4221

(2002) 292.

[9] X.W. Kong, C. Xie, W.R. Xu, Edge detection using multiple edge fea-

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