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A. Structural Picture of Bridge (Superstructure & Substructure).
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12750 1250 1250 450 0 0 0 10250 0 9350 0 0 450 1250 1250 Toe 2525 450 5500
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130237643.xls.ms_office 5500 A1 and A2
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130237643.xls.ms_office 1070 Curb Slab and wearing Girder 300 200 2000 4000 B H1 Ka.g.H1 ka.g.H1 H2 Ka.g.H2 Earth Pressure 3570
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24,400 Effect area = 87.11 m2
Toe
Wind Action Area
Sylhet
18.833
19.592
19.592
18.833
Balagonj
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16.556 A1 13.683
17.315
16.86 P1 6.3 42.68
3.716
16.86 P2 6.3
17.315
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36.6 RL
15.080
36.6
6.200 13.657
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130237643.xls.ms_office 10000 11015 10560 Tie Beam 1200 dia circular column 8615
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End Span / 2 1070 3400 300 200 1830
Mid Span / 2
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curb slab Girder
Railing
curb slab Girder
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1200 300 12769 A1P1 Span 11,015
1254 1200 300 P1P2 Span 8615 1500 1500 300 1200
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Mid Span / 2 1070 3170 300 200 1600
End Span / 2 Railing curb slab Girder 1070 2715 300 200 1145
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curb slab Girder
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Well cap height 1.925 0. Regional Highway working stress for pile load bearing capacity calc c.925 0.070 Interval (m) 2. Back wall top to Well cap top 4.400 0.650 0.200 0.205 10. DL Surcgarge Horizontal Pressure Intensiy (ES) 7.3 .5.C/C 24. H1. Slab Height m 0.225 Height m 1.075 0. Super Imposed Loads on Girders : i.225 2. Total Girder Length 25. National Highway b.) kN/m2 m) DpES.935 2.200 m k.081 3.xls. Slab 0.947 m j. H2.121 2.441 (AASHTOLRFD3.225 0.995) 10.total = Cross Section m m 0.475 0.total = Width m 2.225 Total for (5+6)= Sub .450 13.680 1.000 m g. H.11. Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure .Conduit (For Utility) 0. Calculations for Dead Loads Of Superstructure : A. Ko . Wearing Course Volume m2 0.000 number 3.150 Load kN/m 9. Load Analusis of Bridge Structure : a. District Road 3 d. Cross Section Category RCC h. End Span Length.000 Load kN/m 0.200 0.200 18. Stem Height 1.175 1.075 Sub .650 2.000 2.300 0.11.400 m f.Table 3. Wearing Course 6.5. Bridge Type Simple Supported Single Span T. Railing Beam 0.ms_office B. 0. ()Conduit 4.620 (4. Back wall top to Well cap bottom (Toe) 6.Girder e.130237643.900 m i. Side walk (b).147 m l. Interior Girder 1.203 43.Railing Post 2.765 ii. Exterior Girder Item 1.125 Total for (1+2+3+4)= 5.31.175 3Curb (a).000 m 2.050 .600 3.
000 2.335 36.000 25 25 25 25 25 25 Width m 2. End Section Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Sub .150 0.000 25.211 68.700 0.632 901.000 Volume m3 0.000 0.063 1.001 391.764 86. Interior Girder a. Exterior Girder Item i.075 Cross Girder Self weight Weight KN 67.000 2. Interior Girder Interior Girder iii.000 0. Total from (a+b+c) e.133 80. Super Imposed without WC.xls.250 803.000 1.000 391.00 1.00 0. Exterior Girder a.00 2.000 Weight kN 13.500 42.750 2.150.409.00 0.000 1. from XGirder d.000 25.896 1. Central Section Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Sub .671 3.000 0.total = ii.250 6.827 934.ms_office B.250 127.total = nos 0. SelfWeight of RCC Girders & XGirders: i. Super Imposed only WC.total = nos 1.450 240. Total Load from Exterior Girder ii.000 0.000 Height m 0.075 kN = nos m Volume m3 2.150 0. from XGirder d.60 Height m 1.000 0.200 0.802.204. Super Imposed only WC & Utility f.660 10.047.150 1.000 = Exterior Girder ii. Total Load kN/m kN kN 18. Self Weight c.000 0. Total from (a+b+c) e. Dead Load Reaction for Abutment Item i.174.825 25.00 2. Self Weight c. Cross Girder Cross Girder Section 1 Section 2 Sub .521 .133 80.125 2.264 1.791 2.680 15.320 0.600 15.000 0.265 160.000 587. d.805 0.023.335 28.500 85.045 3.264 716.075.Girder nos 2 2 5 2 2 Length m 25.00 Length m 25.000 391.800 0.063 981.211 3.654 Reaction kN 467.130237643.146 129.000 85.000 0.000 391. Super Imposed without WC & Utility b.041 360.00 2.000 0 0 0 Self weight kN  0.000 0.203 467. Wt.600 0.660 10. Wt.500 255.600 0.000 0.50 Number of Cross Girder = Length of Cross Girder = Length width m m 6.750 0.014 720.563 15.000 0.195 3 3 5 3 3 25.291 258.632 901.000 1.000 LOAD/METER Load for 1 no.891 68.037 = 391.500 1.650 25.00 6.000 0.001 391.350 0.375 1.001 783.500 378.500 42. Total for Int. b.000 9.000 0.50 Self weight kN 5.
475 iii.xls.300 9.000 kN 145.150 9.500 kN RPedestrain = RLL = 112.129 387.400 9.500 kN Reaction on each Abutment due to Pedestrian Load on 2nos Sidewalk Total Live Load Reaction for Abutment RWheelF = 763. Pedestrian Load 2 a.147 0.536 3.875 " Rect.000 9.600 1.900 0.090 83. Wheel load 145.294 2.300 0.931 2.250 m c.464 3. Lane Load on Bridge Deck a.300 0.350 95.108 " Tri2 0. Length of Sidewalk = 25. Stemi 1.000 kN 35.500 kN 1.049 2.300 9.715625 i.750 Stemii 1. Calculations for Vertical Load and Resisting Moment from Abutment Components.450 9. Pedestrian Load Intensity = 3.350 5.2 0.889 kN 287.450 9.648.640 2. Back Wall 2.822 Resisting Moment KNm 466.810 393.600 kN/m b.500 kN Reaction on each Abutment due to Lane Load for 2 Lane Bridge Deck iv.496 263.714 kN RLane = 232.350 127.075 Sub Total for i + ii + iii = 551.889 kN 574.400 15. Length of Bridge Deck = 25.350 13.001 .108. Bridge SeatRect.350 30.350 134.300 24.800 Rb = Ra = Rb = RWheel = IM = 37.Lane Load for 1(One) Lane Bridge = 232.000 m c. Width of Each Sidewalk = 1.000 kN 4.130237643. Soil & Also Resisting Moment from Superstructure Loads (Live & Dead) : Arm from Height Width Length Weight Components Toe m m m KN m i.350 144.111 kN 4.225 ii.111 kN 37.000 m d.330 Wheel load Reaction for 2 Lane on Each Abutment Dynamic Load Allowance Factor (DLAF) (Applicable only for Truck/Wheel Load & Tandem Loading & Tandem Loading) Wheel Load Reaction on Each Abutment including DLAF (IM) iii.300 Ra = 287.900 0.908 3. Pedestrian Load on 1no Sidewalk = 112.1 0.221 kN 1.ms_office Total Dead Load Reaction for Abutment (kN) = 2185.851 12.317 1.750 " Tri 1 0.309 41. Lane Load Intensity = 9.714 KN 5.300 kN/m/Lane b.300 0.
3 .750 Part2 (Rectangular) 1.11.975 3.291. Horizontal Surcharge Load on Abutment (AASHTOLRFD3.950kN/m2 27.1.746 KN KN 7. Wind Load on Superstructure (0.450 Cantilever Part2. P (AASHTOLRFD3.750 2.947 9.8.800 574.950 3.820 72.3).718 3.750 2. AASHTOLRFD3.525 1.5.477.5.063 2.710 6. Well CapPart1(Rectangular) 1.674 0.450 WingWall2 (2 nos) WingWall3 (2 nos) Sub Total for v = vi.729.450 2.3 .950 2.000 7.750 Sub Total for vi = Total for Substructure Components= vii.200 940.Trin2 nos 1. AASHTOLRFD3.102.250 Part3 (Semi Circular) 2nos.500kNActing at1.398 KN KN KN KN KN KN KN 2.(3 nos) WingWall1 (2 nos) 4.750 MR = PV = 9.947 2.) ii.) 995. AASHTOLRFD3.347 20.185.500 = 162.11.Dead Load Reaction & Moment from Superstructure vii. AASHTOLRFD3.592 2.500 1.000 m 278.325 184.492 29.1.450 Sub Total for iv = v.xls.894 129.490 360.2.800 m Above Deck .Table 3.895.165.839 1.11.878 KNm Total Overturning Moment.31.013 7.347 8.2.125 1.Wing Wall Well Part2 nos 4.494 184.3) Total Horizontal Forces VH = (KN) 2.Table 3.2.525 Total (KN)= 4.609 600.510.530 ii.) v.857 KN 2.265 on Vertical Faces Perpendicular to Traffic.551 907.750 2.316 972.271 6. MO =(KNm) .836.148 1.057 3.024.849 0. Live Load Reaction & Moment from Superstructure Total Vertical Load & Moment from Structure 2.940.Counterfort Wall Abutment.000 0.974 72.4) iii.010.500 1.908.500 0.8.388 54. Braking Force (25% of Truck Weight 162.265 2.947 0.600 0.5.048. Calculation of Horizontal Loads (Pressures) & Overturning Moments i.000 3.Rect2 nos 2.156.124.6.627. Back Fill (BF1) 4.400 3. Earth Pressure.466.275.524.600 366.8.2.130237643.750 1. Wind Load on Live Load ( 0.800m Above Deck .750 5.200 7.350 " (BF2) " (BF3) Sub Total for vii = Vertical load components of Abutment (substructure) vii.714 4. Wind Load on Substructure (0.1.064.600 7.947 0. iv.287 6.31.1.ms_office iv.21.8.108.550kN/m Acting at 13. 1.871 402.200 2.716 1.238 Total (KNm) = m 2.000 m m m m m m m 2.640.325 1.009.800kN/m2 69.275 4.375 KNm 6.660 11.000 317.265 5.450 Cantilever Part1.686 on Vertical Surface of all Supperstructure Elements.102.11.908.200 12.051 972.425 789.600 48.375 2.947 m 109.234 KN 4.334 121.028 8. Table3.5.964 29.200 364.316 4.
Factor of Safety Against Overturning ii. Location of Resultant Force. Factor of Safety Against Sliding iii.Lr Mr / Mo 0. Calculations for Factor of Safety Against Overturning & Factor of Safety Against Sliding Abutment Structure Against Imposed Vertical Loads/Forces & Horizontal Forces/Pressure on Abutment & Also Location of Rsultant Forces in YY Direction Well Cap Toe i.ms_office 7.506 m . FS more than 2 1.464 Not OK 2.Mo) / Pv 4.473 OK.xls.4 * Pv / Vh (Mr .130237643.
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xls.130237643.ms_office ainst YY .
from GL (GL is . C.80m) from the Ground Level. From depth about 3.80m there exists Bed rock (Gray Shale) having SPT value 50 over. b) At Borehole NoBH08 (Teknuf End).But there exites Bedrock at a considerably short depth (About 3.75m there exists Bedrock (Gray Shale) having 50 and over SPT values .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Thus it is recommended to Provide RCC Caissions embedded into the Bedrock at least 1.80m) there exists Medum densey gray fine sand with SPT value renging from 37 to 50. More over against Salinity effect necessary meassary can provide for RCC Caissions.25m from Road Top Level) up to 2.75m to 4. Ultimate Stress Design (AASHTOLRFD2004).2. Checking of Stability for Abutment & Well Cap Against Loads of Different Components & Applied Forces on Structural Elements : 1 Information about Soil. From depth about 4. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. Sliding.15m (About depth 2.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . In Designing of any Permanent Bridge/Structure on this Road.75m from depth 2. Due to its Geographical position. Whereas in next 0.75m depth Subsoil posses Medium dency gray sandy silt having SPT Value renging 12 to 37. To encounter all mentioned adverse situations Provision of RCC Caissons embedded into the Bedrock will be best one as Foundation of Bridges on this Road.75m to 4. Abutment & Wingwalls: a) Type of Subsoil : a) At Borehole NoBH07 (Cox's Bazar End). Marin Drive Road have every risk to effected by Wave action & Cyclonic Strom from Sea.25m from Road Top Level) upto 2.Presence of Bedrock is an important for the Foundation of any Structue on this Road. from GL (GL is .2.50m to 3. which caused by the Wave action & Cyclonic Strom.75m there exists Medium dense gray fine sand with SPT value ranging from 12 to 40. Strength of Materials. but due to ground their formation those posses a very poor Mechanical bonding among it contitutent. Foundation. Though as per Soil Investigation Report there exist Loss to Medium dency gray sandy silt on Seashore Subsoil. Soil Pressure & Multiplier Factors : Description 3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : Notation Dimensions Unit. RCC Caissons embedded into the Bedrock will be a Solid mass to save guard the Structure against Errosion. Overturning etc. Page 33 .50m depth Subsoil posses Loss gray fine Silty sand having SPT Value ranging 7 to 12. specially in Foundation Design all the prevalling adverse situations should be considered for their Survival and Durability.50m into Bedrock as Foundation of Delpara Bridge. Wall Type Abutment. In next 2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. b) Type of Foundation : c) Type of Abutment d) Type of Wingwalls : : e) Design Criteria : 2 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight.. More over the Slain Water is also an important factor for RCC Construction Works in these area.
= 770kN/m2 N N/ p 50 Over 33 2 770 kN/m Page 34 .89 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410.835.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength.4.11&2 : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio.15) = 15 + 1/2(50 . wE 24.00 8. g = a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) 2 9.89 fr fy fs ES 2.42 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kN/m : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWNor. wWSali. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.26 1. / b) Corrected SPT Value for N>15. f) Steel Ultimate strength.00 MPa 164.045.524 0.63*21^(1/2).019. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.63f/c = 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .00 10.25 18.4.k/3 Value of R = 0.1 .15) = 32..102 v) Subsoil Investigation Report & Side Codition Data: a) SPT Value as per Soil Boring Test Report.68 1. Say N/ = 33 c) Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soil as per Soil Investigation Report witht SPT Value 50 over.2.23 2. N = 15 + 1/2(N .17 1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement.6).2.4.043gc1.15) = 15 + 1/2(50 .STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.5 .447. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.2 Ton/ft2. (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.5).00 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.291 0.4. Table 3.62 2. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.00 MPa 200000 MPa iv) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0. r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 . gWSali. p = 7.00 10. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.903 1.345.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD5.855. fr = 0. gs 2.40 23.2.00 23.4.5*(fckj) Let n r k j R 8 19.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete. Ec = 0. n = Es/Ec 6 = 8.807 m/sec ) gc gWC gWNor.4).
Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Angle of Friction with Concrete surface. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR . value of Table 3. d) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand. d = 190 to 240.250 gDW gEH 1.5.750 1. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS STRENGTH . e) AASHTOLRFD3.4.2.III gDC 1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .11.11.34 to 0..750 1. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.500 1.4. value of Table 3.45 (AASHTOLRFD3.400 Page 35 .2. gLLWS.350 1.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .11.330 gLLLane gLLPL.750 1.3 . (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.5. Karecom d 19 to 24 O Karecom Ka 0.45 0.) Provided Coefficient of Active Earth Pressure is Average of.750 1.000 1. value of Table 3.6.4.Table 3.Table 3. (Max.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .5.4.750 1. 1. gLLCE.4.12) vii) Live Load Multiplier Factors : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.5.000 1. gLLWA.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .395 vi) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors Under Strength Limit State (USD) : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.1.3 . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3.11.1.750 1.DW . Recommended Coefficient of Lateral Active Earth Pressure Karecom v) = 0.500 m gLLTruck IM 1.6. value of Table 3.11.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities. gLLLS. (Max.34 to 0. gLLBR. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.6. value of Table 3. (Max. (Max. Table 3.31.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).1.31.500 gEV gES 1.
4.V gLLWL gLLFR.000 1.4.000 1.000 1. (Max. 1.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .4. value of Table 3.000 vii) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.000 1. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLTU.4. gLLCT. (Max.12) gDC 1. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gEV gES 1.11&2 : Page 36 .25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .000 1.4.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.4.000 l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).4. (Max. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 1.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities. Table 3. Table 3. gLLSE. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gDW gEH 1. gLLCV. (Max. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. value of Table 3. value of Table 3. gLLCR.4.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls. l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR STRENGTH .000 1.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES . value of Table 3.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls.4. gLLTG.DW .000 1. gLLEQ. value of Table 3.1. gLLSH.1 . m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1..
Table 3.II SERVICE . SERVICE .300 1.II (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. gLLSH.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.1. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).11 .000 0. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR . n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).II gLLWS.IV SERVICE . gLLWL gLLFR.II gLLCE.000 1. gLLSE.000 1. gLLLS.6.6.000 1.000 1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck . m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).700 1. gLLTG. a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.300 gLLLane gLLPL.300 1. 1. gLLCT.000 1. gLLWA. gLLEQ. SERVICE . c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3.. gLLTU.000 1. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). SERVICE .000 1.6.000 1. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 3 Sketch Diagram of Abutment & Wing wall: 5225 m gLLTruck IM 1.000 1.1.2.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).2.000 1. gLLCR.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . gLLBR. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLCV.1.000 Page 37 300 .000 1.300 1.
c) Height of Abutment Well Cap.147 m 2.147 m 4.900 m 2.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Depth of Girder including Deck Slab f) Height of Bearing Seat g) Height of Back Wall = hGir.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 3450 450 2450 9350 10250 3450 450 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600 4 Dimension of Different SubStructural Components & RCC Well for Foundation: i) Dimensions of SubStructure. 12750 3000 600 3450 600 3450 600 3450 600 600 5225 2100 300 700 C 2000 B A RL5..200 m 1. + hBearing h) Height of Wing Wall i) Length of Wing Walls upon Well cap H H1 hWellCap. hGir. hSteam.975 m Page 38 6350 H1 = 4947 1775 H = 6147 1500 450 300 2750 1900 2147 .000 m 0.947 m 2. a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).00m 600 450 300 2525 2150 5500 600 2150 1447 450 2750 3000 3000 450 RL2. hBearing hbwall HWWall LWWWellCap 6.147 m 4.947 m 1. b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall.
hwwallCant.500 m 2.350 m 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). j) Width (Longitudinal Length) of Abutment Well Cap. Length (Transverse Length) of Abutment Well Cap.Rec.825 m WWellYY LWellXX HWellpro.450 m 1. t) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAverCount + tWWCountf u) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap.Tri.& Ab..450 m 0. tWingwall twwallCant. 2.000 m 1.500 m 12.450 m 0.AbwalTop. 9.= SAver. t.000 No's 1.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . zi) Average Length (Longitudinal) of Well Cap on Heel Side from Abutment Wall Face. + tWWCount. LwwallCant.525 m LWCapHeelAver. 5. SAverCount&Ab.450 m 3.375 m SEfftCount. n) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom o) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top p) Thickness of Counterfort Wall (For Wing Wall) q) Number of WingWall Counterforts (on each side) r) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom s) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tABWallBot + tAbWallTop)/2+SClearCount& AbBot. 5.325 m Page 39 .825 m 0. NWWcount SClearCount& AbBot.Count. ii) Dimensions of RCC Well for Foundation. tWWCountf. m) Inner Distance in between Wing Walls (Transverse).000 m 2.250 m LWWTInner t.AbwalBot. k) Transverse Length of Abutment Wall (Outer Face to Outer Face) in XX l) Direction.750 m 0.500 m 12. hwwallCant.750 m 10.750 m 6.775 m 2. a) Width of Well in YY Direction (In Longitudinal Direction) b) Length of Well in XX Direction (In Transverse Direction) c) Depth of Well from Bottom of Well Cap up to Bottom of Well Curb WAbCap LAbTWCap LABTrans. 2. LWCapToe. v) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls y) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls z) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face.
d) Wall thickness of Well. LRect. NPock.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . g) Diameter of Outer Circle.2*tWall k) Number of Pockets within Well l) Distance between Inner Faces of Pockets in YY Direction (Longitudinal Span Length). n) Distance between Inner Faces of Central Pocket in XX Direction (Transverse Span Length). LStaining.()4. 3. DInner.MSLRL x = (2.300 m SPockXXOuter. t) RL of Highest Flood Level (HFL) u) RL of Maximum Scoring Level (MSL) tWall. (XX) Line from Well Cap Toe Face = (LAbTWCap*(W1/2WellYY)2*1.450 m SPocketXXCentral.633 m 38.75)m h 6.250 m 4.) of Soil for Well (Caisson) as Abutment Foundation .300 m 3.600 m 5. SPockYY.939 m HFLRL MSLRL 2.850 m Page 40 .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). a) Height between RL of HFL & RL of MSL = HFLRL . 0.2* tWall i) Transverse Length of Rectangular Portion of Well Cap =LWellXX . + 2*LParti r) Surface Area of Well Cap = LAbTWCap*W1/2WellYY + 0.. tWallPerti DOuter.50+ (0.50*DOuter*3/4 + LRect*W1/2WellYY2/2)/AWellCap.100.000 Nos 4.DOuter j) Length of Partition Walls = DOuter .500 m 4.g.100 m (4. 2 66.879 m bc.C.B.450 m W1/2WellYY AWell. LParti. h) Diameter of Inner Circle = DOuter .5*pDOuter2/4 + LRect*W1/2WellYY s) Distance of c.5*pDOuter2/4)*0. = WWellYY/2 p) Surface Area of Well at Top & Bottom Level = pDOuter2/4 + LRect*DOuter q) Total Length of Staining of Well (Main & Partitions) through Center line = p*(DOuter+ DInner)/2 + 2*LRect.300 m 7.750) m 5 Calculations for Safe Bearing Capacity (S.600 m 0. 2.750 m 2 63. 2. o) Width of Well from its c.494 m AWellCap. f) Thickness of Partition Walls of Well.g. Line in XX.YY.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.g. 3. m) Distance between Inner Faces of Outer Pockets in XX Direction (Transverse Span Length).
a = 0.716 kN 1.375 kNm 29.5(N3)*{(B+0..124.500kN/m2 Thus the Calculated Soil Bearing Capacity pCal = 3. d) Total Vertical Forces due to Dead & Live Load (SuperStructure + SubStructure) e) Moment due to Dead Load Reaction from SuperStructure f) Moment due to Live Load Reaction from SuperStructure g) Moment due to Dead Load & Soil Pressure for SubStructure h) Total Resisting Moment due to Vertical Forces (Dead & Live Load from SuperStructure + SubStructure.811 kN/m N/ = 33. PV 2.00+0. Depth of Well. b = (1+D/5B) > 1. Dead Load Friction etc.C. Since the Soil Bearing Capacity as per Soil Investigation Report. j) Total Overturning Moments due to Horizontal Forces ii) Checking Against Overturning.714 kN 5. RLLSupr.250*18.510.Width of Well for Foundation. MDLSub.234 kN MO 6. Wheel & Lane Load) c) Dead Load Reaction from SubStructure & Earth Pressure. thusthe Well Foundation is OK in respect of S.185. Surcharge. Earth Pressure) i) Total Horizontal Forces due to Earth Pressure. f = 36.20 = (1+6. = (3.5(N3)*{(B+0. the Angle of Shearing Resistance of Soil. p = 770kN/m2 > pCal = 164.878 kNm Page 41 . pCal 2. RDLSupr.250m.466.283 m 6.857 kN 9.718 kNm 3.024. the Field SPT value. 6 Checking for Stability of Well Cap as Abutment Base against all applied Forces: i) Imposed Vertical Loads/Forces upon Abutment Well Cap (As per Design Calculation Sheet . for Submerge of Well Bottom.B.729.C) : a) Dead Load Reaction from SuperStructure b) Live Load Reaction from SuperStructure (Pedestrians.2 and W = Soil Pressure per m2 at Bottom Level of Well = D*g = 6. Braking. MLLSupr.3)/2B}*a*b + W.108.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .057 kNm PH 2.00kN/m2 = 112. MR 6.964 kNm 20. WindLoad. HWellreq HWellpro. Where N = 50 over.500)kN/m 2 = 164.287 kN MDLSupr.25/5*5) = 1.50*1.the Corrected SPT value. D = 6.20 + 112.010.3)/(2*5))*0.3)/2B}*a*b + W. B =5.5*(503)*((5.048.900. b) Minimum Depth required for Bottom Level of Well from MSL= h/3 c) Provided Depth from Well Cap Bottom up to Bottom Level of Well d) Calculated Soil Bearing Capacity at Bottom Level of Well Foundation pCal = 3.811kN/m2.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).064.000m. RDLSub.325 m 2 164.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.811kN/m2 e) Since the Soil Bearing Capacity as per Soil Investigation Report.50.
Line of Pile Cap in XX Direction due to Applied Loads & Moments ( Vertical & Horizontal): a) Net Moment or Algebraic sum of Moment about 'B' = MR .YY. Surcharge & Wind Load on Substructure.032 FSOverturn 4.g. thus the Structure is safe in respect of Overturning.x e) 1/6th Distance of bc.g. MDLSub.179 kNm 2.. iii) Checking Against Sliding. b) Since FSSlid > 1./6 MN x bc.506 m 2. a) Factor of Safety against Overturning.YY. a) Factor of Safety against Sliding.220.g.433 m 0. (XX) Line from Well Cap Toe Face d) Eccentricity. e = bc.YY. a) Factor of Safety against Sliding. from c.g.939 m 0. FSOverturn = MR/MO 2. FSSlid = 0.490 m f) Since the Calculated Eccentricity has (+) ve value & its Location is within Middle 1/3rd Portion of the Pile Cap in YY direction.g.50.50. iii) Checking Against Sliding. towards Well Wall Cap Toe = bc.613. b) Since FSOvertur > 2 . Factor of Safety against Overturning & Sliding are within limit range.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . FSSlid = 0. b) Moment due to Dead Load & Soil Pressure for SubStructure c) Total Horizontal Forces due to Earth Pressure.831.MO b) Distance of Resultant Forces from Well Cap Toe Face.474 kNm Page 42 . b) Since FSO > 2 .153 RDLSub.4*PV / PH 1.g. a) Factor of Safety against Overturning.473 OK FSSlid 1.g. x = MN /PV c) Distance of c. 7 Checking for Stability of Well Cap as Abutment Base Without Superstrucre Loads (DL & LL) : i) Applied Loads Moments : a) Dead Load Reaction from SubStructure & Earth Pressure. FSSlid 1.857 kN 20.464 Not OK iv) Calculation of Eccentricity in respect of c. FSOverturn = MR/MO 2. thus the Structure is safe in respect of Overturning. PH 5.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.297 kN MO 4.YY. thus the Structure is safe in respect of Sliding. Thus the Structure is a Stable One in all respect. d) Total Overturning Moments due to Horizontal Forces ii) Checking Against Overturning.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). e 1/6th 22.064.729.375 kNm 2.4*PV / PH 1. . FSOverturn 4.50.
16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).YY. from c. Page 43 . though Safety Factor against Sliding is less than limit range but the Well Cap is Integrated with RCC Well Structure. (XX) Line from Well Cap Toe Face d) Eccentricity. Factor of Safety against Overturning is within limit range. e 1/6th 14. x = MN /PV c) Distance of c. Line of Pile Cap in XX Direction due to Applied Loads & Moments ( Vertical & Horizontal): a) Net Moment or Algebraic sum of Moment about 'B' = MR . thus the Structure is a Stable One in all respect without Superstructure Loads also.g.490 m f) The Calculated Eccentricity has (+) ve value & its Location is within Middle 1/3rd Portion of the Well Cap in YY direction.50.x e) 1/6th Distance of bc. towards Well Wall Cap Toe = bc.g.502 m 2.g.MO b) Distance of Resultant Forces from Well Cap Toe Face.939 m 0..437 m 0. .YY. iv) Calculation of Eccentricity in respect of c.YY.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. e = bc.g.g.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .518 kNm 2.YY.g./6 MN x bc. but the Well Cap would be a Integrated Component of the RCC Well. b) Though FSSlid < 1. which will make the Structure a Safe one in respect of Sliding.334.g.
Page 44 .STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ..
4. wWSali. Design Data. f) Steel Ultimate strength.250 18.835. Factors & Methods for Analysis of Flexural Design of Structural Elements: 1 General Data for Construction Materials of Different Structural Components : Description 3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.2.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor.D.000 MPa 164. fr = 0.4).5*(fckj) Say n r k j R 8 19.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength.000 10.k/3 Value of R = 0.232 2. Ec = 0.63*21^(1/2).000 10. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.5).887 fr fy fs ES 2.000 23.4.63f/c = 0.2.019. r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 .000 MPa 200000. n = Es/Ec 6 = 8. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.045.4.63*21^(1/2)Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.855. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5. gs 2.63f/c = 0.172 1. 2 9.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD5.680 1. gWSali.264 1. wE 24.447.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.400 23.000 8. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement. : .1).291 0.524 0.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.903 1.6).102 v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD5.043gc1.5.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kN/m : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWNor.2.4.2.620 2. g = Notation Dimensions Unit. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.000 MPa iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTOSLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio.345.
90 + 0.10f/cAg to 0. 1. 0. 0.85 b1 0. Acc =Area of Concrete Element in Compression of Crresponding Strength. i) AASHTO M 203/M 203M (ASTM A 416/A 416M).90 For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete fFlxPres.35 to 15. fpu270Str.00 For Partially Prestressed Components in Flexural with or without Tension fFlxPPR.80 For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones fAncTenSteel.24mm.(Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f ) a) b) c) d) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete fFlxRin.2). i) For Further increases of Strength of Concrete after 28 MPa agaunst each 7MPa the value of b1 will decrese by 0. PPR 2 As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm As 2 Aps = Steel Area of Prestressing Steel mm Aps fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Bar in MPa.4.00 fpy = Yeiled Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. Flexural value of f of Compression Member will Increase Linearly as the Factored Axil Load Resitance. 1. 0.10*(PPR) in which. c) Tensial Strength for Strand with Grade 270 having Diameter 9. fpu250Str. fpuTy1PBar fpuTy1PBar 1. fy 410.05 & the Minimum Value of b1 will be 0.00 For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete fShear.7. 1. For Bearing on Concrete fBearig. : a) Flexural value of b1. b) Tensial Strength for Strand with Grade 250 having Diameter 6. b1avg = Σ(f/cAccb1)/Σ(f/cAcc). b) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete b 0. where. 0. ii) For Composite Concrete Structure. or ii) AASHTO M 275/M 275M (ASTM A 722/A 722M).37 to 15. the Factor of Compression Block in Reinforced Concrete up to 28 MPa.70 For Compression in StrutandTie Modeis fStrut&Tie. 1. 0. PPR = Apsfpy/(Apsfpy + Asfy).90 For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme fSpir/Tie/Seim.00 For resistance during Pile Driving fPileResistanc. where.860 Mpa 1.4) will be.70 For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete fAncCopmConc. 0. fPn.00 Resistance Factor f = 0.2.035 Mpa 1. d) Tensial Strength for Type1 Plain Bar having Diameter 19 to 35mm. e) Tensial Strength for Type2 Deformed Bar having Diameter 16 to 35mm. PPR is Partial Prestress Retio.85 vii) Ultimate Strength Data for Design of Prestressing Components ( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) For Uncoated & Stressrelieved 7 (Seven) Wire according to AASHTOLRFD Bridge Construction Specifications (AASHTOLRFD5.75 Limit State (Zone 3 & 4).725 Mpa 1.24mm.035 Mpa .65. Decreases from 0. fpy e) f) g) h) i) j) mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 vi) b Factors for Conventional RCC & Prestressed Concrete Design (AASHTO LRFD5.
00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy . j) Modulus of Elastacity for Strand j) Modulus of Elastacity for Bar fpy250Str.f) Yield Strength for Strand with Grade 250 having Diameter 6. Table 3.250 ηl 1.37 to 15.500 . h) Yield Strength for Type1 Plain Bar having Diameter 19 to 35mm.000 ηi = ηI = 1. value of Table 3.12).466 Mpa fpy270Str.13) Here: gi = Load Factor. (ASSHTO LRFD1. ηi is Load Modifier having values ηi = ηD ηR ηI 0. Redundancy and Operational Functions. Qi = Force Effect. ηi = Load Modifier.000 gDW 1. ηD ηi = ηD = 1.4.4. Rn = Nominal Resitance. a Factor related to Ductility.3. g) Yield Strength for Strand with Grade 270 having Diameter 9.000 ηR ηi = ηR = 1.35 to 15.4. 1. For Strength Limit State.DW .00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable. ii) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. (ASSHTO LRFD1. (Max.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.1 .11 & 3.24mm.3.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance. = 80% of Tensial Strength (fpu). 1.4. Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn.581 Mpa fpyTy1PBar 880 Mpa fpyTy1PBar 828 Mpa EpStrandy EpBar 197.4. & ηi = 1/(ηD ηR ηI ) 1. = 85% of Tensial Strength (fpu). 1.11) Where. f = Resistance Factor. 1. i) Yield Strength for Type2 Deformed Bar having Diameter 16 to 35mm.2. = 85% of Tensial Strength (fpu).000 MPa 207.2.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.000 MPa 2 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = Σ ηigiQi f Rn = Rr.2.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility. (ASSHTO LRFD1.3.24mm.12) gDC 1. = 85% of Tensial Strength (fpu). value of Table 3. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect.
11.000 gLLTruck IM 1. (Max.400 1.350 gES 1.750 1. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. Table 3. 1.6. gLLWS. value of Table 3.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .4.750 1. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls. gLLWA. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR .1.V m 1.4.6. value of Table 3. 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. Table 3. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls.4.III STRENGTH .750 1.000 1. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLWL gLLFR.000 1.500 iii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. (Max.750 1. value of Table 3. gLLLS.4.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.6. gLLBR. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).1. gLLTU.2.1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .000 gLLSH.330 gLLLane gLLPL.c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH STRENGTH . (Max.4.000 .500 gEV 1.750 1.000 gLLCR.2.750 1. 1. gLLCE.12) gEH 1.000 1.1.
value of Table 3.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV . value of Table 3.000 gDW 1.000 . (Max.2.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.1.DW .000 gLLEQ.4. (Max.000 gLLTruck IM 1. Table 3. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 3 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.(With Elastomeric Bearing).12) gDC 1. 1. value of Table 3.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .4.6.6.2.000 1. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. value of Table 3.000 gES 1. Table 3. gLLCV. Table 3. (Max.000 gLLSE. gLLCT.6.1.4.4. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) m 1.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.11 (SERVICE . Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.1.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .4.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.4. 1.000 gEH 1. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls.I). value of Table 3. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV gLLTG.000 gEV 1.4.4.1 .1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .4. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. 1. (Max.
q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 3 Intensity of Different Imposed Loads (DL & LL) & Load Coefficients : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure. gLLCV. gLLCE.000 ko 0.000 gLLTG. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR . f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand. gLLWL gLLFR. gLLWA.000 1. 1. gLLWS. 1. 1. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1.000 O . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1.000 gLLCR.000 1.II SERVICE .700 1.000 1.300 1. Silty or clayey fine to medium sand SERVICE .300 1.d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. gLLCT.441 f 34.IV SERVICE .300 1.Where. gLLTU. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gLLEQ. gLLBR. ko = (1sinff ) .II gLLLane gLLPL. 1.000 gLLSE.000 0. 1.II SERVICE .000 gLLSH. gLLLS. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).
1.45 (AASHTOLRFD3. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .34 to 0.6.5.11.& H 6000mm.31.331 0.000 mm .Table 3.6.935 kN/m ks qS 0.00m.761 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic).6.004761 4.00m.(Table 12.2.1.424 kg/m 2 9.6.141 0.4.9. heqWW<6.11. DpES = ksqs in Mpa. RAINA.4.11. AASHTOLRFD3.000 mm 900.441 3 1835. Having. DpLLWW<6.00m.45 dim ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES). thus gs = wE*10^3/g g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec2).Table 3. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge.00m. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 . = 0. AASHTOLRFD3.42. f = 340 .600 mm m mm m i) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).3 .807 m/sec g) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).008331 8. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 DpLLAb<6.00m DpLLAb6. AASHTOLRFD3. gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3) Since wE. Where.00m 0. WeqAb<6.00m. b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure.4.441 2 0.11. WeqAb6.5.41.000 0. Where. 1050. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).004761 4.11. Table3.11.11.6.5. AASHTOLRFD3.11.11.00m.) d 19 to 24 O Tan d 0.5.761 0.31. Having.s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTOLRFD3. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction.900 600.6.00m DpLLWW6. Table3. c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*103N/mm2 DpES 2 0.34 to 0. AASHTOLRFD3. k gs g heqAb<6. Where.41.Effective Friction Angle of Soil.11.018 N/mm iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS). 0.000 mm 600. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .007935 N/mm 2 7.6.007141 7. heqAb6. Page138. AASHTOLRFD3.4.11. Table3. heqWW6.11.00m c) d) e) f) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. the Unit Wieght of Soil = 18kN/m 3.000 mm 600.000 0.6.6. 900. h) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.3 .
b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Lateral Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) = 0.3). (AASHTOLRFD3.1.000950 Mpa 2 0.3.1. ii) 5% of Design (Truck + Lane Load) or (Design Tendem + Lane Load) pLL5%(Tru+Lane.3.& H 6000mm.500 kN 162.6.8. = 0.j) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls. 0. vii) Intensity on Breaking Force (BR) : a) Intensity of Horizontal Breaking on Superstructure is the Greater value of pLLSupBreak.1.8.500 N/mm 0. Table3.6.1.0009000 Mpa 2 0.8.000 0.000800 Mpa 2 0.1.1. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic).2. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction of Wind Flow (Perpendicular to Traffic).2.750 kN pWindLLSupLet.500 kN/m 4 Calculations of Effects due to Imposed Deformations under StrutandTie Model. or pLL25%Truck.8.8. 162. 0.21.1.4).2. 0.8.600 600. Table.900 kN/m pWindSubLong.00m.000 0. 0.950 kN/m pWindSupLet.31). WeqWW<6.00m.3. 0. = 0. (AASHTOLRFD5.3).600 mm m mm m iv) Wind Load Intensity on Superstructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Lateral Direction of Wind Flow (Parallel to Traffic). 0.8. WeqWW6.3) : .0019*cos600 Mpa. AASHTOLRFD3. for Two Lane Bridge.2. Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force.645 kN/m pWindLLSupLong. Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force.31).001645 Mpa 2 1. Having H < 6000mm. (AASHTOLRFD3. v) Wind Load Intensity on Substructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Lateral Direction (Parallel to Traffic). for Two Lane Bridge.1.550 N/mm 0. vi) Wind Load Intensity on Live Load (WL) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Longitudinal Direction (Parallel to Traffic). having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Force.(AASHTOLRFD3.3.500N/mm having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force.0019*sin600 Mpa.2. Table.) Breaking Force is for Two Lane Bridge & its Action at 1800mm above Deck. (AASHTOLRFD3. i) 25% of the Axle Weight of Design Truck/Design Tendem.8.500 kN 55.550 N/mm. 600.800 kN/m pWindSupLong. = 0.550 kN/m pWindSubLet. (AASHTOLRFD3.
Acs.XArea of bar.85f/c.850 N/mm b) fcu = Limiting Compressive Stress in MPa as per AASHTOLRFD5. f 257040.i) Structural Modeling (AASHTOLRFD5. 2 13. where. (AASHTOLRFD5.48 mm iv) Proportioning of Tension Ties. PnRin. For RCC Girder nos. For RCC Girder.25 mm 2 Thus Ass = Af*Nbar. 179928. the Pricapal Tensile Strain of Crack Concrete due to Factored Load. PnRin.= 8.3.6.8+172e l ) 0. 257040.3. of Bars 2 Nbar = 10 nos.70 ii) Proportioning of Strength for Unreinforced Compressive Struts. Acs = fBar*b fcu.000 N 2488118.672.554. Ass is Area of Reinforcement of Strut in mm 2 .000 mm 2 0.002 mm/mm.6.605.604 PnRin. PrUnrin. (AASHTOLRFD5.1) : a) Nominal Resistance of Unreinforced Strut in N. c) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel in mm 2 .400.211 mm Aps. where.605.455.3. = fcuAcs.606.2) : a) Factored Resistance of StrutandTie.042. = fyAst + Aps(fpe + fy). PnTen.3. 5.Af =p*fBar2/4 = 804. i) For Unreinforced Compressive Struts ii) For Reinforced Compressive Struts b) Pn = Nominal Resistance of Strut or Tie in N. e l = 0. Ast = Af*Nbar. PnUnrin.3.000 mm iii) Proportioning of Strength for Reinforced Compressive Struts.000 N 3554455. Aps = 0. PnUnrin. Thus.4.000 N 257.3.3.357 & 0.000 N/mm . fpe = 0 Ast. d) fpe is Stress in Prestressing Steel after loss in MPa.6.Bar Nbar = 17 nos.554. fpe 2 0.8+172e l ) = 18. For RCC Girder. For RCC Girder Diameter of Bar fBar = 32 mm & Width of Girder b= 450 mm. Thus f/c/(0. PnTie.3. PrRin. where. 3.2.) : a) Nominal Resistance of Tension Tie in N. 2 14.954 N PnUnrin.6. here. Pr = fPn . (AASHTOLRFD5. i) For Unreinforced Compressive Struts ii) For Reinforced Compressive Struts c) f = Tension/Compression Resistance Factor as required for the Component.6. = fcuAcs + fyAss .607 kN b) Ast is Total Area of Longitudanal Reinforcement of Tie in mm 2 .2) : a) Nominal Resistance of Reinforced Strut in N.3.85f/c = 17.649 N 3.6. For RCC Girder Total nos. = f/c/(0.3.3.850 c) Acs = Effective XSectional Area of Strut in mm 2 under the provision of AASHTOLRFD5. For Strut Anchored by Reinforcement the Length of Strut is 6times the Main bar Diameter & Width is Width of Component.040 kN 2 17.649 N 0.456 kN N 5.
000 72. 0.003600 N/mm 2 3.003100 N/mm/mmWd. fcNode2DirTenTie 0. 3.000 17.300*1000/1000)kN/m b) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.000 72.) : a) The Compressive Stress of Node Regions Bounded by Compressive Struts and Brearing Area will be. Action of Line Load will be at Distance 300mm from the Face of Railing & it would Replace the Outside Row of Wheel Load. fcNodeBearing 0.500 35.300 N/mm kN/m LLLaneInt. 14.3.6.500 145.v) Proportioning of Node Regions at Bearing Positions on Support.800 4. Thus Intensity of Lane Load per meter Length & for per meter Width = 9. LLRWLoad LLRSLoad LLMWLoad LLMSLoad LLFWLoad LLFSLoad 1. ix) Design Live Line Loading of Sidewalk : a) According to AASHTOLRFD3.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction. Thus Lane Load per meter Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane = (9.4 Bridges having Overhanging Deck Slab Span not Exceeding 1800 mm from Center of Exterior Girder & where Exists a Structurally Continuous Concrete Railing.75ff/c c) The Compressive Stress of Node Regions Anchoring by a Twodirection Tension Ties will be.600 kN/m LLPedest 2 0.6.5. fcNode1DirTenTie 0.3.000m Wide Dcak Strip in Transverse Direction.85ff/c b) The Compressive Stress of Node Regions Anchoring by a Onedirection Tension Ties will be.65ff/c vi) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel.500 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN fcNodeBearing N/mm2 fcNode1DirTenTie N/mm2 fcNode2DirTenTie N/mm2 vii) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.600*103MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk.300N/mm through the Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane of Bridge & acting over a 3.600 kN/m LLLane 9.000kN/m/mWd. (AASHTOLRFD5.1. Since the Design Strip is in PLLLine. there will be a Longitudinal & Uniformly Distributed Line Live Load (LL) of Magnitude of 14.300/3.100 kN/m/mWd.300 145. .300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.300 9. viii) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.600N/mm. DWheel.
fy viii) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. the value of c = (Apsfps+Asfy A/f/y 0.1): a) In Components having Bonded Prestressing Tendon in One Axis.Transverse Direction with 1.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2).3.2.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.85f cb1b+kApsfpu/dp) Where. cRecSecton / / / the value of c = (Apsfps+Asfy A f y)/(0. where.2. fpy x) b = Width of Compression Flange in mm. xix) c = Distance of Neutral Axis from Compression Face of Component in mm.600*1000/1000kN.000m Width. iv) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 As 2 v) Aps = Steel Area of Prestressing Steel mm Aps vi) A/s = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Compression Reinforcement in mm2 A/s vii) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. thus Action on Line Load will like a Concentrated Load having Magnitude = 14. c xx) b1 = Compression Stress Block Factor in mm.7. mm2 i) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 As mm2 ii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 Aps mm2 iii) A/s = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Compression Reinforcement in mm2 A/s . (AASHTOLRFD5. Mr Mn f mm mm2 mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm mm mm mm 0.3. hf xiii) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid dp in mm. bw xii) hf = Height of Compression Flange in mm.7. i) k = 2. f/y ix) fpy = Yeiled Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa.00*(1. Where. b1 ii) Factored Flexural Resistance for Prestressed or RCC Elements (AASHTOLRFD5.85b1f/c(bbw)hf)/(0.3) : i) Stress in Prestressing Steel at Nominal Flexural Resistance for Flexural Members.90 b) The Nominal Resistance for a Flanged Section subject to One Axis Stress as per AASHTOLRFD5. Mr = fMn.6.85 Nmm Nmm 0. 4 Calculations of Respective Events for Design of Flexural And Axial Force Effects. the Average Stress in Prestressing Steel fps = fpu(1k*c/dp) 0.5* fpu In which.3.1): a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) + 0. b xi) bw = Width of Web in mm.04fps/fpu) ii) For TSection behavior of Components. (AASHTOLRFD5.7.85f/cb1bw+kApsfpu/dp) fps N/mm2 k cTSecton mm iii) For Rectangular Section behavior of Components.
.3. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm.iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa.dp all are = 0. ix) bw = Width of Web in mm. fps & dp are = 0. x) hf = Depth of Compression Flange for I or T Member in mm.3) : i) Limits For Maximum Reinforcement.3.3. xx) a = cb1. where .7.85 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm c) For Nonprestressing Element of Structure the corresponding values against Aps. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds .7. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. ii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement.7.42 in which. vii) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa.fps. fy f/y fps b bw hf dp ds d/s b1 a 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) d) For Nonprestressing Element of Structure having only Rectangular Component b = bw & hf = 0. xix) b1 = Compression Stress Block Factor in mm. vi) f/y = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy). viii) b = Width of Compression Flange in mm. xiii) d/s = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Compression Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm.2) : As Aps fy fps dp ds mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm c/de . xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. b) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps. Thus Equation for Nominal Resistance of Singly Reinforced Structural Member Stand at Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) 5 Limits For Maximum & Minimum Reinforcement. (AASHTOLRFD5. (AASHTOLRFD5. Thus Equation for Nominal Resistance of I or T Member with having Flenge & Web Components Stand at Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0. Depth of Equivalent Stress Block in mm.1) : .3. Whereas for Singly Reinforced Structural Elements the Respective values of f/y & d/s = 0. a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for a Section c/de 0. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm.3. (AASHTOLRFD5.
4. A = 2*(CCoverBot. . For a Particular Section of the Component dc = fBar/2 + CCoverBot.4) : a) The Tensial Reinforcement of all Concrete Elements under Service Limit State Load according to AASHTOLRFD3.2).11 (Except Deck Slab Design under AASHTOLRFD9. v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in RCC in Mpa.1Table3.2. which is Calculted by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both sideded by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensial Reinforcement (The Max. which one is less. Other then Cast in Place Box Culvert.Mdnc(Sc/Snc . Clear Cover = 50mm. Where.(Max.1) Scfr where.7.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr fcpe Nmm N/mm2 Mdnc Nmm Sc mm3 Snc mm3 fr Mcr 2 2. Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0.4. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm. thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Computed value of Mcr = 1. i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to effective Prestress Forces only at Extreme Fiber where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance for all Prestressing Losses in MPa.) Thus. Clear Cover = 50mm. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) .6fy. 50mm) ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3. (Max.887 N/mm Nmm Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 Nmm Nmm Nmm 6 Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.4.1Table3. c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements.(AASHTO LRFD5.6).4.a) For Section of a Flexural Component having Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements or only with Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.4. fsa =Z/(dcA)1/3 0. (AASHTOLRFD5.11.2*Mcr or 1. i) dc = Depth of Concrete Extrime Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar considering the Max.= 50mm) + (NBLayers+ sBarVert)/2)/NBar fsa N/mm2 dc mm A mm2 iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm.3.7.
i) On the Effective Flange Width as according to AASHTOLRFD4. value of Crack Width Parameter for Moderate Exposure Components Max. i) Required Steel Area of Skein Reinforcement. than Uniformly Distributed Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement would be required on both Side Faces of the Component over a Distance of dc/2 from the nearest Flexural Tension Reinforcement. These Additional Longitudinal Reinforcement should be At least 0. d) For Effective Flange Width Greater than 1/10 of Average Length of Adjacent Spans between Bearings. under Service Limit State Design. b = (1+dc/0.6 ii) On the Width Equal to 1/10 of Average Length of Adjacent Spans between Bearings. Additional Longitudinal Reinforcement should Provide on Excess Width Portion of Flange. Ask 0.0001(dc . Crack Parameter. Ask Aps As mm2 mm2 mm2 .40 % of the XSectional Area of the Excess Width Portion. Z 23000N/mm for any Loads Applied prior to attainment of the full Nominal Concrete Strength. d = Distance from Compression Face to Centriod of Tension Reinforcement. where.6.000 N/mm iv) In Transverse Design of Segmental Concrete BoxGirder the Max.6fy. value of Crack Width Parameter for Buried Components ZModeExpo. Thus value of 27500/b b) In Bonded Prestressed Concrete. c) If Tension prevailes in Flanges of RCC TGirder & Box Girder. ZBoxCulvert b d 27500/b N/mm mm e) If the value of dc of Nonprestrssed or Partially Prestressed Concrete Member Exceeds 900 mm. 30. in which.000 N/mm 23. is applicable for the Locations beyond Decompression State & the Prestressing Steel are in Crack Section. where. v) In Cast in Place RCC Box Culvert the Crack Parameter Z 27500/b . Flexural Tension Reinforcement also should be Provided on Flange for the Width of lesser value as Mentioned. Spacing of Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement should be less than either dc/6 or 300 mm.2. Equation fsa =Z/(dcA)1/3 0.7d). ZBuried.760) As +Aps) . value of ZBoxGirTrans.000 N/mm 23. value of Crack Width Parameter for Severe Exposure Components Max.000 N/mm 17. ii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm 2 iii) As = Area of Tensile Reinforcement iv) Total Area Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement should be <= 1/3rd of (Aps + As) v) The Max. ZSeverExpo.Max.
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950 0.070 m 0. RCC Side Walk with RCC Pedestrian Type Railing & Railing Posts.475 7.475 175*175 1.200 150x150 0. RCC Deck Slab having Over Hanging Cantilever on both Side.650 1.950 1.650 1.000 1. Design of Deck Slab for RCC Girder Bridge : 1 Sketch of Bridge Deck Section: 10.000 2. 1.350 1.125 2. 24. HRPost. c) Width of Side Walk on both of Bridge Deck d) Height of Railing Post e) Longitudinal Width of Railing Post Notation Dimensions Strength WCway WSidewalk. iii) Type of Side Walk & Railings: iv) Dimensions of Superstructure Components of Bridge Deck & Girder: Description a) Span Length of Bridge (C/C Distance between Bearings) b) Carriageway width of Bridge Deck.000 2.250 m.250 225 1.300 1.250 75 75 1.070 1.650 0. WPostLong.125 2 Structural Data : i) Type of Bridge Structure ii) Type of Deck Slab : : Single Span Simple Supported RCC Girder Bridge.300 m.E.300 0. 1.400 m 7.250 0.650 1.000 2.255 m . Unit.
1.000 m 1.350 m. 1.150 m 0. o) Thickness of Wearing Course q) Thickness of Side Walk Slab.200 m. q) Depth of Main Girder Fillet r) Width of Main Girder Fillet t) Distance between Outer Edge of Deck & Inner Edge of Curb u) Transverse Width of Utility/Fluid Space = WEdgetoCurb. bGirMain hGirMain LExt. Int. n) Thickness of Bridge Deck Slab. r) No's of Girders k) C/C Distance between Main Girders l) Width of Main Girder m) Depth of Main Girder including Slab Thickness n) Length of Cantilever Slab from Exterior Girder Center o) Clear Distance in between Two Main Girder Faces. hRailing.Face. 0.000 nos. bFillet.300 m 0. 0.125 m.650 m. WEdgetoCurb.075 m. 0.255 m 2.175 m 0. 2. h) Number of Rails on Each Side Walk.tSlabSW w) Distance of Wheel Guard Inner Edge up to Inner Face of Exterior Girder WPostTrans. hFillet. 2. hFluid.075 m.925 m 0. bRailing. 0.175 m 0. 0. p) Distance of Cantilever Slab Edge from Exterior Girder Face. 0.Post NRails.GirtoCant.950 m 0. LCurbinnerExt.150 m. 5. LCantExt. 0.000 m 3.f) Transverse Width of Railing Post g) Interval Railing Post.275 m 10.225 m 0.. hCurb/Guard bCurb/Guard WDeck tSlab tWC tSlabSW NGir LC/CGir. WFluid. LGir.175 m .475 m 0.250 m.000 m. 2*bCurb/Guard v) Depth of Utility/Fluid Space = hCurb/Guard . i) Vertical Depth of Railing j) Horizontal Width of Railings k) Height of Curb/WheelGuard/Riling Post Base l) Width of Curb/WheelGuard & Riling Post Base m) Total width of Bridge Deck Slab.000 nos.
000 m bFlGir.= WEdgetoCurb.bGirMain/2 x) Distance of Wheel Guard Inner Edge up to Outer Face of Exterior Girder = LCurbinnerExt.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 iii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compacted Clay/Sand/Silt) wC wWC wWNor. = b) Since Average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders is the Least one.835.750 m 2.6 (4..000 23. Top Flange) iv) The average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders = LC/CGir.000 10.019.525 m LCurbOuter.345.232 2.250 18. gs 2.2.000 10.680 1. b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 iv) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : .0 times average Depth of Slab + Greater Thickness of Web = 12*tSlab + bGi = iii) Onehalf the Width of Girder Top Flange (It is not req.250 m 6. + bGirMain y) Distance of Wheel Guard Outer Edge up to Outer Face of Exterior Girder = bGir.000 m 2 9. 0.inner) v) Computation of Effective Flange Width for TGirder RCC Bridge : a) Under Provision of AASHTO LRFD4. .045.GirtoCant. wE 24.LExt. 2. 0.(bCurb/Guard . gWSali.2. g = LCurbOuterExt.Main . . Type of Loading & Design Related Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).264 1. as there is no Addl. thus the Flange Width of Interior Girders. wWSali. bFlaGir = 2.LCurb.100 m 2. 3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitational Acceleration.000m 3 Design Criterion.6.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compacted Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor.6.6.172 1.447.1) the Flange Width of TGirder will be the least Dimension of : i) Onequarter of Effective Span Length = 1/4*SLength = ii) 12.
63f/c = 0.5). d) Poisson's Ration = 0.000 4. (AASHTO LRFD1. fSpir/Tie/Seim.4. : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Compression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4).620 2.2.63*21^(1/2).000 0. fAncTenSteel. fStrut&Tie.5.850 0.4. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.2.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement.2.800 1.887 410.887 MPa MPa MPa fr fy fs ES 2. fr = 0. fFlxPres.13) Here: gi = Load Factor.000 164.11 & 3.6). fPileResistanc. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resistance.000 8. Ec = 0.000 260.2.11) Where.700 0.700 0.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Applicable.043gc1..3. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.200 km/hr km/hr m/s 5 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = Σ ηigiQi f Rn = Rr.000 MPa MPa MPa MPa v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD5.50f/c = 0.2.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa.000 1.850 vi) Other Design Related Data : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load VWLNor. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0. fShear. (AASHTO LRFD1. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0. & ηi = 1/(ηD ηR ηI ) 1.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable.3. f) Steel Ultimate strength.043*24^(1. VWLSpe.000 200. f = Resistance Factor. VWA 90.2.4. fAncCopmConc.855. (AASHTO LRFD1.400 23.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.4.000 0.1).4).900 1. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect.2. .40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.750 0. For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in StrutandTie Modes For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b 1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD5.12).7.000.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlxRin. ηi is Load Modifier having values ηi = ηD ηR ηI 0.3.900 0. (AASHTO LRFD5. fBearig.2.2. b1 b 0. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.4.
4.4.250 gDW 1. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls. (Max.500 iv) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.2.500 gEV 1. ηi = ηR = 1. Limit State of STRENGTHIII (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTHIV (Having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. (Max. iii) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. For Strength Limit State.000 ii) Selection of Load Multiplying Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr). value of Table 3.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (AASHTO LRFD3.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility. Redundancy and Operational Functions.4. but those would be occasional.6.1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.4. value of Table 3.500 gEH 1.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions.4.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .6.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy .350 gES 1.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities. value of Table 3.330 . value of Table 3. ηD ηi = ηD = 1. Qi = Force Effect. Table 3.1. c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load AllowanceIM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD3.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .1.4.2. ηi = ηI = 1.6.12) gDC 1.1. value of Table 3. Rn = Nominal Resistance. Ri = Factored Resistance = fRn. Table 3.000 1.DW .4.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .11. ηR ηl 1.4. a Factor related to Ductility. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation.ηi = Load Modifier. (Max. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. Table 3.1. (Max. m 1.750 1.4.000 gLLTruck IM 1.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .000 1.
4. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking ForceBR. 1. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLCV. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1. 1.000 1. gLLTU. gLLWL gLLFR.V gLLLane gLLPL.750 1.000 gLLCR.000 1. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV STRENGTH .1 .000 gLLEQ.750 1. 1. gLLWA. gLLBR. gLLCE.4. 1. gLLLS. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1.(Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. 1.000 gLLSE.000 gLLTG. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLCT.III STRENGTH . value gDC 1.750 1. Table 3.750 1.750 1.400 1. gLLWS.000 .000 gLLSH.000 6 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).
000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. SERVICE .I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.300 1.2.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .1.000 1. Table 3.000 1.000 gLLLane gLLPL.6.000 0. value of Table 3. gLLCE.6.700 1.11.1. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.of Table 3.4. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking ForceBR .4. (Max.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .300 1.4. c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load AllowanceIM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD3.4.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (AASHTO LRFD3.IV SERVICE .1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. gLLTU. (Max. gLLLS. value of Table 3. gLLWL gLLFR.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck . SERVICE .II SERVICE .000 gLLTruck IM 1. value of Table 3. (Max.2.4. Table 3.000 .4.000 1. gLLWA.DW . gLLWS. gLLBR. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).12) gDW 1.000 gEH 1.4.300 1. (Max.000 1.1.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.000 gES 1.6.000 gEV 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.000 1.II SERVICE .12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV . value of Table 3. 1.II m 1.
000 gLLEQ.000 gLLSE. Medians & Side Walk Slab) including Utilities if there be any. Whereas.000 gLLSH. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1.000 gLLTG. for whom the Bridge Structure are being build. ii) Section 22 on Inner Face of Exterior Girder. Computations of Shearing Forces & Moments will be done in Four Different Sections. More over the Cantilevers will also carry the Pedestrian Live Loads (LL). 1. Side Walk.000m width. b) For the Design Purpose & Calculation of Imposed Loads (DL & LL) and Computation of respective Shearing Force & Moments. A Uniformly Distributed Lane Load also Constituent of Live Load (LL) for the Central Portion of Deck. gLLCT. In addition of Self Weight Dead Load (DL) the Cantilevers would also carry the Dead Loads (DL) from Railing & Railing Post. b) Since Casting of Deck Slab RCC Bridge would be Monolithic with closely placed Longitudinal Main Girders. Self Weight & Imposed Wearing Course are the Dead Load (DL) Constituents of Central Deck Portion.000 a) The Bridge Deck is that Structural Component which directly carries the Live Loads (LL) of Vehicular Traffic. Pedestrian Loads etc. Lane Loading. the Deck Slab is to be considered as Constituents of Transverse Stripes having 1. d) Sketch Diagram Showing the Sections for Design Calculations : 1 225 2 3 4 1475 1030 1250 . gLLCV. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing). q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 7 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Bridge Deck Slab : gLLCR. 1. Wheel Guard & Curb. Wheel Guard & Curb etc. thus the Deck is absolutely a Oneway Continuous Slab with Overhanging Cantilever Parts on both Sides. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). iii) Section 33 on Middle in between Two Girders & iv) Section 44 of Face of Interior Girder for Design of Interior Slab Spans. Tandem Loadings. The Main Live Loads (LL) for the Central Portion is either Concentrated Wheel Loads of Design Truck or Similar but of Different Magnitude Tandem Loads. 1. Conduit with Utility. i) Section 11 on Outer Face of Exterior Girder is for Design of Cantilever Portion. In addition Dead Loads (DL) due to Self Weight & Deck Furniture's (Riling & Riling Posts.m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). c) For the Purpose of Design. 1.
0.2. 175. the Effective Span Length of Interior Deck Slab is the Distance between Flange Tips Plus the Flange Overhanging Length taken as Distance from Extreme Flange Tip to the Face of Web.950 1.1 Depth/Thickness of a Concrete Deck tSlabreq2.3.7. m SCant. the Thickness of Deck Slab should be = (S + 3000)/30 165mm <165 For the Case of Main Reinforcement Parallel to Traffic.350 1 1. thus the case is not Applicable.bGirMain b) For Slabs Monolithic with RCC Girders. Here S is Calculated Effective Length of Interior Span = 1550mm Since the Main Reinforcement is Perpendicular Traffic & tSlabreq1 < 165m.bGirMain/2 SInter.GirtoCant.125 2 2.31 for a Continuous tSlabreq1.000 4 8 Selection of Effective Span Length for Deck Slab & Other Dimensions under AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) Effective Span Length for RCC Girder Bridge (AASHTOLRFD9.1.950 m ii) Effective Span Length for PC or Steel Girder Bridge (AASHTOLRFD9.Table2.2. b) According to AASHTOLRFD9.3): a) For Slab supported on Concrete (PC) or Steel Girder. SInter. the Effective Span Length of Deck Slab in between the Interior Girders is the Face to Face Distance. b) Slab supported on Concrete PC Girder or Steel Girder.2. m iii) Required Slab Thickness for RCC Bridge Deck Slab According to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD2004 : a) According to AASHTOLRFD2.6. Thus Span Length of Interior Deck Slab = LC/CGir.5.7.650 0. . the Effective Span Length of Cantilever Deck Slab is the Distance between Web Face up to the Cantilever Edge.6.650 1. .1030 1250 200 150x150 300 0.5.000 mm Span.650 m 75 75 SCant.2. disregarding any Fillets.7. 1.000 3 2. = LExt.3): a) For Slabs Monolithic with RCC Girders.000 mm . Effective Span Length of Cantilever Deck Slab is the Distance from Face of Exterior Girder up to Edge of the Cantilever. Thus Span Length of Cantilever Deck Slab. 155. disregarding any Fillets.
/bStrim g) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part on 1. 2. Table.31 for Structures on Costal Area .000m Wide Strip From Railing Post Base as Concentrated Load = wC*hCurb/Guard*bCurb/Guard. h) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part on 1. 2 1. WDLCurb. 2.000m Wide Strip From Fluid for Utility Load as Concentrated Load (Computed from Load Analysis Sheet).000 m Wide Strip = wWC*tWC*bStrip.000m Wide Strip From Side Walk Slab as Uniformly Distributed Load = wC*tSlabSW*bStrip i) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part on 1.3. bStrip. the Clear Covers both on Top & Bottom Surface of Slab should be 75 mm from Face of main Reinforcement.800 kN/m /m WDLUtility. 2 1. f) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge on 1.should not be Less than 175 mm.000m b) Intensity of Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Self Weight of Slab for per Meter Span Length & 1. WDLRailPost. thus on this Surface may Provide with 38 mm Clear Cover.980 kN.205 kN. 9 Selection/Computation of Applied Loads/Forces (DL & LL) for Flexural Design of Deck Slab: i) Computation of Different Dead Loads (DL) Applicable for the Interior & Cantilever Span of Deck Slab : a) For Computation of Loads Let Consider Strip in Transverse Direction having Width in Longitudinal = 1.000m Wide Strip From Railings as Concentrated Load (Computed from Load Analysis Sheet).000m Wide Strip From Railing Post as Concentrated Load (Computed from Load Analysis Sheet). 0. WDLSelf. 200. iv) Provision of Clear Cover for Deck Slab : a) According to AASHTOLRFD5.650 kN. 1.000m Wide Strip From Curb as Concentrated Load = wC*hCurb/Guard*bCurb/Guard.081 kN ii) Computation of Different Live Loads (LL) Applicable for the Interior & Cantilever Span of Deck Slab : a) Since the Design Strip is 1. Accordingly by using AnteChlorine Admixtures for Concrete. e) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge on 1. Since the Top Surface of Deck Slab will have 75 mm Thick Wearing Course.12. 72. c) The Provided Depth/Thickness for the Simple Supported TGirder Bridge = 200mm which is Greater than tSlabreq2. 2 4.12. thus One Rear or Middle Wheel of Design Truck PLLTruck. d) Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge on 1. WDLPostBase.000m Wide over which on any Span only One Wheel of Design Truck or Tandem can take Position due to their Longitudinal & Transverse Spacing. on Bottom Surface 25 mm Clear cover may Provide.725 kN/m /m WDLRailing. OK.000 mm tslabpro. WDLSWalk.5.>tslabreq.500 kN .000 m Wide Strip = wC*tSlab*bStrip c) Intensity of Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Wearing Course for per Meter Span Length & 1.980 kN.800 kN/m /m WDLWC. 1.000 m tSlabpro. 1.
USD 2.USD 2.having the Highest Magnitude of Loading should be Considered as Wheel Live Load (LL).000 m 2 area of Deck = ((9.6*103 Mpa for the Cases where Sidewalk Width is Greater than 600mm.1. WDLRailPost.4) c) According to AASHTOLRFD3.2.1 : a) Intensity of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Self Weight of Slab = gDC*WDLSelf b) Intensity of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Wearing Course = gDW*WDLWC c) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railings as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDLRailing d) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railing Post as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDLRailPost.813 kN. WDLPostBase. d) According to AASHTOLRFD3. Thus Magnitude of Lane Load over the 1. Since Provided Sidewalk Width is 1.6.2. (AASHTOLRFD3.3.2) b) Since the Design Lane Load is a Uniformly Distributed Live Load (LL) having Magnitude of 9.4 Bridges having Overhanging Deck Slab Span not Exceeding 1800 mm from Center of Exterior Girder & where Exists a Structurally Continuous Concrete Railing.000)/1000 kN/m 2 (AASHTOLRFD3.USD 0. 2 3.475 kN.USD 2 2.6. WDLCurb.USD 2.6.000 kN/m /m WDLWC.1.300*1000)/3.000m Width.4.600*1000/1000kN.1.100 kN/m PLLLine. PLLLane. thus Pedestrian Live Load per m 2 of Sidewalk Surface = (3.250m & the Design Strip is in Transverse Direction with 1.6.588 kN/m /m WDLRailing.000m Width & the Design Strip is in Transverse Direction of 1. there will be a Longitudinal & Uniformly Distributed Line Live Load (LL) of Magnitude of 14.600 kN/m 10 Computation of Factored Loads (DL & LL) in respect of Flexural Design of Deck Slab under Provisions for Strength Limit State of Design (USD) & Service Limit State of Design (WSD) : i) Computation of Factored Dead Loads (DL) Applicable for the Strength Limit State of Design (USD) under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD3. Action of Line Load will be at Distance 300mm from the Face of Railing & it would Replace the Outside Row of Wheel Load. e) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railing Post Base as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDLPostpBase. .1.756 kN.6 on the Sidewalk Surface a Uniformly Distributed Pedestrian Live Load (LL) will act having Intensity 3. thus Action on Line Load will like a Concentrated Load having Magnitude = 14.600N/mm. Since the Design Strip is in Transverse Direction with 1.000m Width. f) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Curb as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDLCurb.000m Width.600/10^3)*10^6/10^3kN/m2. 14.475 kN.600 kN/m PLLPedst. WDLSelf. 2 3.USD 2 6.300 N/mm in Longitudinal Direction with Action in Transverse Direction over 3.
WSD 2 1.250 kN/m /m WDLUtility.USD 2 6.725 kN/m /m WDLRailing. WDLRailPost.WSD 0. WDLCurb.WSD 1.1 : a) Intensity of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Self Weight of Slab = gDC*WDLSelf b) Intensity of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) due to Wearing Course = gDW*WDLWC c) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railings as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDLRailing d) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railing Post as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDLRailPost.800 kN/m /m WDLWC. b) Factored Design Lane Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLLLane*PLLLane.800 kN/m /m WDLUtility.USD 2 2.USD 2 5.WSD 2.205 kN.744 kN PLLLane.122 kN ii) Computation of Factored Dead Loads (DL) Applicable for the Service Limit State of Design (WSD) under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD3.980 kN.USD 25.g) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Side Walk Slab as Uniformly Distributed Load = gDC*WDLSWalk. f) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Curb as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDLCurb. g) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Side Walk Slab as Uniformly Distributed Load = gDC*WDLSWalk. e) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Edge From Railing Post Base as Concentrated Load = gDC*WDLPostpBase.WSD 2 4.4. h) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Fluid for Utility Load as Concentrated Load = gDW*WDLUtility.WSD 2.300 kN/m /m . c) Factored Design Line Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLLLane*PLLLIne.WSD 1.WSD 2 1.550 kN/m PLLPedst.980 kN.425 kN/m /m PLLLine. WDLPostBase. WDLSWalk.650 kN. WDLSWalk. h) Factored Dead Load (DL) on Cantilever Part From Fluid for Utility Load as Concentrated Load = gDW*WDLUtility.USD 3.USD 168. d) Factored Design Pedestrian Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck PLLTruck.4.1 : a) Factored Design Truck Wheel Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLLTruck*IM*PLLTruck.081 kN iii) Computation of Factored Live Loads (LL) Applicable for the Strength Limit State of Design (USD) under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD3. WDLSelf.
800 0.WSD 2 3.500 kN PLLLane. the Moments both for (+) ve & () ve values on Interior Spans are being Expressed by the Equations4. DX = EIX in Nmm2/mm & DY = EIY in Nmm2/mm where.2..650 mm . PLLTruck.80 f) D is Ratio of Flexural RigidityDX of Deck Slab in Main Bar Direction with Flexural Regidity . iv) Computation of Factored Live Loads (LL) Applicable for the Service Limit State of Design (WSD) under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD3. L 3000mm the Transverse Moments for Deck Slab.3520400)/L)*(C) in Nmm/mm Here for both Equ.188(L1. For CentertoCenter Distance of Supports. CSimple CContinous D 1.1.1.459C in Nmm/mm d) According to Equ. c) According to Equ.81. IX & IY are Moment of Inertia in Respective Directions.WSD 2 3. L > 3000mm the Transverse Moments for Deck Slab.82. 1.000 mm 1.= m*gLLLane*PLLPL.600 kN/m /m 11 Adopted Methods of Analysis in Flexural Design of Deck Slab under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) Approximate Method of Analysis for Direct Calculation of Moments under AASHTOLRFD4.4.6. b) Under Provision of Article 4.1.2.6.6.4.8 : a) According to Article 4.WSD 14.1.1. MTransverse = (5300D0.DY of Deck Slab Perpendicular to Main Bar Direction.1.8. c) Factored Design Line Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLLLane*PLLLane. Strip Width = 1000mm.2.WSD 72.2.00 & for the Continuous Span = 0. Live Load Force Effects for Fully & Partially Filled Grids & for Unfilled Grid Decks Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab can consider for Determination of Live Load Moments due to Vehicular Load either from Design Truck or Design Tandem.6.100 kN/m /m PLLLine. MTransverse = 1260D0.4. E is Modulus of Elasticity.2.000 0.2.1 : a) Factored Design Truck Wheel Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLLTruck*IM*PLLTruck.6. h) Considering Design Strip in Transverse Direction.8. i) Effective Span Length for Deck between Interior Girders = 1650 mm bStrip SInter.6. d) Factored Design Pedestrian Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLLLane*PLLPL.600 kN/m PLLPedst.1.606 g) The Flexural Rigidity of Deck Slab in Main Bar Direction & Perpendicular to Main Bar Direction are Expressed by.6. e) C is Continuity Factor having value for Simple Support Span = 1. Deck Slab having Main Reinforcements Perpendicular to Traffic.197L0. For CentertoCenter Distance of Supports. b) Factored Design Lane Load Applicable for Design of Bridge Deck = m*gLLLane*PLLLane.82.2.81 & 4.
137 Nmm/mm 37. b) The Distribution Factor for Live Loads Per Lane for Moment in Interior Beam of Multi Lane RCC TGirder Bridge is being Expressed by gInt.j) Provided Slab Thickness = 200mm k) Value on Moment of Inertia for Main Reinforcement Direction.2.2.2.6.2. LC/CGir.624E+13 Nmm/mm 2.M = 0. IX = bStrip(tSlab)3/12 in mm4 l) Value on Moment of Inertia Perpendicular to Main Reinforcement Direction.2(Kg/Lts3))0.001 m 4 1.6.908.100E03 m IY DX 1.906 Nmm/mm 87.624E+04 kNm/m 29908.6(S/L)0.110 Nmm/mm 29.125 Nmm/mm 69.385.908 kNm/m n) Flexural Rigidity of Deck Slab Perpendicular to Main Bar Direction.014 kNm/m () MTransUSD iii) Factored Moments for Service Limit State of Design (WSD) under to Approximate Method of Analysis : a) Factored (+) ve Moment for Interior Span under Service Limit State (WSD) = mgLLTruckIM*MTransUF b) Factored () ve Moment for Interior Span under Service Limit State (WSD) = mgLLTruckIM*MTransWSD (+)MTransWSD 29. = L = 2000mm < 3000mm thus Equ. IX = SInter.2.667E+08 mm 4 0.2.1.80. .800 () MTransverse 37.100E+09 mm 4 1.(tSlab)3/12 in mm4 m) Flexural Rigidity of Deck Slab in Main Bar Direction.385 kNm/m () MTransWSD ii) Distribution Factor Method for Analysis of Moments for Interior Deck Spans under the Provisions of AASHTOLRFD4.4.6.4.2b1.385.6.137 Nmm/mm 37.590E+04 kNm/m 2.590E+13 Nmm/mm 1. DX = EIX tSlab.908 kNm/m 37. p) The () ve Moment value can Calculate considering Simple Span with value of C = 0.1.2b : a) According to Article4.2. where.385 kNm/m ii) Factored Moments for Strength Limit State of Design (USD) under Approximate Method of Analysis : a) Factored (+) ve Moment for Interior Span under Strength Limit State (USD) = mgLLTruckIM*MTransUF b) Factored () ve Moment for Interior Span under Strength Limit State (USD) = mgLLTruckIM*MTransUF (+) MTransUSD 69611. IX 200 mm 4 6.075+ (S/2900)0. DY= EIY DY (+) MTransverse o) Since the CentertoCenter Distance between Girders.2b in Concrete Bridges having More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by CrossGirders. the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Moments for Deck Interior Spans should be based upon the Distribution Factor as mentioned in Equation of Table.81 is applicable for (+) ve Moment value Calculation on Interior Span as Continuous Span having C = 0.110 Nmm/mm 29..2(0.611 kNm/m 87013.
000 mm .6. Here . c) e is Correction Factor having value = 0. Nb (Nos. of Girder) = 5 > 4 ).(S/10700)2. L =24400 > 6000 but < 76000. c) S is Effective Span Length of Interior Spans for Deck's Design Strip = SInter. S L Kg ts Kg/Lts 1.6.2.2.3a in Concrete Bridges having Multi Lane with More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by CrossGirders.M = egIntM (Having value of de = 575 > ()300 but < 1700. where. Nb (Nos.2.20 + S/3600 .6.2.2. thus de is of (+) ve value.2b in Preliminary Design the value of Kg/Lts = 1.M 0.650 mm 24.V = 0. Since Position of Exterior Face/Web of Exterior Girder is within Inboard of Slab's Outer EdgetoCurb.4.2d : a) According to Article4. the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Moments for Deck Overhanging Spans should be based on the Distribution Factor as mentioned in Equation of Table.2.2d1. S 1.3a : a) According to Article4.000 h) Thus the Calculated value of Distribution Factor for Interior Span gInt.M (Having value of S = 1550 > 1100 but < 4900. e) Thus Calculated Distribution Factor value for Overhanging gExt.2.400 mm mm4 200 mm 1. ts = 200 > 110 but < 300 .000 gInt. the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Shear for Deck Interior Spans should be based upon the Distribution Factor as mentioned in Equation of Table. e) Kg is Longitudinal Stiffness Parameter in mm 4 f) ts is Thickness of Bridge Deck in mm = tSlab g) According to Provision of Article .2.6.M 0.4.958 525 mm gExt.470 iv) Distribution Factor Method for Analysis of Shears for Interior Deck Spans According to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD4. . of Girder = 5 > 4).c) S is Effective Span Length of Interior Spans for Deck's Design Strip = SInter.491 iii) Distribution Factor Method for Analysis of Moments for Deck Overhanging under the Provisions of AASHTOLRFD4.2.4. ts = 200 > 110 but < 300 . where.77 + de/2800.2.2.2.2. b) The Distribution Factor for Live Loads Per Lane for Moment on Deck Overhanging on face of Exterior Longitudinal Girder of Multi Lane RCC TGirder Bridge is being Expressed by gExt = egInt. d) de is a Distance in mm from Exterior Face/Web of Exterior Girder up to the Interior Edge of Curb or Traffic Barrier = WEdgetoCurb. e de 0.6.2.SCant.2d in Concrete Bridges having More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by CrossGirders.6. L =24400 > 6000 but < 76000.00.6.650. b) The Distribution Factor for Live Loads Per Lane for Shear in Interior Beam of Multi Lane RCC TGirder Bridge is being Expressed by gInt.3a1. d) L is CentertoCenter Distance between Supports of Main Girder = SBridge.
000 mm vii) Computation of Equivalent Strip Width for Live Load Moment for Deck Overhanging under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD4.3.6.2. (+)XInt. thus Provisions of this Article is not Applicable.25S in mm.2. .3 : a) Since the Provisions of Article4.6. Since Position of Exterior Face/Web of Exterior Girder is within Inboard of Slab's Outer EdgetoCurb.6. d) Thus Equivalent Strip Width for (+) ve Moment e) Thus Equivalent Strip Width for () ve Moment S (+)XInt.V 0.720. ()XInt.1. thus de is of (+) ve value. d) de is a Distance in mm from Exterior Face/Web of Exterior Girder up to the Interior Edge of Curb or Traffic Barrier = WEdgetoCurb. c) e is Correction Factor having value = 0.= egIntV (Having value of de = 575 > ()300 but < 1700. L =24400 > 6000 but < 76000.1. ts = 200 > 110 but < 300 .& that for () ve Moment is being Expressed by the Equation.6. of Girder) = 5 > 4 ).2.6. gInt. b) The Distribution Factor for Live Loads Per Lane for Shear on Deck Overhanging on face of Exterior Longitudinal Girder of Multi Lane RCC TGirder Bridge is being Expressed by gExtV = egIntV . ()XInt. c) S is Spacing of Supporting Components in mm (Here PCGirders) = LC/CGir.2.2.4. Here.3b : a) According to Article4.6.31. Equivalent Strip Width for (+) ve Moment is being Expressed by the Equation.2. e de 0.1.2.1.4.000 mm 1. of Girder) = 5 > 4 ).55S in mm.000 mm 1.V (Having value of S = 1550 > 1100 but < 4900.2. ts = 200 > 110 but < 300 .2.d) Thus the Calculated value of Distribution Factor for Interior Span gInt. = 1220 + 0. the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Shear for Deck Overhanging should be based upon the Distribution Factor as mentioned in Equation of Table.6.4 for Applied Live Load & Calculation of respective Moments on Cantilever/Overhanging Portion of Deck Slab.1.760. L =24400 > 6000 but < 76000.492 vi) Computation of Equivalent Strip Width for Live Load Moment for Interior Deck According to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD4. where.6.775 525. .000.3 in a Concrete Bridges having More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by CrossGirders. 2.635 v) Distribution Factor Method for Analysis of Shear for Deck Overhanging under the Provisions of AASHTO LRFD4.V 0.3b in Concrete Bridges having Multi Lane with More than 4 Main Girders & Linked by CrossGirders.2.6. Nb (Nos.000 mm gExt.3 have Recommended to use Provisions of Article3. the Live Load (Truck/Tandem) Moments for Interior Deck Spans should be Calculated in respect of the Strip Width as mentioned in Equation of Table. b) For Cast in Place PCGirder Concrete Bridge with Considered Strip Perpendicular to Traffic.1.3 : a) According to Article .SCant.4.2. = 660 + 0. Nb (Nos. e) Thus Calculated value of Distribution Factor for Overhanging gExt.3a2. Here .60 + de/3000.
g) Moment Arm for Line Live Load = WSidewalk .902 kNm/m 0.823 m 0.375 m 0.bGirMain .011 kNm/m b) Moment due to Railing = WDLRailingUSD*LRailing c) Moment due to Railing Post = WDLRPostUSD*LRPost d) Moment due to Railing Post Base = WDLRPostBaseUSD*LRPostBase e) Moment due to Curb/Wheel Guard./2 c) Moment Arm for Raining Post Base = LCantExt.WPostTrans. c) Moment Arm for Wearing Course & Lane Live Load on Deck in between Exterior Girder & 1st.708 kNm/m 1.)/2 + LCurbInnerExt. .) /2 MDLSelfUSD MDLRailingUSD MDLRPostUSD MDLRPostbaseUSD 2. since it is Outboard of Overhanging thus calculation of Moment is not required. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments for Overhanging/Cantilever Span at Section 11 (Outer Face of Exterior Girder) : 2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelf. .LCurbOuterExt. LPedes LLine 0. Interior Girder = (SInter ./2 b) Moment Arm for Pedestrian Live Load on Curb = LCurbInnerExt.LCurbInnerExt.700 m ii) Computation of Moment Arms for the Components Resting upon the Deck Slab on Inner Side of Exterior Girder & Live Loads in Respect of Section 22 (On Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment Arm for Curb/Wheel Guard (Part) = LCurbinnerExt. bRailing/2 b) Moment Arm for Railing Post = LCantExt.213 m 0.088 m 0.088 m 0.813 m 0. LCurb LPedesCurb LWC/Lane 0.668 kNm/m 2.863 m 0.100 m 0.12 Moment Arms for Calculation of Moments at Different Sections due to Applied Loads : i) Computation of Moment Arms for the Components Resting upon the Overhanging/Cantilever Deck Slab & Live Loads in Respect of Section 11 (On outer Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment Arm for Railing = LCantExt. . f) Moment Arm for Pedestrian Live Load = WSidewalk/2 ./2 d) Moment Arm for Sidewalk Slab = WSidewalk/2 .LCurbOuterExt. .LCurbOuterExt. thus Moment value is of () ve in Nature.USD*(SCanti.913 m 13 Calculation of () Moments (DL & LL) of Overhanging Span at Section 11 (Exterior Girder Outer Face) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD).300 LRailing LRPost LRPostBase LSwalk LUtility.LCurbinnerExt.0. e) Moment Arm for Utility/Fluid Space = WFluid/2 .bCurb/Guard. AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) Since the Span is Overhanging/Cantilever.
USD*(SInter)2/9 c) Moment due to Curb/Wheel Guard Portion .USD ()MDLTotal22USD 1.USD*LSWalk.849 kNm/m 0. MLLPedstUSD MLLLineUSD () MLLTotal11USD 5.885 kNm/m 23. 31.USD*LUtility.177 kNm/m iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (LL) Moments for Overhanging/Cantilever Span at Section 11 (Outer Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment due to Pedestrian on Sidewalk = PLLPedst.USD*(SInter.USD*LCurb. MLLTruckUSD MLLLaneUSD ()MLLTotal22USD ()MDL+LL22USD 82.225 kNm/m 0.783 kNm/m 0.) /9 MDLSelfUSD MDLWCUSD MDLCurb.M b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = PLLLane.938 kNm/m 83. MDLSWalk.USD MDLUtility. = WDLCurb. g) Moment due to Utility = WDLUtility.USD ()MDLTotal11USD 0.f) Moment due to Sidewalk Slab = WDLSWalk. iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 22 (Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLLTruck.787 kNm/m 86.602 kNm/m .USD*WSidewalk*LPedes b) Moment due to Line load on Sidewalk = PLLLine. d) Total Factored Dead Load () Moments at Section 22 for Interior Span. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 22 (Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : 2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelf.USD*(SInter.398 kNm/m iv) Calculated Total Factored ()Moments at Section 11 due to () MDL+LL11USD Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Overhanging/Cantilever Span of Deck.814 kNm/m b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDLWC.663 kNm/m 8.217 kNm/m 2.513 kNm/m 17.USD*LLine c) Total Factored Live Load () Moments at Section 11 for Overhanging. h) Total Factored Dead Load () Moments at Section 11 for Overhanging.815 kNm/m 0.574 kNm/m 14 Calculation of () Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 22 (Exterior Girder Inner Face) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD). AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Support Position Moment value is of () ve in Nature.USD*gInt.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load ()Moments at Section 22 for Interior Span iv) Calculated Total Factored () Moments at Section 22 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck.
USD*(SInter.USD*(SInter)2/14 c) Total Factored Dead Load (+) Moments at Section 33 for Interior Span.452 kNm/m (+)MDL+LL33USD 85.503 kNm/m 1.M MLLTruckUSD 82.USD*(SInter. AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Support Position Moment value is of () ve in Nature. iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 33 (On Middle of Interior Girders) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLLTruck.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load (+)Moments at Section 33 for Interior Span. iv) Calculated Total Factored (+) Moments at Section 33 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck.M b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = FPLLLane.598 kNm/m b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDLWC.815 kNm/m 0.) /14 MDLSelfUSD MDLWCUSD (+)MDLTotal33USD 1. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 33 (On Middle of Interior Girders) : 2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelf. MLLTruckUSD MLLLaneUSD (+)MLLTotal33USD 82.603 kNm/m 83. AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Middle Position the Moment value is of (+) ve in Nature.849 kNm/m .15 Calculation of (+) Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 33 (On Middle between Interior Girders) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD).USD*gInt.122 kNm/m 16 Calculation of () Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 44 (On Face of Interior Girder) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD).670 kNm/m b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDLWC.) /9 MDLSelfUSD MDLWCUSD ()MDLTotal44USD 1.USD*gInt.783 kNm/m 2. iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 44 (Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLLTruck.USD*(SInter)2/9 c) Total Factored Dead Load () Moments at Section 44 for Interior Span.167 kNm/m 0.*(SInter. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 44(On Face of Interior Girder) : 2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelfUSD.849 kNm/m 0.
335 kNm/m 1. AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) The Highest of Calculated (+) ve Moment Either Approximate Method or Distribution Factor Method.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load ()Moments at Section 44 for Interior Span. iv) Total Factored Flexural Design (+) ve Moments (DL + LL) for Deck v) Total Factored Flexural Design () ve Moments (DL + LL) for Deck (+)MDesignUSD ()MDesignUSD 85.385 kNm/m 17 Calculated Highest () ve Moment value for Distribution Factor Method under Strength Limit Stalt (USD): i) Section on Which Calculated () Moment is Highest.269 kNm/m b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDLWC. MLLLaneUSD ()MLLTotal44USD 0.933 kNm/m 0. iv) Calculated Total Factored () Moments at Section 44 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck.122 kNm/m 87.602 kNm/m 18 Selecton of Approprate () Moments & (+) Moments (DL+LL) for Flexural Design of Reinforcements of the Bridge Deck Slab from the Calculated Values of Approximate Method & Distribution Factor Method under Provisions of Strength Limit State (USD). Thus the Calculated Factored Moments According to Provisions of Distribution Factor Methods at Section 33 & 22 are the Governing Moments for Flexural Design of Deck Slab Reinforcements.787 kNm/m ()MDL+LL44USD 86. Distribution Factor Method Highest ii) The Highest of Calculated () ve Moment Either Approximate Method or Distribution Factor Method.014 kNm/m 18 Calculation of (+) Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 33 (On Middle between Interior Girders) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Service Limit State (WSD).938 kNm/m 83. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 33 (On Middle of Interior Girders) : 2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelf.b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = PLLLane. Approximate Method Higer iii) The Calculated Values of Factored Moments according to Distribution Factor Methods for (+) ve Moments at Sections 33 & that for () ve Moments at Section 22 both are Heigher than the Calculated Factored Moments According to Provisions under Approximate Methods.WSD*(SInter)2/14 c) Total Factored Dead Load (+) Moments at Section 33 of Interior Span.USD*(SInter. ii) The Calculated value of Highest () ve Moment Section 22 is highest ()MDL+LL22USD 86.) /14 MDLSelfWSD MDLWCWSD (+)MDLTotal33WSD 0. AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Middle Position the Moment value is of (+) ve in Nature.WSD*(SInter. .
WSD*gInt.522 kNm/m 1.WSD*(SInter.199 kNm/m (+)MSDL+LL33WSD 37.534 kNm/m ()MSDL+LL44WSD 38. MLLTruckWSD MLLLaneWSD (+)MLLTotal33WSD 35.) /9 MDLSelfWSD MDLWCWSD ()MDLTotal22WSD 1.603 kNm/m 36.596 kNm/m 0.507 kNm/m 20 Unfactored (+) ve & () ve Dead Load Moments under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Middle Position the Moment value is of (+) ve & on Support is () ve.596 kNm/m 0.WSD*gInt.974 kNm/m b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDLWC.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load ()Moments at Section 44 for Interior Span.*(SInter.)2/9 c) Total Factored Live Load (+)Moments at Section 33 for Interior Span. MLLTruckWSD MLLLaneWSD ()MLLTotal44WSD 35. ii) Calculation of Unfactored Dead Load (+)Moments of Interior Continuous Span at Middle : 2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelf. AASHTOLRFD2004 : i) For Continuous Span at Support Position Moment value is of () ve in Nature.468 kNm/m 19 Calculation of () Moments (DL & LL) of Interior Span at Section 44 (On Face of Interior Girder) Based Distribution Factor or Lever Rule under Provisions Service Limit State (WSD).iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 33 (On Middle of Interior Girders) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLLTruck.) /14 MDLSelfUF 0.938 kNm/m 36.M b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = PLLLane. ii) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 44(On Face of Interior Girder) : 2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelf. iv) Calculated Total Factored (+) Moments at Section 33 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck.933 kNm/m .452 kNm/m 0. iv) Calculated Total Factored () Moments at Section 44 due to Applied Loads (DL + LL) on Interior Span of Deck.WSD*(SInter.WSD*(SInter.*(SInter)2/9 c) Total Factored Dead Load () Moments at Section 44 for Interior Span iii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Moments Interior Continuous Span at Section 44 (Inner Face of Exterior Girder) : a) Moment due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLLTruck.M b) Moment due to Live Lane load on Sidewalk = PLLLane.
7.476 kN/m 111.*(SInter)2/14 c) Total Factored Dead Load (+) Moments at Middle of Interior Span.085 kNm/m ii) Calculation of Factored Live Load (DL) Shearing Forces on Faces of Interior Span at Grider Faces : a) Shearing Forces due to Live Truck Wheel Load = PLLTruckUSD.USD*SInter.335 kNm/m 1. b CCovBot.077 kN/m 4. i) Calculation of Factored Dead Load (DL) Shearing Forces on Faces of Interior Span at Grider Faces : a) Shearing Forces due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelf.*(SInter)2/9 c) Total Unfactored Dead Load () Moments at Middle of Interior Span. a Section c/de 0.) /9 MDLSelfUF MDLWCUF ()MDLTotalUF 1. = 25mm.1) : .000 m 25 mm 38 mm ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement.USD*SInter/2 c) Total Factored Dead Load () Shearin Forcets at Faces of Interior Girder.135 kNm/m 7.522 kNm/m 1. 0. a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/deMax.3.637 kN/m 22 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Top & Bottom Reinforcements for Deck Slab Against Calculated Design () ve & (+) ve Moments : i) Design Strip Width for Deck Slab in Transverse Horizontal Direction & Clear Cover on Different Faces: a) Let Consider the Design Width in Transverse Directions is = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Bottom Surface of Decl Slab.42 in which. CCov.V b) Shearing Forces due to Live Lane Load = FSPLLLane.950 kN/m 2.Top = 38mm./2 c) Total Factored Live Load ()Moments at Section 44 for Interior Span iii) Tatal Factored Shearing Forces On Interior Girder Feces due to Applied Loads : VLLTruckUSD VLLLaneUSD VLLTotalUSD VDL+LLUSD 107.Bot. Let the Clear Cover on Top Surface of Decl Slab. 1. 21 Calculation of Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Span Faces According to Distribution Factor & Lever Rule under Provisions Strength Limit State (USD).*gInt. CCov.452 kNm/m 0. MDLWCUF (+)MDLTotalUF 0.553 kN/m 118./2 b) Shearing Forces due to Wearing Course = WDLWC. VDLSelfUSD VDLWCUSD VDLTotalUSD 4. (AASHTOLRFD5.269 kNm/m iii) Calculation of Unfactored Dead Load ()Moments of Interior Continuous Span at Support : 2 a) Moment due to Self Weight of Deck Slab = WDLSelf.42 .3. CCovTop.*SInter.b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDLWC.974 kNm/m b) Moment due to Wearing Course = WDLWC.*(SInter.
b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) .2*Mcr or 1.2Mcr.667/10^3 m 3 6.006667 m 3 6. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.1Table3.Mdnc(Sc/Snc 1) Scfr where.11. Here.7. fps & dp are = 0. where .3/12)/(tSlab. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement. i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy). vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm.6).3. Mcr fcpe Variable Nmm N/mm2 Mdnc Variable Nmm Sc Variable mm3 Snc 3 0.4. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa.2.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm.4.247 kNm .(AASHTO LRFD5.887 N/mm 19./2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa.b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm.3. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tSlab.2) : c de Variable Variable As Aps fy fps dp ds Variable Variable 410. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps. which one is less.667*10^6 mm fr Mcr 2 2. (AASHTOLRFD5. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0.00 Variable Variable Variable mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1. c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements.4.
247 23. thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1. 16 mm 2 201. Steel Ratio.pmax according to AASHTO19968.33 Times Mr of M.3.2.974 19.75) pb 0.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) (1.062 mm MU 87. depro.213 23.33*M) kNm kNm 115.247 19.014*10^6 Nmm/m 154. b) Max. (Here f = 0.919 Nmm Variable Variable Variable Nmm Nmm Nmm g) Table1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.014*10^6 Nmm/m Moment Governs the Provision of Reinforcement against () ve Moment Mr 23.3.16.096*10^6 Nmm/m b) Since ()MDL+LLUSD > Mr. 23.096 Maximum Flexural Moment Mu (M Mr) kNm 87. pmax.pb & Max.843/(599.728 23. of Span 1.096 85.7. Moment for RCC Moment 1. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Reinforcement on Top Surface of Deck Slab b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DDectTop2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Top DDectTop Af16.247 19.247 19.269 19. Thus Calculated 87.2*Mcr) M Wall kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm ()ve Face of Girder (+)ve Mid.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 19246817.014 kNm/m Deck Slab is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.022 pmax.014 kNm/m 87. pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section thus MDL+LLUSD is the Design Moment MU. Allowable Factored Min.122 113.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section.096 87.000 mm . = f *pb .2Mcr (1.843 + fy))).096 kNm/m value.247 23.016 23 Flexural Design of Reinforcements on Bottom Surface of Deck Slab Against Calculated () ve Moment on Interior Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural () ve Moment on Interior Span Strip of ()MDL+LLUSD 87.2 Times M & Nature Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr Factored of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Moment on Moment Equation Value Moment Moment of Section Back MDLUF 5.Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0. Steel Ratio.122 1.014 iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio.014 1. For () ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Top Surface.247 19.096 85. 0.
915 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max.637*10^3 N/m .276 n) Relation between c/deMax.750 116.637 kN/m 118. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section.C/C AsproTop.036 mm2/m mm.182 mm 107. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0. = Aspro*fy(d .C/C 100 mm. in mm.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Resisting Moment Mpro & Designed Moment MU. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.619 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.7.820 mm AsreqTop sreq spro. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. where.850 0. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. VMax = SVDL+LLUSD = VU Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK c/deMax.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro . or Not) v) Checking Against Max.1. DDectTop/2) d) With Design Moment MU .Surface. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) areq. Thus Maximum Shear Force. 118.3.(1 . 1.010. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.255 mm b1 c/depro 0.C/C = Af16. 2.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro & Allowable Max.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 100mm.3. 35. c 0. the required value of a = dpro*(1 .013 46.7.255 OK c/depro<c/demax. Steel Ratio rMax. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Face of Longitudinal Girder on Deck Slab Span Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. VU.42.450 39.3. Shear Force on Deck Slab.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqTop g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 100mm. dpro = (tSlabCCovTop.3.732. having c = b1apro. In Flexural Design c/de 0.
(Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure. thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.3.3 have Satisfied or Not). .9*de for the Section.) Vc Vs b 2.9).b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section.3.419*10^3 N/m N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0. 0. thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall is OK.16. Vp = 0.Here.31. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. value of 0. 5. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.72h f Vp..Thus value 0.900 N VnDeck 756.419 kN/m 1095. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.000 kN/m 756. here bv = b.000 mm 0. or bv.1.4. the Design Strip Width.3.419*10^3 N/m 756. (For RCC Structure Elements. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.6.3. vu = (VU .5.8.31).095. dv.3. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.8.3.600 mm 144.72h for the Section.8.2.8.000*10^3 N/m 1.000 Vp. In which. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2. 138.419 kN/m 1095. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASSHTOLRFD5.72h in mm. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.8.Equ.000*10^3 N/m 1. Where.9de or 0. which one is greater.00. Steel Ratio.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.8.32.8. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.083bf/cbvdv.3. 5.000 0. the Back Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement.5.000 mm 144. thus Vp = 0.000.000 kN/m 756.. is Whereas. 1.8.fVp)/fbvdv.9*de. (AASHTOLRFD. AASHTO8. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.33) in which. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tSlab Thickness of Deck Slab. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.095.  N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.
3.915 kNm 107.90 Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5.4. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section.3. if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.619 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation.507*10^6 Nmm 2 2. where.2.124*10^6 kNm 107.915 Nmm 107.000 mm fsa 2 1. 2 124.419 N/mm .4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.915*10^6 Nmm SMDL+LLUSD 87. b) fsDev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State at Section 44. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Deck Slab is being a Continuous Sturucture & for Design purpose it is being considered as Constituents of 1.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.364 N/mm ()MDL+LL44WSD 38. fsDev.7.vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. Mr 97.507 kNm 38.010. in Which. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.6fy.124 Nmm 97. The Steel Area against Factored Max.000 m Wide Strips. Mr = fMn. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. Aspro de 154.3. Moments on Main Girder Face will have the value of Nominal Resistance. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. (AASHTOLRFD5. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU on Face of Main Girder of Continuous Span Strip = () MDL+LLUSD MnTop 107.3.915*10^6 kNm 0.7. Where. which is the Highest one of () WSD values.014*10^6 Nmm Mr>Mu Satisfied f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment MU at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater.7.7. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.014 kNm 87. of Concrete Elements.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements.
< Zmax. Provided Steel Ratio < Max. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm.< fs fsa< 0.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress.600.6*fy for the Concrete Element. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. Clear Cover = 50mm. value of ZMax.000 mm 2 11. dc = DBar/2 + CCovTop. value of ZMax. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. . Allowable Max. < ZMax. ZMax. e) Based on fsDve. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. m) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.000 N/mm 0.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. Clear Cover = 50mm. 58.i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Back Wall fsDev. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. 124. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement.6fy Zdev.000 mm 23. DBar = 16f . thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. In a Component of Rectangular Section. the Flexural Design of Cantilever Slab section of Bridge Deck Slab is OK. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. & Developed value ZDev.6*fy 2 246. Crack Width Parameter. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Back Wall Structure. The Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max.6fy . thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Back Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.364 N/mm fsDev. = fsDev. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. CCovEarth = 50mm & Bar Dia. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev.*(dcA)1/3 ZDev. Steel Ratio.000.
DBottom.010. Af16. thus SMDL+LL33 is the Design Moment MU. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DBottom2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face.532 mm AsreqBot. Mpro 118.23 Flexural Design of Reinforcements on Bottom Surface of Deck Slab Against the (+) ve Moment on its Interior Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+ ve Moment on Interior Span Strip of Deck (+)MDL+LL33 85.C/C = Af16. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 100mm.096*10^6 Nmm/m b) Since (+)MDL+LL33 > Mr. = MU/(ffy(dpro .619 mm2/m ppro apro 0.(1 . 1.012 46.C/C AsproBot. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) MU 85.182 mm c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.062 mm 167. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro & Allowable Max.814 mm2/m mm.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqBot. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Resisting Moment Mpro & Designed Moment MU.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. For (+) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Bottom Surface.CCovBot. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section.525. sreq spro.000 mm areq. = Aspro*fy(d . 31.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 100mm.122 kNm/m Slab is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Bottom Reinforcement on Bridge Decl Slab. 23. Steel Ratio rMax.632 kNm/m Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK ./2) d) With Design Moment MU .122*10^6 Nmm/m Moment Governs the Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment Mr 23. 2.344 131. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro. depro. the required value of a = dpro*(1 . 16 mm 2 201. dpro = (tSlab.C/C 100 mm. Asreq.122 kNm/m 85.122*10^6 Nmm/m DBottom.096 kNm/m value.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. Thus Calculated 85.
Vc .9*de.094*10^3 N/m 3.1. VMax = SVDL+LLUSD = VU VU. here bv = b.235 OK c/depro<c/demax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.000 0.72h for the Section. or bv.. (Sinec the Deck Slab is a RCC Structure. 150.637*10^3 N/m c/deMax.300 mm 720. is Whereas.000 kN/m 3780. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Face of Longitudinal Girder on Deck Slab Span Strip which may Consider as Ultimate Shearing Force for the this Section also.094 kN/m 5477.094 kN/m 5477.000*10^3 N/m 5. c 0.3.32.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. having c = b1apro.Here. in mm.8.iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.083bf/cbvdv.5.31).3.000*10^3 N/m 5.2. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tSlab Thickness of Deck Slab.42.31.Thus Maximum Shear Force.477. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.3.3.637 kN/m 118.8.000 mm 0.9de or 0. (AASHTOLRFD.8. vu = (VU .450 39.72h f Vp. In Flexural Design c/de 0.7. or Not) v) Checking Against Max. Where.3. 0. which one is greater.fVp)/fbvdv. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.850 0.094*10^3 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0.8.72h in mm.188 q) Relation between c/deMax.780.. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.477. 1. 118.3.000 kN/m 3780.7. Shear Force on Deck Slab.3.255 mm b1 c/depro 0. 5.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.8. the Design Strip Width.9*de for the Section.900 N VnDeck 3. In which.9). thus Vp = 0. b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. dv. (AASSHTOLRFD5.Thus value 0.780.5.Equ. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.000. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.000 mm 720. where.3. value of 0.
632 kNm 118.769 Nmm 106. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.632*10^6 kNm 0.00. The Steel Area against Factored Max. (For RCC Structure Elements. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.000 m Wide Strips.632*10^6 Nmm SMDL+LL33USD 85.3. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU on Face of Main Girder of Continuous Span Strip = (+) MDL+LL33USD MnBot 118. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.769*10^6 kNm 118.2.3.  N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.8.) Vs  N/m b 2.3.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.3 have Satisfied or Not).8. the Back Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement.7.4. Mr 106.3. Steel Ratio. 5. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) .cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.8. if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) .33) in which.6.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.000 Vp. Mr = fMn. Moments on Main Girder Face will have the value of Nominal Resistance. thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.90 Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. where. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Deck Slab is being a Continuous Sturucture & for Design purpose it is being considered as Constituents of 1.3.122*10^6 Nmm Mr>Mu Satisfied f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment MU at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater.7. thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall is OK.632 Nmm 118. AASHTO8. Vp = 0.122 kNm 85.16. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.1. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.
468*10^6 Nmm 2 2. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. DBar = 16f . thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro.000 N/mm 0.619 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation.4. Where. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.3.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. 58.000.468 kNm 37. ZMax. . value of ZMax. 2 111. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.273 N/mm i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.000 mm 23. (AASHTOLRFD5. in Which. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea. b) fsDev. Clear Cover = 50mm. dc = DBar/2 + CCovTop.000 mm fsa 2 1. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Back Wall Structure. In a Component of Rectangular Section. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.6*fy for the Concrete Element. thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar.7. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max.6fy. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.600.7.010.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.586 N/mm ()MDL+LL33WSD 37. of Concrete Elements. CCovEarth = 50mm & Bar Dia. Aspro de 167.vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.6*fy 2 246.000 mm 2 11.3. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max.
67. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Back Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. & Developed value ZDev.000 % 67. DRActual% AsproBotMain. = fsDev.650.2.3840/(S) f) Allowable Maximum % of Distribution Reinforcement g) Actual % of Distribution Reinforcement h) Provided Main Reinforcement Steel Area in Primary Direction on Bottom Surface of Deck Slab = AsproBot.010.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress.7.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max.6fy . Crack Width Parameter. i) Required Distribution Reinforcement Steel Area for Bottom Surface Against Primary Reinforcement = AsproBotMain*DRActual*% j) Let proved 16f Bars as Distribution Reinforcement for Bottom Surface DR 94.< fs fsa< 0. < ZMax. b) For Primary Reinforcement Parallel to Traffic the Distribution Reinforcement will be 1750/(S) ≤ 50 Percent of the Main Reinforcemenr.6fy Zdev. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. Where for both cases S is Effective Span Length in mm as per Article9. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. Allowable Max.< Zmax.3 d) For Present Case Effective Span Length = 1550 mm S 1. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev.*(dcA)1/3 ZDev.115 mm /m DBotDist 16. on its Secondary Depiction Reinforcements should arranged according to Provisions of Article 9.e) Based on fsDve.7.000 mm .3. 24 Provision of Distribution Reinforcement for Bridge Dack Slab According to AASHTOLRFD9.000 % 2 2.3 : i) Calculation of Distribution Reinforcements for Bridge Dack Slab: a) The Bridge Deck Slab in which Reinforcements are being Provided in Primary Direction in both of its Top & Bottom Surfaces. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm.534 % DRMax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Back Wall fsDev.619 mm /m AsBotDist. c) For Primary Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic the Distribution Reinforcement will be 3840/(S) ≤ 67 Percent of the Main Reinforcemenr.586 N/mm fsDev.7.. 2 1.000 mm e) Since the Primary Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic thus Calculated Percent of Distribution Reinforcement ae per Formula . 111. value of ZMax.2 on Bottom Surface as Percentage of Primary Reinforcement against Positive Moment.347.
m) Provided Steel Area for Distribution Reinforcement with 16f Bars having 150 mm C/C Spacing = Af16.413 nos. Yet Reinforcements are required on Top Surface in Secondary Direction. In a Component having Less 1200mm Thickness.10. f) XSectional Area of 16f bar = pDBarS&TV&H2/4 g) Spacing required for 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature in Secondary Direction on Top Surface of Bridge Deck Slab = Af16*b/AsreqS&T LPrim. LSec.00 Times the Component's Thickness or 450mm. As 0. thus to Calculate the Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on both Faces in Primary & Secondary Directions a Strip is being Considered having Length of each Length of each Arm b = 1000mm.8. On Top Surface of Deck Slab in Secondary Direction Reinforcements can Arrange under Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements as Mentioned in Article5.% 66.10. k) Let the spacing of Distribution Reinforcement on Bottom with 16f bars.413 mm /m DRpro.293 mm AgStrip DTopS&TSec 2 1000000 mm 16 mm Af16 sreqS&T 2 201.1. thus the Provision of Distribution Reinforcement for Deck Slab is OK.8.062 mm 749. d) Here Ag is Gross Area of Strip on Deck Slab Surface = LPrim.1.000 m 1.000 m 1. b) Since the Thickness of Deck Slab is less than 1200mm. e) Let provide 16f bars as Shrinkage & Temperature in Secondary Direction on Top Surface of Deck Slab. Steel Area required as Shrinkage Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components having its Thickness 1200mm or Less.k) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DBotDist.340.000 m AsreqS&T 2 268./AsproBotMain)*100 Af16 sreq sproBotDist AsDistpro. b 1.b/spro n) Percentage of Provided Steel Area for Distribution Reinforcement Against Provided Main Reinforcement Steel Area = (AsDistpro.254 mm. 26 Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements in Secondary Direction on Top Surface of Deck Slab : a) On Deck Slab Flexural Reinforcements are being provided in Primary Direction both on Top & Bottom aginest the Calculated Moments.8. c) According to AASHTOLRFD5. h) According to AASHTOLRFD5.*LSec.11Ag/fy in both way.(Here Thickness = 200mm).10.2/4 l) Spacing of Distribution Reinforcement with 16f Bars = Af16b/AsBotDist.667 % OK Provision Satisfied o) Since the Provided Steel Area for Distribution Reinforcement is < 67% of Provided Main Reinforcement Steel Area. Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements should not Spaced further Apart than 3.062 mm 149. . whereas in Secondary Direction on Bottom Surface Reinforcements are being provided under provision of Distribution Reinforcement. 2 201.C/C 150 mmC/C 2 1.
b/sproS&T 3. Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements sAllowS&T2 300. the Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements Bars should not Exceed 300mm in Each Direction on all Faces and Steel Area of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements need not Exceed value of Ab = 0.000 mm /m l) Status between Provided Steel Area of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement & Allowable Max. . Steel Area for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement (Whether Ab > AsproS&T or not. åAb = 1. > AsreqS&TV&H.00*tSlab ii) Allowable Max.005. thus Provisions for the Shrinkage & Temperature on Surfaces of Cantilever Wing Wall is OK.i) 3. Since the Bridge Deck Slab is Continuous Concrete Structure.1. thus i) Allowable Max. & sproS&TV&H.C/C = Af16. If Ab < AsproS&TV&H . = sAllowS&TV&H2.0015Ag.310 mm2/m k) According to AASHTOLRFD5.0015Ag.00 Times of Cantilever Wing Wall Thickness = 3.8. j) The provided Steel Area with 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements having Spacing 200mm. Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements i) Let provide 200 mm Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements with 16f Bars in Secondary Direction on Top Surface of Bridge Deck Slab.000 mm 200 mm AsproS&TV&H 1.10.500. otherwise Not Satisfied) åAb > AsproS&T Satisfied m) Since Calculated Ab > AsproS&TV&H. then Provisions of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement have Satisfied.000 mm 450. For Components of Solid Structural Concrete Wall & Footing having Less 1200mm Thickness.000 mm 2 Ab = ii) Calculated value of Ab = 0.00*tSlab sAllowS&T sproS&T 600.
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Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line.GirderEdg. FXGirderH.000 nos 2.000 m 0.000 m 1. Shear & Moments of RCC Main Girders under Strength Limit State of Design (USD) : Description 1 Structural Data : i) Dimentions of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) wi) wii) x) y) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl. F. 24. NXGirder.350 m 0. FMGirderV. C/CDGirder.300 m 1.225 m 1. WXGirder. tSlab.000 nos 5.000 m 7.075 m 5.300 m 3.000 nos 2.125 m 1.250 m 2.075 m 0.400 m 0.250 m 0. CDExt.200 m 0.. ASupVert. FMGirderH.Girder. hXGirder.000 m 6. PW&B.350 m 0.150 m 0. WCarrWay. C/CDXGirder. LGir. FXGirderV. hGir. hRPost. Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) XGirder in Vertical Direction vi) XGirder in Horizontal Direction z) Vertical Surface Area of Superstructure's Exposed Elements SL SAddl.250 m 0. C/CDRPost. ii) Number of Traffic Lane on Bridge Deck: a) Number of Design Traffic Lane = WCarr.way is Clear Carriageway Width in between Curbs in mm NLane.225 m 10. WGirder.650 m 0. hCurb. WRPost.150 m 0. 2.075 m 2 87. Calculations for Load.way/3600 = 7300/3600 Where WCarr.175 m 0.100 m 1. WBDeck. Rnos. RW&D.070 m 0.700 m 0. ClDInt.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).028 2 nos nos @ Page 131 .300 m 25. WSWalk.108 m Notation DImentions Unit.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Total Girder Length (a+2b) Carriageway Width Width of Side Walk on Each Side Width of Curb/Wheel Guard Width of Railing Curb/Post Guard Total Width of Bridge Deck Width & Depth of Railings Width & Breath of Railing Post Height of Railing Post Height of Wheel Guard/Curb Number of Railings on each Side C/C distance between Railing Posts Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance between Main Girders & Flange Width C/C Distance between Cross Girders in Longitudinal Direction .STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. WCurb. tWC NGirder.
16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).1. 3. 3 v) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.000 72.003100 N/mm/mmWd. iv) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.232 2.300 145.300*1000/1000)kN/m b) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9. gs 2.1.800 4.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 Page 132 .25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .447. LLRWLoad LLRSLoad LLMWLoad LLMSLoad LLFWLoad LLFSLoad 1. gWSali.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction. g = LLLane 9.600 kN/m 2 9.019.000 17.600*103MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk. DWheel. ii) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel.500 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN iii) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.500 145.500 35.300/3.000m Wide Dcak Strip in Transverse Direction.345.003600 N/mm 2 3.172 1.000kN/m/mWd.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.680 1.. LLPedest 2 0.000 72.100 kN/m/mWd.835.1) 2 Design Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).300N/mm through the Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane of Bridge & acting over a 3.300 9. (ASSHTO LRFD3. 0.300 N/mm kN/m LLLaneInt.264 1.6. Thus Intensity of Lane Load per meter Length & for per meter Width = 9.045. Thus Lane Load per meter Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane = (9.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor. b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading.
12). 1.2.000 8. d) Poisson's Ration = 0. a Factor related to Ductility.4.6).4. ηD ηi = ηD = 1. (ASSHTO LRFD1.000 MPa 200000.63f/c = 0.50f/c = 0. 3 vi) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWaterNor. ηi is Load Modifier having values ηi = ηD ηR ηI 0.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa. For Strength Limit State. Qi = Force Effect.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410.4.2. Ec = 0. Es for fy = 410 MPa viii) Other Design Related Data : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 3 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = Σ ηigiQi f Rn = Rr.3.000 ηR ηi = ηR = 1.2.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility.250 18. & ηi = 1/(ηD ηR ηI ) 1.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect.000 ηi = ηI = 1. 1.3.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. ηi = Load Modifier.200 km/hr km/hr m/s f/c fc Ec 21.000 10.000 VWLNor. Redundancy and Operational Functions. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Load Condition (SLC) = 0.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy .855. Rn = Nominal Resitance.043*24^(1. (AASHTO LRFD5.2. (ASSHTO LRFD1.2.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). fr = 0.000 260.4. (ASSHTO LRFD1.5).25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .000 4.. wEatrh 24.620 2.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 vii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.000 10.4).000 MPa Page 133 .2. f) Steel Ultimate strength.887 fr fy ES 2. VWLSpe.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.13) Here: gi = Load Factor. ηl 1.11 & 3.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement. f = Resistance Factor. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.000 23.043gc1.63*21^(1/2).400 23. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance.11) Where.3. VWA 90. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable. wWaterSali.
25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .4.4.. i) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.1.DW . Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation. value of Table 3.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .750 1.350 gES 1.4. 1. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.1.2. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls.750 1.4.500 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. (Max.500 gEH 1. value of Table 3. value of Table 3.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. (Max.12) gDC 1. gLLCE.4.4.6. Limit State of STRENGTHIII (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTHIV (Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . (Max.250 gDW 1. Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV . (Max. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. value of Table 3.500 gEV 1. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE m 1.2.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.4.11. Table 3.750 1.000 gLLTruck IM 1. value of Table 3.330 gLLLane gLLPL.1.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .4.750 Page 134 . Table 3.4. but those would be occasional.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.1.6.1. 4 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr). c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. Table 3.6.
000 1.526 37.UD 8. DLExtGirSelf& Atta. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV STRENGTH . 1. gLLWA. DLExt.750 1.340 kN/m DLExtGirWC+ Utility.III STRENGTH . 1. 1.000 gLLEQ. 34. 1. b) Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to WC. gLLWL gLLFR. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).203 kN/m DLExtGirXGir. & Utilities for per meter Length of Girder c) Concentrated Dead Load on Exterior Girder from to 1 no.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).543 kN kN/m Page 135 . Exterior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Dead Load on.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .000 1.V gLLBR.750 1. gLLLS. gLLCV..000 gLLSH. 1. gLLTU.000 gLLTG.000 5 Load Calculations for Superstructural Components & Attachments (DL & LL) per meter Length of Girder: i) Dead Loads on 1 no. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR . Exterior Girder due to Self Wt. 1. Cross Girder d) Sumation of Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. 3. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLCT. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gLLCR. gLLWS. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1.400 1.& Attachments (Without WC & Utilies) for per meter Length of Girder.000 gLLSE.
500 kN 1. Interior Girder due to Wheel Load & Lane Load according to Provisions of Page 136 .100N/m/mWd..06 kN LLExtWheelFront.4 & 3.1.6.475 0.2.300kN/m Lane Load on 0. i) From Front Wheel (Sketch Diagram) = 10.000kN/m 2 on Sidewalk on each side (From Sketch Diagram) = 4.800 1.225 7. & Rear Wheel Load = Front Wheel Load = 72. ii) Dead Loads on 1 no.950 0. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load at distance 0.& Attachments (Without WC & Utilies) for per meter Length of Girder.300 1.500 kN/m iv) Live Loads (LL) on 1 no.650 1.500 kN 17.650 1. (From Sketch Diagram) = 2.1. on 0.650m Width from Wheel Guard Face up to Middle point between Two Girders.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. 25.250 b) LL on 1 no.250 1. DLInttGirSelf & Atta.125 10.950 1.600m from Wheel Guard Face.650 1.6. ii) From Midd. 4.2. c) LL on 1 no.200 0.600 1. b) Dead Load on Interior Girder from WC.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .2.250 0.070 9.015 kN kN kN/m LLExtPedes.6.000 2. Lane Load & Pedestrian Load according Provisions of AASHTOLRFD3.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). DLInt.125 2.000 1. Exterior Girder due to Lane Load Uniformly Distributed over Full Bridge Length with Intensity of 3.69 kN LLExtWheelMid& Rear.650 0. 10.710 kN/m kN kN/m iii) Live Loads (LL) on 1 no.UD 3. DLIntGirXGir.450 17.688 2.063 41.Interior Girder due to Self Wt.053 28.50 kN/m LLExtLane. & Rear Wheel (do) = 41.000 CL 2. for per meter Length of Girder c) Concentrated Dead Load on Interior Girder from to 1 no.6 : a) Sketch Diagram For Distribution of Wheel Load. Cross Girder d) Sumation of Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder.260 kN/m DLIntGirWC.300 0. Interior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Dead Load on. Exterior Girder due to Pedestrian Load Uniformly Distributed over Sidewalk on Full Bridge Length with Intensity of 4.00 2.1. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load.02 kN/m d) LL on 1 no. 3. Lane Load & Pedestrian Load on Exterior Girders : Midd.3 0.
25 1.125 10.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .4 & 3. & Utilities for FDLExtGirWC+ Utility.729 kN/m Page 137 .250 kN ii) Load from Midd.070 9.1.300kN/m on 3.250 0.800m LLIntWheelMid& Rear.000 2.250 b) LL on 1 no.6. 3.800 1.225 0.1.1.925 kN/m 26.500 1.950 0. 4. =.650 1.200 kN/m 5 Factored Loads of Superstructure Components & Attachments (DL & LL) : i) Factored Dead Loads on 1 no. per Merter Length = gDW*DLExt. 42.250 108.000 2.475 0.200 0.650 1. upon Girder & the other Line of Wheels at Axle Distance .200 0.750 kN c) LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Factored Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to Self Wt.750 kN kN 6.6.300 0.000m Width (From Sketch Diagram) = 6.804 kN/m c) Factored Concentrated Dead Load on Exterior Girder from to 1 no.200 1.000 1. FDLExtGirXGir.300kN/m Lane Load on 9.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY)..300 0. 10.200 kN/m b) Factored Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to WC.6.650 1. i) Load from Front Wheel (From Sketch Diagram) = 26.500m) from Middle point of a Girder & action for Girder with 2.500 17. Interior Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Lane Load over LLIntLane.000m Width of Deck having Equally distance (1.925 kN/m 42.804 kN/m 10.1.300 1.125 2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.650 0. & Rear Wheel Load = Front Wheel Load = 72.300kN/m Lane Load on 72. Cross Girder = gDC*DLExtGirXGir.GirWC+Utility = 4.500 17.950 1.2.2.800 1.6 : a) Sketch Diagram For Distribution of Wheel Load & Lane Load on Interior Girders : Midd.Interior Girder due to Wheel Load with One Line of Wheels LLIntWheelFront.658 kN FDLExt. = FDLExtGirSelf & Atta.& Attachments (Without WC) for per Meter Length = gDC*DLExtGirSelf& Atta. AASHTOLRFD3.000 CL 2. & Rear Wheel (From Sketch Diagram) = 108.658 kN d) Sumation of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder.UD 47. Full Bridge Length having Intensity of 9.500 kN kN 7.2.
Cross Girder = gDC*DLIntGirXGir. = 97. Interior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Factored Dead Load on Interior Girder due to Self Wt. 23.420 kN ii) Load from Midd.175 kN/m c) Factored Concentrated Dead Load on Interior Girder from to 1 no.420 97.& Rear Wheel=mgLLTruck*IM*LLIntWheelMid&Rear.316 kN FDLInt. = b) Factored Dead Load on Interior Girder due to WC. Exterior Girder due to Lane Load = mgLLLane*LLExtLane. 21.& Attachments (Without WC) for per Meter Length = gDC*DLIntGirSelf& Atta.Interior Girder due to Wheel Load i) Load from Front Wheel = mgLLTruck*IM*LLIntWheelFront = 61.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. 61.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .575 kN/m FDLIntGirWC+ Utility. FLLExtWheelMid& Rear. = 10.028 kN b) Factored LL on 1 no. = 3.526 kN/m FLLExtPedes. = 7.097 kN ii) Load from Midd. c. 31. ii) Factored Dead Loads on 1 no. iii) Factored Live Loads on Different Components for 1 no. 21. = 253. 3.& Rear Wheel=mgLLTruck*IM*LLExtWheelMid&Rear. Moments: Page 138 .g Point : a) Sketch Diagram Showing Wheels Loads of Truck.116 kN b) Factored LL on 1 no. 7..028 kN kN FDLInttGirSelf & Atta.175 kN/m FDLIntGirXGir. Interior Girder : a) Factored LL on 1 no. of Wheels & Location of MidWheel under the Provisions of Absulate Max.750 kN/m FLLExtLane. & Utilities for per Merter Length = gDW*DLInt. Exterior Girder : i) From Front Wheel = mgLLTruck*IM*LLExtWheelFront = 23. =.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).g. 31.401 kN/m FLLIntWheelMid& Rear.116 kN FLLIntWheelFront. Interior Girder due to Lane Load for per meter Length = mgLLLane*LLIntLane.UD 36. 10.GirWC = 5.850 kN/m 6 Shear & Moments at different Positions of an Exterior Girder due to Factored Loads (DL& LL) from Superstructure Components & Attachments : i) Arrangement of Wheel Loads for Exteriod Girder & c. 253.316 kN d) Sumation of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder.097 kN FLLExtWheelFront. 11.575 kN/m 5.526 kN/m c) Factored LL on 1 no. Exterior Girder due to Pedestrian Load = mgLLPL*LLExtPedes.875 kN/m d) Summation of Factored LL of Exterior Girder for per meter Length due to Lane Load & Pedestrian Loads iv) Factored Live Loads of Different Components for 1 no.875 kN/m FLLExt.850 kN/m FLLIntLane.
of Wheel 2.375 FDLExtAll = FLLExtLanePed = m LSpan = LTotal = 24.729 kN/m 11.100 m m 0.300 m 3.100 m 6.375 FDLExtAll = 47.000 kN Rear 4..g. Wheel Positions under c.028 kN 23.Mid*4. Reactions at Supports due to Different DL.300))/(2*145.728 m Front 35.g. L /4 9.028 kN 2.845 m b) Calculations for Center of Gravity (cg) Position of Truck with Wheel Load in Respect of Rear Wheel.g.40 m 25.g. Distance from Rear Wheel = (Wt.g.300 m Rear Wheel Positions under c.658 kN 10.Fornt*(2*4.420 kN Rear Middle Front 4.658 kN 10.100 m 6.050 m m A 0. LLLane Load & LLWheel Load : XGirder1 XGirder2 XGirder3 XGirder4 XGirder5 10.g Provisions. = 11. 145.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . of Wheels from Rear Wheel)/2 dMidWheel 0.300 4.100 m 0. m CL of Girder CL of Bearing CL of Bearing L /2 12. under Absulate Max.658 kN 0.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).000 kN c.g. Moment Provision = (Distance beteen 2Wheel . Different Locations for Shear & Moments Including Max.300 6.150 2.728 m Front Wheel Positions under c.g.300 4.100 m 6.845 4.728 m d) Sketch Diagram of Factored Wheel Loads for Exterior Girder : 97.300 c.000) c) Calculation Mid Wheel Position in Respect of Girder c.00 m Page 139 .g Provisions.200 m Midd.Wheel 2.401 kN/m 0. m 3L/8 0.300+Wt.845 m Middle 145.845 c. 97.300 0.658 kN 10.000+35.300 L /8 6.300 e) Sketch Diagram of Girder with Factored Uniformly Distributed & Concentrated DL & LL. of Girder 0.g Provisions.000 kN c.Distance of c.658 kN 10.729 kN/m FLLExtLanePed.401kN/m B 47.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. c.
= 26.610 kN RBDLXGir.g. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.375m 220. Slab. WC.g.732 L/2 0.663 b) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Concentrated Dead Load from Cross Girders (FDLExtGirXGir. RADL = 596. 34.g.061 L/2 0.146 5.393 15. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Exterior Girder.329 Table6iib2.000 0.): Table6iic1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).987 580.380 L/8 436. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Applied Dead Loads on Exterior Girder.000 0.573 5.610 kN RADLXGir.987 L/8 15. Position) RBDL = 596.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.329 Concentrated Loads in kN Total Dead Load Shear in kN Table6iic2.000 Table6iia2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Exterior Girder.291 0. Factored Moments due to all Applied Dead Loads on Exterior Girder.224 (Max. Location From SupportA On Support 0.146 3L/8 145. Position) ii) Calculation of Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder Against Applied Factored Loads : a) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk.516 kN RALLWh.375m 564. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 582.): Table6iia1. 126.375m 564.326 3L/8 3460.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .573 c.993 c. Factored Shearing Forces due to Concentrated Dead Loads of XGirder on Exterior Girder. 3724.= 102.718 L/4 291.): Table6iib1.329 5.373 L/8 1597.000 5.329 c.516 kN RBLLWh. Attachments.375m 15.774 c.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 c. Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExtAll & FDLExtGirXGir.329 296.g.329 L/2 5.g.149 L/2 130. L/2 Page 140 .475 3L/8 145.902 c.= 115.987 598.375m 5.329 150.027 c) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk.987 L/4 5.645 kN RALLL = 142.329 40.520 3L/8 113.995 L/8 48. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 15. Utilities.732 5. Slab.645 kN RBLLL = 142. 34..g.987 0.329 3L/8 5. 5.252 kN (Max.291 15. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder.760 L/4 97.393 L/8 436.987 452.446 L/2 3726. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0. Utilities.= 26.661 L/4 2751.278 0. Location From SupportA Uniformly Distributed Load in kN On Support 582. Attachments.g.705 L/4 291. Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExtAll & FDLExtGirXGir. WC.718 15.
196 83.375m 52.149 3850. Poisition B A 102.095 0. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support.028 On Support 95. A B 164.224 Rear Wheel at L/2.375m.520 2848. A B 83.000 220. A B 188.937 Rear Wheel at L/4.536 Rear Wheel at Support.297 L/2 0. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 139.644 18.541 78.375m 134. 8. A B 83.293 1011. A B 192. B A 161.000 0.568 Midd.000 Table6iid2.568 Midd. A B 137. Factored Moments on Exterior Girder due to Live WheelLoad (LL) .702 1072. Page 141 . A B 110.027 3856.224 Rear Wheel at L/2.059 840.767 3724. For Uniformly Distributed in kNm 0. A B 137.661 48. Factored Shearing Forces on Exterior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) .491 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.792 503.421 2751.548 3L/8 34.690 For Concentrated in kNm Total Monents in kN d) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Live Live Load & Pedestrian Loads (FLLExtLanePed) : Table6iid1.g.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2 c. Wheel on c.760 1646.752 67. B A 95. A B 164.780 Rear Wheel at L/8.375m. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0. AB 192.384 56. Factored Shearing Forces on Exterior Girder due to Live WheelLoad (LL) .g.641 Rear Wheel at L/8.820 L/8 104.368 1597.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2 Table6iie2. A B 110.595 3726.663 130.753 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.276 Rear Wheel at L/4. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support.780 Rear Wheel at L/8.326 97.g.774 c. Wheel on c.774 3574.200 31. 993.747 c. B A 84. B A 162. Poisition A B 115.321 L/4 69.359 1017.375m.094 91.000 0. AB 188. Locatio From SupportA Support Positon of Rear/Midd.643 L/4 657. Locatio From SupportA Support Positon of Rear/Midd. Factored Moments on Exterior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) .285 0.092 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.917 L/2 890.415 12.122 Rear Wheel at 0. B A 97.910 40.725 13. Wheel on c.753 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.446 126.000 0.899 Rear Wheel at 0.993 113.373 5.384 On Support 0.832 13.122 Rear Wheel at 0.000 0.000 70.937 Rear Wheel at L/4.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY)..642 L/8 381.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .384 Midd.g. Poisition A B 115.846 3460.252 Rear Wheel at L/2.210 e) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Girder due to Applied Live Wheel Loads (FLLExtWheel) : Table6iie1.995 226.g. BA 134.225 3L/8 826.128 1.g.
092 161. Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application : Table6iif1. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a.642 70.936 L/4 kN 296.899 95.871 L/2 kNm 3856.643 503. Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application : Table6iie1. Poisition B A Rear Wheel at L/2. Moments: 145.705 104.000 0. of Girder 0.536 97. Wheel Live Load (WLLExt) Total Shears on Each Point On Support kN 598.475 69.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).g Point : a) Sketch Diagram Showing Wheels Loads of Truck.541 199. Lane+Ped.276 162.826 258.g. Dead Load (FDLExt) b.g. of Wheel 2.(LL) (FL&PLExt) c.Wheel 2.845 m Middle 145.000 kN Rear 4.902 34.690 890. B A Rear Wheel at L/4. B A Rear Wheel at Support.702 5413.043 1072.216 c.329 0. c. Sum.216 c.278 139. B A Rear Wheel at 0.185 7 Factored Shear & Moments at different Positions of an Interior Girder due to Factored Loads (DL& LL) from Superstructure Components & Attachments : i) Arrangement of Wheel Loads for Interiod Girder & c.359 1017.210 1017.747 1011. of Factored Max.845 m b) Calculations for Center of Gravity (cg) Position of Truck with Wheel Load in Page 142 .943 574. of Factored Max. B A Rear Wheel at L/8.252 134. Midd.889 857. Wheel Live Load (FWLLExt) Total Moments on Each Point On Support kNm 0.774 13.618 L/8 kNm 1646.g.792 106.375m kNm 226.(LL) (FLLExt) a. B A 102.321 67.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads (DL).728 m Front 35. Dead Load (FDLExt) b. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads (DL).747 3L/8 kN 150. B A Rear Wheel at 3L/8.000 kN c.g.375m kN 580.752 806. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Exterior Girder.956 e) Table showing the Max.000 0. Wheel on c.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .001 L/2 kN 5.285 5764.g.285 1011. Sum. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a.g.917 1072.910 624.285 f) Table showing Max.094 832.123 L/4 kNm 2848.061 8.364 3L/8 kNm 3574.028 0.300 4. of Wheels & Location of MidWheel under the Provisions of Absulate Max. Lane + Ped.000 0.297 1072.225 840.380 134.951 L/8 kN 452.421 381.375m.g.000 kN c.359 5916.300 c.059 2531.095 95.820 91.000 0.595 993.846 657. kNm 3850.000 1017.000 35.359 1024.468 0. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Exterior Girder.548 40.767 826.725 406.293 4346.368 52.641 84.. kN 40.
000) c) Calculation Mid Wheel Position in Respect of Girder c.g. Different Locations for Shear & Moments Including Max.728 61.100 m XGirder4 21.= 266.845 c.300 m XGirder3 21.744 kN (Max.100 m m 3L/8 9.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .728 m m XGirder2 21.300 m CL of Bearing m Rear Wheel Positions under c.050 6. = 10.Distance of c..625 kN RALLWh. Distance from Rear Wheel = (Wt.100 m XGirder5 21.g. c. Position) RADL = 459.000+35.Mid*4.316 kN 6.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).850kN/m B FDLExtAll = FLLExtLanePed = 36.100 m CL of Girder c.100 CL of Bearing L /2 12.= 53. of Wheels.g.g. 253. Respect of Rear Wheel.300+Wt.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.150 2.375 kN RBDLXGir.584 (Max. LLLane Load & LLWheel Load : XGirder1 21.290 kN RALLL = 135.= 53.316 kN 0. Reactions at Supports due to DL.300))/(2*145. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.300 m A 0.g. Midd.750kN/m FLLIntLanePed.290 kN RBLLL = 135.000 m m RBDL = 459. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g.316 0.300 kN 6.300 4.850 kN/m 0.= 300. 4. Front Wheel Positions under c.845 m m 0.316 kN 6.Fornt*(2*4.g Provisions.300 e) Sketch Diagram of Girder with Uniformly Distributed Factored DL & LL. of Wheels from Rear Wheel)/2 dMidWheel 0.728 m d) Sketch Diagram Showing Factored Wheel Loads for Interior Girder : 253.097 kN Rear Middle Front 4.300 0.375 kN RADLXGir.750 kN/m 10. FDLIntAll = 36.116 kN 0.116 kN 2.g.g Provisions.g Provisions.375 L /8 3.400 25. under Absulate Max. Position) ii) Calculation of Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder Against Applied Factored Loads : Page 143 .375 m LSpan = LTotal = 24. Wheel Positions under c.200 m L /4 0.625 kN RBLLWh.316 kN 6. Moment Provision = (Distance beteen 2Wheel .
658 Table7iib2.263 L/4 224. Utilities.): Table7iib1.000 0.g.454 3L/8 2664.733 L/2 2869. a) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk.833 3L/8 112.. Factored Shearing Forces due to Concentrated Dead Loads of XGirder on Interior Girder.974 466.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .375m 169.g.000 0.682 11.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.160 97. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0. Slab.454 195. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder.658 L/2 10.031 L/2 2869. 2867. 10.974 L/8 31.088 10.263 31.175 3L/8 112.g.375m 434.569 L/8 336.569 31.543 L/8 336.350 31.): Table7iia1.880 227.): Table7iic1.990 181.520 1327.520 L/4 195. Slab.743 L/2 0. Attachments.495 3L/8 2664.494 For Concentrated Load Total Monents in kNm d) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Live Live Load & Pedestrian Loads (FLLIntLanePed) : Table7iid1.054 3129.672 L/8 1230. Attachments. Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) .990 L/8 97.324 0. 2867. Factored Moments due to Concentrated Dead Loads of XGirder on Interior Girder.440 b) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Concentrated Dead Load from Cross Girders (FDLExtGirXGir.299 L/2 260.974 0. Location From SupportA For Uniformly Distributed Loads On Support 448.733 252.974 480. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 448. 26.041 2313. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Applied Dead Loads on Interior Girder.g.000 0.682 L/8 1230.658 c. Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLIntAll & FDLIntGirXGir.658 3L/8 10.375m 31.175 10.000 0. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0.548 c.236 L/4 224. Factored Moments due to all Applied Dead Loads on Interior Girder.350 0.375m 11.375m 434.974 368.974 L/4 10.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).g.g.054 c) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk. Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExtAll & FDLExtGirXGir.658 234. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 31. Location From SupportA For Uniformly Distributed Load On Support 0.743 10. 26.880 c.658 37.088 c.401 L/2 0.548 2892.681 L/4 2118. WC. 252.658 For Concentrated Loads Total Dead Load Shear in kN Table7iic2.000 10.000 Table7iia2. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Interior Girder. WC.658 122.299 3120.428 c.160 L/4 2118.000 0.041 3L/8 227. Utilities.658 10.745 c.375m 169.440 260. Page 144 .
439 Midd.786 2797. Poisition A B 300.781 2588.370 0. B A 253.g. A B 288. Poisition B A 266.247 Rear Wheel at 3L/8. B A 249.744 Rear Wheel at L/2. B A 420.895 L/2 0.g. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 132. Poisition B A 266.523 Midd. Wheel on c. A B 359.584 Rear Wheel at L/2.081 146.607 81.000 0.000 0. BA 223.072 239. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads Page 145 . AB 492.247 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.380 2132.185 3L/8 33.774 c. B A 223.324 205.375m 128. B A 420. A B 430. Locatio From SupportA Support Positon of Rear/Midd.280 Rear Wheel at L/8.721 Rear Wheel at L/4.375m 50. 7.523 Midd.g. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support.278 L/4 66.375m.g. Wheel on c.240 35.744 Rear Wheel at L/2.226 Rear Wheel at Support. B A 424. B A 424.188 Rear Wheel at 0. A B 217.301 L/8 99.476 Rear Wheel at 0. 945. B A 221.457 1109.648 35.272 Rear Wheel at L/4.639 3.353 177.069 2639. A B 217.221 2797. B A 253.328 2192.468 Rear Wheel at L/8. B A 221.676 1312. Wheel on c.116 On Support 248.g.116 On Support 0.000 0.951 31. B A 249.890 0. A B 430.000 184.439 Midd.457 2653.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2 Table7iie2. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support.721 Rear Wheel at L/4.156 106.584 Rear Wheel at L/2. f) Table showing Max.375m.096 L/8 363. Factored Moments on Interior Girder due to Live WheelLoad (LL) .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Factored Moments on Interior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) .448 3L/8 786. Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Girder due to Live WheelLoad (LL) .861 L/2 847.476 Rear Wheel at 0.375m. A B 359. A B 492. A B 288.592 47.280 Rear Wheel at L/8. Wheel on c. Poisition A B 300.468 Rear Wheel at L/8.226 Rear Wheel at Support.375m.000 Table7iid2.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2 c.g. A B 501.499 675.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.g.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0.093 c.468 344.168 e) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Girder due to Applied Live Wheel Loads (FLLIntWheel) : Table7iie1.502 93.356 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.460 0.. Locatio From SupportA Support Positon of Rear/Midd.188 Rear Wheel at 0. AB 501.356 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.190 L/4 625.272 Rear Wheel at L/4.
495 625. L2d = 2de m d) Shear Force due to Dead Load. FWLLInt.448 2192.370 248.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .350 L/2 kNm 3129. Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application : Table7iif1. Sum.375m kN 466.250 e) Table showing the Max.328 3003. e) Shear Force due to Live Lane Load.190 1312.000 0.786 6630.768 160. Lane+Ped. FLLInt*L2d f) Shering Force due to Live Wheel Load with Rear Wheel at a Distance from Support Point.658 0.g. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a. FSF2d = FDL2d + FLLL2d + FWLL2d d 1. Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads (DL).494 847.000 mm.766 0. c) Distance of 2d Loacation from Support Point (Bearing Point).000 0. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. Here d = de = 1886. Dead Load (FDLExt) b..428 786.96 kN 94. Wheel Live Load (WLLExt) Total Shears on Each Point On Support kN 480.(LL) (FL&PLExt) c.764 L/2 kN 10.WheelLLRear g) Total Factored Shear Force at a Distance 2*d from Support.766 m FDL2d FLLLdv FWLL2d 352.449 8 Factored Shear Forces at a Distance 2d from Face of Support for Interior Girder : a) d is Effective Depth of Neutral Axis of Tensial Reinforcement from the Extrm Compression Fiber of TGirder for the Section. (DL).423 c.324 191.2.883 m L2d 3. = RWLLA . Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application : Table7iie1.162 c.861 2797.353 834.8.069 5131.199 L/4 kNm 2313.375m kNm 181. FDLInt*L2d FDLIntGirXGir. of Factored Max. Wheel Live Load (FWLLExt) Total Moments on Each Point On Support kNm 0.000 mm for Interior Girder from Support Face.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.712 m Page 146 .457 6863.401 7.517 kN kN Vu2d 608.468 92. FLLL2d = RLLLA .000 35.236 99.185 106.278 177. of Factored Max.774 2639. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder.543 128. Sum.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).156 644.135 L/8 kNm 1327.324 132.096 184.000 0.000 0.592 46.249 kN 9 Factored Shear Forces & Moments at a Distance dv from Face of Support for Interior Girder : i) Factored Shear Forces at a Distance dv from Face of Support for Interior Girder : a) dv is Effective Shear Depth of TGirder at a Section according to provision of AASHTOLRFD5.672 50.895 47.221 6318. dv 1. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a.833 66.(LL) (FLLExt) a.9 with a value dv = 1. Lane + Ped.697.072 860.240 407.676 278.745 33.011 3L/8 kNm 2892.168 2653. kNm 3120. FDL2d = RDLA .093 35.670 L/4 kN 234.301 239.681 363.258 3L/8 kN 122.197 L/8 kN 368. Dead Load (FDLExt) b.031 945. kN 37.g.
= RWLLA . of Wheels. = RDLAll *Ldv .100 XGirder5 8.g Provisions. FDLdv = RDLA .100 m Rear Wheel Positions under c.100 DLExtUDL = 41. FLLInt*Ldv e) Shering Force due to Live Wheel Load with Rear Wheel at a Distance Ldv from Support Point.904 kN ii) Moments at a Distance dv from Face of Support for Interior Girder due to Factored Forces : a) Moment due to Dead Load.543 kN/m 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .FDLInt*Ldv2/2FDLIntGirXGir. = RLLLA *Ldv .375 LSpan = LTotal = RADLUDL = 469. Wheel Positions under c.300 6.369 112. FDLInt*Ldv FDLIntGirXGir. XGirder1 XGirder2 8.100 CL of Girder XGirder4 8.100 m 6. FSFdv = FDLdv + FLLLdv + FWLLdv Ldv 2.*Ldv b) Moment due to Live Lane Load.329 259.375 B DLExtUDL= 37.398 774.282 kN Page 147 .875 1.526 kN m 6.983 199.20 0. Midd.087 m FDLdv FLLLdv FWLLdv 361.602 kNm kNm kNm kNm 10 Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) Sketch Diagram showing required Locations of Exterior Girder for Moments including Unfactored Dead Load.000 m RBDLUDL = 469.979. 4.375+ dv) m c) Shear Force due to Dead Load. MdvDL MdvLLL MdvLWL MdvDL+LL 945.g Provisions.845 9.g Provisions.526 kN m 0.05 6.863kN/m A 0.150 L /8 3.WheelLLRear f) Total Factored Shear Force at a Distance dv from Support Face.526 kN 8.300 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).551 kN kN kN Vudv 673.300 c.FLLInt*Ldv2/2 c) Moment Wheel Loads having Rear Wheel on Critica Section d) Total Factored Moment at Critical Section due to Dead & Live Lodes. Front Wheel Positions under c.526 kN m 6. Ldv = (L0. d) Shear Force due to Live Lane Load. FWLLInt. b) Distance of Loacation from Support Point (Bearing Point).300 12.300 m CL of Bearing L /2 3L /8 L /4 0. CL of Bearing XGirder3 8.526 kN 0.728 2.400 m 25. FLLLdv = RLLLA .282 kN 24..g.
139 78.375m kNm 173.g.016 1039.11b1.019 2813.375 LSpan = LTotal = RADLUDL = RADLGir = 358.100 DLIntUDL = 33.263. 4.g.632 kN 24.710 kN/m 0.875 kN 42.100 m 6. of Wheels.300 0. RADLXGir = 21.559 9.300 12.g Provisions.053 kN m 6.000 m RBDLUDL = RBDLXGir = 358..000 0.689 39.720 Page 148 .200 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Moments due to Unfactored Uniformly Distribute & Concentrated Dead Loads : Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit Uniformlu Distribute Load Concentrated Dead Load Total Unfactored Moment On Support kNm 0.875 42.g Provisions.300 6.576 100.016 2242. kNm 2929. Wheel Positions under c.155 3L/8 kNm 2722.053 kN m 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .008 1295. kNm 2240.908 c.300 c.081.10b1.845 9.657 2.300 m CL of Bearing L /2 3L /8 L /4 0.033 1811.449.349 91.100 CL of Girder XGirder4 17.137 L/8 kNm 1256. Moments due to Unfactored Uniformly Distribute & Concentrated Dead Loads : Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit Uniformlu Distribute Load Concentrated Dead Load Total Unfactored Moment On Support kNm 0.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Front Wheel Positions under c.496 L/2 kNm 2931.000 0.053 kN 17.152 L/8 kNm 961.021 3L/8 kNm 2.368 c.000 0.100 m Rear Wheel Positions under c.044 2. CL of Bearing XGirder3 17.796 178.342 11 Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) Sketch Diagram showing required Locations of Interior Girder for Moments including Unfactored Dead Load.988 156.677 208. XGirder1 XGirder2 17.053 kN m 6.000 L/2 kNm 2241.050 6.g.697 L/4 kNm 2164.100 XGirder5 17.048 L/4 kNm 1654.467.000 0.400 m 25.053 kN 0.316 kN RBDLXGir = 21.000 0.632 kN kN b) Moment at Different Section of Interior Girder due to Uniformly Distributed & Concentrated Dead Load Table.000 0.919 3030.870 182.150 L /8 3.592 142.320 104.031 78. Midd.g Provisions.316 kN b) Moment at Different Section of Exterior Girder due to Uniformly Distributed & Concentrated Dead Load Table.343 226.341 4.022 3035.375 B DLIntUDL= 28.728 2.030kN/m A 0.375m kNm 132.038 2.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Page 149 ..25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
mWd.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.. Page 150 .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
028 2 nos nos @ .150 m 0.300 m 3.225 m 1.000 m 0. FMGirderH.000 m 1. WCarrWay. 2.400 m 0.075 m 5. tWC NGirder.075 m 0.Girder. Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) XGirder in Vertical Direction vi) XGirder in Horizontal Direction z) Vertical Surface Area of Superstructure's Exposed Elements SL SAddl.300 m 1. 24. bGirder. CDExt. C/CDXGirder.150 m 0.125 m 1.000 m 6.225 m 10. tSlab. Rnos.075 m 2 87. hXGirder. hGirder.000 nos 2.250 m 0. ii) Number of Traffic Lane on Bridge Deck: a) Number of Design Traffic Lane = WCarr.000 nos 5. PW&B. FMGirderV. FXGirderV.way/3600 = 7300/3600 Where WCarr. FXGirderH.350 m 0.250 m 0.070 m 0. ClDInt. C/CDGirder.175 m 0.000 nos 2.GirderEdg. WSWalk.900 m 0.way is Clear Carriageway Width in between Curbs in mm NLane.G. ASupVert. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Carriageway Width Width of Side Walk on Each Side Width of Curb/Wheel Guard Width of Railing Curb/Post Guard Total Width of Bridge Deck Width & Depth of Railings Width & Breath of Railing Post Height of Railing Post Height of Wheel Guard/Curb Number of Railings on each Side C/C distance between Railing Posts Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Deck Slab as Part of TGirder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Deck Slab) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance between Main Girders & Flange Width C/C Distance between Cross Girders in Longitudinal Direction . C/CDRPost. RW&D.108 m Notation DImentions Unit.250 m 2. WRPost. LGir.100 m 1. hCurb. NXGirder. bXGirder.200 m 0.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line.650 m 0. WCurb. WBDeck. hRPost. Calculations for Load.000 m 7.300 m 25.350 m 0. Shear & Moments of RCC Main Girders under Service Limit State of Design (WSD) : Description 1 Structural Data : i) Dimentions of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) wi) wii) x) y) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.
Thus Intensity of Lane Load per meter Length & for per meter Width = 9. 3. LLPedest 2 0. Thus Lane Load per meter Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane = (9.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor.264 1.300 145.300 N/mm kN/m LLLaneInt.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction.600*103MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk.000 17. ii) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel.1) 2 Design Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).800 4.000 72.045.00310 N/mm/mmWd.600 kN/m 2 9.00360 N/mm 2 3. 0.1.019.(ASSHTO LRFD3.500 35.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.232 2. LLRWLoad LLRSLoad LLMWLoad LLMSLoad LLFWLoad LLFSLoad 1. iv) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.300 9.000m Wide Dcak Strip in Transverse Direction. gs 2.100 kN/m/mWd.680 1. DWheel.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 .500 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN iii) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9.835.300/3.6. gWSali.1. 3 vi) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.000 72.500 145.345.300N/mm through the Length of Bridge for 1 (One) Lane of Bridge & acting over a 3.447.000kN/m/mWd.300*1000/1000)kN/m b) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 9. b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading.172 1. g = LLLane 9.
6). a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410.11) Where.63f/c = 0. 1.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 viii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.4.043gc1.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa. ηi = Load Modifier. a Factor related to Ductility. & ηi = 1/(ηD ηR ηI ) 1. 1.2. (ASSHTO LRFD1. VWLSpe.000 8. wWaterSali.63*21^(1/2). f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Load Condition (SLC) = 0.2.11 & 3.2. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement.12).3 vii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWaterNor. Es for fy = 410 MPa ix) Other Design Related Data : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 3 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = Σ ηigiQi f Rn = Rr. VWA 90. Ec = 0. For Strength Limit State.000 10.5). Rn = Nominal Resitance.50f/c = 0. ηD ηi = ηD = 1.000 ηR ηi = ηR = 1.043*24^(1.4.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable.2.3.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions. (ASSHTO LRFD1.2. wEatrh 24.000 23.3. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.000 VWLNor.000 ηi = ηI = 1.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy .13) Here: gi = Load Factor. ηi is Load Modifier having values ηi = ηD ηR ηI 0.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable. f) Steel Ultimate strength. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance. f = Resistance Factor.000 260.000 MPa . Qi = Force Effect. fr = 0.3.000 10. (ASSHTO LRFD1.200 km/hr km/hr m/s f/c fc Ec 21.855. (AASHTO LRFD5. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5. Redundancy and Operational Functions.4).400 23.250 18.4.2.887 fr fy ES 2.000 MPa 200000.000 4.4. ηl 1.620 2.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility.
000 gES 1.II SERVICE .4.1.300 .12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .11(SERVICE .300 1.000 gDW 1.12) gDC 1. SERVICE .1 .1. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR .4. gLLBR.000 gEH 1. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.000 gEV 1. (Max.6. gLLCE.4. value of Table 3.6. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.000 1.4.I). (Max. (Max.DW .000 1. Table 3. value of Table 3. i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. Table 3. 4 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr). (Max.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls.4.4.4.4. value of Table 3.4.6.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .000 gLLLane gLLPL. but those would be occasional.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.2.000 1.Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn.1.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State SERVICEI (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle with wind load having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal operation & other respective Limit State SERVICE Groups are being Considered as CRITICAL conditions for Bridge Structure.2.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3. value of Table 3.1.II m 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. 1. value of Table 3. Table 3.000 gLLTruck IM 1.
3. b) Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to WC. 34. 1.543 kN kN/m ii) Dead Loads on 1 no. gLLCT. 1.000 gLLSH. & Utilities for per meter Length of Girder c) Concentrated Dead Load on Exterior Girder from to 1 no.h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).340 kN/m DLExtGirWC+ Utility. 1.000 0.000 5 Load Calculations for Superstructural Components & Attachments (DL & LL) per meter Length of Girder: i) Dead Loads on 1 no. gLLTU. 1.000 gLLEQ.000 1. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1.700 1. 1.203 kN/m DLExtGirXGir.000 gLLSE. gLLCV.526 37.300 1.IV SERVICE .000 gLLCR. gLLWA.II gLLLS. DLExt. gLLWS.000 gLLTG.UD 8. DLExtGirSelf& Atta.000 1. gLLWL gLLFR. Exterior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Dead Load on. Exterior Girder due to Self Wt. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). Cross Girder d) Sumation of Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).& Attachments (Without WC & Utilies) for per meter Length of Girder. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing). Interior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : . q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV SERVICE .
25.260 kN/m DLIntGirWC.1. (From Sketch Diagram) = 2. DLInt.125 10. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load.& Attachments (Without WC & Utilies) for per meter Length of Girder. DLIntGirXGir.6.650 0.015 kN/m d) LL on 1 no. 3.688 kN LLExtWheelMid& Rear.6 : a) Sketch Diagram For Distribution of Wheel Load.053 28.225 7.000 CL 2.000 2.6.600 1.1. Lane Load & Pedestrian Load on Exterior Girders : Midd.1.4 & 3. ii) From Midd. 10.6 : .950 1.1.688 2.a) Dead Load on.650 1.125 2. & Rear Wheel (do) = 41. on 0.000kN/m 2 on Sidewalk on each side (From Sketch Diagram) = 4. 4.250 0. Exterior Girder due to Lane Load Uniformly Distributed over Full Bridge Length with Intensity of 3.475 0.800 1.650 1.600m from Wheel Guard Face.000 2.500 kN/m iv) Live Loads (LL) on 1 no.4 & 3.1. 3.200 0.2.6.250 1.063 41.6. for per meter Length of Girder c) Concentrated Dead Load on Interior Girder from to 1 no.2.070 9.2.950 0.000 1.6.Interior Girder due to Self Wt. i) From Front Wheel (Sketch Diagram) = 10.2.25 b) LL on 1 no.650m Width from Wheel Guard Face up to Middle point between Two Girders.300 0.650 1.1.UD 3.300 1. Exterior Girder due to Pedestrian Load Uniformly Distributed over Sidewalk on Full Bridge Length with Intensity of 4. Cross Girder d) Sumation of Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder (a + b) for DLInttGirSelf & Atta.450 17.015 kN kN kN/m LLExtPedes.300 0.2. b) Dead Load on Interior Girder from WC.2.500 kN 17. Lane Load & Pedestrian Load according Provisions of AASHTOLRFD3.500 kN 1.063 kN LLExtWheelFront.6.300kN/m Lane Load on 0. Interior Girder due to Wheel Load & Lane Load according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD3. & Rear Wheel Load = Front Wheel Load = 72.500 kN/m LLExtLane. c) LL on 1 no.100N/m/mWd. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load at distance 0.710 kN/m kN kN/m iii) Live Loads (LL) on 1 no.
500 kN kN 72. Interior Girder due to Lane Load Uniformly Distributed over LLIntLane.800 1.950 0.300kN/m Lane Load on 9.300 0.800 1.250 0.GirWC+Utility = 3.225 0.250 108.750 kN kN 6. Cross Girder = gDC*DLExtGirXGir.000 CL 2.526 kN d) Sumation of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder. & Utilities for FDLExtGirWC+ Utility.300kN/m Lane Load on 0.070 9.250 b) LL on 1 no.950 1.Interior Girder due to Wheel Load with One Line of Wheels LLIntWheelFront.& Attachments (Without WC) for per Meter Length = gDC*DLExtGirSelf& Atta.000 1.800m LLIntWheelMid& Rear.000 2.125 10.000m Width (From Sketch Diagram) = 6.340 kN/m b) Factored Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to WC.650 0.300 1.500 17. FDLExtGirXGir.a) Sketch Diagram For Distribution of Wheel Load & Lane Load on Interior Girders : Midd.650 1.475 7. & Rear Wheel (From Sketch Diagram) = 108. 3. per Merter Length = gDW*DLExt.650 1.200 0.526 kN FDLExt. = FDLExtGirSelf & Atta.200 1.200 kN/m 6 Factored Loads of Superstructure Components & Attachments (DL & LL) Service Limit State Design (WSD): i) Factored Dead Loads on 1 no.500 kN 17.500m) from Middle point of a Girder & action for Girder with 2. upon Girder & the other Line of Wheels at Axle Distance .203 kN/m 8.500 kN 1.543 kN/m ii) Factored Dead Loads on 1 no.125 2. =.750 kN c) LL on 1 no.340 kN/m 34.250 kN ii) Load from Midd.650 1.300kN/m on 3. Interior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : . i) Load from Front Wheel (From Sketch Diagram) = 26.000m Width of Deck having Equally distance (1.300 0.200 kN/m 26.1.203 kN/m c) Factored Concentrated Dead Load on Exterior Girder from to 1 no.000 2. & Rear Wheel Load = Front Wheel Load = 72. 34. 8.250 1. Full Bridge Length having Intensity of 9.200 0.UD 37. Exterior Girder from Different Components & Attachments : a) Factored Dead Load on Exterior Girder due to Self Wt.
200 kN/m 6 Shear & Moments at different Positions of an Exterior Girder due to Factored Loads (DL& LL) from Superstructure Components & Attachments : a) Sketch Diagram Showing Wheels Loads of Truck. 10.g.Interior Girder due to Wheel Load i) Load from Front Wheel = mgLLTruck*IM*LLIntWheelFront = 26.688 kN b) Factored LL on 1 no. 6. Interior Girder : a) Factored LL on 1 no. = b) Factored Dead Load on Interior Girder due to WC.710 kN/m a) Factored LL on 1 no.a) Factored Dead Load on Interior Girder due to Self Wt.g. of Wheel c. iii) Factored Live Loads of Different Components for 1 no.450 kN/m FDLIntGirXGir. Moments: 145.& Rear Wheel=mgLLTruck*IM*LLIntWheelMid&Rear. = 4. 17.250 FLLExtLane.250 kN ii) Load from Midd.& Rear Wheel=mgLLTruck*IM*LLExtWheelMid&Rear. & Utilities for per Merter Length = gDW*DLInt. = 2. FLLExtWheelMid& Rear. 2. Exterior Girder due to Lane Load = mgLLLane*LLExtLane. of Wheels & Location of MidWheel under the Provisions of Absulate Max. 6.600m from Wheel Guard Face. 4.750 kN FLLIntWheelFront.260 kN/m FDLIntGirWC+ Utility.000 kN 35. Exterior Girder due to Pedestrian Load = mgLLPL*LLExtPedes.015 kN/m c) Factored LL on 1 no.845 m 0. Cross Girder = gDC*DLIntGirXGir.063 = 10. Interior Girder due to Lane Load for per meter Length = mgLLLane*LLIntLane. Exterior Girder due to Wheel Load at distance 0.053 kN d) Sumation of Factored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder (a + b) for per Meter Length of Girder.260 kN/m 3. 25.515 kN/m kN FLLIntWheelMid& Rear. c.20 kN/m FLLIntLane.750 kN b) Factored LL on 1 no.g. = 108.500 kN/m d) Summation of Factored LL of Exterior Girder for per meter Length due to Lane Load & Pedestrian Loads iv) Factored Live Loads of Different Components for 1 no.015 kN kN kN/m FLLExtPedes. = 6.& Attachments (Without WC) for per Meter Length = gDC*DLIntGirSelf& Atta. 108.500 kN/m FLLExt. Exterior Girder : FDLInt.GirWC = 3.688 = 41. i) From Front Wheel = mgLLTruck*IM*LLExtWheelFront FLLExtWheelFront. of Girder 2.UD 28. 17.000 kN 145.063 kN ii) Load from Midd. =.053 kN FDLInttGirSelf & Atta.000 kN c.450 kN/m c) Factored Concentrated Dead Load on Interior Girder from to 1 no.728 m . 26. 41. 25.
g.300 6.100 m 0.g.g Provisions.Mid*4.g.526 kN 8.316 kN RBDL = RBDLXGir.300+Wt.000+35.300 4.063 kN Rear Middle Front 4.728 m d) Sketch Diagram of Factored Wheel Loads for Exterior Girder : 41.g.526 kN 8.526 kN 8.300 L /8 6.300))/(2*145.598 21.300 4.Wheel 2.g Provisions. Distance from Rear Wheel = (Wt.316 kN kN .300 0.543 kN/m 6.845 m b) Calculations for Center of Gravity (cg) Position of Truck with Wheel Load in Respect of Rear Wheel.728 m Front Wheel Positions under c. Different Locations for Shear & Moments Including Max.Fornt*(2*4.= 469. 41.688 kN 10.845 c. Moment Provision = (Distance beteen 2Wheel . Reactions at Supports due to Different DL.526 kN 0.000 RADL = RADLXGir. under Absulate Max.g Provisions.200 m Midd.Rear Middle Front 4.688 kN 2. LLLane Load & LLWheel Load : XGirder1 XGirder2 XGirder3 XGirder4 XGirder5 8.Distance of c.300 c.282 kN 21.150 2.g. of Wheels.100 m 6. 3L/8 0. Wheel Positions under c.300 m Rear Wheel Positions under c. of Wheels from Rear Wheel)/2 dMidWheel 0.400 25. m CL of Bearing CL of Girder CL of Bearing L /2 c. 12.300 m 3.845 4. L /4 9.100 m m 0. = 65151kN/m B 37.050 m m A 0.100 m 6.100 m 6.526 kN 8. c.515 kN/m 0.300 e) Sketch Diagram of Girder with Factored Uniformly Distributed & Concentrated DL & LL.375 m LSpan = LTotal = FDLExtAll = FLLExtLanePed = m m m 24.= 490.000) c) Calculation Mid Wheel Position in Respect of Girder c.375 FDLExtAll = 41863kN/m FLLExtLanePed.g.
139 78.): Table6iia1.019 12.000 12. 2929.019 0. Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExtAll & FDLExtGirXGir. Slab.109 L/2 0.019 c.689 L/4 2164.790 470. Utilities.263 448.RALLL = 81.g. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Exterior Girder. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Exterior Girder.790 40.000 0.932 kN (Max. Position) RBLLL = 81.514 4. Attachments.790 12. Slab.375m 173.796 L/8 39.790 L/2 12.): Table6iib1.320 b) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Concentrated Dead Load from Cross Girders (FDLExtGirXGir. 12. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 458.): Table6iic1.022 For Concentrated in kNm .341 L/8 1256. 27.375m 443.009 3L/8 114.320 104. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.263 L/4 4.375m 4.139 3L/8 2722. Attachments.g.505 (Max.242 c.438 kN RBLLWh. WC. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Applied Dead Loads on Exterior Girder.263 c. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g.375m 173.263 347. Location From SupportA Uniformly Distributed Load in kN On Support 458.= 43.808 0. WC. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0.g.000 0.016 3L/8 2722. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Exterior Girder.263 110. 100. Factored Moments due to all Applied Dead Loads on Exterior Girder.438 kN RALLWh.940 4.576 L/2 2931. Utilities.= 49.576 100.746 3L/8 114.204 L/8 343.000 0.016 3L/8 91. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0.g.g. Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExtAll & FDLExtGirXGir.919 L/2 104.790 0.349 c.514 L/4 229.341 4.796 L/8 1256. 27.009 4. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 12.790 Table6iib2.263 L/8 4.319 L/2 0.g.008 L/4 2164. Location From SupportA For Uniformly Distributed in kNm On Support 0.022 c) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk.g.263 224.375m 4.505 c.008 L/4 78.263 3L/8 4.790 Concentrated Loads in kN Total Dead Load Shear in kN Table6iic2.940 L/8 343.375m 443.349 91. 2929.000 0.919 L/2 2931.505 4.319 12.689 39.019 c. Position) ii) Calculation of Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder Against Applied Factored Loads : a) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk.000 Table6iia2.777 L/4 229. Factored Shearing Forces due to Concentrated Dead Loads of XGirder on Exterior Girder.
& Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support. A B 59.857 39. Factored Moments on Exterior Girder due to Live WheelLoad (LL) . A B 70.641 0.697 2242. A B 82. Wheel on c. Wheel on c.505 Rear Wheel at L/2.040 L/8 59.688 On Support 40.292 Rear Wheel at L/4.778 0. Wheel on c.505 Rear Wheel at L/2.477 Rear Wheel at 0. 508.871 c. A B 59.375m. B A 41.878 Rear Wheel at L/8.137 361.734 437.826 Midd. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0. A B 70.000 30.g.137 1295. B A 36.108 Rear Wheel at L/8.818 56.000 0.g. B A 69.g.612 L/4 39.389 L/2 508.557 3L/8 472.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2 Table6iie2.Total Monents in kN 0. A B 35.000 178.185 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.072 460.081 L/4 375. BA 36. Poisition A B 49.000 Table6iid2.497 5.028 434.342 d) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Live Live Load & Pedestrian Loads (FLLExtLanePed) : Table6iid1. Factored Shearing Forces on Exterior Girder due to Live WheelLoad (LL) .505 Midd.g. B A 69.497 5.375m.483 0.375m. AB 82.673 460. Factored Shearing Forces on Exterior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) .375m 77.155 2813.211 0.421 29. Poisition B A 43.146 13.375m 30. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support. .047 Rear Wheel at Support.932 Rear Wheel at L/2.505 Midd.177 17.932 Rear Wheel at L/2.734 182. AB 81.862 7.427 c.108 Rear Wheel at L/8.865 Rear Wheel at L/4. B A 41.g.544 Rear Wheel at 0.669 24.818 33. Poisition A B 49.496 3035.742 3L/8 19.416 216. Locatio From SupportA Support Positon of Rear/Midd. Poisition B A 43. A B 35.691 e) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Girder due to Applied Live Wheel Loads (FLLExtWheel) : Table6iie1. Wheel on c.g.826 Midd.081 L/8 218.000 0. A B 47.g. 4.185 Rear Wheel at 3L/8. B A 36.870 5.741 L/2 0. A B 81. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 79.544 Rear Wheel at 0.768 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.768 On Support 0.865 Rear Wheel at L/4. Factored Moments on Exterior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . A B 47.368 3030. Locatio From SupportA Support Positon of Rear/Midd.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2 c.
g.072 3981.g.g. Dead Load (FDLExt) b.998 368. Wheel Live Load (WLLExt) Total Shears on Each Point On Support kN 470.393 111.g.691 437. Distance from Rear Wheel .047 41. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads (DL).878 36.000 0.862 18.242 19. Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application : Table6iif1. of Girder 0.427 434. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a. Lane + Ped. of Wheel 2. B A 69.808 79.300 c.567 L/4 kN 224.000 kN c.808 L/8 kNm 1295.Wheel 2.557 361. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Exterior Girder.000 0.137 1729.292 69. B A Rear Wheel at L/4. Dead Load (FDLExt) b.028 2978.746 39.845 m b) Calculations for Center of Gravity (cg) Position of Truck with Wheel Load in Respect of Rear Wheel.651 e) Table showing the Max.741 7.421 564.375m kN 448.368 472.000 0.g Point : a) Sketch Diagram Showing Wheels Loads of Truck.000 kN c. of Wheels & Location of MidWheel under the Provisions of Absulate Max.664 L/8 kN 347.177 436. Lane+Ped.(LL) (FLLExt) a.109 4.000 0.483 40. Moments: 145. B A Rear Wheel at Support. kN 40.673 3720.871 5.468 c.985 3L/8 kN 110.389 460.688 0.000 kN Rear 4.777 59.204 77.137 30. kNm 3030.612 29.225 f) Table showing Max.857 591.081 30.930 c.g. Wheel Live Load (FWLLExt) Total Moments on Each Point On Support kNm 0.477 41. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Exterior Girder. Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application : Table6iie1.742 17.790 0. Sum.375m.040 39.497 281. B A Rear Wheel at 0.148 0.081 216. B A Rear Wheel at L/8.Rear Wheel at 3L/8.728 m Front 35.254 246.734 3999.g.818 52.105 7 Factored Shear & Moments at different Positions of an Interior Girder due to Factored Loads (DL& LL) from Superstructure Components & Attachments : i) Arrangement of Wheel Loads for Interiod Girder & c. of Factored Max. Moments at Different Locations of Exterior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads (DL).g.845 m Middle 145.000 15.740 3L/8 kNm 2813.000 5.155 375.916 L/4 kNm 2242.(LL) (FL&PLExt) c.496 508.618 L/2 kNm 3035. of Factored Max.416 45. Sum.375m kNm 178. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a.668 L/2 kN 12.697 218.818 135.300 4.342 508. c. c.
100 m 6.300+Wt.053 kN 0.250 kN Rear Middle Front 4.200kN/m B 28.100 m 6.000) c) Calculation Mid Wheel Position in Respect of Girder c. Different Locations for Shear & Moments Including Max.g.144 (Max.750 kN 0. Position) RBDL = 358.710 kN/m 6.g.300 0.Distance of c.500 kN RALLWh.455 4.300 6.= 114.710kN/m FLLIntLanePed.= 129.845 c.728 m d) Sketch Diagram Showing Factored Wheel Loads for Interior Girder : 108. 12.053 kN 17.728 26.g Provisions.606 kN (Max.300 m Rear Wheel Positions under c. Wheel Positions under c.300 L /8 6.g.g.= (Wt. 108.875 kN RADLXGir.200 kN/m 0. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.g. of Wheels from Rear Wheel)/2 dMidWheel 0.Mid*4.632 kN RALLL = 77.300 e) Sketch Diagram of Girder with Uniformly Distributed Factored DL & LL.875 kN RBDLXGir.100 m 0.375 FDLIntAll = 28.= 42.053 kN 17. = 6. Reaction due to Wheel Load at c.000+35.100 m 0.Fornt*(2*4. under Absulate Max. Moment Provision = (Distance beteen 2Wheel .300))/(2*145.050 m m A 0.053 kN 17.= 42. m CL of Bearing CL of Girder CL of Bearing L /2 c.g Provisions.750 kN 2.300 m 3.150 1.500 kN RBLLWh.053 kN 17. of Wheels. Position) ii) Calculation of Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder Against Applied Factored Loads : a) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead .632 kN RBLLL = 77.g.728 m L /4 9.100 m 6.300 4.400 LTotal = 25. LLLane Load & LLWheel Load : XGirder1 XGirder2 XGirder3 XGirder4 XGirder5 17.000 RADL = 358. 3L/8 0. Reactions at Supports due to DL.g Provisions.375 m LSpan = FDLIntAll = FLLIntLanePed = m m m 24. Midd.200 m Front Wheel Positions under c.
375m 339.988 156.559 L/8 961.152 L/8 961.375m 25.579 L/8 25. Slab.000 0.044 c) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads from Sidewalk. Attachments.892 L/2 0. Factored Shearing Forces due to Concentrated Dead Loads of XGirder on Interior Girder.870 182.526 3L/8 8.697 25.526 8.841 0.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 c. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0.579 288. Slab.182 L/2 2241.000 0.870 c.031 78. WC.075 L/8 262. 2240.038 c. Location From SupportA On Support 0.021 3L/8 2081.262 25.g.033 1811.526 c.579 365.Loads from Sidewalk.031 L/4 1654.579 0.092 c. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads on Interior Girder.g.526 L/2 8. 201.579 375.343 L/2 2241.): Table7iib1.044 2449.g. 20. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 25.559 9.000 0.566 c.038 2263.375m 9.892 8.000 Table7iia2.566 8. Factored Moments due to all Applied Dead Loads on Interior Girder.016 1039.): Table7iia1. Factored Shearing Forces due to all Applied Dead Loads on Interior Girder.): Table7iic1. Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) .048 L/4 1654.496 25.839 2442.016 L/4 156.g. Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLExtAll & FDLExtGirXGir.988 3L/8 2081. L/2 .677 208. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Interior Girder.262 0.033 3L/8 182.720 For Concentrated in kNm Total Monents in kN d) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Uniformly Distributed Live Live Load & Pedestrian Loads (FLLIntLanePed) : Table7iid1. Attachments.131 8.526 29.131 3L/8 87.000 0.697 L/4 175.526 Table7iib2. Self Weight of Girder & Concentrated Dead Loads of Cross Girders ( FDLIntAll & FDLIntGirXGir.526 Concentrated Loads in kN Total Dead Load Shear in kN Table7iic2. Location From SupportA Uniformly Distributed Load in kN On Support 350.000 8.g. 2240.908 c.526 96.276 L/4 175.375m 339. 20.000 0. Utilities. Factored Moments due to all Dead Loads (DL) on Interior Girder.839 L/2 208.592 L/8 78.657 3L/8 87.g.592 142.375m 132.677 b) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Location of Girder due to Concentrated Dead Load from Cross Girders (FDLExtGirXGir. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0. 8.g.375m 132.496 L/8 262. Location From SupportA For Uniformly Distributed in kNm On Support 0. Utilities. WC. Location From SupportA Shearing Forces in kN On Support 350.526 183.418 L/2 0.579 L/4 8.343 201.
394 93.188 1201. A B 184.606 Rear Wheel at L/2.864 Rear Wheel at L/4.000 0. A B 154.079 Rear Wheel at Support.910 4.333 Rear Wheel at 0.156 Rear Wheel at 0.375m.730 37.375m.344 290.585 c. Wheel on c.375m 28.915 1140.g. B A 182.114 45.458 Midd. B A 108.820 18. A B 154. Factored Shearing Forces on Interior Girder due to Live WheelLoad (LL) . Poisition A B 129.587 Rear Wheel at L/8. B A 95.395 Rear Wheel at 3L/8.927 Midd.587 Rear Wheel at L/8. B A 108.458 Midd.333 Rear Wheel at 0.345 563. f) Table showing Max. B A 182.188 960. 483.g.627 L/8 207. A B 123. AB 215.177 88.813 1133.000 0.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2 Table7iie2.356 15. B A 180.079 Rear Wheel at Support.930 1201. A B 93.586 644.292 Rear Wheel at 3L/8. Wheel on c.315 56. Poisition A B 129.292 Rear Wheel at 3L/8. Poisition B A 114.808 L/2 484. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support.761 Rear Wheel at L/4.761 Rear Wheel at L/4. B A 180.375m.000 0. Factored Moments on Interior Girder due to Live Lane Load & Pedestrian Load (LL) . AB 211. Location From SupportA Moments in kNm On Support 0.915 1140. A B 184.594 1. Wheel on c.000 Table7iid2.927 Midd.375m L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2 c.375m.292 20.836 941.290 Rear Wheel at L/8. Locatio From SupportA Support Positon of Rear/Midd.g. A B 123.837 76.144 Rear Wheel at L/2.750 On Support 106. A B 93.000 79. Wheel on c. Poisition B A 114.227 40. A B 211. Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application : .g. & Direction Reaction Rear Wheel at Support.g.512 0.210 13.290 Rear Wheel at L/8.156 Rear Wheel at 0. B A 107.g.458 62.395 Rear Wheel at 3L/8. A B 215.583 102. B A 107. B A 150.989 35.399 3L/8 449.864 Rear Wheel at L/4.671 0.Shearing Forces in kN 75.606 Rear Wheel at L/2. B A 95. BA 150.144 Rear Wheel at L/2. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads (DL).096 e) Table showing Factored Shear Forces & Moments at Different Locations of Girder due to Applied Live Wheel Loads (FLLIntWheel) : Table7iie1. Locatio From SupportA Support Positon of Rear/Midd.154 0. Factored Moments on Interior Girder due to Live WheelLoad (LL) .537 L/4 357.750 On Support 0.645 15.640 73.
177 130.(LL) (FL&PLExt) c.345 119. Sum.114 421.585 1133.064 0.182 483.(LL) (FLLExt) a.836 1810.526 0.837 541. kNm 2442.325 L/2 kN 8.120 L/4 kN 183. Lane + Ped.000 15.841 75.048 207.583 558.820 45.075 73.292 23.000 0.818 e) Table showing the Max. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a.500 L/8 kNm 1039.152 28. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. of Factored Max.813 3110.808 1201. Live Loads (LL) for Lane Load & Wheel Load & their Summation for Each Point of Application : Table7iie1.315 102.905 L/2 kNm 2449.421 L/4 kNm 1811. Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to respective Factored Dead Loads (DL).657 37. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a.910 15.179 c.423 c.232 3L/8 kNm 2263.092 18.000 0. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder.000 0.375m kNm 142.645 267.730 76.227 L/8 kN 288. Dead Load (FDLExt) b.276 56.g.720 484.000 0.g.930 3847.640 106.188 4074. Wheel Live Load (WLLExt) Total Shears on Each Point On Support kN 375. Dead Load (FDLExt) b.627 79.915 4127.418 4.394 54.537 563.021 357. Wheel Live Load (FWLLExt) Total Moments on Each Point On Support kNm 0.375m kN 365.096 1140. Sum.399 941.123 3L/8 kN 96.908 449. kN 29.512 20. Lane+Ped. of Factored Max.Table7iif1.004 .
.
mWd. .
24.000 0. Design Data (Materials) & Different Factors : i) Design Criterion : AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFDUSD).GirEdg.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. LGir.500 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN iv) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of LLLane 9.300 25. CDExt.150 0. hSlab.150 0. ii) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck. FMGirderV.900 0.650 0.500 145.075 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .300 145. iii) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel.250 2. FXGirderV. ClDInt.000 1. C/CDGir.300 N/mm Page 169 .. Lane & Pedestrian Loadings. FXGirderH. LLRWLoad LLRSWLoad LLMWLoad LLMSWLoad LLFWLoad LLFSWLoad 1.000 72.500 35.075 5 5 2.200 0.800 4. Loadings. FMGirderH.000 72.400 0. bWebXGir.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).Gir. hWC NGir. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Width of Web for Main Girders Width of Web for Cross Girders C/C Distance Between Main Girders Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) XGirder in Vertical Direction vi) XGirder in Horizontal Direction SL SAddl. NXGir. bWebGir.000 1. H.125 1. hXGir. hGir. Strength Limit State Design (USD) of Main Girder & Cross Girders Against Applied Forces : 1 Data for Flexural Design : Description i) Dimensional Data of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.000 17.075 m m m m m nos nos m m m m m m m m m m m Notation Dimensions Unit. 2 Design Criterion. DWheel.350 0.
e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete. fr = 0.90 0.00 0.000 23.2. (AASHTO LRFD5.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement..000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction.5). f) Steel Ultimate strength.680 1.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.200.2.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .1) : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit fFlxRin.620 0. fFlxPres. wEatrh 24. gs 2.4.045.000 kN/m^3 kN/m^3 kN/m^3 kN/m^3 kN/m^3 viii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.5.75 Page 170 .345.250 18.90 1.019.00 MPa 200000 MPa ix) Conventional Resistance Factors for Ultimate Stressed Design & Construction (AASHTO LRFD5. fShear/Torsion.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410.000 8.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa. wWaterSali. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0. Ec = 0. fSpir/Tie/Seim. gWSali.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.4.600 N/mm^2 kN/m^2 2 9.447.400 23. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.4.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor. 9.2.300 kN/m LLPedest 0.50f/c = 0. 3 vi) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.000 MPa 164.264 1.172 1.4).424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 vii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWaterNor.043gc1.835. v) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.855.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.000 10. g = 9.200 fr fy fs ES 2.043*24^(1.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.4.2. 0.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.000 10.003600 3.600*103MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk.232 2. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.6).
25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .2. For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in StrutandTie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD5.500 gEH 1. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls. (Max. value of Table 3.11. gLLCE. Table 3. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.70 0.1.500 ix) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.4.4. value of Table 3.6. fAncCopmConc.1.000 gLLTruck IM 1. fAncTenSteel.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). fPileResistanc.6.2.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .12) gDC 1. (Max.4.330 gLLLane gLLPL. value of Table 3. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. 1.750 1.750 1. fStrut&Tie.DW .2.00 0.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .85 viii) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.00 1.4.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE m 1.2.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fBearig. (Max.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities. e) f) g) h) i) j) h) State (Zone 3 & 4).4.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.1.4.4.4..500 gEV 1. Table 3.6. value of Table 3.70 0.1. b1 b 0.85 0. (Max. value of Table 3. Table 3.750 1.750 Page 171 .250 gDW 1.7. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.1.350 gES 1.4.80 1.
q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV x) Design Data for Site Conditions : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Cyclonic Storm Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load STRENGTH . gLLCV. VWLSpe. 1. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLWL gLLFR. gLLCT.000 gLLTG.. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gLLCR.000 1.750 1. 1. b) Since the Interior Girders of the Bridge have the Max.750 1.000 260. gLLWS.000 gLLSE. VWA 90. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing). g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR . 1. gLLTU.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Selection of TGirder Flange Width.200 km/hr km/hr m/s 3 Design Phenomena. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).V gLLBR.000 4.400 1. 1. Girder Depth & Calculations for Monent & Shear : i) Design Phenomena : a) The Flexural of Girders will be according to AASHTO LRFD or Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Procedures.000 gLLSH.000 1.000 gLLEQ. thus it is require to conduct the Flexural Design for Reinforcements of Bridge Girders Based on Calculated Page 172 . gLLLS. gLLWA.000 VWLNor.III STRENGTH . Moments & Shearing Forces caused by Applied Loads (DL & LL).16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).000 1. 1.
750 m iii) Onehalf the Width of Girder Top Flange (It is not req.6.650 1. Since the Bridge Deck Slab is integral Part of Girders.225 7.100 m ii) 12. 2.400 m hTGirder.31 : a) Since the Bridge is a Simple Supported TGirder Structure.6.0708L.6. the Clear Distance between Bearing Centers of Supports = SL c) Thus required Minimum Depth of TGirder Including Salb = 0.300 0.650 1. the Min.31.000 m b) From Calculations.300 1.950 1.950 0.300 1.6. thus the Design of Girders will be under TBeam if the Provisions in these Respect Satisfy.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . bFlaGir = 2. otherwise Designee will be under Provisions for the Rectangular Beam.000 2.125 CL 10.000 1.6.6. thus the Flange Width of Interior Girders.2.650 1.070*SL L 24. = 2.000 2.2. where b) L is the Span Length.3 & Table 2.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).2.125 2. Top Flange) iv) The average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders = C/CDGir.250 iii) Selection of TGirder Effective Flange Width under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD4.200 0.5.732 m Page 173 .475 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. as there is no Addl..6 (4. Required Girder Depth Including Salb Thickness is = 0. 1. These arrangement will provide a Higher Stiffness for the Structure within Flexural provisions. Average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders is the Least one. thus According to Table2.0 times average Depth of Slab + Greater Thickness of Web = 12*hSlab + bGir. ii) Cross Sectional Sketch Diagram of Bridge Girders & Dack Slab : 1. thus an Equivalent Additional Steel Area can also Provide on Tension Face against those Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement.000 2. thus Falnge Width will be the least Dimention of : i) Onequarter of Effective Span Length = 1/4*SL = 6.250 1. = 2.070 0. c) The TGirder will have to Provide Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Compression Face with a reasonable Steel Area.5.000m bFlGir.1) : a) Since the Bridge is a Simple Supported TGirder Structure.2.250 0.650 0. respective Moments & Shears.5.2.000 m iv) Selection of Depth (Including Slab Depth) for TGirder under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD2.
672 50.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).003.200 m MuSupport.129.3.375m kNm 181.000 hf = 0. Dead Load (FDLInt) b. Page 174 . Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. MuL/2. MuL/4.1) : . Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Factored DL. 2. Lane Live Load (FLLInt) c.428 786. b) Table for Max.681 363.003.639..190 1.863.3.494 847.653.892. LaneLL & WheelLL : Table1.449 c) Moment at Sopport Position of Girder d) Moment at a Distance 0.000 0.g.457 6. v) Calculations for Monent at Different Location of Girder : hGirpro. Sum. Wheel Live Load (WLLInt) Total Moments on Each Point On Support kNm 0.192. MuL/8.120. 0. thus One of Interior Girders is considered as Typical one for the Flexural Design in respect of All Applied Loads (DL & LL) and Corresponding Moments & Shears. d) Considering the Clear Covering both on Top & Bottom.423 c.786 6.131.774 2.313.199 kNm 5. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a. Mu0.495 625.000 0.g.135 L/8 kNm 1.000 0.375m.808 hGir.011 kNm 6. Moment Loaction (c.423 kNm 6. Position) of Girder i) Moment at a Distance L/2 (Middle of Span) from Sopport of Girder j) Sketch Diagram of Main Girder TBeam : b 2.031 945.318.863.000m.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .069 5.g.011 3L/8 kNm 2.350 m vi) Limits For Maximum Reinforcement.7. Mu3L/4.375m from Sopport of Girder e) Moment at a Distance L/8 from Sopport of Girder f) Moment at a Distance L/4 from Sopport of Girder g) Moment at a Distance 3L/8 from Sopport of Girder h) Moment at Absolute Max.000 m a) From Load. (AASHTOLRFD5. Shears & Moments.000 0.448 2. the Interior Girders are facing the Max.096 184.199 L/4 kNm 2. Resultant Forces (DL & LL) causing Max.000 kNm 278.221 6.630. = m 2.861 2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.312.676 278.131. Shear & Moment Calcutation Tables it appares that.000 m bWeb = 0.449 kNm d= 1. of Max.797. Let Provide a Depth for the TGirder = 2.168 2.630.328 3. kNm 3.350 L/2 kNm 3.327. Muc.135 kNm 3.350 kNm 6.318.
Mcr fcpe Variable Nmm N/mm2 Mdnc 2.3.420 c de Variable Variable As Aps fy fps dp ds Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.449.Mdnc(Sc/Snc .2.4. c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements. For Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm.11. vii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement. i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to effective Prestress Forces only at Extreme Fiber where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance for all Prestressing Losses in MPa. fps & dp are = 0.2) : c/deMax.6).16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2*Mcr or 1.333/10^3 2. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. 0.887 673638627. Here.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3. which one is less. b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) .2Mcr. (AASHTOLRFD5.1Table3.3. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . where .1) Scfr where. For the Rectangular RCC Girder Section value of Snc = (bWebhGir3/12)/(hGit/2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in RCC in Mpa. a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for a Section c/de 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps. ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa.7.233333 233.720 Nmm Sc Variable mm3 Snc fr Mcr 233333333 0.(AASHTO LRFD5..42 in which.159 mm3 m3 m3 N/mm2 Nmm Page 175 .4.4.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy). ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm.
= 6863.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.639 kNm Variable Variable Variable Nmm Nmm Nmm g) Table3 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for requirment of Minimum Reinforcement at Different Sections Location of Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.366 808.g/L/2 2449.2*Mcr) kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm At Support 0.350 (1.366 At 3L/8 2263.011 6318.2. b) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of Girder.639 673.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Moment for RCC 1.639 673.366 808.423 6863. Since it is very close to Middle Position of Span having value MU.022 Page 176 .826. of Bars.135 3003.366 1. DStir.000 mm rb.639 673.639 673.639 673.000 369.199 5131. Moment value (At c.503 9128.350*10^6 Nmm CCovBot.366 At L/8 1039. thus this value is Considerd as the Moment at Middle Position of Span. g) Let Assume Main Tensile Reinforcements are being placed in 4 Layers each having Equal nos.255 6824.248 mm e) The Vertical Spacing between Reinforcement Bars.350 kNM 6863. Position) : a) The Absolute Max. Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0. = 50mm..639 808.639 808.366 At L/4 1811.366 Mu (M Mr) kNm 808.152 673.021 673.199 5131. CCov. =38mm.639 808. CCovSide.255 kNm 808.CCovBot DStri 2*DBar .908 673.639 673.639 808.366 808. 2 2 d) XSectional Area of Main Reinforcements Af = p*DBar /4mm MU 6.863. Factored Moment of Section Factored Moment Mr Allowable Min. Let the Clear Cover at Vertical Faces of Girder.366 808. Point. CCovTop.3. dasuL/2 50 mm 50 mm 38 mm 32 mm 2 804.000 278.375m 142.639 808.3.639 673.011 6318.639 673.g. DBar Af32 sVer.Vert.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 673. thus the Effective Depth of Reinforcements from Top of Girder up to the Centroid of Assumed Group of Reinforcements = (hGir .423 6863.639 673. c) Let the Main Reinforcements are 32f Bars in 4 Layers.g.000 673. sVer.639 808.366 At L0.366 808.639 673. CCov.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) (1.2 32 mm 12 mm 1.33*M) kNm 0.366 3003.1.639 673.16.Bot.350 viii) Flexural Design of Main Girder with Max. Let the Clear Cover at Top of Girder.2 Times Section Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr from Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Support Moment Equation Value Moment Moment MDLUF 5. CCov.245 8403. thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).) h) Balanced Steel Ratio for Grider Section according to AASHTO19968.366 808.33 Times M of M.720 673.2Mcr Maximum Flexural Moment M kNm 0.Top = 50mm.920 3994.7.350*10^6 Nmm. = 32 mm f) Let the Transverse/Shear Reinforcements (Stirrups) are of 12f Bars. 0.048 673.366 At c. Moments on Interior Girder is at c.5*sVer.639 673.
the thickness of Girder Flange. Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section.(1 .85*0.L/2 NBarreq NBarpro.85*(f/c/fy)*(599. b) Since the Calculated Factored Moment MCent.85f/cbde2)1/2) a 108. Steel Ratio.2MU/0.650*10^6 808. thus Flexural Design of TGirder will as a Rectangular Beam Provisions. Factored Ultimate Moment (Absolute Moment) MU..650*10^6 Nm 2 10.045 mm Asreq. 32f bars = Nbarpro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf32*(hGir .35 kNm 6863. 6863. 4 Flexural Design for Provisions of Tensile Reinforcements at Different Section of Bridge Girder : i) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Central Section at L/2 from Support (Mid Span) against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Max. thus MCent. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 20 nos. 13.863.CCovBot DStir.843+fy)) i) Max. b.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.498. Beam Width b and the Calculated Max.843/(599.808. dasuL/2.0165 ix) Checking's Whether the Bridge Girder would Designed as TBeam or Rectangular Beam Provisions : a) According to Ultimate Stressed Design Provisions a Rectangular having Flange with Reasonable Thickness on its Top should be Designed as TBeam if Depth of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' is Less than Flange Thickness b) Let Consider the TGirder will behave as Rectangular Beam for which the Total Flange Width'b' will be the Width of Rectangular Beam. thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. Moment at Central Section is being Considered the Factored Moment at Absolute Moment Position which is also Greater than the Required Minimum Moment Mr.366*10^6 kNm Nm kNm Nm MU 6. c) For a Rectangular Section having Assumed Effective Depth dacu. is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Central (Mid) Section of Girder.1) rMax 0.2. Design Moment.DBar/2) MCent. 18 nos Aspro depro 2 14. (AASHTO19968.509 mm a<hFln d) Since the Calculated value of Equivalent Compression Block a < hFln.459 mm 1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). As = MU/[ffy(dasuL/2 . rMax = 0. Width of Rectangular Beam. c) With MU.476. of Bars on each of the Bottom 4Layers & 2 nos on Top Layer.053 nos.366 808. Mr.16.222 mm Page 177 . the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section. = (0. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design. rb.75*rb.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . the value Equivalent Compression Block a = de(1 .a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = AsreqTotal/Af32 e) Let Provide 18nos 32f bars in 5 (Five) Layers having 4 nos.350 6863.
7. the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. M3L/8. where.034 kNm Mr>Mu Satisfied 0. i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln.3.004 ppro<pmax Satisfied MResis rpro k) Since against Provided Steel Area. Thickness of Girder Flange. of Bars on each of MU 6318.3.7.423 kNm 6318.DBar/2)+2*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir. 20 nos Page 178 . c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0. Steel Ratio. c) With MU.3L/8 NBarreq NBarpro.1.42.078 OK c/depro<c/demax.017 nos.3.078 f) Relation between c/deMax. c 0. or Not) c/deMax.423 6318. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.423*10^6 808. is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section 3L/8.366*10^6 kNm Nm kNm Nm b) Since the Calculated Factored Moment M3L/8. ii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. Width of Rectangular Beam. In Flexural Design c/de 0. thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. dasuL/2. thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Central Section is OK.85 0.318 mm b1 c/depro 0. having value of c = b1apro.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section. + 4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotrDStir. 6318. ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). As = MU/[ffy(dasuL/2 .DBarsVer.2*DBar2*sVer.a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = AsreqTotal/Af32 e) Let Provide 18nos 32f bars in 5 (Five) Layers having 4 nos.4*DBar4*sVer.366 808./b*depro apro 166.DBar/2)}/Aspro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = Aspro*fy/(0. iii) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Section 3L/4 from Support against Calculated Moments: a) The Calculated Factored Moment a Section 3L/8 from Support is being Greater than the Required Minimum Moment Mr.3.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Allowable Max. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design.423*10^6 Nm 2 9. the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at 3L/8.. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis & Extrime Compressive Face.3*DBar3*sVer.664. Design Moment.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. in mm.420 141.537 mm Asreq. 12. M3L/8. thus the Calculated Factored Moment.DBar/2) +4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir. Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2. = Aspro*fy(depro .256 mm a<hFln Satisfied 10239.apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = Aspro.DBar/2) + 4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir. b.
= Aspro*fy(depro . b.714 mm Page 179 .2*DBar2*sVer. c) With MU.131. Thickness of Girder Flange. 14 nos Aspro depro 2 11.729 mm a<hFln Satisfied 11221.011*10^6 808.004 ppro<pmax Satisfied MResis rpro k) Since against Provided Steel Area.794. the Bottom 4Layers & 2 nos on Top Layer. 5131.011 5131. As = MU/[ffy(dasuL/2 . thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at 3L/8 is OK. ML/4. of Bars on each of Bottom 3Layers & 2 nos on Top Layer. is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section L/4. Design Moment.084.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).DBar/2) Aspro depro 2 16. Steel Ratio. the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at L/4. ML/4.000 mm + 4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotrDStir. dasuL/2.CCovBot DStir.011 kNm 5131. thus the Calculated Factored Moment. 32f bars = Nbarpro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf32*(hGir .L/4 NBarreq NBarpro.3*DBar3*sVer./b*depro apro 184.29 mm Asreq. i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln. thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU.259.011*10^6 Nm 2 7.954 mm 1. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 16nos..759 nos. Allowable Max.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section. 32f bars = Nbarpro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme MU 5. Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2.848.DBar/2)+2*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir.851.DBar/2) +4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .998 kNm Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.DBarsVer. the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = AsreqTotal/Af32 e) Let Provide 14nos 32f bars in 4(Four) Layers having 4 nos.4*DBar4*sVer. Width of Rectangular Beam.468 mm 1. iv) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Central Section at L/4 from Support against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Moment a Section L/4 from Support is being Greater than the Required Minimum Moment Mr. 9. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design.DBar/2) + 4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir.apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = Aspro. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 14nos.DBar/2)}/Aspro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = Aspro*fy/(0.366 808.366*10^6 kNm Nm kNm Nm b) Since the Calculated Factored Moment M3L/8.
DBar/2) + 4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotrDStir.003.593.L/8 NBarreq NBarpro.DBarsVer. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design. c) With MU. Steel Ratio.712 nos.2*DBar2*sVer. 10 nos Aspro depro 2 8.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .DBar/2) +4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir.199 3003.DBar/2) + 4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotrDStir.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 10nos.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). dasuL/2. Thickness of Girder Flange. 5. Allowable Max.2*DBar2*sVer. thus the Required Minimum Momen Mr. i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln.apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = Aspro. 32f bars = Nbarpro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf32*(hGir . = Aspro*fy(depro .134 kNm Mr>Mu Satisfied 0. Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf32*(hGir .a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = AsreqTotal/Af32 e) Let Provide 10 nos 32f bars in 3 (Three) Layers having 4 nos. the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax.199 kNm 3003. is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section L/8.199*10^6 Nm 2 4. b. v) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Section L/8 from Support against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Moment a Section L/8 from Support is being Less than the Required Minimum Moment Mr.042. Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section.266 mm a<hFln Satisfied 8499.DBarsVer.DBar/2) + 2*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir. Design Moment.635 mm Asreq.3*DBar3*sVer.DBar/2))}/Aspro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = Aspro*fy/(0./b*depro apro 21.DBar/2))}/Aspro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for MU 3.CCovBot DStir.366*10^6 kNm Nm kNm Nm b) Since the Calculated Factored Moment M3L/8..CCovBot DStir.DBar/2) + 2*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir. Width of Rectangular Beam. thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at L/4 is OK. As = MU/[ffy(dasuL/2 .365 mm Page 180 .882.366 808. ML/8 3003. ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU.477 mm 1.199*10^6 808. the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at L/8 .800 mm apro 92. of Bars on each of the Bottom 2Layers & 2 nos on Top Layer.003 ppro<pmax Satisfied MResis rpro k) Since against Provided Steel Area.
Design Moment./b*depro MResis a<hFln Satisfied 6056.375m from Support is being Less than the Required Minimum Moment Mr.135 278. As = MU/[ffy(dasuL/2 . M0.002 ppro<pmax Satisfied MResis rpro Page 181 .366*10^6 Nm 2 1236. Steel Ratio. Allowable Max.DBar/2))}/Aspro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = Aspro*fy/(0.DBar/2) +4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir. the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 8 nos. vi) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Section at 0.apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = Aspro.apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = Aspro.092 kNm Mr>Mu Satisfied 0. = Aspro*fy(depro .*DBar*sVer. 8 nos Aspro depro 2 6.902.135*10^6 808.982 mm 1. ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU.366 808.375m from Support against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Moment a Section 0. dasuL/2. Width of Rectangular Beam. c) With MU. = Aspro*fy(depro .433.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section.a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = AsreqTotal/Af32 e) Let Provide 8nos 32f bars in 2 (Two) Layers having 4 nos.000 mm apro 73.375m.537 nos. 32f bars = Nbarpro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf32*(hGir . 1.892 mm a<hFln Satisfied 4919.375 NBarreq NBarpro.366 kNm 808.461 mm Asreq.887 kNm Mr>Mu Satisfied 0. thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.0. thus the Required Minimum Momen Mr is the Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section 0. is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design.002 ppro<pmax Satisfied rpro k) Since against Provided Steel Area.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Rectangular Section of Girder = Aspro*fy/(0.366*10^6 kNm Nm kNm Nm b) Since the Required Minimum Momen Mr.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln..375m 278./b*depro MU 808.CCovBot DStir. Thickness of Girder Flange. the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at 0.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section. of Bars on each of the Layers. b. thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at L/8 is OK.375m . Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2.
366*10^6 kNm Nm kNm Nm b) Since the Required Minimum Momen Mr. 1.433.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Thickness of Girder Flange.000 000*10^6 808. thus for Support Section the Required Minimum Moment Mr. thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at Support is OK.002 ppro<pmax Satisfied MResis rpro k) Since against Provided Steel Area.236. Design Moment.366 808. Width of Rectangular Beam. 8 nos Aspro depro 2 6. = Aspro*fy(depro ./b*depro MU 808. Steel Ratio.902. Allowable Max.375m is OK. Steel Ratio.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . is the Governing Moment for the Flexural Design.7. thus it is also the Uiltimate Design Moment MU. the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax. viii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax.apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = Aspro. NBarreq NBarpro. As = MU/[ffy(dasuL/2 .a/2)] d) Number of 32f bers required = AsreqTotal/Af32 e) Let Provide 8nos 32f bars in 2 (Two) Layers having 4 nos. i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln..3. dasuL/2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.DBar/2) +4*Asf32(hGirCCovBotDStir. of Bars on each of the Layers.46 mm Asreq. k) Since against Provided Steel Area. Thickness of Girder Flange. c) With MU.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section. ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU.37 kNm 808.000 mm apro 73. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 16nos. thus the Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Section at 0.Supp. the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section at Support .366*10^6 Nm 2 1. vii) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements at Section on Support against Calculated Moments : a) The Calculated Factored Moment at Support Position is being 0 (Zero).DBar/2))}/Aspro h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of Girder = Aspro*fy/(0.CCovBot DStir. is the Governing Governing Moment in Flexural Designe for the Section.887 kNm Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.892 mm a<hFln Satisfied 4919.537 nos. ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU. MSupp. b. 0.982 mm 1. Allowable Max. Assumed Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section L/2. i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln.*DBar*sVer. 32f bars = Nbarpro*Af g) With provided arrangement of Reinforcement Bars & Steel Area for the Section the Actual Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement's Centroid from the Extreme Fiber of Compression Face = {4*Asf32*(hGir .2: Page 182 .
of TGirder Span). Moment at c.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Absulate Max. 4.878*10^6 Nmm 0.350 kNm 6863.g.4.6fy.2.459 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. is Developed Tinsel Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) d) For Simple Supported & Single Reinforced TGirder Beam the with Provided Steel Area against Factored Max. i) dc = Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar.1902*10^6 Nmm 10. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.905*10^6 Nmm 2 14. in Which.3.905 kNm 4127.878*10^6 Nmm MUMidSpanUSD 6.476.878 kNm 10146.878 kNm 10146. Moments at its Mid Span will have value of Nominal Resistance.7. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.000 mm Page 183 .190 kNm 91132.863.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition. a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .299 N/mm dc 66.146.222 mm fsa 2 291.694 N/mm MWSD. b) fsDev. Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance for a Flanged Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5.90 i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.3.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . Mr = fMn.132.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.350*10^6 Nmm Mr>Mu Satisfied f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment MU at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater. if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) ix) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement..808. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. where. of a Concrete Elements.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) + 0.7.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2). Where. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State of Loads fsDev. Mr 9. c) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. The Depth is Summation Bottom/Top Clear Cover & Radius of the Aspro de 1. (AASHTOLRFD5.127. 2 157.3. should not exceed fsa the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.7.146. MnMidSpan 10.
thus dc = (32/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. iii) The Provided Stee Ratio for Rectangular Section of TGirder. on Top Layer. The Girder is being Provided with 50mm Clear Cover at Bottom. Balance Steel Ratio.Max. CCoverBot = 50mm & Bar Dia. rRecpro < rMax. Moment at c.000. thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. < ZMax. ii) The Calculated value of c/de 0. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. Crack Width Parimeter ZMax. value of ZMax.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). For a Section of TGirder Component.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. the Developed Crack Width Parimeter ZDev. thus Provision of Main Tensial Reinforcement for TGirder in respect of Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement are OK j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestrssed one. Clear Cover = 50mm. Though the Vertical Spacing among the Layers of Tension Reinforcement are 32mm but due to dissimilarity of Bar arrangement the Centroid of Bars does not Coincide with the Center of Vertical Spacings.. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea.6*fy 2 246. Bars on Botton 4 Layers & 2nos. fsa > 0. value of ZMax.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.458. based on actual Cintroid of Bars value of A = bWeb{2*(hGir.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. e) Based on fsDve. 18nos. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.025 mm 23. Satisfy i) Since the Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of TGirder fsDev. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve.. 12.451. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having 50mm.< fsa Satisfied Not Satisfied Zdev.016 N/mm fsDev. = fsDev.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Closest Bar to Tension Face. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. & Developed value ZDev. but value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. Thus.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress with Alloable Max.6*fy for the Concrete Element. 2 7. DBar = 32f . Clear Cover. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. iv) The Computed Factored Flexural Resistance M r > Mu the Actual Factored Moment at Mid Span (Absulate Max. ZMax.g.< Zmax.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max.6fy ZDev. Page 184 .42. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. Point). 32f Bars Tension Bar in 5 Layers on Mid Span having 4 nos. . dc = DBar/2 + CCovBot.depro)}/NBarpro. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max.000 N/mm 0. Since Clear Cover at Bottom of TGirder. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the TGirder Structure. i) The Value of Resisting Moment > Design Moment. The Max. x) Since.
5 Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Top & Vertical Surfaces of Girder : i) Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Top Surface of Girder : a) Since the Girders are Simply Supported Structure & at Middle Location the Moments are with (+) ve.10.248 mm 2. .000 mm 0.400.902 mm bWeb.10. 2 1. As 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. 450 mm sproTop.000 nos.350 m 350.000. c) Let consider the Width of Girder is the Web Width of TGirder = 0.608. 32f Longitudinal bars on Top Surface = (b . Steel Area required as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components with Thickness Less than 1200mm. Thus Flexural Design of Reinforcements for the TGirder Span is OK. (Width of Girder is its thicknes.*CCoverSide . thus the Top Surface of Girder will be under Compression.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . v) The Provided Main Reinforcements are anough in respect of Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement.2*DStir.1. g) XSectional Area of 32f bar = pDBar2/4 h) Let provide 2 nos. value. AsproS&T.00 mm or = 450 mm k) Spacing in between 2 nos. m) Whether Provision of Spacing have Satisfied or not. b) Let consider 1 (One) meter Strip Length of Girder for Calculation of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Top Surface of Girder.8. 1. Af32 NBarS&TTop 2 350000.000 mm 32.Top Satisfied Page 185 . AsreqTop. e) Here Ag is Gross Area of Girder Top Surface = LGirder*bWeb f) Let provide 32f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Girder.000 mm 2 93.. this Surface is also require Longitudinal Reinforcement. Under Single Reinforced Flexural Design Provision Top Surface of Girder does not require any Longitudinal Reinforcement.450m d) According to AASHTOLRFD5. 186 mm AsproS&T>Asreq. AgTop DBar. which can arrange under the Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement according to AASHTOLRFD5.8.000 mm 2 804.2. 32f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Surface of Girder.Top Satisfied sproTop < sreq.495 mm sreqTop. LGirder.11Ag/fy .2*DBar) l) Whether Provision of Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement have Satisfied or not. b = 4500mm < 1200mm). i) Provide Steel Area for Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Surface of Girder = NBarS&TTop*Af32 j) Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements will less of 3times the Component thickness = 4*bWeb = 1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).000 m 1. Yet for Safe Guard & provide the Web/Shear Reinforcements in the form of Stirrups.
2 2000000.11Ag/fy . Temperature Reinforcementon Vertical Faces of Girder for Calculated Steel Area = (hGir 2*Ccov 5*DBar32 .096 mm 5 nos l) Spacing of 16f bars at Support Position as Horizontal Shrinkage & sproS&THori. those can provide under Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement Provisions according to AASHTOLRFD5./Af16 AgVert.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).000.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18..000 mm 16 mm Af16 sreqS&T. b) Let consider 1 (One) meter Strip Length of Girder for Calculation of Shrinkage LGirder.310 mm Page 186 .sVer.Hori.585 mm d) According to AASHTOLRFD5. j) Spacing of 16f bars at Support Position as Horizontal Shrinkage & sCalreqS&THori. & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Vertical Faces of Girder. NBarproS&THori. thus the provision of Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Surface of Girde is OK.050 mm or = 450 mm i) Number of 16f bars required against Calculated Steel Area as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on Vertical Surface of Girder = AsreqLong. e) Here Ag is Gross Area of Girder's Each Vertical Face = LGirder*hGirder f) Let provide 16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder.000.005.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .000 m 2.10.669*DBar32 .000 m 1.1. As 0. & Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components with Thickness Less than 1200mm. c) Let consider the Depth of TGirder as Height of Girder. ii) Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Vertical Faces of Girder : a) Girders are Simply Supported Structure having the Longitudinal Flexural Reinforcements due to Moments on Bottom Surface & also on Top Surface (In case of Doubly Reinforced or under Shrinkage & Temperature Provision).2*DStri)/NBarreqS&THor. h = 2. Temperature Reinforcementon Vertical Faces of Girder for Calculated Steel Area = (hGir 2*Ccov 2. 2. 374. k) Let Provide 5 nos. AsproS&THori.669 nos. 1. There will be also Lateral & Vertical Reinforcements on Bottom.2*DStri)/NBarreqS&THor.000 mm 2 536. m) Steel Area against Provided Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical Surfaces of Girder = Af16*BarproS&THori. Steel Area required as Shrinkage AsreqS&T. > AsreqTop & sproTop < sreqTop.Hori. DBar.000 mm 2.062 mm 450 mm NBarreqS&THori.sVer.10. 2 201. 16f as Longitudinal bars as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement.8. 232. It also requires Longitudinal Reinforcement on its Vertical Faces. n) Since AsproTop.00m hGirder. Top & Vertiocal Surfaces under the provisiona of Shear & Web Reinforcement.8. g) XSectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar2/4 h) Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements is less of 3times the Component thickness = 3*bWeb = 1.857 mm 2 1.
1.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .2. iii) Deep Flexural Members. ii) Not Less than the Nominal Diameter of Bar proposed. Hooks or any Mechanical Device or a Combination of all together. Satisfied sproS&THori.. The value of Development Length Id will be according to Provisions as mentioned in Article 5. These are especially required for Tension Zones.1. ii) Provisions Flexural Reinforcement (Article 5.11. iii) Provisins of Development Length le under Article 5.1 the Tension Development Length le should not be less than the product of the Basic Development Length ldb & the Modification Factors as Specified in Articles 5.11.3. and iii) Not Less than 1/20 of Clear Span. ii) Brackets. > AsreqS&T.1.2.11. ii) The Points within the Span where Adjacent Reinforcement Terminates or Bands.11. d) In no case Termination of more than 50% of Reinforcement at any Section is permitted & Termination of adjusecent Bars on the same Section is restricted. thus the provisions of Longitudinal Reinforcement as Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder is OK. 4 Checking for Development Length & Splices of Reinforcements under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.11.< sreqS&THori. o) Whether Provision of Spacing have Satisfied or not. Otherwise Continuity of Bended Bars would remain on the Compression Face of the Component. i) The Points of Maximum Stress.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). beyond the Point of Bent or Tarminated Tension Reinforcenenta are no longer requred. in that case a Development Length ld should Provide on Compression Face for Termination of Bars. n) Whether Provision of Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement have Satisfied or not.11.2.Hori Satisfied p) Since AsproS&THori. Stepped or Tapered Footings.2 & 5.2 : a) According to Article 5. Whereas the Basic Tension Development Length in mm for Different Size of Deformed Bars & Wires are. Reinforcements shall be extended further beyond the Point where they are no longer requred to resist the Flexural for a Distance as mentioned below: i) Not less than the Effective Depth of Component.1 : a) The Calculated Force effects in Reinforcement at each Section shall be Developed on each side of that Section by Embedment of Length of Reinforcement.2.1.Hori.11 : i) Provisions Article 5. f) For Bent of Tension Reinforcements Across the Web to the Compression Face. those Provide with Supplementary Ancorages for Flexural Tension Reinforcements. > AsreqLong & sproS&THori. c) In Continuing Reinforcements the Extended Length shall not be Less than the Development Length ld. AsproS&THori. Page 187 .11..1. g) Components of i) Sloped.<sreqS&T.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.1. & iv) Unparallel Tension & Compression Reinforcements and the Reinfocement Forces are not Directly Proportional to the Factored Moments.1) : a) In Flexural Members the Critical Sections are. b) Except at Supports of Simple Spans and at the Free Ends of Cantilevers.2.
02Abfy/f/c 0.444 % e) Since the Provided Reinforcement on Support is 44. g) fy is Yield Strength of deform Ber/Wire in MPa.2.476. ldb = 34fy/f/c.433.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.2 in respect of Positive Moment Reinforcement & the Provided Reinforcement: a) In Simple Supported Span atleast Onethird or 33% of Positive Moment Reinforcement should be Extended beyond the Centerline of Support and would continue not Less than 150mm. Whereas in Continuous Spans that will be at least Onefourth or 25% of Positive Moment Reinforcement on the same Face..2 in respect of Positive Moment Reinforcement the Design is OK.11. thus According Article 5. b) Provided Steel (Reinforcement) Area against Maximum Positive moment for the TGirder Span = AsproL/2 c) Provided Steel (Reinforcement) Area on Support Position of TGirder Span both on Bottom & Top Surface = AsproSupp d) Percentage of Provided Reinforcement on Support of TGirder in respect of the Maximum Positive Moment Reinforcement = 100*AsproSupp/AsproL/2 AsproL/2 2 14. iv) Provisins of Article 5. v) Computed value of Development Length le & Basic Development Length ldb for TGirder Beam : a) Provided bar Diameter for Main TGirder of Simple Supported Bridge b) Maximum Number of Main Bars on Each Layer = NBar c) Clear Cover at Bottom of Main Girder = CCovBot e) Clear Cover at Top of Main Girder = CCovTop f) Clear Cover on both Sides of Main Girder = CCovSide DBar NBar CCovBot CCovTop CCovSide 32 mm 4 50 mm 50 mm 38 mm Page 188 . b) For bar No36 & below. ldb = 0. c) For bar No43 & below.2.06dbfy. ldb = 0. i) db is Diameter of Bar/Wire in mm.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). ldb = 25fy/f/c. d) For bar No57. Positive Moment Reinforcement. h) Abfy/f/c is the Specified Compressive Strength of Concrete in MPa.459 mm AsproSupp 2 6. Where f) Ab is Crosssectional Area of Deform Ber/Wire in mm2. e) For Deformed Wire.444% of the Provided at Max.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .982 mm %AsproSupp 44.36dbfy/f/c.11.
Wheel Live Load (WLLInt) Total Shears on Each Point On Support kN 480.250 b) Shearing Forces at Sopport Position of Girder c) Shearing Forces at Loaction 0.185 106.02Af32fy/f c 0. LaneLL & WheelLL : Table2. thus the Design is OK in respect of Development Length for Main Reinforcement of Girder.197 L/8 kN 368.200 mm 2.375m kN 466.543 128.240 407. 5 Design of Shear Reinforcement & Checking of RCC Girder against Shearing Forces at Different Locations : i) Calculated Factored Shearing Forces (Vu) at Different Locations due to Applied Loads (DL & LL): a) Table for Max. lb = 0.833 66. Lane Live Load (FLLInt) a.400 ldbCal 2. kN 37.236 99.156 644.370 248. Vu0.258 3L/8 kN 122. l) Calculated Basic Development Length ldb for 32 No. DStir.353 834.375m.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).06DBarfy.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.DStriDBar k) Modification Factor for Basic Development Length ldb (Since Depth below the Top Horizontal Bars is greater than 300mm.754 mm 2.667 mm 2 804.764 L/2 kN 10.301 239. Sum.02Af32fy/f/c m) Calculated value of 0. sLateral Af32 hTopBar MFactort 12 mm 40.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a. Dead Load (FDLInt) b. / n) Computed value of Development Length.592 46.745 33.766 kN 834.375m from Sopport of Girder d) Shearing Forces at Loaction L/8 from Sopport of Girder e) Shearing Forces at Loaction L/4 from Sopport of Girder f) Shearing Forces at Loaction 3L/8 from Sopport of Girder VuSupp. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Factored DL.468 92.248 mm 1. VuL/8.162 c.258 kN 191.06DBarfy lbreq lbpro 787.754 mm 0.093 35.324 132. Vu3L/4.025. Main Bars = 2025mm p) Since the Provided Development Length for Main Reinforcement is greater than the required Development Length.197 kN 644. VuL/4. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder.658 0.2*DStriNBar*DBar)/(NBar1) i) Crosssectional Area of Provided Main Deform Ber = pDBar2/4 j) Depth of Concrete below the Top Horizontal Bar = hGir.014.906. of Max. thus Factor is for Increase of ldb).401 7.670 kN 407.. Main Longitudinal Bar of TGirder = MFactor*0.CCovTop.895 47.000 mm 1.072 860.000 35.162 kN Page 189 .000 mm o) Let Provide the Development Length for 32 No.324 191.670 L/4 kN 234.g.06DBarfy. g) Provided bar Diameter for Transverse/Shear Reinforcements (Stirrups) h) Lateral Spacing of Main Bars = (bWeb2*CCovSide.766 0. 860.278 177.014.
375m L1/8 L1/4 L3/8 L1/2 g) Shearing Stress due to Applied Factored Shearing Forces at Different Sections of Girder : i) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at Support Position of Girder = VuSupp/fbvdv N/mm2 ii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance 0.000 350.9de Calculated value of 0.400 mm 1440.000 mm At Support 0. (AASSHTOLRFD5.000 1440.. Table3 Values of vu.000 2000.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).000 1440.8.000 3050.208 0. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component the value of Vp = 0 c) bv is Width of TGirder Web = bWeb.800 1711. g) Shearing Forces at Absolute Max.000 350.2.000 mm 0.000 mm Variable mm 2. Position) of Girder h) Shearing Forces at Loaction L/2 (Middle of Span) from Sopport of Girder ii) Factored Shearing Stress & Shearing Depth at Different Locations : Vuc.000 (h) mm 2000.4.9de .596 N/mm vu0.543 1614.000 2000.000 1440. vu = (Vu .376 0.000 1882.fVp)/fbvdv.g.800 1694. = Vu/fbvdv .000 1902.520 1666. bv.9de .2).800 1851.72h de h f 350 mm Variable mm Variable mm 1.9de 0.72h & dv at different Section of Girder.250) kN a) The Shearing Steress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force. i) de is Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement for the Section in mm ii) h is Depth of TGirder. mm. bv.375m.375m from vuSupp. b) Vp is Component of Prestressing applied Forces.600 1627.72h in mm.000 3050.000 (dv) mm 1711.90 (AASHTOLRFD5.543 1614.222 mm 1711. hGir = 2000 mm. Moment Loaction (c. de.547 1.000 375.600 1627.000 3050. 2 1.800 1694. Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Width of TGirder Web Depth of TGirder Effective Depth of Section for Tensial Calculated value of 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.000 (de) mm 1902.000 2000. e) f is Resistance Factor for Shear = 0.596 1.000 3050.000 1808. 0. (92.520 1666.000 1440. VuL/2.72h Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Shearing Stress (bv) mm 350.000 1440. 0.000 350.764) kN (46.9de or 0.72h & dv at different Section of Girder. 0.000 2000. Here.714 1794. Since Vp = 0.90 f) Table for Computation of values of vu.776 0.000 350.400 (vu) N/mm2 1. 2 1.5.Here.547 N/mm Page 190 . 0. de.000 2000.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .440.9). Vp Mpa bv dv 0.090 L0.g. d) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having the greater value of either of 0.000 350.800 1711.
Vr.2. velue is not applicable. AASHTOLRFD5.8.083bf/cbvdv.3. Support = Vu0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .31) & ii) Vn = 0.3. 2 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp.8. Vr = fVn in which.3. 5..33) in which.12.3. 0 g) a is Angle of Inclenation of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement to Longitudinal Bars in ( ). Having the value. d) s is Spacing of Stirrups in mm.4.2. 2 (0.3.8. 5.8.8. (Equ.90 N N iv) Computation of values of q & b to Calculate the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Locations due to Factored Shear Forces under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. a = 900 a 90 0 h) Av is Area of Shear Reinforcement within a distance s in mm. 2 1. 2 0. f 0.3.3. b) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N c) Vn is Nominal Shear Resitance in N according to AASHTOLRFD5. For Vertical Transverse/Shear Reinforcement the Angle of Inclenation.1(Equ5.4 : a) The Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at any Section of Girder is the Lesser value Computed by the Equations i) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. b) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N having value = 0.776 N/mm vC3L/8. 5. (Equ.2. c) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (Equ.) vuL/2. e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5. (The () ve.376 N/mm iii) Factored Shearing Resistance for a Section under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. Vn.5.4.375/fbvdv N/mm2 iii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance L/8 from Support = VuL/8/fbvdv N/mm2 iv) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance L/4 from Support = VuL/4/fbvdv N/mm2 v) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance 3L/8 from Support = Vu3L/8/fbvdv N/mm2 vi) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at a distance L/2 from Support = VuL/2/fbvdv N/mm2 .8.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).4.8.4. 5.8. Page 191 .12) : a) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation5.3.8.3.31).32) in which. d) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTOLRFD5.208 N/mm vuL/4.2.090) N/mm vuL/8.8.8.2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.8. 0 f) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) as per AASHTOLRFD5.
Provided Steel Area in mm2 iv) At Distance L/4 from Support.Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps)..3.982 6. (Equ5.Shear Reinforcement).433.5Nu + 0.000 mm Aps  mm2 AsSup. i) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. Provided Steel Area in mm2 h) fpo is a Parameter for Modulus of Elasticity of Prestressing Tendons which is multiplied by Lockedin differencein Strain between the Prestressing Tendons and Surrounding Concrete (Mpa).  N v) Computation of Value b & q at different Locations of Girder as per AASHTOLRFD5. the value of fpo = 0. Provided Steel Area in mm2 vi) At Distance L/2 from Support.Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps). i) On Support Position value of Provided Steel Area in mm2 ii) At Distance 0. the value of Nu = 0.375m from Support. For Nonprestressed RCC Structural Component. j) Mu is Factored (+) ve Moment quantity of the Section in Nmm but not less then Vudv.3.3.8.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Provided Steel Area in mm2 v) At Distance 3L/8 from Support.22). e) Ac is Area of Concerte on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 having value Ac = bWeb* hGir.3.4.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. AsL/4. d) ex= (Mu/dv+0. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component. k) Vu is Factored Shear Force (Only (+) ve values are applicable) for the Section in N. Provided Steel Area in mm2 iii) At Distance L/8 from Support. (Equ5. Where.4.23 for the Cases when value of es is () ve.8.8.5.5.in Equ.Apsfpo)/(2(EsAs + EpAps).4.3.3. c) ex = (Mu/dv+0. For RCC Structure.982 8. Vp. the value of Aps = 0 g) As is Area of NonPrestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder for the in mm2 under Consideration having respective values of Steel Area.4: a) Calculation of Longitudinal Strain in Web Reinforcement εs in mm/mm on the Flexural Tension side of Girder with Equations . As0.5(Vu Vp)cotq .476. (Equ5. fpo.7fpu for both Pretensioned & Posttensioned Case. Nu  N Page 192 .8.5Nu + 0.468 16.042./2 mm2 f) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2.375m.084.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .5Nu + 0.Shear Reinforcement). AsL/2. the value recommended = 0.4. AsL/8.5(Vu Vp)cotq . For the usal level of Prestressing.5(Vu Vp)cotq .8.433.477 11. b) ex = (Mu/dv+0. i) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N.21& Equ.22 for the Case with Less then the Min.954 14. the value of Vp = 0. Ac 2 350.21 for the Case with at Least the Min.459  mm2 mm2 mm2 mm2 mm2 mm2 MPa.259. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component. 6.4. As3L/8. Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & () for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing.8.
058 0.258 191.000 (Vu) kN 860.076 0.600 1627. Vu.3.197 644.400 (Vudv) kN 1473.543 1614.375m L1/8 L1/4 L3/8 L1/2 vi) Value of vc/f/c (Ratio of Shearing Stress & Concrete Compressive Strength) at Different Section of Girder : / / a) Value of vc/f c at Support Pisition of Girder = vcSup/f c / / b) Value of vc/f c at a distance 0.20 5.000 3050.037 0.978 1092. Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of Vudv.978 3003.650 75.250 (dv) mm 1711.21 : a) Since for RCC Girder values of Prestressing Components Nu. Vu.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 d) At 0. Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Effective Moment value Vudv MuEff (Mu) kNm 0.766 834.423 6630.018 (0.375m from Support = vc0.000 375. Ep etc. the values of exx1000 at Different Locations are .00 278.375/f c / / c) Value of vc/f c at a distance L/8 from Support = vcL/8/f c / / d) Value of vc/f c at a distance L/4 from Support = vcL/4/f c / / e) Value of vc/f c at a distance 3L/8 from Support = vc3L/8/f c / / f) Value of vc/f c at a distance L/2 from Support = vcL/2/f c vcSupp/f/c vc0.011 6318.375m from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.459 1427.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).Mu/dv)/0. fpo. Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Factored Moment for the Section.267 (MuEff) kNm 1473. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTOLRFD5. Showing the values of M u.520 1666.5(Vu Vp)cotq . thus equation ex = (Mu/dv+0.449 L0.001at Support Position & the Effective Moment MuEff. Factored Shear for the Section.459 1427.8.630. From the Equation Cotq = (ex2EsAs .5 & provisions of Equation 5.45 mm At Support 0.5Nu + 0.199 5131.8.670 407.375/f/c vcL/8/f/c vcL/4/f/c vc3L/8/f/c vcL/2/f/c 0. I) Table Showing the values of Mu.000 3050.003.241.004) vii) Values of esx1000 with at Least the Min.969 cotq 3.2.162 46.318. d) At Support (Bearing Center) Position = ((Mu/dv + 0.5Vu c) Having the value of cotq = 2.14 3.131. Asp. are = 0.800 1694. Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of M uEff Vudv.Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.713 308.4.076 0.000 2675.000 0. Vp..25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .980 Page 193 .375*1000 1. Table4.406 678.800 1711.42 6.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.01 6.000 3050.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 exSuport*1000 ex0.5Vucotq )/2EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.
3. = 2*pDBar2/4 = 2*Af16 ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section iii) s is Spacing of Longitudinal Bars as Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement on Vertical Faces of TGirder.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 exL/8*1000 exL/4*1000 ex3L/8*1000 exL/2*1000 0.5Vucotq )/EsAs ix) Computation of values of Crack Spacing Parameter.3. b) sx = the Lesser value of either dv or the Spacing of Longitudinal Crack Control Reinforcements on Vertical Faces (as Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement) having Steel Area in a Horizontal Reinforcement Layer if As > 0..5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 h) At a Distance L/2 from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.002 at Support Position & the Effective Moment MuEff.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. In which.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.8.8.980 ex*1000 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .22.002 As 2 402. 5.3.688 i) Since at Absolute Max.667 0. Equation No.857 mm 0. From the Equation Cotq = (exEsAs .8.5Nu + 0. viii) Values of esx1000 with Less than Min.00.22 : a) Since in RCC Girder the values for Prestressing Components Nu.22. e) At a Distance L/8 from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0. thus equation ex= (Mu/dv+0.8. thus values of q & b for the Sections can be obtain from Table5. fpo. iv) Thus Computed value of 0.950 0.3.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 f) At a Distance L/4 from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.2.124 mm dv s  mm 232. Moment Position & at L/2 Distance from Support the Shear Forces are of () ve value.24 & Table 5.4.4.Mu/dv)/0.No.5Vu c) Values of exx1000 at Location = (Mu/dv + 0. Here. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTOLRFD5. using the Equation .5 & the provisions of Equation 5. sxe for Sectiona are : a) The Crack Spacing Parameter of a Section. j) Since in all Sections from Support to L/2 the values of esx1000 ≤ 1.4.5.8. Vp.21 in respect of values of vc/f/c. are = 0.003dvs for a Section sx mm cotq 3.5(Vu Vp)cotq .003dvs  mm2 Page 194 . Asp.003bvs. thus calculations for the values of exx1000 these Locations are not essential. i) As is Steel Area of 2nos Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement Bars on Opposite Vertical Faces of TGirder in same Horizontal Layer.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 g) At a Distance 3L/8 from Support = ((Mu/dv + 0.3.00. For Sections having the esx1000>1.5Vucotq )/EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0. Ep etc. sxe = sx(35/(ag+16)) 2000mm. = AsS&THori.4.8.864 0.4. for those Cases values of q & b can obtain in respect of value of Crack Spacing Parameter sxe.
70 33.2. b) Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete of Girder Vc = 0.688 sxe NA NA NA NA NA NA Value of q 36.4.375m from Support.8.4.037 0.41.4 : a) The Transverse or Shear Reinforcements are required for those Sections where the Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads (DL & LL). against the Respective Calculated values of esx1000.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .8.3.293*10^3 N xii) Regions Requiring Transverse or Shear/Web Reinforcements under AASHTOLRFD5.293 kN 18452.1 vc/f/c 0.00 & the value of sxe at a Sections should Computed from the Respective Tablel.4.3(Equ.864 0.003dvs<As ag sxe sApplicable 20 mm mm f) For value of ex*1000 > 1.23 2. AASHTOLRFD5. Location of Section From Support a) At Support Position b) At L0.3.375mDistance of Support c) At L/8 Distance of Support d) At L/4 Distance of Support e) At 3L/8 Distance of Support f) At L/2 Distance of Support Referece of Table 5.3.23 2.3.23 2.452.70 b 2. Here.40 36.8.499 1. the value of sx = dv c) ag is Max.4.4.1 5. Ratio vc/f/c & sxe. Equ5.40 33.4.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.23 2. thus Values of q & b of Section L/8 are the Governing Values for Computation of Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) for the Girder.21.8.375m from Support value of Cotq iii) At a DistanceL/8 from Support value of Cotq iv) At a Distance L/4 from Support value of Cotq v) At a Distance 3L/8 from Support value of Cotq vi) At a Distance L/2m from Support value of Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq 1.076 0.003bvs at Section > As.22. Page 195 .3.3.2.: a) Table for Values of q & b at Different Location of Girder.2.1 5.3.000 0. Aggragate size for Concrete = 20mm d) Thus Computed value of sxe = sx(35/(ag+16)) for Section at L/8 0.40 36.018 0.356 1. Vu > 0.8.2.5f (Vc + Vp).38 2.950 0.969 0.2. AASHTOLRFD5.2.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).31).083bf/cbvdv.2.3.1 5.2.4.8.3.8.8.1 5. 5.8.004 exx1000 1. v) For Computed value of 0.38 b) Value of Cotq at different Locaion of Girder : i) At Support (Bearing Center) Position value of Cotq ii) At a Distance 0.1 5.499 xi) Computation of Value for Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) using the Values of q & b : a) Since the Location of L/8 is next to the Critical Section at a Distance 0. & Table 5.4. x) Computation of Values of q & b from AASHTOLRFD'sTable 5.2.40 36.667 0. Vc 18.356 1.356 1.8.4.8.8.076 0.3..058 0.8.356 1.
3.2. vu < 0.4dv ≤ 300mm (AASHTOLRFDEqu.5Vc Vu<0.5Vc Not Satisfied Not Satisfied Not Satisfied Not Satisfied Not Satisfied Not Satisfied 48903800. f) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTOLRFD5. AASHTOLRFDEquation5. 0. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.835 92764.7 : a) Due to applied Shearing Stress.72) c) Value of 0.1 = 0.8dv ≤ 600mm.125f/c 2 2.2.8.2 = 0.44 49229636.8.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.5f (Vc + Vp).5Vc Vu<0. b) Vu is Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads for the Selected Section in N.52 22006710. the Max. b) Due to applied Shearing Stress. Showing Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in respect of Max.230 2.4.380 2.230 2.34. Spacing of Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress at Defferent Section of Girder. Vu.8.8dv Value of 0.2. a) At Support (Bearing Center) Position a) At a Distance 0. d) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.41 Stands to Vu > 0.48 47610865.5Vc at Different Location of Girder. 0.710 Relation Equation Between Satisfied/ Vu & Vc Not Satisfied Vu<0. 0.125f/c.23 48410134. c) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance for the Section having value = 0.230 2.3.5fVc N 22.8.375m from Support b) At a DistanceL/8 from Support c) At a Distance L/4 from Support d) At a Distance 3L/8 from Support e) At a Distance L/2m from Support f 0. having value = 90 g) Thus for Nonprestressing Structure the Eqution5.5Vc Vu<0. Equation5.43 21424889.4dv Relation between Relation between Formula Status Page 196 .41.125f/c. the value of Vp = 0.90 Values of b 2.25 Vc N 48903800.2.8. Location from Girder's Bearing Center.230 2..5Vc Vu<0.8.2. Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress on Girder under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).82 834196.5Vc h) Table showing the values of b.7 i) The Table indicates that non of the Sections of RCC Girder have satisfied the required provisions for Transverse/Shear Reinforcements under Equation Vu > 0. 5.8. Spacing & Status : Segment.2. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.3.4.4dv againest the respective values of 0. Vc.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .006. xiii) Checking of Required Max.71).625 N/mm d) Table Showing values of vu. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.39 21784560.804 407257.5Vc & Relation between Vu & 0.125f/c in respect of Max.6 22328960.8dv. Vp.5Vc Vu<0. 5. N e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension according to AASHTOLRFD5. the Max.125f/c : Table. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.3.52 0.8.851 191161.54 49619912. 0.77 22153336.125f/c Relation between Value of 0.380 Vu N 860765.5. vu > 0. Value of Location dv Value of vu Value of 0..637 644669.083bf/cbvdv according to AASHTOLRFD5.
Vu2d > 1/2VuSupp.52 L/4 Section at 1.2.3). = 0. N 350 mm 410.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . 1/2VuSupp.234 1291.711.1.13.12f/c vu<0.13.8.1.12f/c Maximum N/mm2 1. Here. = Vu2d.440 1369.440 1355.3. For vu < 0.13. fy.694. c) 1/2 of Factored Shear Force at Support of Girder. kN.375m Section at 1.8dv>600 0.8dv>600 0.625 vu<=>0. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.1) : a) The Component in which a Load causing more than 1/2 of the Shear at a Distance closer than 2d from the Face of Support is Considered as a Deep Component.383 kN 608.72). Deep Beam Components the Shear Reinforcements are being Provide according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. Shear Force at Support. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. & Vu2d VuSupp. = 1/2VuSupp.25f/c vu<0.1.4dv>300 Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy e) The Table indicates that non of the Sections of RCC Girder have satisfied the required provisions for Spacings of the Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under Equations.1.840 0.13.614.376 N/mm2 2.4dv>300 0.8dv ≤ 600mm.8dv>600 0.720 684.25f/c for the Section mm 1369. & For vu > 0.125f/c . c) bv is Width of Girder Web in mm. 860.808 666. d) Factored Shear Force at a Distance 2d from Support. smax.125f/c . e) Status of 1/2VuSupp. (Between for the 2Section) Section mm Section at 1711.680 for the Section mm 684.766 kN 430.25f/c vu<0.4dv & sMax2<300 Whether Satisfy or Not Satisfy Not Satisfy 0.625 2.720 677. it should Satisfy the Equation.776 0. Vu2d.2.8. b) Ng is Factored Tensial Resitance of Transverse Reinforcement (Each Pair) in N.3 : a) To provide Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder.4dv>300 0.625 2.596 1.208 0.249 kN Vu2d>VuSupp.000 MPa Page 197 .3.80 L0.2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. kN. kN.71).83bvs (AASHTOLRFD5. d) fy is Yield Strength of Reinforceing Steel as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement Ng.25f/c vu<0.617 645.2.25f/c vu<0.60 L/2 vu & 0. Ng = f fyAs 0.8dv>600 0. = VuSupp.80 L/8 Section at 1.625 2. Of AASHTOLRFD its Transverse/Shear Reinforcement can Provide.4dv>300 0.547 1.4dv ≤ 300mm. xx) Detaling of Requirments for Deep Beam Component to Provide Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements for Girder under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. b) Factored Shear Force at Support of Girder.666.8. bv.616 1333.2.4dv>300 0. = 0. the Max.6.1..2.3 (Provisions of StrutandTied Model) & AASHTOLRFD5. smax.54 3L/4 Section at 1.5.8dv>600 0.1. 5. xix) Chacking for Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements as Deep Beam Component (AASHTOLRFD5.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). f) Since the Factored Shear Force at a Distance 2d.625 2.8dv & sMax1<600 0. thus the Girder is Deep Beam Component & under Article 5.
5. (Girder Depth).195 226.938 Avpro Status of Provided Provided & mm2 Required Av 226.2.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement c) Let Provide 2Leged 12f bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in the form of Vertical Stirrups.000 3050.000 350.375m. a)Between outer Face to Support Face b)From Support Face to L/8 of Girder c) From L/8 to L/4 of Girder Length Length of Segment mm 300. e) As is Steel Area of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in mm2 having Spacing s .. b) Allowable Max. Location from Bearing Center of Girder.195 226. b) Table for Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder.8.821 56. Av 0. Av Required mm2 56. for Crack Control Longitudinal Reinforcement on both sVert. xxi) Computation of Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder : a) Value of d/4 for the Section under cosideration having d = hGir.000 350.375m Distance.083f/c(bvs/fy). e) Let Provide the 175mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement in between Support Face Section at L0.000 3050. = 2*pDStir.000 200. 300 mm 500 mm 300 mm 12 mm Av 2 226.195 mm s0.000 bv' Web Width mm 350. f) s is Spacing of Transverse /Shear Reinforcement in mm. AASHTOLRFD5.2/4 mm2 d) Let Provide the 175mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement from Outer Face of Girder up to Support Face at Section at L0. s is Length of Girder Segment under consideration for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement. Where. d) XSectional Area of 2Leged 12f Bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement.Max Vertical Faces of Girder should not Excide either d/3 or 300 mm.375m & Section at L/8 Distance i) Let Provide the 200mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement in between Section at L/8 & Section at L/4 Distance j) Let Provide the 200mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement in between Section at L/4 & Section at 3L/4 Distance j) Let Provide the 200mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement in between Section at 3L/4 & Section at L/2 Distance d/4 sMax DStir.821 64.195 Avpro> Av Avpro> Av Avpro> Av Page 198 .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). The value of s should not excide eithe of d/4 or 300mm AS sMax mm2 300 mm g) The Vertical Spacing.000 175. sVetrt.000 Min.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. 175 mm sL/8 175 mm sL/4 200 mm s3L/8 200 mm sL/2 200 mm xxi) Checking for Requirements of Minimum Transverse Reinforcement for Different Section of Girder: a) Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section.000 s' Web Bar Spacing mm 175.
16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).375mCotq/sL0.000 350.569 kN 49640.375m from the Support of Girder Vs=AvfydvL0.434 kN 1230.000 200.627*10^3 N 50.235 kN 50134.3.375m1 50.235*10^3 N VnL/81 49.3. VnSupp.235*10^3 N VnL0.000 64. thus Equation stands to Vn1 = Vc + Vs c) At Support Position (Bearing Center) of Girder Vn= VcSupp + VsSupp.32) : a) The Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ.the Shear Resistance against Provided Shear Reinforcement & Spacings at Different Sections according to Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (AASHTOLRFDEqu.8.726*10^3 N 1.000 3050.938 226.938 64.230..8.434*10^3 N 1.375m d) At a distance L/8 from the Support of Girder Vs = AvfydvL/8Cotq/sL/8 VSL/8 e) At a distance L/4 from the Support of Girder Vs = AvfydvL/4Cotq/sL/4 VSL/4 f) At a distance 3L/8 from the Support of Girder Vs = Avfydv3L/8Cotq/s3L/8 VS3L/8 g) At a distance L/2 from the Support of Girder Vs = AvfydvL/8&L/2Cotq/s 3L/8&L/2 VSL/2 xxii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.230.375m + VsL0.3 against Equation Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ.1 50.762*10^3 N 1.726 kN 1158.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.8.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . 5.434 kN 1230.33) : a) With Vertical Shear Reinforcement the value of a = 900 & the Equation Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s stands to Vs = Avfydvcotq /s.388.375m e) At distance L/8 from the Support of Girder Vn = VcL/8 + VsL/8 f) At distance L/4 from the Support of Girder Vn = VcL/4 + VsL/4 VnL/41 g) At distance 3L/8from the Support of Girder Vn = Vc3L/8 + Vs3L/8 Vn3L/81 Page 199 .363 kN 50778.230.640.434*10^3 N 1.195 226.762 kN 1065.434 kN 1230.611*10^3 N c) At distance 0.065.134.3.000 350. 1.122. 5.375m VSL0. b) At Support Position (Bearing Center) of Girder Vs= AvfydvSupp.375m from the Support of Girder Vn = VcL0.676.627 kN 48676.000 200.3.Cotq/sL0.569*10^3 N 48.375m VSSupp.434*10^3 N 1.639*10^3 N d) At distance 0.158. 5.8.611 kN 1122.235 kN 50134.31) b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0.195 Avpro> Av Avpro> Av xxii) Computation of Values of Vs. d) From L/4 to 3L/4 of Girder Length e) From 3L/4 to L/2 of Girder Length 3050.134.
828*10^3 N d) At distance 0.062.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.8.3 against Equation Vn = 0.433*10^3 N 3. 5.273 kN 3062. Vn at any Section of Component is the Lesser value of of the Equqtions as mentioned below . f 0.742. Having the value. e) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation5.524*10^3 N xxiii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.32.433 kN 3145.25f/cbvdv + Vp b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0. 3. VnL0.25f/cbvdv c) At Support Position (Bearing Center) of Girder Vn= 0..3.433*10^3 N 3.3. AASHTOLRFD5.8.31 the Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = 0. Vr = fVn in which. h) At distance L/2 from the Support of Girder Vn = VcL/2 + VsL/2 VnL/21 50.8.25f/cbv3L/4dv3L/4 Vn3L/82 h) At distance L/2 m from the Support of Girder Vn= 0.145.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ.3 & AASHTOLRFD5.375m from the Support of Girder Vn= 0.681*10^6 N 3. 5. 5.375m2 e) At distance L/8 m from the Support of Girder Vn= 0.375m.145.3) : d) For RCC Girder.25f/cbvL0.3.2.828 kN 2966.8. thus Equation stands to Vn = 0.433 kN 3145.433 kN 3145. b) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ.3. 5. f) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N g) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTOLRFD5.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ. AASHTOLRFD5.375mdvL0.524 kN 50742.3) c) Vn = 0.3.8.2.32) : a) According to Equ.681 kN 3113. VnSup.25f/cbvL/4dvL/4 VnL/42 g) At distance 3L/4 m from the Support of Girder Vn= 0.433*10^3 N 3.1 : a) Nominal Shear Resistance.8.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).113.12.966.145.5.273*10^3 N 2.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .3.3. Vr.25f/cbvL/2dvL/2 VnL/22 xxix) Accepted Nominal Shear ResistanceVn & Factored Shearing ResistanceVr at Different Section of Girder Computed accordting Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. Vp = 0.25f/cbvL/8dvL/8 VnL/82 f) At distance L/4 m from the Support of Girder Vn= 0.90 N Page 200 .2.8.25f/cbvSuppdvSupp.8.8.8.31.3.4.
Computed under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. thus the Girder is Safe in respect of Applied Shearing Forces caused by Dead Load & Live Loads to the Bridge Structure.197 644.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .828 Accepted Value of Vn Factored Shear Resitance Relation between Values of Status If Vr > Vu.828 Vu & Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn a) At Support (Bearing Point) Position b) At Distance L0.8. xxxi) Checking of TGirder Web Width (bWeb) in respect of Nominal Shearing Resistance (Vn) at Critical Section : a) According to AASHTOLRFD5.681 3062.8.889 2.3.375 + dv ) dv 1.889 2.711.235 49640.8.273 2966. Vu & the Nominal Shear Resistance Vn : Location of Section from Bearing Center of Girder.235 50134.3.670. 5.31 & Equ.31 kN 50134. At Support At L0.569 48676. b) Since the Factored Shearing Forces Vu < Vn < Vr. d) At Distance L/4 from Support.312 2.802.766 834. the Computed Nominal Shear Resistance.433 3145. Showing between Factored Shearing Force. b) Since Inbetween Support & the Section at L/4 the value of dv is same.375m from Support. Vn.8.250 Vn1 As per Equation.197 644. h) The Acceptable Nominal Shear Resistance. Vu & the Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at Different Section of Girder are shown in the Table blow : Table.045 2.627 50388. Accepted Nominal Shear ResistanceVn & Factored Shear ResitanceVr at Different Section : Section Location from Center of Bearing.145 Vr& VU Safe otherwise Vr> VU No Safe.258 191.2 the Critical Section for Shearing Forces Prevails at a Distance dv from Face of Support.756.766 834. 5.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).828 Vn2 As per Equ.3. Calculated Computed Status value of value of between Vu Vn Values of kN 860.273 2966.830. Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe Vr> Vu Structure Safe xxx) Relation between Factored Shearing Force (Vu) & the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder. i) Table.681 3062.162 92.3.3 : a) The Relation between Factored Shearing Force..8.433 3145.433 3145.670 407.3.670 407.087 m Page 201 .363 50742.32 Relation between Values of Vn1 & Vn2 Vn1 > Vn2 Vn1> Vn2 Vn1> Vn2 Vn1> Vn2 Vn1> Vn2 Vn1> Vn2 Vn1> Vn2 kN 3145.764 kN 3145.800 mm LCrit. thus on Critial Section value of dv = 1697.32 are shown in Table below :. LCrit = (0.433 3145.3.433 3113. 5.830.889 2.400mm c) Distance of Critical Section from Support/Bearing Point.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. 2. the Staus between the vaues of Vn Computed under Equ.433 3113. 5.433 3145.830.273 2966.524 kN 3145.433 3113. c) At Distance L/8 from Support.8.258 191.162 46.433 3145. Respective Factored Shear ResitanceVr at Different Section of TGirder. f) At Distance L/2from Support. e) At Distance 3L/4 from Support.375m At L/8 At L/4 At 3L/4 At L/2 Calculated Factored Shear ForceVu kN 860.681 3062. the Structure is Vr kN 2.
Asfy + Apsfps Mu/dvff + 0.000 MPa mm2 fps  MPa Mu Variable Nmm Nu  N dv Vu Vs Vp. from which value of bvCrit can Calculate. i) Vu is Factored Shear Force for the Section in N. Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & () for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. (Equ5.3. e) Since the Nominal Shearing Resistance Vn for Girder Inbetween Support & the Section at L/4 have same values.3. b) As is Area of Nonprestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 c) fy is Yield Strength of Nonprestressing Reinforceing Steel in MPa. the value of Vp = 0. thus at Critical Section Vn will have same value. VnCrit.25*f/cdv.8. bWeb = 350 mm which is the Effective Web Width bv for the Section. k) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. the value of fps = 0 f) Mu is Factored Moment of the Section due to Dead & Live Loads Loads on Structure. j) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N for the Section. Where. thus Design of Critical Section is OK. the value of Nu = 0. the value of Aps = 0 e) fps is Yield Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. 3.0. bv = Vn/0.Vp)/0. As fy Aps Variable mm2 410. bv = (Vn . f) Since the TGirders are being provided equal Web Width through the Length. h) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section in mm.5Vs Vp)Cotq. Variable Variable Variable  mm N N N Page 202 .8. in Nmm but not less then Vudv.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). at any Section of Girder the Effective Web Width.5Nu/fc + (Vu/fv . bvCritCal. thus Web Width for Critical Section. d) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2.32.145. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure.433 kN 3145. g) According to Equ.25*f/cdv.5 : a) At each Section the Tensial Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Flexural Tension side of the Member shall be proportationed to Satisfy Equation. 350 mm h) Since the Calculated value of Effective Web Width for Critical Section bvCrit = bWeb the Provided Web Width. and the Equation Stands to.433*10^3 N 350 mm bvCrit.3. g) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N. In a RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure.8. xxxii) Checking in respect of Longitudinal Reinforcements (Tensile Reinforcements) Provided for Girder under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.51). 5.
q) Table.2.467 1. j) Since at all Section the requirments of Equation are being Satisfied. bv.3. Nu & Vp have Values = 0.670 1230.2.761789 191. Here.195 mm e) As is Steel Area of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in mm2 having the Spacing AS s mm. Mu Vu Vs Provided Factored Factored Shearing Value of Tensile Moment Shearing Resistance Asfy Steel Area Force of Stirrups (L/H Part) mm2 kNmm kN kN kN 6433. xxxiii) Checking for Factored Tensile Resistance of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements Provided for Girder: a) The provided Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder under the Provision of Deep Beam should Satisfy the Equation.434261 834. c) bv is Width of Girder Web in mm.197 1230.459 1473.764 1122. the XSectional Area of 2Leged the 12f Dia.199 5131.Showing Evalution of Equation5.468 16084.434261 644.423 6630.933 2637.2. d) fy is Yield Strength of Reinforceing Steel as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement Ng.51. ff 0.449 860.13.83bvs (AASHTOLRFD5. Equ5. Ng = f fyAs 0. f) At L/2.375m. fy. Here As = Av. thus mentioned Equ5.3.188 2.2. e) At 3L/4.4.726304 92. Page 203 .699.. Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv .8.3.31).382 6594. thus provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Girder is OK. Variable N 350 mm 410. o) fc is Resistance Factor for Compression due to Prestressing according to AASHTOLRFD5.513 1.4. c) At L/8.611089 2637.5.0.13. d) At L/4.4.416 4616.8.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.982 8042.954 14476.000 Mpa 2 226.237.5.162 1158.982 6433.176 2. n) fv is Resistance Factor for Shearing Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5.2.5Vs)Cotq. fps.861. As.766 1230.90 fv 0.831 5935.933 3297. Location of Section from Bearing Center of Girder. b) Ng is Factored Tensial Resitance of Transverse Reinforcement (Each Pair) in N. q Variable O m) ff is Resistance Factor for Flexural Tension of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5.616.459 1427.011 6318.80 p) Since for Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the Items Aps.732.348 Calculted Calculted R/H Part of the Equation kN 1.967 2.5.978 3003.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .51 at Different Section of Girder & Status of Results.434261 407.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). 0 l) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) according to AASHTOLRFD5.4.8. Vertical Stirrups.3.90 fc 0. Stands to.173.477 11259.711 Status of the Equation Satisfied Not Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied a)At Support b) At L0.258 1065.
On these back drop mentioned Shearing Forces at different Section of Girder may be considered as Tensile Forces for Vertical Stirrups.83bvs are being Satisfyed..50 Satisfied 50837. MnCrit1. Ng = ffyAs > 0. the Factored Tensile Resistance Carried by the Pair of Transverse Reinforcement. c) Since the position of Critical Section at a Distance dv from Support is related to Distance of the Sections fron Support to 0.711.50 Satisfied 58100. f) At Distance L/2from Support.00 Satisfied 58100.087 m 4.195 175. s'Spacing As of Shear Provided Bars Steel Area mm2 mm 175.800 mm LCrit.2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. h) The Checking for Factored Tensile Resistance of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder are shown in the under mention Table: i) Table. b) According to AASHTOLRFD5.000 226. d) At Distance L/4 from Support.Showing Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder.195 200.375+ dv ) e) For Nonprestrssed RCC Structure value of Aps = 0 & also fps = 0.195 200. c) At Distance L/8 from Support.13.834 83465.375m from Support.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).3.834 Status of a) At Support (Bearing Point) Position b) At Distance L0. dvCrit 1. thus Provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Girder is OK.000 226. xxxiv) Checking the Critical Section Near Support in respect of M n the Nominal Flexural Resistance under the Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. d) Distance of Critical Section from Support/Bearing Point.195 200.3.2 : a) According to AASHTOLRFD5.8.375m & L/8. Location of Section from Bearing Center of Girder. thus for the Critical Section Equation Mn = dv(Apsfps + Asfy) stands to Mn= dvAsfy.000 226.515. The value s should not Excide eithe d/4 or 300mm s Variable mm g) The Girders are being provided with Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in the form of Vertical Stirrups against Shear Forces caused by the Dead Load & Live Loads applied to the Bridge Structure.2 at Critical Section will have Nominal Flexural Resistance Mn= dv*(Apsfps + Asfy) in Nmm both for Top & Bottom Tension Reinforcement Bars. at 0. f) s is Spacing of Transverse /Shear Reinforcement in mm. Thus for Critical Section the value of dv within mentioned Sections are Applicable.195 Calculted Calculted Value of Value of ffyAs 0. LCrit = (0.834 83465. 2.2 the Critical Section for Shearing Forces Prevails at a Distance dv from Face of Support & the Area Inbetween this Section & Support Face should be Designed for Shear accordingly.3.8.00 Satisfied 58100.834 83465.000 226.375m. Vu = Ng.8. Thus the Factored Shearing Forces at Each Section. Due to Vertical Positioning of those Transverse/Shear Reinforcements they will also under Tensile Stress caused by the same Shearing Forces whose actions are in some extent in Vertical Direction.834 83465.000 226.834 83465. The Calculated Value of dv for Section at Support. L/8 & L/4 are same.50 Satisfied 50837.31.195 175. Equation Satisfied Not Satisfied 50837. e) At Distance 3L/4 from Support.613 kNm Page 204 .000 226.00 Satisfied j) Since in all Section the requirments of Equation Equ5.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .83bvs 83465.
g) The provided Steel Area as Tension Reinforcemen on bottom surface of Critical Section have same value that for the Sections Inbetween Support Point & L/8.979.266 mm MnCrit2.8.060 0.4.3.602 kNm 1979.1 < MnCrit2 the Calculated value of Nominal Resistance based on provided Effective for Tensial Reinforcement for Critical Section thus the Design of Critical Section is OK. f) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements. xxxv) Checking the Critical Section Near Support in respect of Provided Shear & Tensial Reinforcements for the Section according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.153. 2 6.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. f) The Shearing Stress at Critical Section vu = VU/fbvdv N/mm2 g) Value of vu/f/c for Critical Section h) Based on the Initial Longitudinal Straion of Tensial Reinforcement ex = 0.800 mm aCrit.Effective Depth dv & value of Cotq the Computed value of ex*1000 = (MU/dv + 0. de = ds is same that for the Sections Inbetween Support Point & L/8.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . i) Accordingly the Depth of Compressin Block 'a' for Critical Section have same value that for the Sections Inbetween Support Point & L/8.300 O Page 205 .982 mm dsCrit. 21.979.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). j) For Simple Supported & Single Reinforced TGirder Beam the with Provided Steel Area against Factored Max. 1.602*10^3 Nmm 2 1. Moments at its Critical Section will have the Nominal Resistance. MnCrit.001.197*10^6 Nmm k) Since the Calculated value of Nominal Resistance based on provided Effective Shear Depth.589 kNm 1.882.2 : a) The Shearing Resistance for the provided Shearing Reinforcement Inbetween Support Face & Critical Section should have the value Vs = AvfydvCotq/s in N/mm2. h) The Effective Depth for Tension Reinforcement of Critical Section. 4.433.3.602 kNm 1979. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) AsCrit. Effcetive Moment for Critical Section MEff.5VUcot q )/EsAs i) Based on values of ex*1000 & vu/f/c from respective Table LRFD5.197 kNm 4491. The Critical Section is being also provised same Steel Area on its Top Surface.001 q 24.8. Section. b) The Calculated Shearing Forces at Critical Section due Factored Loads VUCrit.904*10^3 N 1.904 kN 673.250 N/mm c) The Calculated Moment at Critical Section due Factored Loads (DL & LL).602*10^3 Nmm 1.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) in which.. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.21 vu vu/f/c ex*1000 0. d) Calculated value of VU*dv for Critical Section e) The Effcetive Moment for Critical Section is Greater One of MUCrit & VU*dv VU*dv MEff. MUCrit.491. 673.
5Vs)Cotq. Railing. Thus Location or Eccentricity of Torsional Force action will be consider at a distance b/4 from Girder Center Line.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . b) Bridge Interior TGirders has a Flange Width.124*10^3 N 2. Thus the Torsional Forces at Section is the Total Shearing Forces acting on that Section. d) Accordingly Factored Torsional Moment at any Section will be Tu = FTor. 6 Design of Reinforcement for Torsion & Checking against Forces due to Torsion at Different Locations : i) Design Phenomenon for Tensional Effect upon Girder & Checking in these respect : a) The Bridge Girders are being considered as TBeam having Dead Loads due to Self Weight & Superimposed Loads from Deck Slab. & Web bWeb = 0.450m. are being Satisfied by the arramgement of Shear Reinforcements as well as by the Tensial Reinforcements provided Inbetween Support Face & the Critical Section. the Eccentricity eTor. = b/4 from Center of Girder.000m.000 mm Av VsCrit.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). 2 226.*eTor. = FShear d) Based on the assumptionb of Torsional Forces (DL & LL) action Positions. 860. whereas Live Loads from Wheel Loads of Truck. b = 2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.637. due to Dead Load & Live Loads at Different Section of Girder are the respective Factored Shearing Forces FShear.383*10^6 Nmm ii) Computation of Factored Torsional Forces (T Forces) &Torsional Moments (Tu) under assumed Provisions : a) According to assumption the Factored Forces for Torsion.765820 kN 860765.0.215 175.009. Curb/Wheel Guard. Whereas the Torsional Moments. Rail Posts etc. Pedestrian etc.5Vs)Cotq.. Girders are being effect by the Tensional Forces due to Eccentric Loading of both Dead Loads & Live Loads.195 mm 2. j) Value of Cotq for Critical Section k) Provided Spacing of 2Legged 12f Vertical Stirrups between Support & Critical Section. Sidewalk. Wheel Position of a moving Truck may change over Bridge Deck & will have effect up to a distance of b/2 from the Center Line of Girder of each side of Interior Girders. Lane Loads. l) Steel Area of 2Legged 12f Vertical Stirrups between Support & Critical Section m) Computed value of Vs = AvfydvCotq/s for the Critical Section Cotq s 2.0. Tu are due to the Page 206 . 430. Thus FTor.124 kN 2009. Dead Loads of Structure & Live Lane Loads have almost equilibrium actions. Whereas Truck Live Loads have a significant effect in these respect. for the Critical Section as LHP (Left hand Part) & RHP (Right hand Part) in respect of whether those Satisfy the Provision of Equation or Not.310 kN LHP>RHP Satisfy n) Computation of values of Equation Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv .820 N 500 mm eTor.933 kN 474. FTor. Tu. LHP RHP o) Since the Provisions of Equation Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv . FTor. thus the Flexural Design of Critical Section is OK. c) Based on the assumptiona the Factored Torsional Forces (DL + LL) will be the Factored Shearing Forces at a Section.383 kNm 430. W/C.
197 417.764 46.52.335 L/4 106.240 407.383 kNm 430.382 c) From Table .375m kNm L/8 kNm L/4 kNm 3L/8 kNm L/2 kNm Page 207 . The Factored Shear Forces FShear. magnitude of Torsional Forces & Moments are highest at Support Positions & those gradually reduced to zero or () ve value towards the Center of Span. Tu (kNm) On Support 248.162 95. b) Tu is Calculated Factored Torsional Moment at Support Position in Nmm. g) f is Resistance Factor for Torsion according to AASHTLRFD5.629 3L/8 35. having the value. Locations from Support Unit of Moments On Support kNm 0. b) Since opposite direction Torsional Forces & Moments at two Support Positions with highest magnitude causes the Torsional affect on TGirders.hf) mm2 e) Pc is Length of Outside Parameter of Concrete Section in mm. Eccentric action of Torsional Forces FTor.156 644. h) Calculated value of 0.324 191. Here for TGirder Section Acp = b*hf +bWeb*(hGir.707 kNm 607.468 92. (kN) Torsional Monent.1 : a) In Normal density Concrete the Factored Torsonal Moment. d) Acp is Total Area Enclosed by the Outside Perimeter of the Concrete Section in mm2. (kN) Torsional Forces.77 430. thus those are considered as the Governing Torsional Forces & Moments for Design. it appears that.098 L/8 177.383*106 Nmm 607. Status of Factored Moments (T u) in respect of Torsional Cracking Moment (T cr)at Different Section. Tcr = 0.2. where. iii) Checking of Design in respect of Factored Torsional Moment (T u) at Support Position under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.258 203.90 136.25fTcr 0.000 mm c) Tcr is Torsional Cracking Moment of Component in Nmm.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .707*10^6 Nmm 2 1030000.bWeb + 2*(hGir . Tu > 0. . Locations from Support Shearing Forces.13). FTor.383 0.8. in which. b) Table2.25f Tcr for TGirder Tcr Acp Pc 8. Fu & the respective Torsional Moments.25fTcr (Equ. FTor. Factored Torsional Forces.000 mm fpc  Mpa f 0.07 860. Tu 430.581 L/2 47.2. Torsional Forces & Moments at Different Sections on Interior Girder.328f/c) Nmm. Tu at different Sections of Girder are shown in under mentioned Table..16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).5.734*10^6 Nmm i) Table2.375m 239.5.734 kNm 136.000. Here for TGirder Section Pc = 2*(b + hf) .4.hf) + bWeb mm f) fpc is Compressive Stress in Concrete Section for Prestressing after occurrence of Prestress Losses either at the Centroid of Crosssection Resisting Transient Loads or at the Junction of Web & Flange when the Centroid Lies within Flange having unit of value in Mpa.2. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the value of fcp = 0. Factored Shear Forces.328f/c*(Acp2/Pc)(1 + fpc/0.8.353 834.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.670 322.
Here At = Av/2 (Av is XSectional Area of 2Leg Transverse/Shear Reinforcement). hf = 200 mm. b = 2000 mm.581 136.8.156.25fTcr Tu>0.6.8.3.f12)). b) For Normal Section vu = ((Vu .22 having Vp = 0 .8.24: a) Under Combined Shear & Torsion the Factored Shearing Force at a Section is VuS&T = (Vu2+(0. ii) CCoverB&T = 350 mm.6.156978 N/mm vu Vu ph N 4. c) Vu is Factored Shearing Force for the Section in N due to Applied Loads.25fTcr 430. Tn = 2AoAtfycotq/s in Nmm.656 mm Tu Nmm Page 208 .25fTcr j) Since Torsional affect on Girder is mainly caused by the Torsional Moments at Support Position & the Calculated Factored Torsional Moments at Support Position.f12) + (bWeb2CCovSide.6. iv) Computation of Nominal Torsional Resistance (T n) Subject to Combined Shear & Torsion under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.4.629 136. = 2000 mm & bWeb = 350 mm.3. In which.734 417. Where for both Equation.383 136. 12 mm VuS&T 1.978 kN/m 2 4.25fTcr Tu>0.734 Tu>0. thus the Girder is Safe in respect of Tortional affect.3.180.8.734 Tu<0.25fTcr Tu>0. Here ph = 2*((hGir.382 136..22. hGir.fVp)/fbvdv)2 + (Tuph/fAoh)2) . in which i) hGir = iv) bv/bWeb= 2000 mm.3.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). v) CCovside = 50 mm. Equ5.952*10^3 N 2 4.097 mm Tn Nmm Ao 2 1030000 mm c) At is XSectional Area of One Ledge closed Transverse Torsional Reinforcement At 2 in mm .25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .734 46.iii) f12 = 38 mm.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Tu > 0.3.3.25fTcr Tu<0.335 136.734 95.f12)*(bWeb2CCoverSide.8.2CCovB&T .6 the is Nominal Torsional Resistance of a Section. 2 113.8.9phTu/2Ao)2) .2CCoverB&T .6: a) According to AASHTOLRFD5.3. Equ5. s mm v) Compution of Factored Shearing Force Vu & Shearing Stress vu for Combined Shear & Torsion accodring to Equ5.300. d) ph is Parimeter of the Center Line of Closed Transverse Torsion Reinforcement in mm. Here. b) Ao is Area enclosed by Shear Flow Path.6.f12) g) Tu is Factored Torsional Moment in Nmm for the Section. Aoh 2 494.25fTcr Statu between Tu & 0.25fTcr.22 & Equ5.098 136. Here Aoh = (hGir. Tu Value of 0.8. Value of Torsional Monent. In TGirder Ao = bhf + bWeb(hGirhf). with necessary modifactions as required for v & Vu q (O) e) s is Spacing of Transverse Torsional Reinforcement in mm.952 kN 1180.25fTcr 203. 0 d) q is Angle ( ) of Crack determined under provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.734 322.000 mm e) Aoh is the Area Enclosed by Center Line of Exterior Closed Transverse Torsional Reinforcement in mm2.
Showing Calculated values of exx1000 at Different Locations MuEff.978 1092.543 1614.267 (MuEff) kNm 1473.000 0.649 N/mm2 4.630.01 6.495 1608.448 L0.318.982 6433. fpo. VuS&T.954 L0.450 16084.449 (Tu) kNm 430.5VuS&Tcotq )/2EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.00 278. Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Effective Moment value Factored Torsional Moment of Section.423 6630.400 (Vudv) kN 1473.4.718.000 3050.5Vu cotq 2. MuEff (Mu) kNm 0.973 12867.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).199 5131.864 0.14 3.131.459 1608.800 1711. Vp.5.199 5131.749 262.978 3003.499 884.250 (dv) mm 1711.000 (Vu) kN 860. Asp.197 644.749 262.520 1666. VuS&T.800 1711.473 558.8. Calculated value of Calculated value of Vudv VuS&T of Section.270 98. h) f is Resistance Factor for Torsion according to AASHTOLRFD5.2 f 0.581 46.162 46.982 8042.800 1694..90 i) Table Showing the values of Mu. Vu.383 417.029 3. are = 0.199 5131. Vu. Substituting Vu by VuST Equation for ex = (Mu/dv+0. Ep etc.Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.000 3050.713 308. & other Items related to Torsion.2.335 203. Factored Shear for the Section.113 1.45 mm At Support 0.135 3003.629 95.964 17693.000 2675.468 16084.5 & provisions of Equation 5.8.950 0.477 11259. Showing the values of Mu.423 6630.477 9650.000 3050.600 1627.21 : a) For Nonprestressing RCC Girder values of Components Nu.650 75.495 1608.967 0.157 4. Calculated values of exx1000 at Different Locations are shown in the under mentioned Table6: Table6.495 1608. vu of Section.952 1144. VuS&T.667 0..270 98.400 (Mu) kNm 0.4.098 322.978 3003.459 1427.954 14476.00 278. Torsion Bar 1.499 884.003.000 3050. Provided Steel Area for Flexural Main Bars Provided Steel Area of S&T Bar on Top Face Provided Total Steel Area for the Section Calculated value of Effective Moment value Calculated value of exx1000 with Least the Min.000 375.382 kN 1180. vu & other Items related to Torsion.406 678.459 1427.000 3050.000 375.670 407.375m L1/8 L1/4 L3/8 L1/2 vi) Values of esx1000 with at Least the Min.000 kNm 1473.923 0.600 1627.011 6318.543 1614.728 VuS&T of Section.20 5. MuEff (dv) mm 1711.473 558.495 8042.495 1608. Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Factored Moment for the Section.Mu/dv)/0.011 6318. Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Factored Moment for the Section.459 1427.800 1694.477 8042.520 1666.3. from the Equation value of Cotq = (ex2EsAs . Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTOLRFD5.423 6630.766 834.258 191.649 mm At Support 0.901 c) Having cotq = 1.000 3050.495 1608.952 1144.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .42 6.5Nu + 0.Tu.001at Support Position & with the Effective Moment MuEff. vu & other Items related to Torsion at different Section of Girder.000 2675.011 6318.449 6433.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.375m L1/8 L1/4 L3/8 L1/2 Page 209 . Table4.449 (AsMain) mm 2 (AsS&T) mm 2 (AsTotal) mm 2 (MuEff) kN 1180.Tu.969 0.5(Vu Vp)cotq .
5(Vu Vp)cotq . In which.4.3.5Vucotq )/EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0. Here.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .4.22. Page 210 . Vp.No. sxe for Section at L/8 : a) The Crack Spacing Parameter of a Section.002 at Support Position & the Effective Moment MuEff.00.8. for those Cases values of q & b can obtain in respect of value of Crack Spacing Parameter sxe.003bvs for a Section v) For Computed value of 0. iv) Thus Computed value of 0.003dvs 0.4. Aggragate size for Concrete = 20mm d) Thus Computed value of sxe = sx(35/(ag+16)) for a Section ag sxe 20 mm mm sx mm cotq 2. b) sx = the Lesser value of either dv or the Spacing of Longitudinal Crack Control Reinforcements on Vertical Faces (as Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement) having Steel Area in a Horizontal Reinforcement Layer if As > 0. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTOLRFD5.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.8.22 : a) Since in RCC Girder the values for Prestressing Components Nu. From the Equation Cotq = (exEsAs . thus values of q & b for the Sections can be obtain from Table5. thus calculated value of exx1000 these Locations is not essential. Asp.003bvs. Ep etc.Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.Mu/dv)/0.003dvs>As sApplicable f) For value of ex*1000 > 1. using the Equation . = AsS&THori.5 & the provisions of Equation 5.24 & Table 5. are = 0.5Nu + 0.00 & the value of sxe at a Sections should Computed from the Respective Tablel.003bvs at Section > As.8.8. j) Since in all Sections from Support to L/2 the values of esx1000 ≤ 1. thus equation ex= (Mu/dv+0. For Sections having the esx1000>1.22.2.3. Equation No. = 2*pDBar2/4 = 2*Af16 ii) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section iii) s is Spacing of Longitudinal Bars as Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement on Vertical Faces of TGirder. 5.8.3.21 in respect of values of vc/f/c.5Vu c) Values of exx1000 at Location = (Mu/dv + 0.5Vucotq )/EsAs ix) Computation of values of Crack Spacing Parameter. i) Since at L/2 Distance from Support the Shear Forces are of () ve value.857 mm mm2 0..3.3.062 mm dv s  mm 232.4.8.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).00.4. sxe = sx(35/(ag+16)) 2000mm. the value of sx = dv c) ag is Max. i) As is Steel Area of 2nos Shrinkage & Tempeture Reinforcement Bars on Opposite Vertical Faces of TGirder in same Horizontal Layer. viii) Values of esx1000 with Less than Min.5.901 ex*1000  As 2 201. fpo.
1 the Factored Torsional Resistance of a Section. thus the design is in respect of Combind Shear & Torsion.3.969 0.000 1030000.192 0.8.864 0.323 666.728 sxe NA NA NA NA NA NA Value of q 36.146 716.2. Spacing of Combined with Shear & Torsional Reinforcement s.375mDistance of Support c) At L/8 Distance of Support d) At L/4 Distance of Support e) At 3L/8 Distance of Support f) At L/2 Distance of Support Referece of Table 5. Location of Section from Support Calculated value of Calculated Factored Torsional Moment Factored Torsional Resistance Calculated Nominal Torsional Resistance Calculated value of Provided Steel Area of Torsional Provided Spacing of Torsional Bars Status between Status between Cotq Ao Tu &Tr Tu &Tn Bars (Tu) kNm At Support 1.4. s & Status of different events related to Torsion.499 1.400 33.400 36.3.6.8. Tn = 2AoAtfycotq/s in Nmm.000 175.531 (Tn) kN 740.2.2. Cotq .667 0.356 1.1 5.499 xi) Computation of Nominal Torsional Resistance (T n) Subject to Combined Shear & Torsion under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.950 0.21.1 5.629 95.2.000 1030000.6 the Nominal Torsional Resistance of a Section. Nominal Torsional Resistance.22.8.815 716.356 1.8.097 L0.700 33.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.323 583.4. Ao.581 46.148 0. Showing the values of T u.3.3.356 1.383 417.4.1 5. Tr.: a) Table7 for Values of q & Cotq at Different Location of Girder.359 740.4.8.499 1.382 (Tr) kN 666. x) Computation of Values of q from AASHTOLRFD'sTable 5.359 740.000 1030000.146 (At) mm 2 (s) mm 175.6 a) According to AASHTOLRFD5.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).097 113.400 36.375m L1/8 L1/4 L3/8 L1/2 e) At all Section the Factored Torsional Moment Tu <Tr & the Factored Torsional Resistance& also Tu < Tn.3.2 vu/f/c 0. c) The Computed values for Factored Torsional Moment Tu.000 Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tr Tu<Tn Tu<Tn Tu<Tn Tu<Tn Tu<Tn Tu<Tn mm 2 1030000.3235 666.Tn.000 113.098 322.000 200. At. Tr = fTn in Nmm.1 5.8.097 113.356 1.000 200.4.000 200.044 0. & Table 5.2.4. d) Table8.000 175.356 1.2.3. Ratio vc/f/c & sxe.3 : a) At each Section the Tensial Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Flexural Tension side of the Member shall be Page 211 .094 0. xii) Checking in respect of Longitudinal Reinforcements (Tensile Reinforcements) Provided for Girder under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.4.8.3.000 0.8.8.400 36.1 5. b) According to AASHTOLRFD5.3.000 1030000.356 1.3. against the Respective Calculated values of esx1000.. Computed values of Ao the Area enclosed by Shear Flow Path & Cotq at different Section along with respective Status are shown in the under mentioned Table8. Location of Section From Support a) At Support Position b) At L0.8.2.097 113.499 430.4.198 0.033 644. Factored Torsional Resistance Tr & the Nominal Torsional Resistance Tn in respect of provided Steel Area for Torsional Reinforcement Combined with Shear Reinforcement At.359 647.356 1.3.8.531 644.000 1030000.8.097 113.3.356 1.097 113.335 203.021 exx1000 1.700 Value of Cotq 1.
proportationed to Satisfy Equation5. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.8.6.45phTu/2Aof)2).3. g) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N. d) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. Variable Variable Variable  mm N N N q Variable O m) ff is Resistance Factor for Flexural Tension of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .3.2. o) fc is Resistance Factor for Compression due to Prestressing according to AASHTOLRFD5.3. p) f is Resistance Factor for Torsional Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5.5. 0 l) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) according to AASHTOLRFD5.000 MPa mm2 fps  MPa Mu Variable Nmm Nu  N dv Vu Vs Vp. (Equ5.80 0.4.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).31).45phTu/2Aof)2) .2. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure.0.5.31. Stands to. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure. h) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section in mm.8. Page 212 . Where.3. the value of Vp = 0.5.8.90 fv 0.8. (This is related to Equation5. the value of Nu = 0. Asfy + Apsfps Mu/dvff + 0. Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & () for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. n) fv is Resistance Factor for Shearing Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5.6.4.with some modifications).51. b) As is Area of Nonprestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 c) fy is Yield Strength of Nonprestressing Reinforceing Steel in MPa. Asfy Mu/dvff + cotq((Vu/fv . the value of Aps = 0 e) fps is Yield Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. k) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.2.8.2.3.4. thus mentioned Equ5. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component..5Nu/fc + cotq((Vu/fv .90 fc f 0. ff 0.4. in Nmm but not less then Vudv. fps.5.4.5Vs Vp)2+(0. As fy Aps Variable mm2 410.0. j) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N for the Section.6. i) Vu is Factored Shear Force for the Section in N. Nu & Vp have Values = 0. the value of fps = 0 f) Mu is Factored Moment of the Section due to Dead & Live Loads Loads on Structure.5Vs)2 + (0.90 q) Since for Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the Items Aps.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.31.
581 163..611 8042.098 322. are being cosidered as (+) ve value. r) Table.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).2.L2/EcIe.5. d) At L/4.490 Asfy kN 3297.The () ve Shear & respective Torsional Moment values at Section L/2. dv.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . & either the Gross Moment of InertiaIg or the Effective Moment of InertiaIe of the Component.423 6630.600 1627. a)At Support b) At L0.449 kN 860.477 9650.477 8042. As. 0.416 3956. e) At 3L/4.973 12867.314 6594. 0.090 906.451 mm mm 0. c) Computation of Instantaneous Deflection should be based on Modulus of Elasticity of ConncreteEc as mentioned in AASHTOLRFD5.416 3297.8.6.434 1065.Showing Evalution of Equation5. Erection Load. Live Load. ii) Instantaneous Deflections at Mid Span against Individual Applied Forces : a) Deflection due to Uniformely Distributed Factored Dead Loads (DL) b) Deflection due to Uniformely Distributed Factored Live Lane Loads (LL) c) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Dead Loads (DL) for 1st & 5th Cross Girder.2) : a) Deformation/ Deflection of Structural Components in respect of Dead & Live Load.831 mm 2 kNm 0.1.258 191.915 4881. f) At L/2.6.434 1230.681 3783.31 at Different Section of Girder & Status of Results.6. thus provision of Transverse/Shear & Torsional Reinforcements for Girder is OK.726 1122.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Concrete Creep & Shrinkage and Steel Relaxation should be Considered. are applicable. Settlement & Prestressing should be considered according to provision of AASHTOLRFD2.3. (AASHTOLRFD5. Mu Vu Vs Factored Torsional Moment Effective Provided Factored Factored Shearing Shear Steel Area Moment Shearing Resistance Depth of Section Force of Stirrups mm 1711.629 95. j) Since at all Section the requirments of Equation are being Satisfied.980 kN 1230.135 3003. 2.800 1711.5.7.964 17693.000 mm DInstCDLX2&4. 7 Checking against Deflection & Camber : i) Flexural Deformation of Components Due to Deflection & Camber.5.2.543 1614. e) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Dead Loads (DL) for 3rd Cross Girder = KCLDL3XGirMidMCDLX3. 20.762 1158. For Determining Deflection & Camber the Provisions of AASHTOLRFD4.288 mm DInstCDLX3.434 1230.375m.199 5131.719 2445. c) At L/8.000 278.2. Section from Bearing Center of Girder.5. Creep.476 Status of Equation Satisfy/ Does Not Satisfy Satisfyed Satisfyed Satisfyed Satisfyed Satisfyed Satisfyed (Tu) kNm 430. f) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) for DInstUDLDL DInstUDLLL DInstCDLX1&5. b) In Calculation of Deflection & Chamber Dead Load.162 326.878 mm Page 213 .450 16084.971 4863.5. d) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Dead Loads (DL) for 2nd & 4th Cross Girder. Thermal Changes.865 7254. Prestressing.954 Note .4.899 5275.4.800 1694.2.2 & 5. Shrinkage.197 644.400 Calculted Value of L/H Part Calculted R/H Part of the Equation kN 765.335 203.612 4.520 1666. 4.502 mm DInstCLLWFront..383 417.9.670 407.3.766 834.011 6318.
.469 mm vi) Computation of Rotations at Support Position of Girder due to Different Applied Loads : a) Rotation on Support Position under Strength Limit State of Design (USD) due to Total Applied Loads (DL + LL) b) Rotation on Support Position under Service Limit State of Design (WSD) due to Total Applied Loads (DL + LL) c) Rotation on Support Position for Unfactored Live Load only under Service State of Design (WSD) due vii) Limit of Deflection & Camber under AASHTOLRFD : a) According to AASHTOLRFD2.21.3.000 c) Calculated value of Long Term Deflectiom at Mid Span = lIe*DInstAcceptable.2.3. Page 214 . qGirWSD 1.449E15 Radian. thus Multiplying Factor l = 3.212 mm lIe.7. 6.6. qGirUSD 2. b) The Instantaneous Deflection is Based on Ie.823 mm iv) Instantaneous Deflections at Mid Span against Calculated Moments for Applied Forces under Strength Limit State (USD) : a) Instantaneous Deflection Interior Beam at Mid Span due to Dead Load (DL) b) Instantaneous Deflection Interior Beam at Mid Span due to Total of DL + LL v) Calculation of Long Term Deflections : a) The Instantaneous Deflections are being Calculated Based on Ie.695E+11 mm DInstDLUSD DInstTotalUSD 30.424 mm DInst.000 119.Total 40.6. qGirLL 1.7.2.2 Deflection & Camber is Optional Item for RCC Bridge Structure. Front Wheel g) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) for Middle Wheel h) Deflection due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) for Rear Wheel = KCLLLWheelRear(X<L/2)MCLLWRear.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).191 mm 66. 5.6.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.5.59E15 Radian. the Effective Moment of Inertia Computed according to Equation 5. 3. DLong.633 mm 39.269 m 4 2.725 mm DInstCLLWRear.588E15 Radian. Article 5.L2/EcIe. Ie 4 0. i) Total Instantaneous Deflection at Mid Span against Individual Applied Forces DInstCLLWMid.881 mm iii) Instantaneous Deflections at Mid Span against Calculated Moments for Applied Forces under Service Limit State (WSD) : a) Instantaneous Deflection Interior Beam at Mid Span due to Dead Load (DL) b) Instantaneous Deflection Interior Beam at Mid Span due to Total of DL + LL DInstDLWSD DInstTotalWSD 23.
000 nos 1. C/CDGir. thus the Design of Girders will be under TBeam if the Provisions in these Respect Satisfy. Moments & Shearing Forces caused by the applied Loads (DL& LL). Aluminum and/or Concrete Constructions with different Combination of Loads are the Followings : i) For general Vehicle Load.41 m Page 215 .413 m 6.500 mm 24. bMainWeb.200 m 0. D = L (Span Length)/375 L/800 L/1000 L/300 L/1000 30.075 m bFlGir.900 m 0. FXGirV. Top Flange) iv) The average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders = CDXGir. bFlnXGir.250 m 0. tWC NXGir.6. = iii) Onehalf the Width of Girder Top Flange (It is not req.0 times average Depth of Slab + Greater Thickness of Web = 12*tSlab + bXGir.2.65 m 6.450m ii) Dimensional Data of CrossGirder : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Span Length of CrossGirder (Clear distance between Main Girder Faces) Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Cross Girders Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Width of CrossGirder Web Width of MainGirder Web C/C Distance Between Main Girders Flenge Width of CrossGirder C/C Distance in between CrossGirders in Longitudinal Direction Filets : i) XGirder in Vertical Direction SLXGir.067 mm c) Since the calculated Deflections & Rotations are more or less within the Limit. 8 Flexural Design of Diaphragm/CrossGirder : i) Design Phenomena : a) The Flexural of Girders will be according to AASHTO LRFD or Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Procedures..333 mm 65.6 (4. otherwise Designee will be under Provisions for the Rectangular Beam.41 m 2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. thus the Flange Width of CrossGirders. c) Calculation of Effective Flange Width of TGirder under AASHTO LRFD4.075 m 5. bFlXGir = 1. b) Deflections can consider According to following Limit for Steel. as there is no Addl.2. bXWeb. Since the Bridge Deck Slab is integral Part of Girders.25 m 0.250 m 0.1) as least Dimention of : i) Onequarter of Effective Span Length = 1/4*SLXGir = ii) 12. thus it is require to conduct the Flexural Design of an Interior CrossGirder as Typical one based on one based on applied Moments & Shears. D = L (Span Length)/800 ii) For Vehicle and/or Padestrain Loads. tSlab.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . b) The CrossGirders at Interior Positions will have to face the Max.650 m 0. = d) Since Onequarter of Effective Span Length is the Least one. hXGir. D= L (Span Length)/300 iv) For Vehicle and/or Padestrain Loads on Cantilever.6. thus Structure is Safe.000 m 0.350 m 2.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).6. 0. 1. D = L (Span Length)/1000 iii) For Vehicle Load on Cantilever. CDXGir.400 mm 81.
Wheel.000m C/C Spacing.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . 1.*tWC d) Summation of Dead Loads of CrossGirder for per meter Length v) Computation of Live Loads on CrossGirders : DLXGirSelf 10.279 kN/m FDLXGirWC 0. 72.500 kN LLXGirLane.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. b) Concentrated Live Load Reaction due to Rear/Middle Single Wheel from Truck in kN = LLRSWLoad or LLMSWLoad c) Uniformly Distributed Live Load due to Loan Load Reaction in kN per Meter Span Length = LLLane/3*bFlnXGir. Since the Main Girders have 2. Reaction if either of its Rear or Middle Wheel take position directly over CrossGirder. thus only One no. Truck Load will produce Max.tSlab)*bXWeb + 2*0. of Wheel can took position over CrossGirder. 12. = m 1. 0.557 kN/m DLXGir. vi) Factored Dead Load for per meter Length of CrossGirder: a) Factored Dead Load of CrossGirder due to Self & Slab in kN/m = gDC*(DLXGirSelf + DLXGirSlab) b) Factored Dead Load of CrossGirder due to Wearing Course in kN/m FDLXGir+Slab. 1.900 m bXWeb = iv) Computation of Daed Loads on CrossGirders : 0.413 hfXGir = 0. 15. 0.200 m FXGirH.5*FXGirV*FXGirH) b) Dead Load from Slab (Within Flange Width) in kN for per Meter Span Length = gc*bFlnXGir.980 kN/m DLXGirWC.*tSlab c) Dead Load from Wearing Course (Within Flange Width) in kN for per Meter Span Length = gWC*bFlnXGir.075 m d= 0.335 kN/m DLXGirSlab. Whereas Lane Load will produce Uniformly Distributed Reaction for CrossGirder having its Intensity of action within the dimensions that of CrossGirder Span & Flange Width. ii) XGirder in Horizontal Direction iii) Sketch Diagram of CrossGirder TBeam : bFlnXGir 0.250 m a) Dead Load due Self Weight (Excluding Slab & W/C but including Fillets) in kN for per Meter Span Length = wc*((hXGir .835 kN/m Page 216 .010 hXGir.394 kN/m LLXGir.872 kN/m a) Live Loads on CrossGirders will be from Moving Truck due to its Wheel Loads & Lane Loads Over the Deck Slab..
* SLXGir. 16. /2 b) Shearing Forces on CrossGirder at Center of Cross Girder due to Factored Live Wheel Load (Concentrated) having its position at Center of Span will be = FLLXGirWheel./2. * SLXGir. Whereas Wheel Live Load is a Concentrated one having scope & attitude of changing position over the CrossGirder Span. VXGirFaceWheelMid 84. viiii) Shearing Forces due to Unifomly Distributed Factored Dead Loads (FDL) : a) Shearing Forces on CrossGirder at Faces of Main Girder due to Unifomly Distributed Factored Dead Load of Girder = FDLXGir.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). The Dead Loads & Lane Live Loads are Uniformly Distributed Loads over the CrossGirder Span.229 kN/m FLLXGir. VXGirLaneFace  kN 1. value only)..FLLXGir.  kN viiiiii) Shearing Forces due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Loads Posioned at Mid of Span(FLWLMid) : a) Shearing Forces on CrossGirder at Faces of Main Girder due to Factored Live Wheel Load (Concentrated) having its position at Center of Span will be = FLLXGirWheel.744 2.372 kN viiiiv) Shearing Forces due to Factored Concentrated Wheel Loads Posioned at Face of Span (FLWLMid) : a) Shearing Forces on CrossGirder at Faces of Main Girder due to VXGirFaceWheelFace 168.Wheel.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. = mgLLTruck*IM*LLXGirWheel b) Factored LL of CrossGirder due to Lane Load in kN/m = mgLLLane*LLXGirLane./2.846 kN b) Shearing Forces at Middle of CrossGirder Span due to Unifomly VXGirLaneCenter Distributed Factored Live Lane Load on Girder = VXGirXGirLane.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . /2 (The (+) ve. viiiii) Shearing Forces due to Unifomly Distributed Factored Live Lane Loads (FLLL) : a) Shearing Forces on CrossGirder at Faces of Main Girder due to Unifomly Distributed Factored Live Lane Load on Girder = FLLXGirLane. * SLXGir.238 kN kN/m viii) Computation of Shearing Forces at Different Location due to Factored Dead Load & Live Load : a) The CrossGirders are Structurally Integral Components of Bridge Main Girders having both side Fixed Ends and will have Shearing Forces accordingly.372 kN VXGirCenterWheelMid 84. 168. * SLXGir. FDLXGir./2 .Lane. FLLXGirLane.744 kN Page 217 . = gDW*DLXGirWC c) Summation of Factored DL of CrossGirder for per meter Length vii) Factored Live Loads of CrossGirder : a) Factored LL of CrossGirder due to Wheel Load in kN.389 kN b) Shearing Forces at Middle of CrossGirder Span due to Unifomly VXGirDLCenter Distributed Factored Dead Load of Girder = VXGirDLFace .FDLXGir. VXGirDLFace 13./2 . .
iii).. ix) Computation of Moments at Different Location due to Unfactored Dead Load. * SLXGir. M = DLXGir.2/14. * SLXGir.000 84.2/14.2/12. b) Shearing Forces on CrossGirder at Center of Cross Girder due to VXGirCenterWheelFace Factored Live Wheel Load (Concentrated) having its position at one Face of Span will be = 1/2*FLLXGirWheel. M = DLXGir.351 kN 0. f) (+) ve.682 kNm (+) MFLLL 0.372 168. 84. iv).STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Type of Loading Unit i).744 268.372 168. g) () v. No.2/14. Moment at Center of CrossGirder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Factored Dead Load (FDL). Uniformly Distributed Dead Load (DL) Uniformly Distributed Live Lane Load (LL) Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) Concentrated Wheel Live Load (LL) Loactions/ Position of Load Application At Main Girder Face At Cross Girder Mid.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).372 84.372 kN h) Table1 Showing the Shearing Forces at different Locations of CrossGirder due to Dead & Live Loads : Sl. ii). Moment at Face of MainGirder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Factored Dead Load (FDL).920 kNm (+) MFDL 3. c) () ve.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .435 kNm () MFLLL 0. M = DLXGir. e) () ve. * SLXGir. Factored Dead Load & Live Loads : a) The CrossGirders are Structurally Integral Components of Bridge Main Girders having both side Fixed Ends and will have Moments due to Loads accordingly. Moment at Face of MainGirder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Load (DL). d) (+) ve. Moment at Face of MainGirder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Factored Live Lane Load (FLLL).846 84. Moment at Center of CrossGirder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Factored Live Lane Load (FLLL).389 1.lane * SLXGir. Moment at Center of CrossGirder Span due to Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Load (DL). b) (+) ve. Factored Live Wheel Load (Concentrated) having its position at one Face of Span will be = FLLXGirWheel. (+) MUFDL 2. The Dead Loads & Lane Live Loads are Uniformly Distributed Loads over the CrossGirder Span.156 kNm () MFDL 3.744 Total Shearing Forces due to applied Loads at Different Loactions of CrossGirder.2/12.2/12. M = DLXGir. Whereas Wheel Live Load is a Concentrated one having scope & attitude of changing position over the CrossGirder Span. Throught the Span Length Throught the Span Length At Center of the CrossGirder Span At Main Girder Face kN 13. * SLXGir.508 kNm Page 218 .503 kNm () MUFDL 2.000 0. M = FDLXGir. M = FDLXGir.Lane * SLXGir.
7..682 kNm 0./8 i) () ve. Moment at MainGirder Face due to the Concentrated Factored Live ()MFWheelFace Wheel Load (FWLL) having its position at a Distance a = bMainWeb/2 from the Face of Main Girder will be M = a*(a1)2*FLLXGirWheel. thus a = 0. Sl.156 kNm kNm kNm kNm x) Factored Flexural Resistance for Prestressed or RCC Structural Components (AASHTOLRFD5. Mr = fMn. Mr Mn f Nmm Nmm b) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component either of I or T Section having Flenge & Web Elements. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mn = Asfy(dea/2) xi) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement. Moment at CrossGirder Center due to Concentrated Factored Live Wheel Load (FWLL) having its position at Face of Main Girder will be M = FLLXGirWheel.803 kNm ()MFWheelMid 34. where. . No.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.7. Concentrated Wheel At Center of the Live Load (LL) CrossGirder Span iv).435 kNm 0. Concentrated Wheel At Main Girder Face Live Load (LL) Total Moments due to applied Loadsat different Loactions of CrossGirder.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) c) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component of Rectangular Elements having Singly Reinforced.803 139. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.3. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.1): a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component. *SLXGir./8 j) (+) ve.175 m 33.3.214 174. *SLXGir.*SLXGir. (+) Moments at CrossGirder Center 0.*SLXGir.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).3.214 kNm k) () ve. Here bMainWeb is Width of MainGirder Web.803 33. Uniformly Distributed Throught the Span Live Lane Load (LL) Length iii). Moment at MainGirder Face due to Concentrated Factored Live Wheel Load (FWLL) having its position at Center of Span will be M = FLLXGirWheel. h) (+) ve.887 kNm kNm kNm kNm () Moments at Main Girder Face 3. Moment at CrossGirder Center due to Concentrated Factored Live Wheel Load (FWLL) having its position at Center of Span will be M = FLLXGirWheel. Location of Load i). Uniformly Distributed Throught the Span Dead Load (DL) Length ii)./2 (+)MFWheelMid 34.163 72.2) : Page 219 . Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.435 34. (AASHTOLRFD5.163 kNm l) Table2 Showing the Moments at different Locations of CrossGirder due to Factored Dead & Live Loads : Type of Load Application Position .803 kN (+)MFWheelFace 139.2.508 34.
108 174.920 434. which one is less.4.3. Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0.4. thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) (1.1Table3.29 Nmm Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 Nmm Nmm Nmm g) Table3 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for requirment of Minimum Reinforcement at Different Sections Location of Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.4. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Girder Section value of Snc = (bXWebhXGir3/12)/(hXGit/2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in RCC in Mpa.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements.2 Times Factored 1.968 of Span Maximum Flexurak Moment Mu (M Mr) kNm 232. i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to effective Prestress Forces only at Extreme Fiber where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance for all Prestressing Losses in MPa.503 434.666. For Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0.108 72. Section Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Cracking of Cracking Moment as of Factored Resisting from Dead Load As per Moment Moment Moment per Art.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.33 Times Allowable Min.600 95. a) For Section of a Flexural Component having Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements or only with Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.33M) kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm At Middle 2.7.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3.887 N/mm 434.416.256 521.968 95.4.Mdnc(Sc/Snc .256 521..256 kNm 434256329.33*M) (1.968 xii) Flexural Design of CrossGirder with (+) ve. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) .2.256 434. Moment value at Middle of Span for Reiforcement on Bottom : Page 220 . Mcr fcpe Nmm N/mm2 Mdnc Nmm Sc  mm3 iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic or Noncomposite Snc 3 Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm .2*Mcr or 1. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm.1 Moment Moment Support Moment Equation Value Mcr Mcr (Tab3.11.256 434.417/10^3 m 2 2.11) M1 Mr MDLUF 5.256 434.600 232.4.3.3.2Mcr1.887 232.(AASHTO LRFD5.1) Scfr where.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).667 mm3 3 0.156 95.256 434.2*Mcr) M (1.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .150417 m 3 150.600 of Span At Fcae 2.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces fr Mcr 150.
c) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of CrossGirder.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .2.000 mm rb. Mr 174. d) Let the Main Reinforcements are 20f Bars in 1 Layer. deproBot.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).910 mm Page 221 .. 0. rMax = 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.85*0.2 rb.CCovTop DStri.(1 . a) The Calculated (+)ve Moment values at Middle Positions of Cross Girder (+)MXGirMidUSD MXGirMidUSD < Mr.887 174. thus the Flexural Design of TGirder will according to Provisions of Rectangular Beam. = 50mm. h) Thus Effective Depth of Reinforcements from Top of XGirder up to Center of the Provided Reinforcements de = (hXGir . the thickness of XGirder Flange. DStir.85*(f/c/fy)*{599. DBar Af20 sVer. CCov.843/(599.5DBar) h) Balanced Steel Ratio for Grider Section according to AASHTO19968.75*rb.1) 32 mm 10 mm deproTop 1.737. xix) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements on Bottom Surface against Calculated Positive Moments : a) With MU. the Required Minimum Flexural Strength Moment.16. = 32 mm g) Let Provide 2Leged 10f bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in the form of Vertical Stirrups.Bot 2 474. Beam Width b and the Calculated Max.600*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm b) Since MXGirMidUSD< Mr.2MU/0. 2 2 e) XSectional Area of Main Reinforcements Af = p*DBar /4mm Mu 232. Factored Ultimate Moment (Positive Moment) MU.022 rMax 0. CCovTop.159 mm CCovBot.Top = 50mm.0. b. (AASHTO19968. sVer.016 xiii) Checking's Whether the Cross Girder would Designed as TBeam or Rectangular Beam Provisions : a) According to Ultimate Stressed Design Provisions a Rectangular having Flange with Reasonable Thickness on its Top should be Designed as TBeam if Depth of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' is Greater than Flange Thickness b) Let Consider the TGirder will behave as Rectangular Beam for which the Total Flange Width'b' will be the Width of Rectangular Beam. Steel Ratio. Width of Rectangular Beam. f) The Vertical Spacing between Reinforcement Bars.For (+) ve Moment value Reinforcement will be on Bottom Surface of Cross Girder.Bot. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU.600*10^6 Nmm 50 mm 50 mm 20 mm 2 314. Provided Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section.600 kNM 232.600 232. CCov. Let the Clear Cover at Top of CrossGirder.843+fy)) i) Max.85f/cbde2)1/2) a 17. the value Equivalent Compression Block a = de(1 .2. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.887*10^6 232. c) For Rectangular Section having Provided Effective Depth deproBot.344 mm a<hFln d) Since the Calculated value of Equivalent Compression Block a < hFln. Design Moment.830.16. the Required Tensile Steel Area for Asreq.= 0.
637 mm 69.968 95. Page 222 .3. in mm.20f bars = Nbarpro*Af20 h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of XGirder = Aspro*fy/(0.477 mm b1 c/depro 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .450 59.156*10^6 95.002 ppro<pmax Satisfied MResis rpro k) Since against Provided Steel Area.For () ve Moment value Reinforcement will be on Top Surface of Cross Girder. 4 nos 2 1.3./b*depro NBarreq NBarpro. thus Provisions & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Bottom Surface is OK.033 OK c/depro<c/demax. The Allowable Max.1.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.138 nos. c) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of CrossGirder. CCov. Steel Ratio. where. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0. CCov.85 0. In Flexural Design c/de 0.7. xix) Flexural Design of CrossGirder with () ve. xx) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln.apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = Aspro. = Aspro*fy(depro . the Required Minimum Flexural Strength Moment.7. the Section. As = MU/[ffy(dasuBot .85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section.3. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 4nos. Thickness of Cross Girder Flange.156 72.3.a/2)] d) Number of 20f bers required = AsreqBot/Af20 e) Let Provide 4nos 20f bars in One Layer as Bottom Reinforcment of XGirder.511. or Not) c/deMax.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).968*10^6 Nmm 50 mm 50 mm CCovBot.829 kNm Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.. ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU.968 kNM 95. Mr 72. the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax.Bot.Top = 50mm.968*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm b) Since MXGirSupUSD< Mr. Let the Clear Cover at Top of CrossGirder. Aspro apro 1. = 50mm. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. Mu 95. Moment value at Faces of Span for Reiforcement on Top : a) The Calculated ()ve Moment values at Support Positions of Cross Girder ()MXGirSupUSD MXGirSupUSD < Mr.033 e) Relation between c/deMax.42.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. c 0.256. having c = b 1apro. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.973 mm a<hFln Satisfied 924. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. CCovTop.
the Required Tensile Steel Area for the Section. = 32 mm g) Let Provide 2Leged 10f bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in the form of Vertical Stirrups. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. xxi) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.42.138 nos..002 ppro<J2486 Satisfied MResis rpro k) Since against Provided Steel Area.85*f/c*b) i) The Developed Resisting Moment against provided Steel Area for the Section. 20 mm 2 314.000 mm j) Since it being already found that the Calculated value of Equivalent Compression Block a < hFln. = Aspro*fy(depro .20f bars = Nbarpro*Af20 h) Value of Equivalent Compression Block 'a' against Provided Steel Area for Rectangular Section of XGirder = Aspro*fy/(0. 2 2 e) XSectional Area of Main Reinforcements Af = p*DBar /4mm DBar Af20 sVer.7. having c = b 1apro.3. d) Let the Main Reinforcements are 20f Bars in 1 Layer. Provided Effective Depth for the Section & 'a' Calculated Equivalent Compression Block against Factored Moment for the Section.Bot 2 474.3. 4 nos 2 1. in mm. c 0.450 59. The Allowable Max. ii) the Developed Resisting Moment MResis > MU. i) the Equivalent Compression Block 'a'< hFln. thus the Flexural Design of TGirder will according to Provisions of Rectangular Beam.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).256. In Flexural Design c/de 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.1.829 kNm Mr>Mu Satisfied 0.637 mm 69. b.apro/2)/106 j) Steel Ratio against Provided Steel Area for the GirderSection = Aspro. xx) Provision of Tensile Reinforcements on Top Surface against Calculated Negative Moments : a) With MU. As = MU/[ffy(deproTop .3. Aspro apro 1. the Design Moment & iii) the Provided Steel Ratio ppro < pMax.973 mm a<hFln Satisfied 924. Design Moment./b*depro Asreq. deproTop.0.477 mm Page 223 .3. thus Provision & Flexural Design for Tensile Reinforcement for Top Surface is OK.a/2)] d) Number of 20f bers required = AsreqBot/Af20 e) Let Provide 4nos 20f bars in One Layer as Top Reinforcment of XGirder. f) Provided Steel Area for the Section with 4nos. the thickness of XGirder Flange.7.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.CCovTop DStri.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . c/deMax. Thickness of Cross Girder Flange.737. sVer. where. h) Thus Effective Depth of Reinforcements from Top of XGirder up to Center of the Provided Reinforcements de = (hXGir .5DBar) 32 mm 10 mm deproTop 1.910 mm NBarreq NBarpro.159 mm f) The Vertical Spacing between Reinforcement Bars. Width of Rectangular Beam. DStir.830.511. Steel Ratio.
There will be also Lateral & Vertical Reinforcements on Bottom.85 0. iii) The Computed Factored Flexural Resistance M r > Mu the Actual Factored Moment at Mid Span (Absulate Max.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) f) For Fixed Supported & Single Reinforced TCrossGirder the with Provided MnMidSpan 892.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) + 0. h) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment MU at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater. i) The Value of Resisting Moment > Design Moment. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0..033 OK c/depro<c/demax.90 b) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm c) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.3.770*10^6 Nmm 0.2. Point).8.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) (+) MU 174.7. Balance Steel Ratio.069*10^6 Nmm 892. e) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements. xxii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.1: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.Max.42 & iii) the Provided Stee Ratio for Rectangular Section of TGirder.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) g) Calculated Factored (+) ve. It also requires Longitudinal Reinforcement on its Vertical Faces.887 kNm 174.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Moments at its Mid Span will have value of 892.7.493 kNm 400.887*10^6 Nmm Mr>Mu Satisfied xxiii) Since.10. Mn f d) The Nominal Resistance for a Flanged Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. Moment MU at Mid Span Maximum for TSection of CrossGirder. rRecpro < rMax.032 e) Relation between c/deMax.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Moment at c. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.2. Mr = fMn. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. Page 224 . Thus Flexural Design of Reinforcements for the TGirder Span is OK. or Not) b1 c/depro 0. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2). those can provide under Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement Provisions according to AASHTOLRFD5.770*10^6 Nmm Nominal Resistance. where. Top & Vertiocal Surfaces under the provisiona of Shear & Web Reinforcement.770 kNm Steel Area against Factored (+) ve. 9 Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Vertical Faces of CrossGirders : a) Girders are Simply Supported Structure having the Longitudinal Flexural Reinforcements due to Moments on Bottom Surface & also on Top Surface (In case of Doubly Reinforced or under Shrinkage & Temperature Provision). Mr 803.g. ii) The Calculated value of c/de 0.770 kNm 892.3.
535 nos. Page 225 . f) Let provide 16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder. Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical Surfaces of Girder = Af16*NBarproS&THori. of Max. 2 804.248 mm n) Since AsproS&THori. thus the provisions of Longitudinal Reinforcement as Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of CrossGirders on both Faces are OK.10.900 mm 2 509.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . 16f as Longitudinal bars as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement.75 mm NBarreqS&THori.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). sCalreqS&THori. b) Let consider 1 (One) meter Strip Length of Girder for Calculation of Shrinkage LGirder. *hXGir/AsreqLong. c) Let consider the Depth of GrossGirder as Height = hXGir m hXGir. Sum.Hori. 4 nos sproS&THori. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Factored DL. 16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & AsproS&THori. e) Here Ag is Gross Area of Girder's Each Vertical Face = LGirder*hXGir.> sreqS&THori. 10 Design of Shear Reinforcement for CrossGirder against Shearing Forces & Checking: i) Calculated Factored Shearing Forces (Vu) at Different Locations due to Applied Loads (DL & LL): a) Table for Max.667 mm m) Steel Area against Provided 4 nos. LaneLL & WheelLL : Table2.413 mm NBarproS&THori.1. 316. 2. 1. 2 1900000. & Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components with Thickness Less than 1200mm. & Temperature Reinforcement in Longitudinal Direction on Vertical Faces of Girder. 2 201.00 m 1.75 mm or = 450 mm i) Number of 16f bars required against Calculated Steel Area as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on Vertical Surface of Girder = AsreqLong. Shear Forces Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder. DBar./Af16 j) Spacing of 16f bars as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcementon Vertical Faces of Girder for Calculated Steel Area = Af16. g) XSectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar2/4 h) Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements is less of 3times the Component thickness = 3*bWeb = 0.. As 0. k) Let Provide 5 nos.Hori.90 m 1.062 mm 0. l) Spacing for provided 4 nos. Steel Area required as Shrinkage AsreqS&T.8.000 mm 16 mm Af16 sreqS&T.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. +2) AgVert.000 mm 1. 749.16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder = hXGir/(NBarroS&THori.76 mm d) According to AASHTOLRFD5.11Ag/fy . > AsreqLong & sproS&THori.
0.368 (dv) mm 1647.72h in mm. ii) Factored Shearing Stress & Shearing Depth at Different Locations : VuFace. b) Vp is Component of Prestressing applied Forces.00 At Faces mm 1. vu = (Vu .900 mm 0. de. 0.00 (vu) N/mm2 0.83 250. de. (AASSHTOLRFD5. Here.744 b) Shearing Forces at Sopport Position of Girder c) Shearing Forces at Middle of Girder.00 mm 1647.4.90 f) Table for Computation of values of vu.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .72h Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Shearing Stress (bv) mm 250. Vp Mpa bv dv 0.72h & dv at different Section of Girder.2).455 1830.65 On Middle 0.2.00 (h) mm 1.5.368 mm Variable mm 1.90 (de) mm 1830.72h & dv at different Section of Girder. mm.8. 0.90 1. 0.00 1647. i) de is Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement for the Section in mm ii) h is Depth of TCrossGirder = hXGir mm.. Since Vp = 0.72h de h f 250 mm Variable mm Variable mm 1. 268.9de 0. 2 0. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component the value of Vp = 0 c) bv is Width of TGirder Web = bXWeb.00 1. VuMid.9de .351 At Middle of Cross Girder kN 168.90 (AASHTOLRFD5. d) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having the greater value of either of 0.9de or 0. bv.Here.368 1647.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. bv.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).fVp)/fbvdv.724 N/mm Page 226 .744 kN a) The Shearing Steress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force. = Vu/fbvdv .9).351 kN 168. Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Width of TGirder Web Depth of TGirder Effective Depth of Section for Tensial Calculated value of 0.00 mm 1.724 0. Locations of Searing Force On Main Girder Faces At 2d Distance from Face kN Unit of Shearing Forces Total Shears on Each Point kN 268.9de .9de Calculated value of 0. Table3 Values of vu. e) f is Resistance Factor for Shear = 0.00 g) Shearing Stress due to Applied Factored Shearing Forces at Different Sections of Girder : i) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at Support Position of Girder = VuFace/fbvdv N/mm2 vCFace.
8. 5.2.4.25f/cbvdv + Vp. AASHTOLRFD5.8.12) : a) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation5.8. Vr. b) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N having value = 0. 5.2.083bf/cbvdv.5.Shear Reinforcement).3.8.8. Vr = fVn in which.4. b) ex = (Mu/dv+0.2.3.3.5Nu + 0. the value of Vp = 0. (Equ. a = 90 a 90 0 h) Av is Area of Shear Reinforcement within a distance s in mm. 5.3.455 N/mm iii) Factored Shearing Resistance for a Section under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.90 N N iv) Computation of values of q & b to Calculate the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Locations due to Factored Shear Forces under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.2. f 0. 0 For Vertical Transverse/Shear Reinforcement the Angle of Inclenation..8.4. v 2 = VuMid/fbvdv N/mm 2 0. Having the value.8. e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.3.4.8.21 for the Case with at Least the Min.3.8. Vn.4.33) in which.32) in which.8.8. d) s is Spacing of Stirrups in mm.2.3.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). i) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. c) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (Equ.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.4 : a) The Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at any Section of Girder is the Lesser value Computed by the Equations i) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ.3.5(Vu Vp)cotq .8.3. Page 227 .8.4: a) Calculation of Longitudinal Strain in Web Reinforcement εs in mm/mm on the Flexural Tension side of Girder with Equations . N v) Computation of Value b & q at different Locations of Girder as per AASHTOLRFD5.8. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.31). d) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTOLRFD5. 5. ii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force at Middle of CrossGirder Span SpanMid. (Equ5. 0 g) a is Angle of Inclenation of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement to Longitudinal Bars in ( ). b) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N c) Vn is Nominal Shear Resitance in N according to AASHTOLRFD5. Vp.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .12.3.1(Equ5.31) & ii) Vn = 0. 0 f) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) as per AASHTOLRFD5.3. (Equ.Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps).
4.5. j) Mu is Factored (+) ve Moment quantity of the Section in Nmm but not less then Vudv. fpo. Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of M uEff Vudv.825 (Vu) kN 268.000 (Vudv) kN 441.921 (MuEff) kNm 441. I) Table Showing the values of Mu.351 168. Vu. 2 1.8. Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & () for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing.8.3. For the usal level of Prestressing. For RCC Structure.974 277.Apsfpo)/(2(EsAs + EpAps). AsMid.5.156 174. Nu  N Vudv MuEff (Mu) kNm 72.4. d) ex= (Mu/dv+0.000 1647.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.637 mm  MPa. c) ex = (Mu/dv+0. i) On Faces of Main Girder Position value of Provided Steel Area in mm2 ii) At Midle of CrossGirder the Provided Steel Area in mm2 h) fpo is a Parameter for Modulus of Elasticity of Prestressing Tendons which is multiplied by Lockedin differencein Strain between the Prestressing Tendons and Surrounding Concrete (Mpa). For Nonprestressed RCC Structural Component. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.5(Vu Vp)cotq . the value of Nu = 0. Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Effective Moment value Ac 2 0.3.8. Where.22).26 mm Aps  mm2 AsFaces. (Equ5. the value of fpo = 0.3.23 for the Cases when value of es is () ve. e) Ac is Area of Concerte on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 having value Ac = bXWeb* hXGir.256.5Nu + 0.in Equ. Vu.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Showing the values of M u.3.256.Shear Reinforcement). the value of Aps = 0 g) As is Area of NonPrestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder for the in mm2 under Consideration having respective values of Steel Area. Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of Vudv.650 0.744 (dv) mm 1647. Location of Section from Support Length of Segment from the Earlier Section Factored Moment for the Section. the value recommended = 0.22 for the Case with Less then the Min.4. i) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N. Table4./2 mm2 f) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2.8.21& Equ.5(Vu Vp)cotq . k) Vu is Factored Shear Force (Only (+) ve values are applicable) for the Section in N.4.5Nu + 0.887 mm At Faces 1. Factored Shear for the Section.7fpu for both Pretensioned & Posttensioned Case.921 At Middle vi) Value of vc/f/c (Ratio of Shearing Stress & Concrete Compressive Strength) at Different Section of Girder : Page 228 .637 mm 2 1. (Equ5.974 277.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps)..
Vc 33.763.3.2.4.966 kN 33608.8.499 vc/f/c 0. 5.3.8.5Vu c) Having the value of cotq = 1.4. b) Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete of Girder Vc = 0.31).5(Vu Vp)cotq . are = 0.4.5Nu + 0.3.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 exFace*1000 exMId*1000 1. viii) Computation of Values of q & b from AASHTOLRFD'sTable 5.2.001at Support Position & the Effective Moment MuEff. Ratio vc/f/c : a) Table for Values of q & b at Different Location of Girder.629 cotq 1.3.8. / / a) Value of vc/f c at Face Pisition of Main Girder = vcFace/f c / / b) Value of vc/f c at Middle of CrossGirder = vcMid.4../f c vcFace/f/c vcMid.75 ≤ 1. fpo. Location of Section From Referece Support of Table a) At Faces of Main Girder 5.21 : a) Since for RCC Girder values of Prestressing Components Nu.034 0.022 exx1000 1.000 0. AASHTOLRFD5.966*10^3 N Page 229 . Asp.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. From the Equation Cotq = (ex2EsAs . thus values of q & b for these Sections can obtain from Table 5.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 d) At Middle of CrossGirder Span = ((Mu/dv + 0.3.1 b) Value of Cotq at different Locaion of Girder : i) At Faces of Maingirder value of Cotq ii) At Middle of CrossGirder Span value of Cotq Cotq Cotq 1.746 j) Since both ae Faces & Mid of CrossGirder Span values of esx1000 > 0.5 & provisions of Equation 5.3(Equ. d) At Faces of Main Girder Position = ((Mu/dv + 0.38 ix) Computation of Value for Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) using the Values of q & b : a) Since the Critical Section is at the Faces of Main Girder.2.3.034 0. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTOLRFD5. against the Respective Calculated values of esx1000.Mu/dv)/0. Ep etc.00 .608.Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0.21.3.5Vucotq )/2EsAs b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.23 33.8./f/c 0. Vp.000 0.356 1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).21 in respect of values of vc/f/c.8.70 2.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .8.8.083bf/cbvdv.1 b) At Middle if CrossGirder Span 5.40 2.4. thus Values of q & b of that Section are Governing Values for Computation of Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) for the Girder.629 Value of q b 36. thus equation ex = (Mu/dv+0. the values of exx1000 at Different Locations are .8.022 vii) Values of esx1000 with at Least the Min.
(AASHTOLRFDEqu. b) Vu is Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads for the Selected Section in N.2.4dv againest the respective values of 0.3.2.4dv ≤ 300mm (AASHTOLRFDEqu.5Vc h) Table showing the values of b.5Vc at Different Location of Girder.2.72) c) Value of 0.035 2582.3.625 N/mm d) Table Showing values of vu. xi) Checking of Required Max.8.4.5Vc & Relation between Vu & 0. the Max.7 : a) Due to applied Shearing Stress.97 5. 5.615 Relation Equation Between Satisfied/ Vu & Vc Not Satisfied Vu>0. Equation5.8dv ≤ 600mm.125f/c.15 0. Vu > 0.5fVc N 15124.739.8. AASHTOLRFDEquation5.8.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Showing Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in respect of Max.1 = 0. Here.8.2. Vu.4 : a) The Transverse or Shear Reinforcements are required for those Sections where the Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads (DL & LL)..8.2 = 0.4. Value of Value of Value of Relation Value of Value of Relation Relation Formula Page 230 .8dv. f) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTOLRFD5. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax. 0.8.5. the value of Vp = 0.5Vc Satisfied Satisfied i) The Table indicates that all the Sections of RCC Girder have satisfied the required provisions for Transverse/Shear Reinforcements under Equation Vu > 0. vu > 0. Vp.230 2.5Vc Vu>0.2. having value 0. x) Regions Requiring Transverse or Shear/Web Reinforcements under AASHTOLRFD5. Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress on Girder under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. the Max.125f/c.150m from Support f 0. vu < 0. 0.083bf/cbvdv according to AASHTOLRFD5.8.71).3. Spacing & Status : Segment. 0.2.4. 5.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.41.. a) At Support (Bearing Center) Position a) At a Distance 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .125f/c 2 2. Vc. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.80 168743. AASHTOLRFD5.8.8.8.125f/c : Table.2.125f/c in respect of Max. Location from Girder's Bearing Center. Equ5.380 Vu N 268350. 0.5f (Vc + Vp).750 Vc N 33. c) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance for the Section having value = 0.41 Stands to Vu > 0.90 g) Thus for Nonprestressing Structure the Eqution5.8.41. N e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension according to AASHTOLRFD5.34.3. Spacing of Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress at Defferent Section of Girder. b) Due to applied Shearing Stress.90 Values of b 2.608. d) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.2.5f (Vc + Vp).2.
5.744 kN d) Factored Shear Force at Middle of CrosGirder VuMid = e) Status in between the values of 1/2VuSupp.8.25f/c vu<0.800 between 0.13.13.8dv ≤ 600mm.8.4dv>300 0. AS sMax N 250 mm 410.8dv>600 0. VuMid 268. d) fy is Yield Strength of Reinforceing Steel as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement e) As is Steel Area of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in mm2 having Spacing s .00 Faces Section at 1.625 2.600 0.13. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.8dv for the Section mm 1317.1.3 (Provisions of StrutandTied Model) & AASHTOLRFD5. The value of s should not excide eithe of d/4 or 300mm Ng.351 kN 134.800 658.125f/c .8dv>600 between 0.4dv ≤ 300mm.3508 kN.724 0. c) bv is Width of Girder Web in mm. bv.125f/c between vu & 0.2. & VuMid VuMid >1/2VuFace. Accordingly its Transverse/Shear Reinforcementsb can provide under Article 5. Deep Beam Components the Shear Reinforcements are being Provide according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. = 0.2.71). Of AASHTOLRFD.455 N/mm2 vu<=>0.744 kN.3.4dv>300 Not Satisfy Not Satisfy Not Satisfy e) The Table indicates that non of the Sections of CrossGirder have satisfied the required provisions for Spacings of the Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under Equations. b) Ng is Factored Tensial Resitance of Transverse Reinforcement (Each Pair) in N. smax.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .600 1317. it should Satisfy the Equation. Ng = f fyAs 0.8dv & sMax1<600 0.2.18 kN 168. fy.13.3 : a) To provide Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder.2.3).00 Middle vu Maximum 0.125f/c N/mm2 0.1. Here. xii) Chacking for Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements as Deep Beam Component (AASHTOLRFD5.00 MPa mm2 300 mm Page 231 .83bvs (AASHTOLRFD5. 134. For vu < 0.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). & For vu > 0. VuFace.125f/c 2.1) : a) The Component in which a Load causing more than 1/2 of the Shear at a Distance closer than 2d from the Face of Support is Considered as a Deep Component.647.8.5. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.175 kN 168.125f/c .= c) Value of 1/2 of Factored Shear Force at Face = 268. f) Since the Distance 2d from Face of Main Girder is beyond the CrossGirder Span & value of Shearing Force at Mid Span is greater than 1/2VuFace.2.1.4dv for the Section mm 658.3.4dv & sMax2<300 Status Whether Satisfy or Not Satisfy Not Satisfy 0. = 0. xiii) Detaling of Requirments for Deep Beam Component to Provide Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements for Girder under provision of AASHTOLRFD5..2. thus the CrossGirder can consider as a Deep Beam Component. f) s is Spacing of Transverse /Shear Reinforcement in mm. VuFace.25f/c 0. smax.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. 1/2VuFace.72).6. b) Factored Shear Force at Face of Main Girder.625 vu<0. Location dv (Between for the 2Section) Section mm Section at 1647.
8.Cotq/sXGir. thus Equation stands to Vn1 = Vc + Vs Page 232 . 475 mm 300 mm 10 mm Av 2 157. Where.122*10^3 N 908.122 kN 822.3.840 kN 913.3 against Equation Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5. b) Table for Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder.5. s is Length of Girder Segment under consideration for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement. xxiii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. = 2*pDStir. b) Allowable Max.083f/c(bvs/fy). 175 mm xxi) Checking for Requirements of Minimum Transverse Reinforcements for CrossGirder: a) Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section.2/4 mm2 d) Let Provide the 175mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcements for total Length of CrossGirder. Total Length of CrossGirder.3. d) XSectional Area of 2Leged 10f Bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement.8. sVert. VSMid.080 mm sXGir.806*10^3 N c) At Middle of CrossGirder Span Vs=AvfydvMidCotq/sXGir.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .the Shear Resistance against Provided Shear Reinforcement & Spacings at Different Sections according to Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (AASHTOLRFDEqu.587 Avpro Status of Provided Provided & mm2 Required Av 157. Length of Segment mm 1650. d/4 sMax DStir.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). AASHTOLRFD5.000 sWebBar Spacing mm 175.000 Min.8.Max 300 mm xxi) Computation of Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of Girder : a) Value of d/4 for the Section under cosideration having d = hGir. for Crack Control Longitudinal Reinforcement on both Vertical Faces of Girder should not Excide either d/3 or 300 mm. 5.3.3. VSFace 822.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Av Required mm2 40. g) The Vertical Spacing.8. sVetrt.000 bv' Web Width mm 250. (Girder Depth). 5.33) : a) With Vertical Shear Reinforcement the value of a = 900 & the Equation Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s stands to Vs = Avfydvcotq /s.32) : a) The Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ.31) b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0. Av 0. b) At Faces of Main Girder Vs= AvfydvFace. Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement c) Let Provide 2Leged 10f bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in the form of Vertical Stirrups.2.8. Location from Bearing Center of Girder.080 Avpro> Av xxii) Computation of Values of Vs..
3.8.31.579*10^3 N d) At Middle of CrossGirder Vn = VcMid.8.3.25f/cbvMiddvMid.1 : a) Nominal Shear Resistance. Calculated Factored Shear ForceVu Vn1 As per Equation.3.3.8. AASHTOLRFD5.25f/cbvdv + Vp b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0.688*10^3 N 2. 5..8. c) At Faces of Main Girder Vn= VcFace + VsFace. Respective Factored Shear ResitanceVr at Different Section of TGirder. Vr. f 0.4. VnMid2 xxv) Accepted Nominal Shear ResistanceVn & Factored Shearing ResistanceVr at Different Section of Girder Computed accordting Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. Vr = fVn in which. + VsMid.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). 5.8.731*10^3 N 914.161.8.688 kN 2161.8.2.32 are shown in Table below :. Having the value.3.2 2.31 the Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.3) c) Vn = 0.32.12. Vp = 0.3. 5. Accepted Nominal Shear ResistanceVn & Factored Shear ResitanceVr at Different Section : Section Location from Center of Bearing.25f/cbvFacedvFace.3.3.31 & Equ.25f/cbvdv c) At Faces of Main Girderr Vn= 0.731 kN 855. 5.8.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ.32 Relation between Values of Vn1 & Vn2 Accepted Value of Vn Factored Shear Resitance Relation between Values of Status If Vr > Vu. the Structure is Safe otherwise Vr Vr& VU Page 233 . 5. AASHTOLRFD5.5.8.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ.161.32) : a) According to Equ. the Staus between the vaues of Vn Computed under Equ. 5.8. Vn.579 kN 914.8.31 Vn2 As per Equ.8. f) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N g) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTOLRFD5.688*10^3 N d) At Middle of CrossGirder Vn= 0.2. b) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. Vn at any Section of Component is the Lesser value of of the Equqtions as mentioned below .3) : d) For RCC Girder.90 N h) The Acceptable Nominal Shear Resistance.3. VnFace.3. 5.8. i) Table.3 against Equation Vn = 0.2.3. VnVace1 855. 5. thus Equation stands to Vn = 0.8. VnMid1 xxiv) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .688 kN 2161.3 & AASHTOLRFD5.3. e) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation5.
731 kN 855.579 kN 2161. Calculated Computed Status value of value of between Vu Vn Values of kN 268.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.5Nu/fc + (Vu/fv . c) Provided Girder Width (Web Width of TGirder) = bXWeb mm.771 mm bXWeb bvCal. e) In RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0.16 823.2). xxxi) Checking of TGirder Web Width (bWeb) in respect of Nominal Shearing Resistance (Vn) at Critical Section : a) Against Applied Loads (DL & LL) the Critical Section for Shearing Forces Prevails at the Face of Support.731 914. As fy Variable mm2 410. Showing between Factored Shearing Force.731 914. 5.3 : a) The Relation between Factored Shearing Force. the Width of crossGirder.8. Vu & the Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at Different Section of Girder are shown in the Table blow : Table. xxxii) Checking in respect of Longitudinal Reinforcements (Tensile Reinforcements) Provided for Girder under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. b) As is Area of Nonprestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2 c) fy is Yield Strength of Nonprestressing Reinforceing Steel in MPa.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . thus Design Critical Section is OK. the Computed Nominal Shear Resistance.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).51)..8.731 914.25*f/cdv.744 kN 855.351 168.150m from Girder's Bearing Center (AASHTOLRFD5.8.5 : a) At each Section the Tensial Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Flexural Tension side of the Member shall be proportationed to Satisfy Equation.8.579 kN 770.688 Vn1 > Vn2 Vn1< Vn2 Vn1< Vn2 kN 855. which is at a Distance 0.0. where dv is Calculated Effective Shear Depth for the Critical Section. Vn 855.3.5Vs Vp)Cotq. Asfy + Apsfps Mu/dvff + 0. Vu & the Nominal Shear Resistance Vn : Location of Section from Bearing Center of Girder.408*10^3 N. (Equ5.3.3.351 168. Computed under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. Where. b) Calculated Nominal Shearing Resistance for Girder on Face of Main Girder. kN At Faces At Mid Span 268.731*10^3 N 250 mm 105.8.3.12 Vr> VU Vr> Vu Vr> Vu No Safe.3. Vn = 860. thus according to Equ. Structure Safe Structure Safe xxx) Relation between Factored Shearing Force (Vu) & the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Girder. thus the Girder is Safe in respect of Applied Shearing Forces caused by Dead Load & Live Loads to the Bridge Structure.32.744 kN 855. bv = Vn/0.688 2161. f) Since the Calculated value of Girder width bvCal = bv the Provided Girder Width.00 MPa Page 234 .579 Vu & Vn Vu< Vn Vu< Vn a) At Faces of Main Girder b) At Middle of CrossGirder b) Since the Factored Shearing Forces Vu < Vn < Vr.
4.3. the value of Nu = 0. Aps  mm2 fps  MPa Mu Variable Nmm Nu  N dv Vu Vs Vp. Location of Section from Bearing Center of Girder. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure. Stands to. i) Vu is Factored Shear Force for the Section in N.1224362 168. the value of Aps = 0 e) fps is Yield Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.8. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure.2.8400011 515.4.5. Nu & Vp have Values = 0.51 at Different Section of Girder & Status of Results. in Nmm but not less then Vudv. Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & () for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing.221 515.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .5.90 fc 1.3.Showing Evalution of Equation5.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Mu Vu Provided Factored Factored Tensile Steel Area mm2 1256. Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv .390 (248.5Vs)Cotq.5.90 fv 0. Moment kNmm 441.637 1256.. ff 0. fps. 0 l) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) according to AASHTOLRFD5.00 p) Since for Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the Items Aps. j) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N for the Section. q) Table.371) Vs Shearing a)At Faces b) At Middle Satisfied Satisfied Page 235 .351 822. d) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. o) fc is Resistance Factor for Compression due to Prestressing according to AASHTOLRFD5.4.51. the value of fps = 0 f) Mu is Factored Moment of the Section due to Dead & Live Loads Loads on Structure.974 277. h) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section in mm. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.0. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component. g) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N.221 88.921 Calculted Calculted Status Value of R/H Part of the Shearing Resistance Asfy of the Equation Force of Stirrups (L/H Part) Equation Satisfied kN kN kN kN Not Satisfied 268. thus mentioned Equ5.637 As.3.4.2.2.8. the value of Vp = 0. Variable Variable Variable  mm N N N q Variable O m) ff is Resistance Factor for Flexural Tension of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5. k) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.744 908. n) fv is Resistance Factor for Shearing Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5.8.
f) s is Spacing of Transverse /Shear Reinforcement in mm. Here As = Av.13.000 157.2 for SingleSpan Bridges no Seismic analysis is required regardless of Location Seismic Zone.13. Ng = ffyAs > 0.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).080 175.3. Vertical Stirrups.. thus Provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for CrossGirders are OK. h) The Checking for Factored Tensile Resistance of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder are shown in the under mention Table: i) Table.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . d) fy is Yield Strength of Reinforceing Steel as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement Ng.83bvs 57962.31). On these back drop mentioned Shearing Forces at different Section of Girder may be considered as Tensile Forces for Vertical Stirrups. s'Spacing As of Shear Provided Bars Steel Area mm2 mm 175. 11 Design of Bridge Girder & CrossGirder against Earthquake Forces including Checking: i) According to AASHTOLRFD4. c) bv is Width of Girder Web in mm. Thus the Factored Shearing Forces at Each Section.83bvs are being Satisfyed.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.Showing Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at Different Section of CrossGirder.000 157.2.31.080 Calculted Calculted Value of Value of ffyAs 0.384 Status of a) At Faces of main Girder b) Middle of CrossGirder Equation Satisfied Not Satisfied 36312.13. b) Ng is Factored Tensial Resitance of Transverse Reinforcement (Each Pair) in N.4. Ng = f fyAs 0. Here.080 mm e) As is Steel Area of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement in mm2 having the Spacing AS s mm. thus provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Girder is OK. Vu = Ng. The value s should not Excide eithe d/4 or 300mm s Variable mm g) The Girders are being provided with Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in the form of Vertical Stirrups against Shear Forces caused by the Dead Load & Live Loads applied to the Bridge Structure.2. ii) In SingleSpan Bridges the Connections between Superstructure & Substructure on Abutment Cap/Seat Page 236 . the Factored Tensile Resistance Carried by the Pair of Transverse Reinforcement. Equ5.500 Satisfied j) Since in all Section the requirments of Equation Equ5. Due to Vertical Positioning of those Transverse/Shear Reinforcements they will also under Tensile Stress caused by the same Shearing Forces whose actions are in some extent in Vertical Direction.2. fy.00 Mpa 2 157. Location of Section from Bearing Center of Girder. j) Since at all Section the requirments of Equation are being Satisfied.7. Variable N 250 mm 410. xxxiii) Checking for Factored Tensile Resistance of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements Provided for Girder: a) The provided Transverse/Shear/Web Reinforcements at Different Section of Girder under the Provision of Deep Beam should Satisfy the Equation.83bvs (AASHTOLRFD5.500 Satisfied 36312. bv.384 57962. the XSectional Area of 2Leged the 10f Dia.
9 & 4.. & Bridge Bearings should be Designed according to provisions of AASHTOLRFD3. Page 237 .4.4.10.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .7.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. iii) Design of Abutment Cap/Seat & Bridge Bearings are being done in Respective Design Sheets.
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25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY)..STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Page 301 .
16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. below :.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .. Page 302 .
FXGirderV.Gir.00 0. b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading.25 2. DWheel.00 1.15 0. CDExt.00 17. 24. ii) Design Data related to Live Loading: a) Design Criterion : AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).50 35. bXGir.00 72.00 72.65 0.00 1.075 m m m m m nos nos m m m m m m m m m m m Notation Dimensions Unit. FMGirderH. hWC NGir.I. LLRWLoad LLRSLoad LLMWLoad LLMSLoad LLFWLoad LLFSLoad 1.13 1. hSlab. hXGir.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line. bGir.08 0.80 4. C/CDGir. Service Limit State Design (WSD) of Main Girder & Cross Girders Against Applied Forces : 1 Data for Flexural Design : Description i) Dimensional Data of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.70 0.50 m m kN kN kN kN kN kN iv) Design AASHTO Lane Loading : a) Design Lane Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of LLLane 9.20 0. hGir.50 145.40 0. NXGir.GirEdg.30 N/mm . LGir. FMGirderV. ClDInt.30 25. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Depth of Cross Girders (Excluding Slab) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance Between Main Girders Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) XGirder in Vertical Direction vi) XGirder in Horizontal Direction SL SAddl.30 145.08 5 5 2. FXGirderH.35 0. iii) Design AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Axle to Axle distance Wheel to Wheel distance Rear Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Rear Single Wheel Load Middle Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Middle Single Wheel Load Front Wheel axle Load (Two Wheels) Front Single Wheel Load DAxel.15 0.
gWSali. 3 vi) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.23 2.300N/mm through the Length of Gridge for Single and acting over a 3.2.00 MPa 8.25 18. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.30 .5). gs 2.17 1. fy (60 Grade Steel) f) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement.00 10. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.00 MPa c) Modular Ratio.7.40 MPa b) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.63*21^(1/2).807 m/sec ) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) 3 vii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : gc gWC gWNor. n = Es/Ec 6 n 8 d) Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength.00 10.40f/c fc 8.043gc1.62 MPa 2.4.1: a) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.000m Wide Strip in Transverse Direction.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD5.447. r = fs/fc r 20 e) Value of k = n/(n + r) k 0.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5. fr = 0.63f/c = 0. d) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.345.00 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 viii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.019. v) Design AASHTO Pedestrian Loading : a) Design Pedestrian Loading is an Uniformly Distributed Load having Magnitude of 3.4.30 kN/m LLPedest 2 0. wEatrh 24.600*103MPa through the Length of Sidewalk on both side and acting over the total Wide of Sidewalk. Ec = 0.045. wWaterSali.2.42 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWaterNor.68 1.9.855. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.4.00 MPa 200000 MPa ix) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design (WSD) under Service Limit State ( SLS ) According to AASHTOLRFD5.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.6).40fy fs 164.89 fr fy ES 2.89 MPa 410. c) Poisson's Ration = 0.00 kN/m 2 9.835.00 23.26 1. e) Steel Ultimate strength.2. g = 9.00 N/mm 2 4.4).40 MPa 23.
2.f) Value of j = 1 . = 6.13 2. thus it is require to conduct the Flexural Design for Reinforcements of Bridge Girders Based on Calculated respective Moments & Shears.000 1.65 1.30 1. ii) Calculation of Flange Width for Girders : a) Cross Sectional Sketch Diagram of Bridge Girders & Dack Slab : 1. VWA 90.6.2.070 0. otherwise Designee will be under Provisions for the Rectangular Beam. = * Onehalf the Width of Girder Top Flange (It is not req.25 1.k/3 g) Value of R = 0.0 times average Depth of Slab + Greater Thickness of Web = 12*hSlab + WGir.00 km/hr 260. Designing under Service Limit State (WSD) up to Certain Level would be done.65 1.300 0. b) Since the Interior Girders of the Bridge have the Max.000 2. Top Flange) * The average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders = C/CDGir.00 2.90 1.25 b) Calculation of Effective Flange Width of TGirder under AASHTO LRFD4.1) as least Dinention of : * Onequarter of Effective Span Length = 1/4*SL * 12. thus the Design of Girders will be under TBeam if the Provisions in these Respect Satisfy.6 (4.25 0. VWLSpe.650 1. Since Average Spacing of Adjacent Beams/Girders is the Least one.30 1. Since the Bridge Deck Slab is integral Part of Girders.00 2. as there is no Addl.475 0. Moments & Shearing Forces caused by Applied Loads (DL & LL).125 CL 10.14 VWLNor.10 m 2.200 0.75 m 2m = .23 7.5*(fckj) x) Design Data for Site Conditions : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Cyclonic Storm Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 2 Design Phenomena & Calculations for Monent & Shear : i) Design Phenomena under Service Limit State (WSD) : j R 0.650 0.950 0.95 1.20 m/s a) The Flexural of Girders will be according to AASHTO LRFD or Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Procedures but for Checking in respective Issues.6.00 km/hr 4.6.
048 207.908 449.200 d= 1.110. MuL/8. MuL/4.375m kNm 142. Mu0.813 3110. Moment Loaction (c. the Interior Girders are facing the Max.000 hFln.345 119. 0 kNm 119.thus the Flange Width of Interior Girders.074. Resultant Forces (DL & LL) causing Max.127. Shear & Moment Calcutation Tables it appares that. Dead Load (FDLInt) b.g.000 0.004 b) Moment at Sopport Position of Girder c) Moment at a Distance 0.150m.423 kNm 4. WFlang = 2.905 L/2 kNm 2449. LaneLL & WheelLL : Table1. Locations from SupportA Loading Type Unit a. Mu3L/4. Lane Live Load (FLLInt) c.720 484. iii) Calculations for Monent at Different Location of Girder : a) Table for Max. 2.096 1140.g.537 563.808 1201.930 3847.g.836 1810. = 0.423 c.232 kNm 3. Mr Nmm .905 kNm 4. Moments Against All Applied Loads (DL & LL) on Interior Girder.500 kNm 1.000 bWeb = 0. 2.232 3L/8 kNm 2263. thus One of Interior Girders is considered for as Typical one for Flexural Design in respect of All Applied Loads (DL + LL) and Corresponding Moments & Shears. Muc.188 4074.000m bFlan.826 hGir. Shears & Moments. Mr = fMn.847. = MuSupport.1): a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.152 28.2. Wheel Live Load (WLLInt) Total Moments on Each Point On Support kNm 0.000 0.000 0.7. where. MuL/2.00 m c) From Load. Position) of Girder h) Moment at a Distance L/2 (Middle of Span) from Sopport of Girder i) Sketch Diagram of TBeam/Girder : bFln.004 kNm 2.182 483. of Max.500 L/8 kNm 1039.421 kNm 3.810.021 357. Moments at Different Locations of Interior Girder due to Factored DL. kNm 2442.585 1133.150m from Sopport of Girder d) Moment at a Distance L/8 from Sopport of Girder e) Moment at a Distance L/4 from Sopport of Girder f) Moment at a Distance 3L/8 from Sopport of Girder g) Moment at Absolute Max.350 iv) Factored Flexural Resistance for Prestressed or RCC Structural Components (AASHTOLRFD5.399 941.627 79.421 L/4 kNm 1811. Sum.915 4127.000 0.3.
Bot. 2 2 d) XSectional Area of Main Reinforcements Af = p*DBar /4mm MMax.) h) Flange Width of TGirder.127.i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0. CCov.127.g.008 vi) Checking's Whether the Bridge Girder would Designed as TBeam or Rectangular Beam Provisions : a) According to Working Stressed Design Provisions a Rectangular having Flange with Reasonable Thickness on its Top should be Designed as TBeam if Depth of Netural Axis 'kd' is Less than the Flange Thickness. thus this value is Considerd as the Moment at Middle Position of Span. .50*SVer.552 mm . = 4. Moments on Interior Girder is at c. 4. Let the Clear Cover at Top of Girder. c) According to WSD Provisions the depth of Neutral Axis from Compressiof Face kd 548. = 32 mm f) Let the Transverse/Shear Reinforcements (Stirrups) are of 12f Bars. b = 2. CCovTop.CCovBot . b) Let Consider the TGirder will behave as Rectangular Beam for which the Total Flange Width'b' will be the Width of Rectangular Beam. 2000 mm 200 mm 0. g) Thus Effective Depth of Reinforcements from Top of Girder up to Center of the Provided Reinforcements d = (hGir . Mn f Nmm b) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component either of I or T Section having Flenge & Web Elements. Mn = Asfy(dea/2) v) Related Features for Working Stressed Design of Main Girder with Max. CCovSide. DStir.Top = 50mm.. Let the Clear Cover at Vertical Faces of Girder.DStri 2*DBar.25 mm e) The Vertical Spacing between Reinforcement Bars. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. =38mm. dL/2 50 mm 50 mm 38 mm 32 mm 2 804. = 50mm.g. Moment value (At c.1.905*10^6 Nmm CCovBot. CCov.000 m i) Thickness of TGirder Flange. SVer. hf = 200mm j) According to WSD Method the BalancedStress Steel Ratio for Girder Section pe = n/2r(n + r) 32 mm 12 mm 1. CCov. Since it is very close to Middle Position of Span having value MMex. c) Let the Main Reinforcements are 32f Bars in 4 Layers.826. b) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of Girder.905 kNm. Position) : a) The Absolute Max. DBar Af32 SVer.00 mm b hf pe.905 kNM 4127.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2) c) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component of Rectangular Elements having Singly Reinforced. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.Vert. Point.
Asreq. hf<kd TBeam Provision d) Since the Calculated Depth Neutral Axis kd < hf. NBarpro 18. d) Effective Depth of Reinforcements is Same as that of USD Design.582.132 nos. 32f Bars as Main Reinforcement for the TGirder on ite Mid Span (L/2) since under USD the Provided number of Bars for the Section is 17 nos.is Expressed by kd. 32f Bars. Thickness of Flange.000 nos. de 1./Af32 c) Let Provide 18 nos.808. NBarreq 2 14. vii) Design of Tensile Reinforcements for Intermediate Girders against Calculated Moments : a) Under WSD for TGirder the Required Flexural Steel Area. thus in Working Stressed Design (WSD) the Provisions for TBeam will prevail. As = M/fs(dhf/2) b) Number of 32f Bars required as Main Reinforcement of TGirder.938 mm 18.222 mm . NBarreq = Asreq.
300 1.450 m m tWWall = 400 150 0.150 m m m m m m m m m m m 3 Design Criterion.000 0.300 0. bOffsetWater. bAbCapRec bAbCapTroBot.350 10.350 tWWall= 0. 600 2147 350 350 hBWall = 2.147 m Unit.J. Value. 3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration. hBackWall tBackWall tWingWall LBackWall LAbCap hAbCapRec hAbCapTro. Structural Design of Back Wall for Abutment : 1 Sketch Diagram of Back Wall: 300 700 4047 600 2147 450 300 LBWall = 9.450 9.450 0.807 m/sec ) . b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading. g = 2 9. Type of Loading & Design Related Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).400 0.600 0.450 m 2 Structural Data : Description i) Dimentions of Abutment Cap & Back Wall : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Height of Back Wall Thickness of Back Wall Thickness of Wing Wall Length of Back Wall between the Wing Walls Length of Abutment Cap between outer Faces of Wing Walls Height of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion (Abutment Seat) Height of Abutment Cap Trapezoid Portion (Abutment Seat) Width of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion (Abutment Seat) Width of Abutment Cap Trapezoid Portion at Bottom(Abutment Seat) Offset of Trapezoid Portion on Earth Face Offset of Trapezoid Portion on Water Face Notation.250 0.147 0. bOffsetEarth. 2.
5.045.345.5).835. fAncTenSteel. For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in StrutandTie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD5.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa.000 MPa 200000 MPa v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD5. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.63*21^(1/2).63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.4. (AASHTO LRFD5. : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4).680 1.850 0. fSpir/Tie/Seim.000 0.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 iv) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.850 vi) Other Design Related Data : .6).4). wWSali.000 23.900 0.50f/c = 0.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.2. fr = 0. b1 b 0.2.000 10. fStrut&Tie.750 0.400 MPa 23855.700 0.000 MPa 8.2.800 1. gWSali.000 0. Ec = 0.2.a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor.264 1.900 1.043gc1. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete. fPileResistanc.447.2. f) Steel Ultimate strength.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlxRin.700 0.000 1.887 fr fy fs ES 2. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.043*24^(1.7. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5. fBearig.63f/c = 0.232 2.019.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement. fFlxPres.887 MPa 410..000 10. gs 2. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0. wE 24.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 iii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWNor. fShear. fAncCopmConc.4.4.4.620 MPa 2.00 MPa 164.1).2.250 18. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.172 1.
500 . but those would be occasional. Limit State of STRENGTHIII (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTHIV (Having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect.4.4.a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 4 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : VWLNor.2. 1.000 260.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility.11 & 3.3.000 ηR ηi = ηR = 1. Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn. For Strength Limit State. Rn = Nominal Resitance. Qi = Force Effect.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable. f = Resistance Factor.11) Where. Table 3.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.1. value of Table 3. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation.000 4. ii) Selection of Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr). VWLSpe.4.500 gEH 1. a Factor related to Ductility.4.12). (Max. (Max.250 ηl 1.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable.2.000 ηi = ηI = 1.000 gDW 1. (ASSHTO LRFD1. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance.200 km/hr km/hr m/s a) Formula for Load Factors Q = Σ ηigiQi f Rn = Rr. Redundancy and Operational Functions. value of Table 3.4. iii) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. VWA 90.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy .2. (ASSHTO LRFD1. (ASSHTO LRFD1. ηi is Load Modifier having values ηi = ηD ηR ηI 0.12) gDC 1.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions.4. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. 1.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . value of Table 3. ηi = Load Modifier.3.13) Here: gi = Load Factor.DW . ηD ηi = ηD = 1.3. & ηi = 1/(ηD ηR ηI ) 1.
1.III STRENGTH .6.000 gLLTruck IM 1. gLLWA. gLLBR. 1.750 1. 1. gLLWS.4.000 1.1.400 1. gLLTU. value of Table 3.750 1.000 . o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1.4.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3. value of Table 3.6. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR .4.1.6.350 gES 1. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.750 1.000 gLLSH.000 1.V m 1.500 iv) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck . Table 3. gLLWL gLLFR. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls. Table 3.1. 1.2. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls.4.000 gLLCR. gLLCE.750 1. (Max.750 1. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).12) gEV 1. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing). (Max.000 gLLTG. gLLLS.2.1.11.750 1.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV . STRENGTH .330 gLLLane gLLPL.
value of Table 3. gLLCT.p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).1. (Max. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls. value of Table 3.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.000 1. (Max.4.000 gEH 1.000 gEV 1. (Max.000 gLLTruck IM 1. value of Table 3.000 gDW 1.4.000 gLLLane gLLPL.6.000 5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.DW .12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .300 .000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. (Max.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .4.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES . SERVICE . f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE SERVICE .2. Table 3. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.000 gES 1. value of Table 3. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV gLLSE.2.4.4.4.11.1. Table 3. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.000 gLLEQ. 1. gLLCE. Table 3. 1.4.4.1.6.II m 1.000 1. 1.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (AASHTO LRFD3. gLLCV.I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.12) gDC 1.000 1. c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load AllowanceIM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD3.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.1 .4.6.1.
q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 6 Load Coefficients Factors & Intensity of Different Imposed Loads : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure. l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLLS. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 SERVICE .(Table 12. 1. 1. gLLCT.700 1.34 to 0.11. f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand.3 .000 0.IV SERVICE . f = 340 .000 gLLSE. RAINA.g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking ForceBR .s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTOLRFD3. 1.300 1. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).5.441 f 34. ko = (1sinff ) .300 1.II gLLWS.000 gLLEQ.Table 3. Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil.Where. gLLTU. Page138.31. 1.II gLLBR. gLLCR. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gLLSH. gLLCV. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR SERVICE . gLLWA.11.000 1. 1.9.000 O d 19 to 24 O tan d 0. gLLWL gLLFR. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gLLTG. 1.000 1.5.000 ko 0.45 dim .
3 .6.4.441 3 1.441 2 0. k gs g heqAb<6.Table 3. Where.45 (AASHTOLRFD3. Where.00m. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .600 mm m mm m h) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).00m 0.6.424 kg/m 2 9.00m c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure.761 0.004761 4.007141 7. AASHTOLRFD3.0083309 8. f) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). AASHTOLRFD3.6. AASHTOLRFD3.018000 N/mm 2 18.11.5.807 m/sec N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic).42.900 600.& H 6000mm.000 0.00m.4.11.6.2.00m.6. i) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls.11.331 0.00m. 900. 600.6.050.007935 N/mm ks wE*103 0.00m. b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure.761 0.141 0. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge. Table3.935 kN/m 2 0.600 600.600 mm m mm m . g) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.) ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES). AASHTOLRFD3.00m.1. AASHTOLRFD3.41.000 mm 600.11. 900.11.6. Table3.11.6.00m DpLLWW6.& H 6000mm. Having.000 mm WeqWW<6. heqWW6.11.4.00476052 4.00m. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 . Having H < 6000mm.000 kN/m iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS).000 mm WeqAb<6.4. 1.835. AASHTOLRFD3.000 mm 600.1. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .11. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 DpLLAb<6.11.00m DpLLAb6. DpES = ksqs in Mpa. Where.5. c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*103N/mm2 DpES 2 7. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). WeqWW6. Having.6.000 0. heqAb6.31. WeqAb6.11. heqWW<6. DpLLWW<6. Table3.41. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3) 2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ).000 0.00m.000 0.34 to 0.= 0.
= mgLLLS*PLLHSurAb d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Abutment (Perpendicular to Traffic). = DpLLAb.935 kN/m /m .496 kN/m /m FPHBWallUSD 2 49. Shearing Forces & Moments for Back Wall it is considered having 1. b) For the Design purpose & Calculation of Imposed Loads (DL & LL).000m Length & Wide Strips according to sequences of Design.LH&V c) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic) having hBackWall < 6.7 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Back Walls of Bridge Structure : a) The Back Wall of Bridge Substructure will have to face Horizontal Dead Load (DL) & Live Load (LL) Pressures due to Earth & Surcharge on Back Faces. = DpES.553 kN/m /m 2 11.LH&V PDLHSoilBot.951 kN/m /m iii) Factored Horizontal Loads on Back Wall for 1 (One) meter Wide Strip (Service Limit StateWSD): a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDLHSoilBotWSD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).035 kN/m /m 2 7.USD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).141 kN/m /m ii) Factored Horizontal Loads on Back Wall for 1 (One) meter Wide Strip (Strength Limit StateUSD): a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDLHSoilBot. 2 17. = k0*wE*hBackWall b) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). Thus to ensure the sustainability of Back Wall against the affect of Horizontal Loads & Forces (DL & LL) it should be Designed as a Cantilever Flexural Component. = gES*PDLHSur FPDLHSurWSD 2 17. In Construction Phenomenon execution Back Wall works are to be done a well ahead before the Construction of Super structural Components having the total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) upon it.902 kN/m /m FPLLHSurUSD 2 12. = gEH*PDLHSoilBot b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gES*PDLHSur c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gEH*PDLHSoilBot b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).935 kN/m /m PLLHSur 2 7. FPDLHSurUSD 2 25.000m. Under Horizontal Pressure (DL & LL) the Back Wall will behave as a Cantilever one. LH&V 1.000 m 8 Computation of Horizontal Loads on Back Wall due to Lateral Soil & Surcharge Pressure : i) Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Back Wall on 1 (One) meter Strip : a) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).035 kN/m /m PDLHSur 2 7.
k (+)cSVBWT (+)cSHBWT ()cSVBWT 3.350 m 2. b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall Horizontal Span Strip.00.076 .004 (+)cSVBWULL 0.355 kUnsupp.230 ii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Triangular Loadings on Back Walls : (Using Table53 of Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook UK.H/V 9.2.000 iii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Uniformly Loadings on Back Wall : (Using Table4.c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Back Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).000 0.000 0.000 0.003 ()cSHWWT 0.) a) Since k = 4. = mgLLLS*PLLHSurAb d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Abutment (Perpendicular to Traffic).500 a) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Back Wall Vertical Span Strip.G.3 & 4.056 (+)cSHBWUDL 0.141 kN/m /m FPHBWallWSD 2 32.355 > 3. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Back Wall for Horizontal Span Strip.230 .500 0. 4. d) () ve Moment Coefficient of Back Wall for Vertical Span Strip on Bottom Surface at Middle Position under Triangular Loading at Bottom e) () ve Moment Coefficient of Back Wall for Horizontal Span Strip on Faces of Sides.111 kN/m /m LBackWall hBaclWall kUnsupp. thus let Consider k = 0.4 of Book Design of Concrete Structures.V/H 0. thus let k = 3.000 b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Back Wall for Vertical Span.Winter) a) Since k = 0.147 m 4. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Back Wall Vertical Span k (+)cSVBWUDL 0. 9 Computation of Coefficients for Calculation of Moments on Back Walls : i) Span Ratio of Back Walls in respect of of Horizontal to Vertical Spans : a) Horizontal Span Length of Back Wall (Inner Distance) b) Vertical Height of Back Wall (From Back Wall Top upto Abutment Cap Top) c) Bach Wall Span Ratio for of Horizontal to Vertical with Unsupported on Top = LBackWall/hBackWall d) Bach Wall Span Ratio for of Vertical to Horizontal with Unsupported on Top = hBackWall/LBackWall FPLLHSurWSD 2 7.
005 ()cSVBWUDL+LL 0.162 kNm/m . e) () ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Back Wall Vertical Span Strip f) () ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Back Wall Horizontal Span Strip (+)cSHBWULL 0.072 kNm/m (+)MSVBWSurLLUSD 4.883 kNm/m ()MSVBWSurLLUSD 5.294 kNm/m ()MSVBWSurDLUSD 4.450 kNm/m ii) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVBWT*FPDLHSoilBot. d) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Back Wall Horizontal Span Strip.Strip.127 kNm/m ()MSVBWUSD 10.304 kNm/m iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHBWT*FPDLHSoilBotUSD*LBackWall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHBWUDL*FPDLHSurUSD*LBackWall2 (+)MSHBWTUSD kNm/m (+)MSHBWSurDLUSD 4.089 ()cSHBWUDL+LL 0.010 10 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Back Walls Under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVBWT*FPDLHSoilBotUSD*hBackWall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVBWUDL*FPDLHSurUSD*hBackWall2 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSVBWULL*FPLLHSurUSD*hBackWall2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSVBWTUSD kNm/m (+)MSVBWSurDLUSD 3.378 kNm/m (+)MSVBWUSD 7.USD*hBackWall2 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSVBWUDL+LL*FPDLHSurUSD*hBackWall2 c) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSVBWUDL+LL*FPLLHSurUSD*hBackWall2 d) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSVBWTUSD 0.
405 kNm/m ()MSHBWSurLLUSD 10.c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSHBWULL*FPLLHSurUSD*LBackWall2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSHBWSurLLUSD 4.381 kNm/m iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : .329 kNm/m 11 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Back Walls Under Service Limit State (WSD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVBWT*FPDLHSoilBotWSD*hBackWall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVBWUDL*FPDLHSurWSD*hBackWall2 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSVBWULL*FPLLHSurWSD*hBackWall2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSVBWTWSD kNm/m (+)MSVBWSurDLWSD 2.502 kNm/m (+)MSVBWWSD 4.048 kNm/m (+)MSVBWSurLLWSD 2.255 kNm/m ()MSVBWSurLLWSD 2.532 kNm/m iv) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Back Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHBWT*FPDLHSoilBotUSD*LBackWall2 b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHBWUDL+LL*FPDLHSurUSD*LBackWall2 c) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSHBWUDLLL*FPLLHSurUSD*LBackWall2 d) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSHBWTUSD kNm/m ()MSHBWSurDLUSD 10.930 kNm/m ()MSVBWWSD 6.550 kNm/m ii) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVBWT*FPDLHSoilBot.WSD*hBackWall2 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSVBWUDL+LL*FPDLHSurWSD*hBackWall2 c) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSVBWUDL+LL*FPLLHSurWSD*hBackWall2 d) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSVBWTWSD 0.925 kNm/m ()MSHBWUSD 21.196 kNm/m ()MSVBWSurDLWSD 3.370 kNm/m (+)MSHBWUSD 8.
255 kNm/m ()MSVBWUF 3.048 kNm/m ii) Calculation of () ve Moments on BackWall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored dead Loads : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVBWT*PDLHSoilBot*hBackWall2 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSVBWUDL+LL*PDLHSurBW*hBackWall2 c) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads ()MSVBWTUF 0.497 kNm/m (+)MSHBWWSD 5.a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHBWT*FPDLHSoilBotWSD*LBackWall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHBWUDL*FPDLHSurWSD*LBackWall2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSHBWULL*FPLLHSurWSD*LBackWall2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSHBWTWSD  kNm/m (+)MSHBWSurDLWSD 2.243 kNm/m ()MSHBWWSD 13.*hBackWall2 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MSVBWTUF kNm/m (+)MSVBWSurDLUF 2.196 kNm/m ()MSVBWSurDLUF 3.272 kNm/m iv) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Back Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHBWT*FPDLHSoilBotWSD*LBackWall2 b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHBWUDL+LL*FPDLHSurUSD*LBackWall2 c) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSHBWUDLLL*FPLLHSurWSD*LBackWall2 d) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSHBWTWSD kNm/m ()MSHBWSurDLWSD 6.048 kNm/m (+)MSVBWUF 2.775 kNm/m (+)MSHBWSurLLWSD 2.451 kNm/m .179 kNm/m 11 Calculation of Unfactored Moments due to Horizontal Dead Loads on Back Walls : i) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Back Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVBWT*PDLHSoilBot*hBackWall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVBWUDL*PDLHSurBot.937 kNm/m ()MSHBWSurLLWSD 6.
405 kNm/m ()MSHBWUF 10.230 .814 kN/m 26.5 of Book Design of Concrete Structures.Winter) a) Since k = 0.339 kN/m VSHBWUSD 53.405 kNm/m cShearHBW 0.330 ()MSHWBTUF kNm/m ()MSHBWSurDLUF 10.000m Wide Strip on its FPH&VBWUSD Bottom Level = (0. thus let Consider k = 0.670 ii) Shearing Froces on Back Walls Vertical & Horizontal Faces Under Strength Limit State (USD): a) Total Factored Horizontal Load on Back Wall for 1.475 kN/m 12 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Vertical & Horizontal Reinforcements of Back Wall : i) Design Strip Width for Back Wall in Vertical & Horizontal Direction & Clear Cover on different Faces.G.iii) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on BackWall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHBWT*PDLHSoilBot.775 kNm/m (+)MSHBWUF 2.500 0. .*LBackWall2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHBWUDL*PDLHSurBW*LBackWall2 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MSHBWTUF kNm/m (+)MSHAbSurDLUF 2.775 kNm/m iv) Calculation of () ve Moments on BackWall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHBWT*PDLHSoilBot*LBackWall2 b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHBWUDL+LL*PDLHSurBW*LBackWall2 c) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads 12 Computation of Factored Horizontal Shearing Forces on Back Walls : i) Coefficients for Calculation of Shearing Froces on Back Walls Vertical & Horizontal Faces : (Using Table4.5*FPDLHSoilBotUSD + FPDLHSurBWUSD + FPDLHSurBWUSD)*hBackWall*LH&V b) Shearing Forces on Back Wall on its Bottom Level for Vertical Span Strip = cShearVBW*FPH&VBWUSD d) Shearing Forces on Back Wall on its Bottom Level for Horizontal Span Strip on Vertical Faces = cShearHBW*FPH&VBWUSD VSVBWUSD 79.500 b) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Vetical Span Strip having Shearing Forces Bottom Edge of Back Wall c) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Horizontal Span Strip having Shearing Forces on Back Wall Vertical Faces k cShearVBW 0.
4.000 m 50. CCovOpen 1.1) : .Mdnc(Sc/Snc 1) Scfr where.3.11. = 50mm.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm.2*Mcr or 1.Earth. a Section c/de 0. iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement.420 Variable Variable As Aps fy fps dp ds Variable Variable 410.Open = 50mm. i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy).4. (AASHTOLRFD5. which one is less.000 mm mm ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement. b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm.42 in which.000 38.3. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/deMax.1Table3. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm. Here. CCov. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) .00 Variable Variable Variable mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3. where . b CCovEarth. fps & dp are = 0. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section Mcr fcpe Variable Nmm N/mm2 Mdnc Variable Nmm Sc Variable mm3 .2Mcr.3.3.2) : c de 0. Let the Clear Cover on Open Face of Abutment Wall. (AASHTOLRFD5. i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa.7. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps.a) Let Consider the Design Width in both Vertical & Horizontal directions are = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of CCov.7.
305 43.966 51. b) Max.6).304 kNm/m .pmax according to AASHTO19968. (Here f = 0.305 43.304 8.966 51.(AASHTO LRFD5.pb & Max.2.405 43. c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements.704 11. Moment Moment for RCC Mu 1.887 N/mm 43305340.451 2.305 43.966 10. 0.3.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) (1.33*M) kNm 9. Factored Moment (1.305 kNm Variable Variable Variable Nmm Nmm Nmm Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 g) Table1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.000/10^3 m 3 15.048 43.16.3. Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0.909 Mr Maximum Allowable Flexural Min.305 51. Steel Ratio.4. = f *pb .305 43.305 43.966 2.2 Times & Nature Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking on Moment Equation Value Moment Moment Back MDLUF 5.2Mcr (M Mr) kNm kNm 51.966 iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tBackWall.966 51. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.450 1.329 13.000*10^6 mm fr Mcr 2 2.33 Times of M.347 28.317 Nmm 43.305 43.966 51.843/(599. pmax.843 + fy))). thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.305 43.305 43.305 43.966 51. pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.022 pmax.532 21.016 13 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Earth Face of Back Wall against the () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural () ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of Back Wall ()MSVBWUSD 10.7.2.015 m 3 15.3/12)/(tBackWall./2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa.775 10.2*Mcr) Wall kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm (+)ve Strip Vertical ()ve Strip Vertical (+)ve Strip Horizontal ()ve Strip Horizontal 3.75) pb 0.368 51.305 51.966 M Factored Moment of Section M kNm 7.where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.966 51. Steel Ratio.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section.966 51.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Snc 3 0.305 43.966 51.
Asreq.000 mm 2 113.036 125. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 12f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall b) XSectional of 12f Bars = p*DBWEarthV2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face.238 mm AsreqBWEarthV.C/C = Af162. DBWEarthV.665 mm . c Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro OK OK 0. depro. where. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section./2) d) With Design Moment MU .1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 12f bars having Spacing 150mm.C/C AsproBWEarthV.(1 . ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) Mr 10.000 mm areq. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.097 mm 244.7. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. Af12. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars for the Section spro = 125mm.1. 592. dpro = (tBackWallCCovEarth. 12.7. 12.450 17.Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Steel Ratio rMax. = Aspro*fy(d .966*10^6 Nmm/m MU DBWEarthV.779 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.021 191.966*10^6 Nmm/m 51.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars = Af12b/AsreqBWEarthV.42. b) Since ()MSVBWUSD> Mr. In Flexural Design c/de 0. the required value of a = dpro*(1 . = MU/(ffy(dpro .304*10^6 Nmm/m 51. c/deMax.659 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.966 kNm/m 51. sreq spro.3. e) Status of Provided Steel Ration rpro in respect of Allowable Max.3.966 kNm/m 51.3. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against () ve Moment value.782 mm 86.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Calculated Design Moment MU.000 mm2/m mm.3.004 20. 904.C/C mm. For () ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Back Wall.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max.
31.. Where.72h in mm.2.9de or 0.Thus value 0. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Back Wall on its Vertical Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ. 219. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio of c/de = 0.8. In which.3. 5.85 0.5. Vc Vs .31).= VU VU. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.90 N VnBWBot 709.3.083bf/cbvdv.600 0. which one is greater. dv.having c = b1apro.Here. or Not) c/depro<c/demax.8.72h for the Section. v) Checking Against Max. thus Vp = 0.072 OK n) Relation between c/deMax.8.339*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.000.9*de for the Section.32.8. or bv.339 kN/m 26. (AASHTOLRFD.72h f Vp.968*10^3 N/m N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.968 kN/m 709.968 kN/m 709. the Design Strip Width.072 b1 c/depro 0.33) in which.9)..3.fVp)/fbvdv. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5. value of 0. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. VMax = VSVAbUSD. is Whereas. Thus Maximum Shear Force.8. here bv = b. vu = (VU . de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tBackWall Depth of Well Cap. 0.8. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.152.968*10^3 N/m 1.000 mm 219. in mm. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.3. Shear Force on Back Wall in Vetrical Strip at Bottom Level.600 mm 216. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure.3. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.5. (AASSHTOLRFD5.Equ.968*10^3 N/m 709.968 kN/m 709.900*10^3 N/m 709. 5. 1.9*de.000 mm 0. 26.900 kN/m 1152. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.
thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall is OK.ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5. the Back Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement.7.659*10^6 Nmm 10.) b 2. Steel Ratio.7.3. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) Mr>Msvbwusd Satisfied vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.  N d) Relation between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.90 Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. .659 Nmm 86. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. AASHTO8. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.993*10^6 kNm 86. Moments at its Bottom will have value of Nominal Resistance.3 have Satisfied or Not).659 kNm 86.6. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.4.304*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater. Where.000 m Wide Strips.00. Vp = 0. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment M at Bottom of assumed Cantilever Beam in Vertcal on Earth Face = ()MSVBWUSD ()MSVBWUSD 86.000 Vp.7.304 kNm 10. where.993 Nmm 77.3.1.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.8. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.7.3. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.3. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.2.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. Mr = fMn.4. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. (AASHTOLRFD5.16.8. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Back Wall in Vertical Direction is being considered as a Cantilever MnVBW Beam having 1. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.3. Mr 77. (For RCC Structure Elements.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.659*10^6 kNm 0. of Concrete Elements.3.
DBar = 12f . The Max. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea. dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth.6fy. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. = fsDev. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. Clear Cover = 50mm.434 N/mm dc 56.< fs Satisfy . & Allowable Tensile Stress fs ZDev. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall. Clear Cover = 50mm. value of ZMax.000.000 mm ZMax. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev. 2.381*10^6 Nmm 2 904.000 mm fsa 2 249. in Which. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.6*fy 2 246.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.000.779 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. e) Based on fsDve. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. 2 28. 23. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev.b) fsDev.210 N/mm fsDev.000 mm A 2 14.000 N/mm 0. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. In a Component of Rectangular Section.904 N/mm ()MSVBWWSD 6. CCovEarth = 50mm & Bar Dia. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. Aspro de 244. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. thus dc = (12/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar.665. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Back Wall Structure. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.381 kNm 6.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar.6*fy for the Concrete Element.
021 191./2) d) With Design Moment MU . For (+)ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Open Face of Back Wall. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement.000 mm areq. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars for the Section spro = 125mm. 12 mm MU 7. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Back Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. < ZMax. dpro = (tBackWall.CCovOpen.097 mm 244. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.b/spro DBWOpenV. Crack Width Parameter. & Developed value ZDev. b) XSectional of 12f Bars = p*DBWOpenV2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face. the required value of a = dpro*(1 .036 mm2/m mm. b) Since (+)MSVBWUSD< Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+)ve Moment value.g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. value of ZMax.966*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m 51.C/C = Af12. Allowable Max. Asreq. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 12f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Open Face of Back Wall. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro. 904.238 mm AsreqBWOpenV.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. 592.6fy .450*10^6 51. Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Back Wall fsDev. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars = Af12b/AsreqBWOpenV. DBWOpenV.779 mm2/m . depro. 14 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Open Face of Back Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of Back (+)MSVBWUSD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.6fy Not Satisfy Zdev.450 7.< Zmax.966*10^6 Nmm/m Af12.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 12f bars having Spacing 150mm.966 51.C/C 125 mm. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm.< fs Allowable Tensile Stress.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. fsa > 0.(1 . sreq spro. 2 113. = MU/(ffy(dpro . 12.C/C AsproBWOpenV.966 kNm/m 51.
In Flexural Design c/de 0. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. DBWEarthH.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Designed Moment MU.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Open Face of Back Wall. c 0.966*10^6 Nmm/m .659 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.966 kNm/m 51. in mm.072 OK q) Relation between c/deMax. = Aspro*fy(d .7.85 0.329*10^6 51. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.966*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m 51.7. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio of c/de = 0. 12 mm MU 21. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) ppro apro Mpro 0.004 20.072 Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK c/deMax.782 mm 86. For ()ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Back Wall.1.3.3. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against ()ve Moment value. iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall against Max.966 51.3.450 17.iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section.665 mm b1 c/depro 0. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 12f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Back Wall.329 21. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. having c = b1apro. b) Since ()MSHBWUSD < Mr.3. or Not) c/depro<c/demax.42. Steel Ratio rMax. where. 15 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Back Wall against the () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural () ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of Back ()MSHBWUSD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.
318 mm 69.063 Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK c/deMax.3.7.42. 2 113. where. depro.CCovEarth.003 17. ./2) d) With Design Moment MU . . c 0. dpro = (tBackWall.063 OK n) Relation between c/deMax. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.DBWEarthH.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section.908 mm AsreqBWEarthH.721 mm b1 c/depro 0.85 0.042 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) Af12.(1 . or Not) c/depro<c/demax.C/C = Af12. Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro . & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. the required value of a = dpro*(1 .apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Designed Moment MU.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max.000 mm areq. = Aspro*fy(d . sreq spro.3.450 14. v) Checking Against Max.7.C/C 150 mm.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af12b/AsreqBWEarthH. In Flexural Design c/de 0.3. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio of c/de = 0. Shear Force on Back Wall in Horizontal Strip at Bottom Level.b) XSectional of 12f Bars = p*DBWEarthH2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face. in mm. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars for the Section spro = 150mm. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. 624. 12.3.130 mm2/m mm.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 12f bars having Spacing 150mm.1.097 mm 232.397 181. 753. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. having c = b1apro.C/C AsproBWEarthH. Steel Ratio rMax.DBWEarthV. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section.982 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.
31).475 kN/m 53.fVp)/fbvdv. or bv.000 kN/m 1134.8.72h in mm.72h f Vp.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.9*de for the Section.8. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.16. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tBackWall Depth of Well Cap. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure.800 mm 216.000 kN/m 1134. 5. (For RCC Structure Elements. thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement.083bf/cbvdv. Where.2.31.8.32.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.9).128 kN/m 1643.8.475*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. the Design Strip Width.8.Equ. vu = (VU . biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.3. (AASSHTOLRFD5.000. Vp = 0.8.72h for the Section. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section. AASHTO8. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.6.9de or 0.9*de.5.a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Back Wall on its Horizontal Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.1.000 0.8.  N d) Relation between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. Thus Maximum Shear Force.3 have Satisfied or Not). c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5..000 mm 216.000 Vp.3. 5.3.4.3.) Vc Vs b 2.000 mm 0. 53.643. VMax = VSHBW.. 0. value of 0. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. which one is greater.00.= VU VU.000*10^3 N/m 1.128 kN/m 1643. 1. In which.3. 208.128*10^3 N/m N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0. thus Vp = 0.Thus value 0. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.000*10^3 N/m 1. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.134. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.33) in which.5. (AASHTOLRFD.3. .3.90 N VnBWH 1.Here. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0. is Whereas.128*10^3 N/m 1.134.8. here bv = b. dv.643.
(AASHTOLRFD5.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition. the Back Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.90 Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Fixed Ends of assumed Rectangular Beam in Horizontal on Earth Face = ()MSHBWUSD ()MSHBWUSD 69.f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.2.000 m Wide Strips. 2 75. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which. Mr 62.7.982 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. Mr = fMn.138 Nmm 62.042*10^6 Nmm 21. thus Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face ofBack Wall is OK. vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Back Wall in Horizontal Direction is being considered as Fixed End MnHBW Beam having 1. Steel Ratio.3. where.7.329*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Mshbwusd Satisfied Factored Moment M at Bottom of Vertical Span Strip ( Which one is Greater. The Steel Area against Factored Max.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) .3. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.343 N/mm ()MSHBWWSD 13.3.138*10^6 kNm 69. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.4.3.042 Nmm 69. of Concrete Elements. Aspro de 232. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied).042 kNm 69. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. Where. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.179 kNm 13.329 kNm 21.000 mm .7.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.179*10^6 Nmm 2 753.7. Moments at its Fixed Ends will have value of Nominal Resistance. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. b) fsDev.042*10^6 kNm 0.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements.
which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar.6*fy 2 246. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.000 mm ZMax.000. Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Back Wall. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max.< fs fsa< 0. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth. 7. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. & Developed value ZDev.6fy. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. value of ZMax. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Horizontal on Back Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Structure. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev.< Zmax. DBar = 16f . & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.382. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. Crack Width Parameter. in Which. . value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev.6fy Satisfy Satisfy Zdev. = fsDev. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. Allowable Max. ZDev. Clear Cover = 50mm.546 N/mm fsDev.000 mm A 2 16.In Backt Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. fsa 2 234.726 N/mm dc 56. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. fsDev. CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia.6fy . thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. e) Based on fsDve.< fs Allowable Tensile Stress.6*fy for the Concrete Element.800. 23. < ZMax. In a Component of Rectangular Section. The Max. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.000 N/mm 0. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Wall.c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. value of ZMax. Clear Cover = 50mm. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev.
b) Since (+)MSHBWUSD< Mr. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro OK OK . = MU/(ffy(dpro . dpro = (tBackWall. 592. 12 mm Af12./2) d) With Design Moment MU . DBWOpenV .003 17. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+)ve Moment value. Asreq. = Aspro*fy(d . m) Status of Provided Steel Ration rpro in respect of Allowable Max.000 mm areq.036 mm2/m mm.apro/2)/10^6 l) Status of Provided Resisting Moment Mpro in respect of Designed Moment MU.966 51.966*10^6 Nmm/m DBWOpenH. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 12f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Open Face of Back Wall.966*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m MU 51. Steel Ratio rMax. 753.752 kNm/m k) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area. b) XSectional of 12f Bars = p*DAbOpenV2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Open Face.DBWOpenH.532 8.318 mm 72.097 mm 244. the required value of a = dpro*(1 . depro. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) 8. 2 113.238 mm AsreqBWOpenH.C/C = Af12. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU.C/C AsproBWOpenH.532*10^6 51.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. sreq spro.16 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Open Face of Back Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of Back (+)MSHBWUSD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars = Af12b/AsreqBWOpenH.b/spro i) Steel Ratio for the Section. 12.982 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 12f bars having Spacing 150mm.966 kNm/m 51. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 12f bars for the Section spro = 150mm.021 191. For (+)ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Open Face of Back Wall.(1 .C/C 150 mm.CCovOpen.
iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Back Wall Earth Face against Max. or Not) c/deMax.063 q) Relation between c/deMax. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.450 14. In Flexural Design c/de 0.3. in mm.060 OK c/depro<c/demax. . Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Open Face of Back Wall.3.42. where.85 0.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0. c 0.1.3.7.3. having c = b1apro.721 mm b1 c/depro 0.7.
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LGir. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Carriageway Width Width of Side Walk on Each Side Width of Curb/Wheel Guard Width of Railing Curb/Post Guard Total Width of Bridge Deck Width & Depth of Railings Width & Breath of Railing Post Height of Railing Post Height of Wheel Guard/Curb Number of Railings on each Side C/C distance between Railing Posts Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders 1200 Notation. hRPost.000 2.400 0. tWC NGirder. RW&D.000 m m m m m m m m m m m m nos m m m nos nos 600 2147 350 350 .000 5.K.075 5.000 7.350m 400 150 200 10250 250 2 Structural Data : Description i) Dimentions of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.070 0. WCurb. tSlab. hCurb. WBDeck.350 0.000 0.175 0. WRPost. 700 450 450 3047 600 2147 675 2000 2000 2000 2000 675 450 300 L1 = 9. Unit. NXGirder.Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line.225 10. 24.200 0.300 25. Value.300 1. PW&B.250 0.300 3. WSWalk.250 0. Structural Design of Abutment Cap (Girder Seat) for Bridge: 300 2147 1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment Cap. Rnos. C/CDRPost.225 1. SL SAddl. WCarrWay.
s) t) u) v) w) Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance between Main Girders & Flange Width hGirder.000 10.000 m m m m m ii) Dimentions of Abutment Cap & Back Wall : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) Height of Back Wall Thickness of Back Wall Thickness of Wing Wall Length of Back Wall between the Wing Walls Length of Abutment Cap between outer Faces of Wing Walls Height of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion (Abutment Seat) Height of Abutment Cap Trapezoid Portion (Abutment Seat) Width of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion (Abutment Seat) Width of Abutment Cap Trapezoid Portion at Bottom(Abutment Seat) Offset of Trapezoid Portion on Earth Face Offset of Trapezoid Portion on Water Face Span Length between Two Adjacent Bearings Span Length between Exterior Bearing Center to Edge of Abutment Wall hBackWall tBackWall tWingWall LBackWall LAbCap hAbCapRec hAbCapTro.500 2. 2.350 2. bXGirder.450 9. LExtAbCap 2. 3 vi) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.000 0. bOffsetEarth.250 0.150 2. wWaterSali.000 23.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor. LIntAbCap.000 10.300 1. C/CDGirder.232 2.400 0. b) Type of Loads : Combined Application of AASHTO HS20 Truck Loading & Lane Loading.019. g = 2 9.900 0. bGirder.680 1. gWSali. gs 2.350 10.000 1.600 0.147 0.045.447.250 18.300 0.450 0. bOffsetWater. hXGirder.345.172 1.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 vii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWaterNor. bAbCapRec bAbCapTroBot.264 1.000 1.835.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 . wEatrh 24.125 m m m m m m m m m m m m m 2 Design Data : i) Design Criterion : a) AASHTO Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).
fAncCopmConc.3.00 0.7.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.5.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.63*21^(1/2). fBearig.80 1.2.2. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.00 0.2.85 x) Other Design Related Data : a) Velocity of Wind Load in Normal Condition b) Velocity of Wind Load in Special Condition c) Velocity of Water/Stream Current Causing Water/Stream Load 3 Factors Applicable for Design of Different Structural Components : i) Formula for Load Factors & Selection of Load Combination : a) Formula for Load Factors Q = Σ ηigiQi f Rn = Rr.000 MPa 200000. (ASSHTO LRFD1. & ηi = 1/(ηD ηR ηI ) 1. fSpir/Tie/Seim.85 0.95 in which for Loads a Maximum value of gi Applicable.70 0.4.00 1. VWLSpe.400 23.70 0.4). Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21. b1 b 0.4.000 8. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0. fPileResistanc.viii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.3. d) Poisson's Ration = 0. Ec = 0.000 260.2. fr = 0.4. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.3. fShear.200 km/hr km/hr m/s . : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4). ηi is Load Modifier having values ηi = ηD ηR ηI 0.855.2.4. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0. (ASSHTO LRFD1.11) Where.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410.000 MPa ix) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD5..2.50)*21^(1/2) Mpa.2.000 4. fAncTenSteel.1).043gc1.13) VWLNor.5).40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement. f) Steel Ultimate strength.2.11 & 3.75 0.887 fr fy fs ES 2.90 1.4.043*24^(1. (ASSHTO LRFD1.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlxRin.2.00 in which for Loads a Minimum value of gi Allpicable. fFlxPres. VWA 90.90 0.50f/c = 0.6).12). fStrut&Tie. (AASHTO LRFD5. For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in StrutandTie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD5.620 2.000 MPa 164.63f/c = 0.
000 4 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr). value of Table 3. (Max. (Max.12) gDC 1.DW . Limit State of STRENGTHIII (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTHIV (Having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. f = Resistance Factor.4. For Strength Limit State. value of Table 3. a Factor related to Ductility. ηi = ηR = 1.250 gDW 1.750 .12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .000 1.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.4. Rn = Nominal Resitance.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.1. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation. ηD ηi = ηD = 1.4. Redundancy and Operational Functions.4. ηi = ηI = 1.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.6.00 for Typical Bridges related to Operational Functions.000 1. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls.1. Table 3. (Max.500 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.00 for Conventional Levels of Redundancy . Ri = Factored Resitance = fRn.4.500 gEV 1. a statistically based multiplier Applied to Force Effect.1. but those would be occasional. m 1. Qi = Force Effect.000 gLLTruck 1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck . a statistically based multiplier Applied to Nominal Resitance.4.Here: gi = Load Factor. value of Table 3. Table 3.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV . ηi = Load Modifier. (Max. i) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. value of Table 3.1.4. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. ηR ηl 1.500 gEH 1.350 gES 1.00 for Conventional Design related to Ductility.4.4. value of Table 3.
gLLCE.6. 1.2.000 gLLSE.000 gLLTG.1.6. gLLLS. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLCV.750 1.000 1.4.2. 1.11. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1. gLLWS.11&2 : . q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV STRENGTH .750 1.000 gLLEQ. 1. 1.750 1. gLLWA. Table 3.750 1. gLLBR.330 gLLLane gLLPL. 1.III STRENGTH .c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. gLLTU.V IM 1. 1.750 1. Table 3. gLLCT.400 1. gLLWL gLLFR.000 5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).1 . f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR .000 gLLCR. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1.4. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.000 gLLSH.
6. gLLWS.4.a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.4.4. (Max. c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load AllowanceIM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD3. (Max. (Max.1. Table 3.4. gLLWA.000 1.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES . 1.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.12) gDC 1. (Max.IV SERVICE .000 gLLTruck IM 1.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR SERVICE .12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.000 0. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.II SERVICE . value of Table 3. gLLLS.300 1. value of Table 3.000 .1. value of Table 3. value of Table 3.1.300 1.I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.000 gEH 1.000 1. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking ForceBR .000 1.000 gEV 1.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (AASHTO LRFD3.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .DW .4.6.000 gLLLane gLLPL.700 1.II m 1. gLLBR.2. gLLWL gLLFR.300 1.6.II SERVICE . gLLCE.11.1.000 gDW 1.2. SERVICE .4. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.4. Table 3.000 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.000 gES 1.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . value of Table 3.
Exterior Girder DLExtSelf & SupImp.598 kN .000 gLLCR. 1.000 gLLTG. Self Weight of Abutment Cap & Back Wall. Exteriod Girder : ii) Unfactored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. gLLCV.000 gLLSE. Exteriod Girder : a) Superstructural Dead Load without Wearing Course & Utilities b) Wearing Course & Utilities c) Total Dead Load for 1 no. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1.UF DLExtWC&UtiUF DLExtTotalUF 450. c) Accordingly the Abutment Cap will be Designed as a Continuous Beam Having Uniformly Distributed Load upon it. gLLCT. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). b) Loads from Superstructure (DL & LL) will act upon Abutment Cap through the Girder Bearings as Concentrated Reactions. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 6 Computation of Imposed Load (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap : gLLTU.031 kN 490. Thus eacg Girder will have enhance Reaction Values according their Position in respect of Calculated Uniformely Distributed Load Reaction upon the Abutment Wall. 1.000 gLLSH. ii) Unfactored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no.566 kN 40. 1. These total Loads (DL & LL)will ultimately transmit to the Abutment Wall & those will behave as an Uniformly Distributed Upward Reaction against the Imposed Downward Loads (DL & LL) from Superstructure.l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1. 1. thus computation of these Loads should done accordingly. Based on the mentioned assumptions of Uniformly Distributed Laod Reactions. Abutment Cap will be a Inverted Continuous Rectangular Beam having Girders as Reaction/Supports.000 gLLEQ. The Abutment Cap will also have to carry Dead Loads (DL) due to its Self Weight & Back Wall.000 i) Philosophy of Flexural Design & Computation of different Loads (DL & LL) upon Well Cap: a) Since the Abutment Cap will have to receive all Vertical Loads both from Live Load Elements & Dead Loads from the Superstructure and its Self Weight. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).
USD 563.000 kN 0. Interiod Girder : a) Live Load due to HS2044 Truck on Interior Girder.UF LLExtPed.IMUF 0. Exteriod Girder under Strength Limit State Design (USD): a) Self Weight & Superimposed but without Wearing Course & Utilities = gDC*DLExtSelf & SupImp.WC&UtiUF DLInt.UF LLExt. d) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck e) Live Load due to Pedistrian on Exterior Girder f) Total Live Load for 1 no.UF DLInt. Interiod Girder : a) Superstructural Dead Load without Wearing Course & Utilities b) Wearing Course & Utilities c) Total Dead Load for 1 no. Interior Girder with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Strength Limit State.TotalUF 358.544 kN 109.188 kN 56. Exteriod Girder : a) Live Load due to HS2044 Truck on Exterior Girder. c) Truck Live Load with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Service Limit State = IM*LLExtTruck. Exterior Girder with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Strength Limit State. b) Truck Live Load with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Strength Limit State = IM*LLExtTruck. c) Truck Live Load with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Service Limit State = IM*LLExtTruck.UF LLIntTruck+IMUF 0.208 kN FDLExtWC&UtiUSD 60.TotalUF 25.500 kN vi) Factored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no.221 kN LLSIntTruck.000 kN LLIntLane. b) Wearing Course & Utilities = gDW*DLExtWC&Uti FDLExtSelf & SupImp. Interior Girder iv) Unfactored Live Load Reactions from 1 no.TotalUF 77.544 kN LLExtLane. LLIntTruck.047 kN .000 kN LLExtTruck.784 kN DLIntSelf & SupImp.UF LLExtTruck+IMUF 82.IMUF 82.125 kN 401. v) Unfactored Live Load Reactions from 1 no.iii) Unfactored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. b) Truck Live Load with Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) under Strength Limit State = IM*LLIntTruck.500 kN 77.507 kN LLSExtTruck.UF LLInt.250 kN 191.382 kN 43. d) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck e) Total Leve Load for 1 no.
382 kN . c) Total Factored ((USD) Leve Load (LL)for 1 no.USD 98.638 kN ix) Factored Live Load Reactions from 1 no.+IMUSD 0. d) Total Factored (USD) Leve Load (LL) for 1 no. c) Live Load due to Pedistrian on Exterior Girder = mgLLPL.USD 447.665 kN viii) Factored Live Load Reactions from 1 no.031 kN FDLExtTotalWSD 490. = m*IM*gLLTruck*LLIntTruck+IM. Exterior Girder FDLExtTotalUSD 623.USD 192.000 kN FLLIntLane.c) Total Factored Factored (USD) Dead Load (DL) for 1 no.TotalUSD 135.USD 44.TotalUSD 512.USD 135. = m*IM*gLLTruck*LLExtTruck+IM.WSD 450. Interior Girder FLLIntTruck. b) Wearing Course & Utilities = gDW*DLIntWC&Uti c) Total Factored Dead Load (DL) for 1 no.977 kN FDLInt.688 kN FDLInt.566 kN FDLExtWC&UtiWSD 40.078 kN FLLExtPed. Exteriod Girder under Strength Limit State Design (USD) : a) Live Load due to HS2044 Truck on Exterior Girder + IM. Exteriod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD): a) Self Weight & Superimposed but without Wearing Course & Utilities = gDC*DLExtSelf & SupImp.TotalUSD 334. b) Wearing Course & Utilities = gDW*DLExtWC&Uti c) Total Factored (WSD) Dead Load (DL) for 1 no. b) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck = mgLLLane*LLIntLane.WSD 358. Interiod Girder under Strength Limit State Design (USD) : a) Live Load due to HS2044 Truck on Interior Girder.*LLExtPed.598 kN xi) Factored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Interiod Girder under Strength Limit State Design (USD) : a) Self Weight & Superimposed but without Wearing Course & Utilities = gDC*DLIntSelf & SupImp.625 kN FLLInt.438 kN FLLExt.122 kN FLLExtLane.625 kN x) Factored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Exterior Girder FDLExtSelf & SupImp. Interiod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD) : a) Self Weight & Superimposed but without Wearing Course & FDLIntSelf & SupImp. Interior Girder FDLIntSelf & SupImp. b) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck = mgLLLane*LLExtLane.WC&UtiUSD 64.255 kN vii) Factored Dead Load Reactions from 1 no. Exterior Girder FLLExtTruck+IM.
USD 37. Interiod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD) : a) Live Load due to HS2044 Truck on Interior Girder.*LLExtPed. Interiod Girder under Strength Limit .Cap. = m*IM*gLLTruck*LLExtTruck b) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck = mgLLLane*LLExtLane.507 kN xii) Factored Live Load Reactions from 1 no.TotalWSD 401. d) Total Factored Dead Load due to Back Wall & Abutment Cap under Strength Limit State Design (USD) = gDC*(DLBack+Ab.+IM 0. c) Total Factored (WSD) Leve Load (LL)for 1 no.Cap.188 kN FLLExtPed. c) Live Load due to Pedistrian on Exterior Girder = mgLLPL. 29.Cap.250 kN FLLExt.125 kN FDLInt.WSD 25.TotalWSD 163. Exterior & 1 no.000 kN FLLSIntLane. = tBackWall*hBackWall*wc b) Dead Load due to Self Weight of Abutment Cap Rectangular Portion = bAbCapRec*hAbCapRec.400 kN/m DLBack+Ab.858 kN/m xx) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no.WSD 56. Exterior Girder FLLExtTruck+IM.858 kN/m FDLBack+Ab.TotalWSD 77.Utilities = gDC*DLIntSelf & SupImp.500 kN FLLInt.) : a) Dead Load due to Back Wall.982 kN xiii) Factored Live Load Reactions from 1 no. d) Total Factored (WSD) Leve Load (LL) for 1 no.544 kN FLLExtLane. b) Wearing Course & Utilities = gDW*DLIntWC&Uti c) Total Factored (WSD) Dead Load (DL) for 1 no.*wc c) Total Unfactored Uniformly Distributed Load per meter on Abutment Wall due to Back Wall & Abutment Cap.CapRec. = m*IM*gLLTruck*LLIntTruck b) Live Load due to Lane Load on Deck = mgLLLane*LLIntLane.323 kN/m FDLBack+Ab. Interior Girder FLLSIntTruck.Cap) DLBackWall DLAb. Exteriod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD) : a) Live Load due to HS2044 Truck on Exterior Girder + IM.500 kN xix) Loads due to Self Weight of Back Wall & Abutment Cap on Abutment Wall for per Meter Length (Considering Weight of Back Wall & Abutment Cap is Acting as Uniformly Distributed Loads. Interior Girder FDLInt. 15.WSD 82.WC&UtiWSD 43.458 kN/m 14.WSD 29.Cap) e) Total Factored Dead Load due to Back Wall & Abutment Cap under Service Limit State Design (WSD) = gDC*(DLBack+Ab. 77.
Int 648.00 m hBackWall = 2.892 kN 1.600 m 0.Total(DL+LL)WSD 654. Exterior & 1 no. Exterior Girder = FDLExtTotalUSD + FLLExt.Total(DL+LL)WSD 565. Interior Girder = FDLIntTotalUSD + FLLInt.29 kN 2. Interiod Girder under Service Limit State Design (WSD) : a) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no.TotalUSD b) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no.State Design (USD) : a) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no.= 37.Ext 957. Interior Girder = FDLIntTotalWSD + FLLInt.125 m 450 450 kN 2. Abutment Cap & Back Wall Under Strength Limit State (USD) : RGir.892 kN FLInt.Ext.579 kN FLInt.00 m RGir.489 kN 6 Sketch Diagram of Actual Imposed Factored Loads (DL & LL) from Girder.Total(DL+LL)USD 648.250 m Load from Superstructure 350 350 2147 3047 2747 A D 400 450 150 300 B C 600 7 Computation of Unfactored Uniformly Distributed Dead Loads for Abutment Cap and Resultant Reactions on Girder Points : .TotalWSD b) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no.892 RGir.29 kN 2 m RGir.290 kN xxi) Total Factored Load Reactions (DL + LL) from 1 no.Int 648. Of Aburment Cap + Back Wall hAbCapRecl = hAbCapTro = 0.TotalWSD FLExt.323 kN/m LAbCap = 300 700 10.300 m FDLBack+Ab.Total(DL+LL)USD 957. 957.Int 648.Cap.125 m Self Wt.TotalUSD FLExt.289844 kN 2 m RGir. Exterior Girder = FDLExtTotalWSD + FLLExt.147 m 1.
i) Computation of Uniformity Distributed Dead Loads upon Abutment Cap : a) Unfactored Imposed Dead Loads (DL) from 2nos. Exterior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 2*DLExt.TotalUF b) Unfactored Imposed Dead Loads (DL) from 3nos. Interior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 3*DLInt.TotalUF c) Total Unfactored Dead Loads (DL) upon Abutment Cap from Superstructure = (UFLExt.Gir, + UFLInt.Gir.) UFDLExt.Gir. 981.195 kN
UFDLInt.Gir.
1204.521 kN
UFDLSuper.
2185.716 kN
d) Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Loads (DL) upon Abutment Cap for wDLSuper.UF its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders = UFDLSuper,/ LAbCap. e) Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Loads (DL) upon Abutment Cap for its Self Weight & Back Wall = DLBack+Ab.Cap. wDLBack+Ab.Cap.UF
213.241 kN/m
29.858 kN/m
f) Total Uniformly Distributed Unfactored Dead Loads (DL) upon Abutment wDLAbCap.UF Cap for its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders, its Self Weight & Back Wall = (wDLSuper,UF + wDLBack+Ab.CapUF.) ii) Resultant Reaction on Girders against Computed of Uniformity Distributed Dead Loads : a) Reaction on Each Exterior Girder = wDLAbCap.*(LExtAbCap + LIntAbCap./2) b) Reaction on Each Interior Girder = wDLAbCap.*LIntAbCap. RDLExt RDLInt
243.099 kN/m
516.585 kN 486.198 kN
8 Computation of Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) on Abutment Cap & Resultant Reactions for the Girder Points Under Strength Limit State (USD) : i) Computation of Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap : a) Factored Imosed Loads (DL & LL)from 2nos. Exterior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 2*(FDLExt.TotalUSD + FLLExt.TotalUSD) b) Factored Imosed Loads (DL & LL)from 3nos. Interior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 3*(FDLInt.TotalUSD + FLLInt.TotalUSD) c) Total Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap from Superstructure = (FLExt.Gir,USD + FLInt.GirUSD.) d) Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders = FLSuper,USD/ LAbCap. e) Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap FLExt.Gir.USD 1915.784 kN
FLInt.Gir.USD
1944.870 kN
FLSuper.USD
3860.654 kN
wSuper.USD
376.649 kN/m
wBack+Ab.Cap.USD
37.323 kN/m
for its Self Weight & Back Wall = FDLBack+Ab.CapUSD f) Total Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders, its Self Weight & Back Wall = (wSuper,USD + wBack+Ab.Cap.USD) wAbCap.USD 413.972 kN/m
ii) Resultant Reaction on Girders against Computed of Uniformity Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL): a) Reaction on Each Exterior Girder = wAbCap.USD*(LExtAbCap. + LIntAbCap./2) b) Reaction on Each Interior Girder = wAbCap.USD*LIntAbCap. RExtUSD RIntUSD 879.691 kN 827.944 kN
9 Computation of Uniformty Distributed Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) on Abutment Cap & Resultant Reactions for the Girder Points Under Service Limit State (WSD) : i) Computation of Uniformty Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap : a) Unfactored Imosed Loads (DL & LL) from 2nos. Exterior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 2*(FDLExt.TotalWSD + FLLExt.TotalWSD) b) Unfactored Imosed Loads (DL & LL)from 3nos. Interior Girders upon Abutment Cap = 3*(FDLInt.TotalWSD + FLLInt.TotalWSD) c) Total Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap from Superstructure = (FLExt.Gir,WSD + FLInt.Gir.WSD) FLExt.Gir.WSD 1309.159 kN
FLInt.Gir.WSD
1437.021 kN
FLSuper.WSD
2746.179 kN
d) Uniformty Distributed Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for wSuper.WSD its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders = FLSuper,WSD/ LAbCap. e) Uniformty Distributed Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for its Self Weight & Back Wall = FDLBack+Ab.Cap.WSD wBack+Ab.Cap.WSD
267.920 kN/m
29.858 kN/m
f) Total Uniformty Distributed Unfactored Loads (DL & LL) upon Abutment Cap for its per Meter Length due to Imposed Loads from Superstructure through Girders, its Self Weight & Back Wall = (wSuperWSD, + wBack+Ab.CapWSD.)
wAbCap.WSD
297.778 kN/m
ii) Resultant Reaction on Girders against Computed of Uniformity Distributed Factored Loads (DL & LL): a) Reaction on Each Exterior Girder = wAbCap.WSD*(LExtAbCap. + LIntAbCap./2) b) Reaction on Each Interior Girder = wAbCap.WSD*LIntAbCap. RExtWSD RIntWSD 632.779 kN 595.557 kN
10 Sketch Diagram of Computed Factored Loads (DL & LL) on Abutment Cap & Resultant Reactions :
RExtUSD.
879.691
RIntUSD..
827.94 kN
RIntUSD.
827.944329 kN
RInt.USD.
827.94 kN
RExtUSD.
879.691 kN 450
450
kN
450
450
hBackWall =
2.000 m 2.000 m 2.000 m 413.972 kN/m 2.000 m 1.125 m
2.147 m
1.125 m
Computed Uniformly Distributed Loads on Aburment Cap
hAbCapRecl = hAbCapTro =
0.600 m 0.300 m
wFAbCap.USD =
LAbCap =
300 700
10.250
m
Load from Superstructure 350 350 2147
3047
2747
A D
400 450 150 300
B C
600
11 Calculations for Moments under different obstions of Computed Loads from Superstructure, Self Weight of Abutment Cap & Back Wall on Abutment Cap Section 'ABCD' : i) Calculations for Factored Moments at different Reaction Positions Under Strength Limit State (USD): a) () ve Moments on Outer Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wAbCap.USD*LExtAbCap.2/2 b) () ve Moments at Inner Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wAbCapUSD.*LIntAbCap.2/10 c) () ve Moments at Face of Interior Girder Reaction Position, = wAbCap.USD*LIntAbCap.2/9 d) (+) ve Moments at Middle Position inbetween Two Reactions, = wAbCap.USD*LIntAbCap.2/8 () MExtrOutUSD 261.967 kNm
() MExtrInnerUSD
165.589 kNm
() MInteFaceUSD
183.988 kNm
(+) MMidUSD
206.986 kNm
ii) Calculations for Factored Moments at different Reaction Positions Under Service Limit State (WSD): a) () ve Moments on Outer Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wAbCap.WSD*LExtAbCap.2/2 b) () ve Moments at Inner Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wAbCap.WSD*LIntAbCap.2/10 () MExtOutWSD 188.438 kNm
() MExtIntWSD
119.111 kNm
c) () ve Moments at Face of Interior Girder Reaction Position, = wAbCap.WSD*LBearing2/9 d) (+) ve Moments at Middle Position inbetween Two Reactions, = wAbCap.WSD*LIntAbCap.2/8 iii) Calculations for Dead Load (DL) Moments at different Reaction Positions: a) () ve Moments on Outer Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wDLAbCap.*LExtAbCap.2/2 b) () ve Moments at Inner Face of Exterior Girder Reaction Position, = wDLAbCap.*LIntAbCap.2/10 c) () ve Moments at Face of Interior Girder Reaction Position, = wDLAbCap.*LIntAbCap.2/9 d) (+) ve Moments at Middle Position inbetween Two Reactions, = wDLAbCap.*LIntAbCap.2/8
() MIntWSD
132.346 kNm
(+) MMidWSD
148.889 kNm
() MDLExtrOut
153.836 kNm
() MDLExtrInner
97.240 kNm
() MDLInterior
108.044 kNm
(+) MDLMiddle
121.549 kNm
11 Calculations for Shearing Forces under different options of Computed Loads from Superstructure, Self Weight of Abutment Cap & Back Wall on Abutment Cap Section 'ABCD' : i) Factored Shearing Forces at different Reaction Positions Under Strength Limit State (USD): a) Shear Forces on Exterior Girder Reaction Position Outer Face, = wAbCap.USD.*LExt.AbCap. b) Shear Forces on Exterior Girder Reaction Position Inner Face, = RExt.USD.  VRExt.OutUSD. c) Shear Forces on Interior Girder Reaction Position of Both Faces, = RInt.USD.  wAbCap.USD.*LIntAbCap./2 d) Shear Forces on Mid between Interior Girder Reaction Positions = VRIntInt.USD.  wAbCap.USD.*LIntAbCap./2 ()VRExtrOutUSD. 465.719 kN
VRExtrInnUSD.
413.972 kN
VRIntIntUSD.
413.972 kN
VMidofIntUSD.
0.000 kN
ii) Factored Shearing Forces at different Reaction Positions Under Service Limit State (WSD): a) Shear Forces at Exterior Girder Reaction Position Outer Face, = wAbCap.WSD*LExt.AbCap. b) Shear Forces at Exterior Girder Reaction Position Inner Face, = RExt.WSD  VRExtrOutWSD c) Shear Forces at Interior Girder Reaction Position of Both Faces, ()VRExtrOutWSD 335.001 kN
VRExtrInn.WSD
297.778 kN
VRIntInt.WSD
297.778 kN
= RInt.WSD  wAbCap.WSD*LIntAbCap./2 d) Shear Forces on Mid between Interior Girder Reaction Positions = VRIntIntWSD  wAbCap.WSD*LIntAbCap./2 VMidofInt.WSD 0.000 kN
iii) Calculations for Dead Load Shearing Forces at different Reaction Positions: a) Shear Forces at Exterior Girder Reaction Position Outer Face, = wDLAbCap.*LExt.AbCap. b) Shear Forces at Exterior Girder Reaction Position Inner Face, = RDL.Ext.  DLVRExtrOut. c) Shear Forces at Interior Girder Reaction Position of Both Faces, = RDL.Int.  wDLAbCap.*LIntAbCap./2 d) Shear Forces on Mid between Interior Girder Reaction Positions = DLVRIntInt..  wUFAbCap.*LIntAbCap./2 ()DLVRExtrOut 273.486 kN
DLVRExtrInn.
273.486 kN
DLVRIntInt.
243.099 kN
DLVMidofInt.
0.000 kN
11 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Main Reinforcements for Abutment Cap Against the Calculated Bending Moments on its Different Sections : i) Provisions for Reinforcements, Design WidthDepth & Clear Cover on different Faces of Abutment Cap : a) Against () ve Moment values the Abutment Cap Requires the Reinforcements on its Top Surface, whereas for the (+) ve Moment values the Reinforcements will on its Bottom Surface. b) Height on Rectangular Portion of Abutment Cap is Design Depth = hAbCapRec c) Height on Rectangular Portion of Abutment Cap is Design Width = bAbCapRec d) e) f) g) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Cap = 75mm, Let the Clear Cover on Top, Face of Abutment Cap = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover on Bottom Face of Abutment Cap = 50mm, Let the Clear Cover on Water Face of Abutment Cap = 50mm, h b CCovEarth. CCovTop CCovBot. CCovWater 0.6 m 1m 75 50 50 50 mm mm mm mm
ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/deMax. a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 c de
0.42
Variable Variable
As Aps
Variable Variable
mm2 mm2
iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.2) :
fy fps dp ds
2 410.00 N/mm 2 Variable N/mm Variable mm
Variable
mm
a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3.4.1Table3.4.11, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe)  Mdnc(Sc/Snc  1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*h.3/12)/(h./2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr fcpe Variable Nmm N/mm2
Mdnc
Variable
Nmm
Sc
Variable
mm3
Snc
3 0.060000 m 3 60.000/10^3 m 3 60.000*10^6 mm
fr Mcr
2 2.887 N/mm
173221361.269
Nmm 173.221 kNm Nmm Nmm Nmm
Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3
Variable Variable Variable
g) Table1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable & Nature Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Mcr of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking on Moment Equation Value Moment Abutment MDLUF 5.7.3.3.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) Cap kNm kNm kNm kNm
()ve on 153.836 97.240 108.044 121.549 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 173.221 1.33 Times 1.2 Times M Mr of M, of Mcr Factored Allowable Cracking Moment Factored Min. Moment for RCC Moment of Section Moment 1.2Mcr (1.2*Mcr) M (1.33*M) kNm kNm kNm kNm 207.866 207.866 207.866 207.866 261.967 165.589 183.988 206.986 348.416 220.233 244.704 275.291 207.866 207.866 207.866 207.866
Maximum Flexural Moment Mu (M Mr) kNm
261.967 207.866 207.866 207.866
RExtOuter
()ve on
RExtInner
()ve on
RIntInner
(+)ve on
RIntMid
iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio pb & Max. Steel Ratio pmax according to AASHTO19968.16.2.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section, pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.843/(599.843 + fy))), b) Max. Steel Ratio, pmax. = f *pb , (Here f = 0.75) pb 0.022
pmax.
0.016
12 Flexural Design of Reinforcements on Top Surface of Abutment Cap against the Max. () ve Moment : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Maximum Flexural () ve Moment occurs at Exterior Position of Abutment Cap. Against Calculated Factored () ve Moment value the Provision of Reinforcements will be on Top Surface of Abutment Cap. () MFExtrOutUSD Mr 261.967 261.967*10^6 207.866 207.866*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m
b) Since () MFExtrOutUSD > Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus () MFExtrOutUSD is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement on Top Surface of Abutment Cap : a) Let provide 25f Bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of Abutment Cap. b) XSectional of 25f Bars = p*DAbCapTop2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Top Surface, dpro = (h CCovTop DAbCapTop/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Width of Cap b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1  (1  (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2))
MU
261.967 kNm/m 261.967*10^6 Nmm/m
DAbCapTop
25 mm
Af25. deproTop.
2 490.874 mm
537.500 mm
areq.
28.035 mm
e) Steel Area required for the Section, Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro  a/2)) f) Number of 25f bars Requred for the Section= AsreqAbEarthV./Af20 g) Let the Provided 8 nos. 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of Abutment Cap. h) The provided Steel Area with 8 nos. 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of = Af25.*NBerpro. iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = Aspro/bdpro
/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b)
AsreqAbCapTop NBerreq. NBerpro.
1,356.181
mm2/m
2.763 nos. 8 nos.
AsproAbCapTop
3,926.991
mm2/m
ppro apro Mpro
0.007 90.200 mm 792.797 kNm/m
c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = Aspro*fy(d  apro/2)/10^6
d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.143 n) Relation between c/deMax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. or Not) c/deMax. c
Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax
OK OK
0.450 76.670 mm
b1 c/depro
0.85 0.143 OK
c/depro<c/demax.
v) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 713.517 Nmm 713.517*10^6 kNm 792.797 Nmm 792.797*10^6 kNm 0.90
Mn f
b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing
AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2)  A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2); here ds = dpro & a = apro. d) Since Abutment Cap is being considered as a Continous Rectangular Beam having Cantilver arm on both End. The Steel Area against Factored Max. () ve Moment is at its Top Surface for which the value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2). e) Calculated Factored () ve Moments MU at Exterior Girder Posotions are with Maximum value = ()MFExtrOutUSD MnTop 792.797 kNm 792.797*10^6 Nmm
()MFExtrOutUSD
261.967 kNm 261.967*10^6 Nmm
Satisfied
f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Mu Factored Moment MU on Exterior Girder Position ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)
vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4. Where; b) fsDev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit fsDev.
2 89.275 N/mm
()MFExtrOutWSD
188.438 kNm 188.438*10^6 Nmm
2 3,926.991 mm
ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Top Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCovTop. Since Clear Cover on Top Face of Abutment Cap, CCovTop = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 25f ; thus dc = (25/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear
Aspro de
537.500 mm
fsa
2 231.825 N/mm
dc
62.500 mm
A
2 15,625.000 mm
Cover = 50mm. In Abutment Cap the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*b/NBarpro. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax. 23,000.000 N/mm
0.6*fy
2 246.000 N/mm
d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. e) Based on fsDve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fsDev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 8,857.200 N/mm fsDev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy
i) Since Developed Tensile Stress on Abutment Cap Tension Reinforcement fsDev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.< ZMax. allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement on Abutment Cap Top Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 13 Flexural Design of Reinforcements on Bottom Surface of Abutment Cap against (+) ve Moment : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Maximum Flexural (+) ve Moment occurs at Middle Position of (+) MIntMidUSD 206.986 Abutment Cap Sections inbetween Two Girders. Against Calculated Factored 206.986*10^6 (+) ve Moment values the Reinforcements will be on Bottom Surface of Mr 207.866 Abutment Cap. 207.866*10^6 b) Since (+) MIntMidUSD > Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus (+) MIntMidUSD is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement on Bottom Surface of Abutment Cap : a) Let provide 25f Bars as Main Reinforcement on Bottom Surface of Abutment Cap. DAbCapBot. 25 mm MU kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m
207.866 kNm/m 206.986*10^6 Nmm/m
b) XSectional of 25f Bars = p*DAbCapBot2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Bottom Surface, dpro = (h CCovBot DAbCapBot/2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Width of Cap b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1  (1  (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro  a/2)) f) Number of 25f bars Requred for the Section= AsreqAbEarthV./Af20 g) Let the Provided 6 nos. 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of Abutment Cap. h) The provided Steel Area with 6 nos. 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Top Surface of = Af25.*NBerpro. iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = Aspro/bdpro
/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b)
Af25. deproBot.
2 490.874 mm
537.500 mm
areq.
22.121 mm
AsreqAbCapBot NBerreq. NBerpro.
1,065.531
mm2/m
2.171 nos. 8 nos.
AsproAbCapBot
3,926.991
mm2/m
ppro apro Mpro
0.007 90.200 mm 792.797 kNm/m
c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = Aspro*fy(d  apro/2)/10^6
d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.143 n) Relation between c/deMax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. or Not) c/deMax. c
Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax
OK OK
0.450 76.670 mm
b1 c/depro
0.85 0.143 OK
c/depro<c/demax.
v) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2:
a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.
Mr
713.517 Nmm 713.517*10^6 kNm 792.797 Nmm 792.797*10^6 kNm 0.90
Mn f
b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2)  A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2); here ds = dpro & a = apro. d) Since Abutment Cap is being considered as a Continous Rectangular Beam having Cantilver arm on both End. The Steel Area against Factored Max. () ve Moment is at its Top Surface for which the value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2). e) Calculated Factored (+) ve Moments MU at Middle Posotion inbetween Two Girdres have the Maximum value = MInt.Mid.USD MnTop 792.797 kNm 792.797*10^6 Nmm
MInt.Mid.USD
206.986 kNm 206.986*10^6 Nmm
Satisfied
f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Mu Factored Moment MU on Exterior Girder Position ( Which one is Greater, if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)
vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4. Where; b) fsDev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State (WSD) fsDev.
2 70.538 N/mm
MInt.Mid.WSD
148.889 kNm 148.889*10^6 Nmm
2 3926.990817 mm
ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation of Bottom Clear Cover & Radius of the
Aspro de
537.500 mm
fsa
2 231.825 N/mm
dc
62.500 mm
Closest Bar to Tension Face with Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCovBot. Since Clear Cover on Bottom Face of Abutment Cap, CCovBot = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 25f ; thus dc = (25/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In Abutment Cap the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*b/NBarpro. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. A
2 15,625.000 mm
ZMax.
23,000.000 N/mm
0.6*fy
2 246.000 N/mm
d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. e) Based on fsDve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fsDev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 6,998.282 N/mm fsDev.< fsa fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy
i) Since Developed Tensile Stress on Abutment Cap Tension Reinforcement fsDev.< fs Allowable Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.< ZMax. allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement on Abutment Cap Top Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 14 Design of Shear Reinforcement for Abutment Cap against Shearing Forces & Checkings: i) Calculated Factored Shearing Forces (Vu) at Different Locations due to Applied Loads (DL & LL): a) Table for Max. Shear Forces at Different Locations of Abutment Cap due to Applied Factored Loads (DL & LL); Table1. For Shearing Forces at different Sections of Abutment Cap due to Factored Loads (DL & LL)
Searing On Outer On Inner On Inner Middl Force Face of Face of Face of between Locations Ext. Girder Ext. Girder Int. Girder Int. Girders Unit kN kN kN kN Shearing 465.719 413.9722 413.972 0.000 Force
b) Factored Shearing Forces on Outer Face of Exterior Girder. c) Factored Shearing Forces on Inner Face of Exterior Girder. d) Factored Shearing Forces on Inner Face of Interior Girder. d) Factored Shearing Forces on Mid of Interior Girders. ii) Factored Shearing Stress & Shearing Depth at Different Locations :
VuExt.Outer VuExt.Inner VuIntInner. VuMidofInner.
465.719 kN 413.972 kN
413.972 kN kN
a) The Shearing Steress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force. vu = (Vu  fVp)/fbvdv, = Vu/fbvdv ; Since Vp = 0; (AASSHTOLRFD5.8.2.9).Here, b) Vp is Component of Prestressing applied Forces. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component the value of Vp = 0 c) bv is Width of Abutment Cap = bAbCapRec.. d) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having the greater value of either of 0.9de or 0.72h in mm. Here, i) de is Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement for the Section in mm ii) h is Depth of Abutment Cap Rectangular Section, hAbCapRec. e) f is Resistance Factor for Shear = 0.90 (AASHTOLRFD5.5.4.2). Vp Mpa
bv dv 0.9de 0.72h de h f
1.00 mm Variable mm Variable mm 0.432 mm Variable mm
0.600 mm 0.90
f) Table for Computation of values of vu, de, bv, 0.9de , 0.72h & dv at different Section of Abutment Cap. Table3 Values of vu, de, bv, 0.9de , 0.72h & dv at different Section of Abutment Cap.
Locations of Shearing Force Width of Abutmrnt Width (bv) Depth of Abutment Cap Rectangular Effective Depth of Section for Tensial Calculated value of 0.9de Calculated value of 0.72h Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Shearing Stress
mm
On Outer Face of 1000.000
(h) mm
600.00
(de)
mm 537.50 mm 483.75 mm 432.00
(dv)
mm 483.75
(vu)
N/mm2 1.070
Ext.Girder On Inner Face of Ext.Girder On Inner Face of Int.Girder On Middle between Int.Girders
1000.000
600.00
537.50
483.75
432.00
483.75
0.951
1000.000
600.00
537.50
483.75
432.00
483.75
0.951
1000.000
600.00
537.50
483.75
432.00
483.75
0.000
g) Shearing Stress due to Applied Factored Shearing Forces at Different Sections of Abutment Cap : i) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force on Outer Face of Exterior Girder = VExt.Outer/fbvdv N/mm2 ii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force on Inner Face of Exterior Girder = VExt.Inner/fbvdv N/mm2 iii) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force on Inner Face of Interior Girder = VInt.Inner/fbvdv N/mm2 iv) Shearing Stress due to Applied Shearing Force on Middle between Interior Girders = VMidofInner. /fbvdv N/mm2 vExt.Outer
2 1.070 N/mm
vExt.Inner
2 0.951 N/mm
vInt.Inner
2 0.951 N/mm
vMidofInner.

N/mm2
iii) Factored Shearing Resistance for a Section under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.8.2.1(Equ5.8.2.12) : a) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation5.8.2.12. Having the value, Vr = fVn in which; b) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N c) Vn is Nominal Shear Resitance in N according to AASHTOLRFD5.8.3.3. d) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTOLRFD5.5.4.2. Vr. Vn. f 0.90 N N
iv) Computation of values of q & b to Calculate the Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Locations due to Factored Shear Forces under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.8.2.4 : a) The Nominal Shear Resistance Vn at any Section of Abutment Cap is the Lesser value Computed from Equations i) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.8.3.31) & ii) Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp, (Equ. 5.8.3.32) in which, b) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N having value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (Equ. 5.8.3.31); c) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (Equ. 5.8.3.33) in which,
d) s is Spacing of Stirrups in mm; e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.8.3.4;
0 f) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) as per AASHTOLRFD5.8.3.4; 0 g) a is Angle of Inclenation of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement to Longitudinal Bars in ( ); AASHTOLRFD5.8.3.4. For Vertical Transverse/Shear Reinforcement the Angle of Inclenation, a = 900 a 90 0
h) Av is Area of Shear Reinforcement within a distance s in mm; i) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component, the value of Vp = 0. Vp. N
v) Computation of Value b & q at different Locations of Abutment Cap as per AASHTOLRFD5.8.3.4: a) Calculation of Longitudinal Strain in Web Reinforcement εs in mm/mm on the Flexural Tension side of Abutment Cap according to Equations ; b) ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu Vp)cotq  Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ5.8.3.4.21 for the Case with at Least the Min.Shear Reinforcement). c) ex = (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu Vp)cotq  Apsfpo)/(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ5.8.3.4.22 for the Case with Less then the Min.Shear Reinforcement); d) ex= (Mu/dv+0.5Nu + 0.5(Vu Vp)cotq  Apsfpo)/(2(EsAs + EpAps); (Equ5.8.3.4.23 for the Cases when value of es is () ve.in Equ.5.8.3.4.21& Equ.5.8.3.4.22). Where, e) Ac is Area of Concerte on Flexural Tention side of Abutment Cap in mm2 having value c A 2 Ac = bXWeb* hXGir,/2 mm f) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. For RCC Structure, the value of Aps = 0 Aps 
mm2
mm2
g) As is Area of NonPrestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Abutment Cap in mm2 under Consideration having respective values of Steel Area. i) On Outer Face of Exterior Girder the Provided Steel Area in mm2 AsExt.Outer. 2 ii) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder the Provided Steel Area in mm AsExt.Inner. iii) On Inner Face of Interior Girder the Provided Steel Area in mm2 AsInt.Inner. iv) On Middle of Interior Girders the Provided Steel Area in mm2 AsMid.ofInner. h) fpo is a Parameter for Modulus of Elasticity of Prestressing Tendons which is multiplied by Lockedin differencein Strain between the Prestressing Tendons and Surrounding Concrete (Mpa). For the usal level of Prestressing, the value recommended = 0.7fpu for both Pretensioned & Posttensioned Case. For Nonprestressed RCC Structural Component, the value of fpo = 0. fpo.
3,926.991 mm 3,926.991 mm 3,926.991 mm 3,926.991 mm
2 2 2 2

MPa.
967 (Vu) kN 465.Girders 261.291 (MuEff) kNm 261.750 0. Vp.000 483. fpo. Calculated value of Effective Shear Depth Calculated value of Effective Moment value Vudv MuEff (Mu) kNm On Outer Face of Ext.967 165.750 200. Showing the values of M u. Asp.4.Outer/f/c vExt.589 413.i) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N.ofInner/f/c 0. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.5Vucotq )/2EsAs . Table4.750 (Vudv) kN 225. between Int.Girder On Inner Face of Int.719 (dv) mm 483.259 200.5 & provisions of Equation 5.291 0.988 413.2.045 0.291 vi) Value of vc/f/c (Ratio of Shearing Stress & Concrete Compressive Strength) at Different Section of Girder : a) Value of vc/f/c on Outer Face of Exterior Girder b) Value of vc/f/c on Inner Face of Exterior Girder c) Value of vc/f/c on Interior Girder Position d) Value of vc/f/c on Middle Position inbetween Interior Girders vExt.Inner/f/c vMid.5Nu + 0.Girder On Mid.259 183. Vu. the value of Nu = 0.5(Vu Vp)cotq .972 483. Ep etc. Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & () for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. Vu.972 483.000 275. j) Mu is Factored Moment quantity of the Section in Nmm but not less then Vudv.750 200. Nu  N I) Table Showing the values of Mu. Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of M uEff Vudv.Inner/f/c vInt.259 200.045  vii) Values of esx1000 with at Least the Min. thus equation ex = (Mu/dv+0.259 275. are = 0.8.Girder On Inner Face of Ext. Locations of Shearing Force Factored Moment for the Section.3.8.21 : a) Since for RCC Compoent values of Prestressing Components Nu. Computed value of Vudv & Effective value of Vudv.Apsfpo)/2(EsAs + EpAps) stands to ex = (Mu/dv + 0. k) Vu is Factored Shear Force (Only (+) ve values are applicable) for the Section in N. Factored Shear for the Section. Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under AASHTOLRFD5.051 0.
59 b) Value of Cotq at different Locaion of Girder : i) On Outer Face of Exterior Girder value of Cotq ii) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder value of Cotq iii) On Interior Girder Position value of Cotq iv) On Mid of Interior Girders value of Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq Cotq 1.944*10^3 N x) Regions Requiring Transverse or Shear/Web Reinforcements under AASHTOLRFD5. Location of Abutment Cap Section a) On Exterior Girder Outer Face b) On Exterior Girder Outer Face c) On Interior Girder Inner Face b) On Middle of Interior Girders Referece of Table 5.5Vu c) Having the value of cotq = 1.50 2.50 ≤ 1. Vc 39.000 0.356 1.00 .2 vc/f/c 0.356 1.8.8.8. Ratio vc/f/c : a) Table for Values of q & b at Different Location of Girder.000 exx1000 1.001on Exterior Girder Outer Face & with the Effective Moment MuEff.045 0.356 1. d) On Outer Face of Exterior Girder = ((Mu/dv + 0.3.045 0.083bf/cbvdv.8. against the Respective Calculated values of esx1000.4.b) Considering the Initial value of ex = 0.3.3.2.1 5.Mu/dv)/0.2 5.31).825 0.23 36.362 Value of q b 36. AASHTOLRFD5.051 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 f) On Interior Girder Position = ((Mu/dv + 0. thus Values of q & b of that Section are Governing for Computation of Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) for the Abutment Cap.21.4.4.8.420 exExtOuter*1000 exExtInner*1000 exIntInner*1000 exMid.2.4.944 kN 39485.698 ix) Computation of Value for Nominal Shearing Strength of Concrete (Vc) using the Values of q & b : a) Since Critical Section is at the Outer Face of Exterior Girder.40 2. b) Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete of Girder Vc = 0.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 e) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder = ((Mu/dv + 0.8.362 j) Since at all Positions of the Abutment Cap posses values of esx1000 > 0.23 30.3. OfInt*1000 1. From the Equation Cotq = (ex2EsAs .5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 g) On Mid of Interior Girders = ((Mu/dv + 0.8.8.23 36. viii) Computation of Values of q & b from AASHTOLRFD'sTable 5.763.800 0.8.2.3.4 : .40 2.800 0.2.825 0. 5.40 2.3(Equ.3.3.5Vucotq )/(2EsAs))*1000 cotq 4. thus values of q & b of these Sections can obtain from Table 5. the values of exx1000 at Different Locations are .3.000 0.485.2 5.4.4.2.21 in respect of values of vc/f/c.
860.90 g) Thus for Nonprestressing Structure the Eqution5.5Vc Vu<0.8.944 45. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.8. VSExtGirOuter 405. Thus the Abutment Cap requires Transverse or Shear/Web Reinforcements. Vu.485.2.485.8.675 17768.5f (Vc + Vp). Vu > 0.670*10^3 N 405.5Vc at Different Location of Girder.670*10^3 N 405.8. Other than that on Middle inbetween Girders. Vs=AvfydvExtGirInnerCotq/spro.3. VSExtGirInner d) On Position of Interior Girders.2.670 kN 405.34. having value 0. b) On Outer Faces of Exterior Girder. VSOnInnerGir xii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Abutment Cap under the . Vs=AvfydvOnInnerGirCotq/spro.944 39.41. f) f is Resistance Factor as per to AASHTOLRFD5.485.164 413972.33) : a) With Vertical Shear Reinforcement the value of a = 900 & the Equation Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s stands to Vs = Avfydvcotq /s.4.5Vc & Relation between Vu & 0.8.670 kN 405.2.8. Vp.3. the value of Vp = 0.5.2.90 b 2. d) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.164 0.590 Vu N 465718.5fVc N 17768.5Vc Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied i) The Table indicates that all the Sections of RCC Abutment Cap have satisfied the required provisions for Transverse/ Shear Reinforcements under Equation Vu > 0. AASHTOLRFD5. 0. N e) b a is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension according to AASHTOLRFD5. 5.41.5Vc Vu>0.a) The Transverse or Shear Reinforcements are required for those Sections where the Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads (DL & LL).3.2. c) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance for the Section having value = 0. b) Vu is Factored Shearing Force due to the Applied Loads for the Selected Section in N. Vc.670 kN 405.230 2.41 Stands to Vu > 0.675 17768. Here.675 20637.the Shear Resistance against Provided Shear Reinforcement & Spacings at Different Sections according to Vs = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s (AASHTOLRFDEqu.8.3.685 413972. Equ5. AASHTOLRFDEquation5.356 0.5Vc Vu>0.8.160 Relation Equation Between Satisfied/ Vu & Vc Not Satisfied Vu>0.4.230 2.670*10^3 N c) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder.083bf/cbvdv according to AASHTOLRFD5.5Vc h) Table showing the values of b. Equation5.4. Vs= AvfydvExtGirOuterCotq/spro.5f (Vc + Vp).000 Vc N 39. xi) Computation of Values of Vs. Location of Abutment Cap Section a) On Exterior Girder Outer Face b) On Exterior Girder Outer Face c) On Interior Girder Inner Face b) On Middle of Interior Girders Values of f 0.230 2.944 39.3.
5.3. thus Equation stands to Vn = 0. 5. 5.3.2.8.8.688 kN 2539.3.156 kN 445.32) : a) The Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ.688 kN 2539. Vn = VcExtGirInner + VsExtGirInner VnExtGirInner e) On Position of Interior Girders. Vn= 0. 5.31 the Nominal Shear Resistanceat any Section of Girder is Vn = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0. + VsExtOuter. VnExtGirOuter.670 kN 405.8.3) c) Vn = 0. AASHTOLRFD5.3.3.3 against Equation Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ.8.Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.539.25f/cbvdv c) On Outer Faces of Exterior Girder Vn= 0.3.3 against Equation Vn = 0.688 kN 2539. AASHTOLRFD5. Vn at any Section of Component is the Lesser value of of the Equqtions as mentioned below . Vr = fVn in which. 5.156 kN 445.8. N .3.dvExtGirOuter. 2.31.25f/cbvExtGirInnerdvExtGirInner e) On Position of Interior Girders. e) The Factored Shear Resitance at any Section of Component is Expressed by the Equation5.12.688*10^3 N VnOnInnerGir 2.3) : d) For RCC Component.25f/cbvExtGirOuter.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ.25f/cbvOnInnerGirdvOnInnerGir xiv) Chacking for requirment of Shear Reinforcement based on Computed Nominal Shear ResistanceV n & the Factored Shearing ResistanceVr of Abutment Cap Accordting to the Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.156*10^3 N 405.32) : a) According to Equ.670*10^3 N d) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder.2.8.688*10^3 N VnExtGirInner 2.8.8.32. f) Vr is the Factored Shear Resitance at a Section in N Vr.8.156*10^3 N 445. b) Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (Equ. 5.3.3. VnExtOuter 445.688*10^3 N d) On Inner Face of Exterior Girder.3 & AASHTOLRFD5.3. thus Equation stands to Vn1 = Vc + Vs c) On Outer Faces of Exterior Girder Vn= VcExtOuter.8.539. Vp = 0. Vn = VcOnInner+ VsOnInnerGir VnOnInnerGir xiii) Computation of values for Nominal Shear Resistance (Vn) at Different Section of Abutment Cap under the Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.539.8.25f/cbvdv + Vp (Equ. Having the value. Vn= 0.8.31) b) For RCC Girder the value of Vp = 0.3.1: a) Nominal Shear Resistance.8.
90 h) Checking for requirment of Shear Reinforcement in respect of Acceptable Nominal Shear Resistance. 0.31 kN 445.8. 5.4. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.156 Vn2 As per Equation 5.8dv for the Section mm 387.125f/c in respect of Max. 5.8. Require SR Vr kN 400.8dv.63 N/mm d) Table Showing values of vu.719 Vn1 As per Equation.1.8. Showing Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements in respect of Max. 5.32 kN 2539.8.12f/c vu<0.8dv<600 Relation between 0.Checking for Requirement of Shear Reinforcement in respect of Computed values of Vn & Vr : Location of Abutment Cap Section On Outer Face of Ext.4dv & sMax2<300 Formula Status Whether Satisfy or Not Satisfy Satisfy 0. vu > 0. Spacing & Status : Segment.125f/c Relation between vu & 0. Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress on Abutment Cap under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. the Max.670 2.1 = 0.2.539.4dv againest the respective values of 0. Spacing of Transvers/Shear Reinforcement due to Applied Shearing Stress at Defferent Section of Girder.8.8dv ≤ 600mm. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. i) Table :.972 445.8dv & sMax1<600 0. Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section is smax.12f/c N/mm2 2.000 Value of 0.3.10 Vu> Vr Require SR 413.156 400.2.4dv<300 Satisfy .7 : a) Due to applied Shearing Stress. vu < 0.972 405. 5.070 Value of 0.Girder On Inner Face of Ext. 0.625 vu<=>0.71).Girder Position 413.64 Vu> Vr Require SR Calculated Factored Shear ForceVu kN 465.750 Maximum Value of vu N/mm2 1.72) c) Value of 0.125f/c 2 2.125f/c : Table.Girder On Int.2.500 Relation between 0.2 = 0..125f/c.25f/c Value of 0.156 Accepted Value of Vn Factored Shear Resitance Relation between Values of Vu& Vr Vu> Vr Vu> Vr If VU > Vr Shear Rein (SR) Requires otherwise SR Not Require. Between Abutment Cap Sections End Edge Ext.3.69 Vn1< Vn2 405.125f/c.3.688 Vn1< Vn2 445.5.3.2. Vn.64 xv) Checking of Required Max. Respective Factored Shear ResitanceVr on Different Section of the Abutment Cap Computed under provision of Equ. f 0.g) f is Resistance Factor according to AASHTOLRFD5. the Max.Girder Face Value of dv for the Section mm 483.8.670 365.4dv for the Section mm 193.4dv ≤ 300mm (AASHTOLRFDEqu. 5.8.31 & Equ.156 2539.32 are shown in the Table below :. b) Due to applied Shearing Stress. 0.688 Relation between Values of Vn1 & Vn2 Vn1 > Vn2 Vn1< Vn2 kN 445.
Av 0.000 mm Av sMax sreq.195 Avpro> Av Satisfied 226.5.5.5.154 139.8dv<600 0.625 vu<0.2.000 150.000 150.083f/cbv f) Let Provide the 150mm Spacing for Transvers/Shear Reinforcements for total Length of Abutment Cap. 2 226.Ext.083f/c(bvs/fy) having s = Avfy/0. Where.51. = 0.000 193. b) XSectional Area of 2Leged 12f Bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement.8. = 0.4dv ≤ 300mm.8.195 mm 300.72 (smax.Girder 483.Girder to Int.2.125f/c .1.083f/c(bvs/fy). 12.5. xvi) Computation of Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement for Abutment Cap : a) Let Provide 2Leged 12f Bars as Transverse/Shear Reinforcement for the Full Length of Abutment Cap. DShear.195 Avpro> Av Satisfied 226.2.8. mm2 mm mm Ext. thus it will Govern in Provision of same for Abutment Cap.195 Avpro> Av Satisfied xviii) Checking for Width (b) of Abutment Cap in respect of Nominal Shearing Resistance (Vn) at Critical Section : a) Against Applied Loads (DL & LL) the Critical Section for Shearing Forces Prevails at Inner Face of Exterior Girder.500 0.71).8.2.951 2.4dv<300 Satisfy Satisfy e) The Table indicates that all Sections of Abutment Cap have satisfied the required provisions for Spacings of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement under both the Equations.000 1000.000 mm 243. = 2*pDStir.8. f) Since under Equation 5.154 Provided Status of Whether Shearing Provided & the Equation Steel Area Required have Avpro Steel Area Satisfied or mm2 Avpro>Avreq. Locations of Abutmen Web Width Provided Required Cap for Chacking Girder.000 139.154 139.2.Equ. s is Length of Girder Segment under consideration for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement.8.000 150. & vu > 0.25f/c 387. v u < 0.825 mm spro.125f/c . smax.000 mm xvii) Checking against Requirements of Minimum Transverse Reinforcements for Abument Cap : a) Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement at a Section. (Equ.4dv ≤ 300mm) the Spacing of Transverse/Shear Reinforcement is Minimum. 5. smax. Not Satiosfied 226. for the Spacing of Minimum Section Shear Rein Steel Area bv spro Avreq. Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement d) The required Spacing for Transverse/Shear Reinforcement according to the Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. AASHTOLRFD5.156 kN . Girder OuterFace Position of Ent.2. b) Table for Minimum Transverse/Shear Reinforcement for Abutment Cap. (Equ. = 0. Girder 1000.8dv ≤ 600mm. 150. Av 0.000 1000. b) Computed Nominal Shearing Resistance According to Provisions of AASHTOVn 445.750 0.2/4 mm2 c) Allowable Max.72). Girder OuterFace Ext.
i) Vu is Factored Shear Force for the Section in N. d) Aps is Area of Prestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side of Girder in mm2. thus Design Critical Section is OK.3. j) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N for the Section.32. 5. ff 0.5. 0 l) q is Angle of Inclenation of Digonal Compressive Stress in ( ) according to AASHTOLRFD5. b) As is Area of Nonprestressing Steel on Flexural Tention side in mm2 c) fy is Yield Strength of Nonprestressing Reinforceing Steel in MPa.3 for the Section is Vn = 308. xix) Checking in respect of Longitudinal Reinforcements (Tensile Reinforcements) Provided for Abutment Cap under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.000 mm 175. h) dv is Effective Shear Depth of Tensil Reinforcement for the Section in mm.90 . For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.156*10^3 N 1. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure.5Nu/fc + (Vu/fv . (Equ5.8.8.000.4.8. bvpro bvCal. bv = Vn/0. the value of Vp = 0.3. Where. Value will be (+) ve for the case of Tensile & () for the case of Compressive due to Prestressing. b = 1000 mm. For Nonprestressing RCC Structure. e) In RCC Component the value of Vp = 0. 445. thus according to Equ. the Width of Abutment Cap.2.3. the value of Nu = 0. Asfy + Apsfps Mu/dvff + 0. where dv is Calculated Effective Shear Depth for the Critical Section. the value of fps = 0 f) Mu is Factored Moment of the Section due to Dead & Live Loads Loads on Structure.LRFD5. Variable Variable Variable  mm N N N q Variable O m) ff is Resistance Factor for Flexural Tension of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5. For Nonprestressing RCC Structural Component.8.0. As fy Aps Variable  mm2 MPa mm2 fps  MPa Mu Variable Nmm Nu  N dv Vu Vs Vp.25*f/cdv.5 : a) At each Section the Tensial Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement on Flexural Tension side of the Member shall be proportationed to Satisfy Equation. the value of Aps = 0 e) fps is Yield Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa.504*10^3N c) Provided width of Abutment Cap. in Nmm but not less then Vudv.4. k) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.8.3.3.280 mm f) Since the Calculated value of Girder width bvCal = bvpro the Provided Girder Width.5Vs Vp)Cotq. g) Nu is Factored Axil Force in N.51).
000 mm 2 160.976 mm AgHori.51. 14 Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical & Inclined Faces of Abutment Cap : a) The Abutment Cap is being Flexural Designed having Longitudinal Reinforcements both on Top & Bottom Faces against Calculated respective Moments.991 3926.13 656.74 Ext.3.967 165.90 fc 0.000.066 914.000 mm .000 mm hAbCapRec bAbCap AsreqT&SVF 0.8.000m c) According to AASHTOLRFD5.11Ag/fy as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement.600 m c) Width of Abutment Cap. Provided Tensile Steel Area mm2 3926.80 p) Since for Nonprestressing RCC Structural Components the Items Aps. Here.670 1610.5. Girder OuterFace Ext.000 m 1. As 0. 2 600000. Compoent having Less Than 1200mm Thicness will require a Steel Area.066 1610.07 40. thus mentioned Equ5. 1. Asfy Mu/dvff + (Vu/fv .986 Vs Calculted Calculted Status of Shearing Value of R/H Part Equation Shearing Resistance Asfy of the Wheter Force of Stirrups (L/H Part) Equation Satisfied or kN kN kN kN Not Satisfied 465.4.670 405. b) Depth of Vertical Face of Abutment Cap.2. q) Table.991 Mu Vu Factored Factored Moment kNmm 261.719 413. Stands to. Girder OuterFace Position of Ent.066 1610.000 405.n) fv is Resistance Factor for Shearing Force of Reinforced Concrete according to AASHTOLRFD5.8.10.84 691. Now it requires to Provide Horizontal Reinforcement on Vertical & Inclined Faces under Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement Provisions according to AASHTOLRFD5.0.3.000 mm 1.Showing Evalution of Equation5. bAbCap = 1.51 at Different Section of Abutment Cap & Status of Results. Locations of Abutmen Cap for Chacking As.5.10.2.600 m 600. d) Ag is Gross Area of Girder's Each Vertical Face = LStrip*hAbCapRec LStrip.8.589 183.670 405.670 405.1. fps. hAbCapRec = 0.4.972 413. thus provision of Transverse/Shear Reinforcements for Abutment Cap is OK. Nu & Vp have Values = 0. o) fc is Resistance Factor for Compression due to Prestressing according to AASHTOLRFD5.991 3926.066 1610. i) Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertica Faces ( Perpendicular to Traffic) : a) Let consider 1 (One) meter Strip Length of Abutmebt Cap for Calculation of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement in Perpendicular to Traffic Direction on its Vertical Faces.988 206.991 3926. It has also been Provided with Transverse/Shear Reinforcements against the Calculated Shearing Forces having their Position Perpendicular to Main Reinforcement both on Horizontal and Vertical Faces. fv 0.8. Girder Inbetween Girders Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied j) Since at all Section the requirments of Equation are being Satisfied.972 0.5Vs)Cotq.
000 mm 450. 16f Bars as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement. b) Since the Calculated Effective Shear Depth of Abutment Cap. .AbCap. 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature on all Vertical Faces (Earth.16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces = hAbCap/(NBarproVF. According to which the Critacal Section is at a Distance dv (The Effective Shear Depth of Abutment Cap) from the Earthen Face of Abutment Stem.000 mm AsproS&TVF 2 804.000. > AsreqS&TVF.b/AsreqS&T.8. which less than dv. More over the Abutment Cap is being Provided with Transverse & Shear .222 nos. sreq2 sreq3 sallow.8. i) Value of Max.10.3.8.413 mm.062 mm 749.2. 16f bars as Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical Surfaces of Abutment Cap = Af16*NBarproVF.3.1) l) Steel Area against Provided 4 nos. k) Spacing for provided 4 nos.2 the Max..2 Vertical Faces of Abutment Cap h) Number of 16f bars required against Allowable Max.e) Let provide 16f bars as Longitudinal Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces of Girder. DBar.13.000 mm NBarreq NBarproVF 2. Water & Sides) of Abutment Cap. & Provided Spacing of S&T sproS&TVF. 16 mm Af16 sreq1 2 201. Spacing = 450mm k) Allowable Maximum Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements According to AASHTOLRFD5.6 its Critical Section should be considered under the Provision of Article 5.> sreqS&TVF. Spacing = hAbCap/sallow j) Let Provide 4 nos. Spacing with 3 Times of Component Thickness = 3*bAbCap j) Value of Max. thus it is not required to any Checking in respect of Punching Shear Force on Abutment Cap. 4 nos sproS&TVF 200. dv = 483. f) XSectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar2/4 g) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16. and According to AASHTOLRFD5.10.750 mm and the Distance of Abutment Cap Earthen Edge from Stem Face = 400mm.C/C h) According to AASHTOLRFD5. thus the provision of Horizontal Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Vertical Faces of Abutment Cap on Surfaces is Faces are OK. 3. m) Since Provided S&T Steel Area AsproS&TVF. Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements should be the Less vale of 3times of Component thickness = 3*bAbCap or = 450 mm.000 mm 450. 16f Bar & on Inclined Earth Face 2 (Two) nos.248 mm m) Based on above Calculations Let Provide on Inclined Water Face 1 (One) no. 15 Checking Against Punhing Shear Force on Abutment Cap due to Vertical Loads from Superstruture (DL& LL) & Also Loads from Abutment Cap & Back Wall : a) The Abutment Cap is affect by One Way Action of Loading.
which will meet the requirements if any. .Reinforcements both on Horizontal (Perpendicular to Abutment Cap on Top & Bottom) & Vertical Faces against the Calculated Factored Shearing Forces.
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Unit.Structural Dimensions. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. Notation Dimensions H H1 hWellCap.200 m 6350 . Strength Limit State (USD) Design According to AASHTOLRFD2004. 1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment Wall & Wing Walls : 12750 3000 600 3450 600 3450 600 3450 600 2000 5225 2100 2147 600 450 300 H1 = 4947 H = 6147 1900 3000 450 RL2. 6.00m 2525 2150 600 2150 5500 1775 3000 3450 450 2450 9350 10250 3450 450 1200 1447 450 2750 1500 450 300 2750 2 Structural Type.L. Multiplying Factors & Computation of Different Load Intensities.947 m 1. c) Height of Abutment Well Cap. Design Criteria & Dimentions of Structure : i) Type of Abutment ii) Type of Wingwalls : : Wall Type Abutment. Structural Design of Abutment Wall & Wing Walls for Aboutments : PartI :. iii) Design Criteria : iv) Dimensions of Substructural Components : Description a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600 C 300 700 600 B A RL5.147 m 4. b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall.
k) Inner Distance in between Wing Walls (Transverse).947 m 2.& Ab. t) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls u) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls v) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face.d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Height of Back Wall f) Height of Wing Wall g) Length of Wing Walls upon Well cap h) Width of Abutment Well Cap (Longitudinal Length).000 m 1.975 m 5. j) Transverse Length of Abutment Wall (Outer Face to Outer Face) in XX Direction. hSteam.Count. i) Length of Abutment Well Cap (Transverse Length). 2.375 m SEfftCount.775 m 2.AbwallTop. + tWWCount.250 m LAbTInner t.450 m 0.450 m 1. LWCapToe.500 m 12.AbwallBot. tWWCountf. hwwallCant.000 No's 1. 2. 9.450 m 0.825 m .450 m 3.350 m 0.900 m 2.825 m 0.750 m 0. SAverCount&Ab.147 m 4. tWW tCantWW LwwallCant.Tri. y) Average Length (Longitudinal) of Well Cap on Heel Side from Abutment Wall Face. hbwall HWWall LWWWellCap WAbCap LAbTWCap LABTrans. t. 1.750 m 10.Rec. l) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom m) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top n) Thickness of Counterfort Wall (For Wing Wall) o) Number of WingWall Counterforts (on each side) p) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom q) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tABWallBot + tAbWallTop)/2+SClearCount& AbBot. r) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAverCount + tWWCountf s) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap.= SAver.500 m 2.000 m 2. hwwallCant.525 m LWCapHeelAver. NWWcount SClearCount& AbBot.
807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor.90 1.63f/c = 0.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength.2.000 MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTOSLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio.6).000 164.000 10.63f/c = 0.00 0.620 2. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.2.4.019.4. fr = 0.000. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.447.3 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight. 0. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.90 1. Strength of Materials & Load Multiplier Factors : 3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.1).29 0.4).90 0. : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme fFlxRin.400 23.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.000 23.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement.250 18.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.045.4. g = 2 9.10 v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD5. gs 2.232 2.345.172 1.000 8.4.264 1.5*(fckj) n r k j R 8 20 0. wWSali.5.75 . wE 24. f) Steel Ultimate strength.043gc1. gWSali. n = Es/Ec 6 8.2.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD5. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21. fShear. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.000 10. Ec = 0.680 1.000 200.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kN/m : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWNor. fFlxPres.2.5).89 fr fy fs ES 2.63*21^(1/2).63*21^(1/2)Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5. r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 . fSpir/Tie/Seim.855.89 410. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.835.k/3 Value of R = 0.
12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . (Max.) k) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fBearig.6.4.000 gLLTruck IM 1. Table 3.2.250 gDW 1.750 1.4. Thus the respective Multiplier Factors of Limit State STRENGTH I (Bridge used by Normal Vehicle without wind load) for normal operation.4.70 0.500 gEH 1. b1 b 0.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .1.12) gDC 1.85 4 Different Load Multiplying Fatcors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : a) The Bridge will have to face Cyclonic Storms with very high Intensity of Wind Load (Wind Velocity = 260km/hr). i) Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. value of Table 3.1.11.4. Limit State of STRENGTHIII (Wind Velocity exceeding 90km/hr) for wind load during cyclonic storm condition and Limit State of STRENGTHIV (Having Wind Velocity of 90 km/hr) for normal wind load only are selected as CRITICAL conditions for bridge structure. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls. Table 3.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.4.500 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. value of Table 3. For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in StrutandTie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b 1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD5. (Max.DW .2.6. but those would be occasional.6. value of Table 3. fPileResistanc. (Max.e) f) g) h) i) j) Limit State (Zone 3 & 4).11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.4. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.00 0.4.00 1. fAncTenSteel. value of Table 3..11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) m 1.350 gES 1.1.7.2. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.70 0.330 .1.500 gEV 1.80 1.85 0. value of Table 3. fAncCopmConc. (Max.4.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck . Table 3. fStrut&Tie.1.2.4.
DW . h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.000 gLLEQ.750 1. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR .000 gLLSH.000 gDW 1.000 1. gLLWL gLLFR. gLLTU. 1. value of Table 3. gLLWS. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1.1 . q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV STRENGTH . 1.000 gLLSE. Table 3. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1. gLLCE. gLLCV.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.4. gDC 1.750 1.4.400 1.III STRENGTH . gLLCT.4.750 1. 1.V gLLLane gLLPL.000 .750 1.000 1. 1. gLLWA. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.000 gLLCR. gLLLS.000 gLLTG.d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. gLLBR. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).750 1. 1.
000 gEV 1.300 gLLLane gLLPL.4.4. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking ForceBR .4. SERVICE .6.4. value of Table 3. gLLCE.000 gLLCR. (Max. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).11. gLLTU.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck . n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH SERVICE .12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .1. c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load AllowanceIM as per Provision of AASHTO LRFD3.(Max.II SERVICE . value of Table 3.1. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.1.2. 1.II (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.000 1. 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .4. gLLWL gLLFR.2.000 1.II m 1.000 gLLTruck IM 1.000 gES 1.4.II SERVICE .1. (Max. (Max.IV SERVICE . gLLWA.300 1.300 1. value of Table 3. gLLBR.12) gEH 1.000 gLLSH.000 1. value of Table 3.000 1.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .6.700 1.6.000 0. Table 3. gLLLS.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLWS. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. Table 3.300 1.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (AASHTO LRFD3. 1.000 .000 1.
s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTOLRFD3.6. DpES = ksqs in Mpa.3 .5.000 gLLEQ.000 O d 19 to 24 O tan d 0. Where. 1.004761 4.3 .Table 3. f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand. 1.Table 3.141 0.935 kN/m 2 0.(Table 12.Where.008 N/mm ks wE*103 0. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge. = 0.331 kN/m . Where.(With Elastomeric Bearing).34 to 0.000 f 34. f = 340 . AASHTOLRFD3. DpLS = kgEgheq*109 DpLLAb<6.11. c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*103N/mm2 DpES 2 7.441 gLLTG. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).) ko 0. DpLLWW<6.31. gLLCV. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction.45 dim ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES). b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure.5.11.00m 2 0.5.000 gLLSE. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing). Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil.11. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).11. ko = (1sinff ) .007141 7.9.31.11. gLLCT.6.34 to 0.11. AASHTOLRFD3.441 2 0. Page138.45 (AASHTOLRFD3. 1.008331 N/mm 2 8.000 kN/m iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS).00m DpLLAb6. Where. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 6 Load Coefficients Factors & Intensity of Different Imposed Loads : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure.018 N/mm 2 18.00m 0.761 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic). RAINA.1.5.4.
900. Having.441 3 1. whereas it will be a Cantilever one under Horizontal Pressure (DL & LL).4.000 0.4.00m.6.900 600.000 mm WeqAb<6.00m. i) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls.600 mm m mm m PartII :. AASHTOLRFD3. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm . DpLLWW6.1. Having H < 6000mm.004761 N/mm 2 4. c) For the Design purpose & Calculation of Imposed Loads (DL & LL). But in Construction Phenomenon execution Abutment Wall works are to be done a well ahead before Construction of Super structural Components having the total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) upon it.Computation of Different Load Events. Under Vertical Loads (DL & LL) Abutment Wall will behave as Compression Component.2. The action of Vertical Loads from the Superstructure will reduce the affect of Horizontal Pressure a great extent. Respective Moments & Shear. Table3.000 0.00m. AASHTOLRFD3. Thus Wing Walls are also have to Designed as Cantilever Flexural Components against Horizontal Loads & Forces (DL & LL) upon those. Thus to ensure the sustainability of Abutment Wall against the affect of Horizontal Loads & Forces (DL & LL) it should be Designed as a Cantilever Flexural Component.11. 900.11.000 0. WeqAb6. heqWW6.050.4. 0. Shearing Forces & Moments both Abutment & Wing Wall it is considered having 1.11.835.00m.& H 6000mm.00m.6. heqAb6.41.000 mm 600.000 0. AASHTOLRFD3. g) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.000 m 2 Computation of Horizontal Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls due to Lateral Soil & Surcharge Pressure : .600 mm m mm m h) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having.6. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3) 2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ).6. LH&V 1.11.6. Table3. WeqWW6. heqWW<6.6.11.761 kN/m c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. AASHTOLRFD3. Table3.42.600 600.807 m/sec f) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).000m Length & Wide Strips according to sequences of Design.424 kg/m 2 9.00m.00m. 1 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Abutment Walls & Wing Walls of Bridge Structure : a) The Abutment Walls of Bridge Substructure will have to face both Vertical Dead Loads (DL) & Live Loads (LL) from the Superstructure and Horizontal Dead Load (DL) & Live Load (LL) Pressures due to Earth & Surcharge on their Back Faces. 600.DpLS = kgsgheq*109 . k gs g heqAb<6. b) The Wing Walls will not have any Vertical Loads but those will have to face similar Horizontal Dead Load (DL) & Live Load (LL) Pressures caused by Earth & Surcharge Loads.00m.& H 6000mm.00m 2 0.000 mm 600. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .6. 1.41.000 mm WeqWW<6.11.
LH&V c) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Abutmen Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic) having H1 < 6. = DpLLWW. = k0*wE*H1 b) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Abutmen Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).935 kN/m /m PLLHSurAb 2 7.331 kN/m /m pDLHTotalWW 2 47. = gES*PDLHSurAb FPDLHSurAbUSD 2 58.000m.252 kN/m /m PDLHSurAb 2 7. = DpES. = gEH*PDLHSoilWW 2 58.141 kN/m /m pDLHTotalAb 2 47.187 kN/m /m PDLHSurWW 2 7.902 kN/m /m c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live FPLLHSurAbUSD Load (LL) on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).878 kN/m /m . = DpES.252 kN/m /m PDLHSoilAb 2 39.878 kN/m /m 2 11.187 kN/m /m 3 Factored Horizontal Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Factored Horizontal Loads on Abutment Wall for 1 (One) meter Wide Strip : a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDLHSoilAbUSD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).496 kN/m /m 2 83.000m.276 kN/m /m ii) Factored Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Wing Walls on 1 (One) meter Wide Strip : a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDLHSoilWWUSD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic).LH&V c) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Wing Wall (Parallel to Traffic) having H1 < 6.i) Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Abutment Wall on 1 (One) meter Strip : a) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).LH&V d) Total Dead Load (DL) Horizontal Pressure Intensity on Abutment Wall = PDLHSoilWW + PDLHSurWW ii) Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Wing Walls on 1 (One) meter Strip : a) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic).935 kN/m /m pLLHSurWW 2 8. = k0*wEH1 b) Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = DpLLAb. = gEH*PDLHSoilAb b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL)on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). FPHAbUSD 2 12.LH&V d) Total Dead Load (DL) Horizontal Pressure Intensity on Wing Wall = PDLHSoilWW + PDLHSurWW PDLHSoilWW 2 39. = mgLLLS*PLLHSurAb d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Abutment (Perpendicular to Traffic).
327 kN/m /m ii) Factored Horizontal Loads at Bottom Level of Wing Walls on 1 (One) meter Wide Strip : a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDLHSoilWWWSD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic).350 m 2. = mgLLLS*PLLHSurWW d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic).359 kN/m /m 4 Factored Horizontal Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls under Service Limit State (WSD): i) Factored Horizontal Loads on Abutment Wall for 1 (One) meter Wide Strip : a) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Lateral Soil Dead FPDLHSoilAbWSD Load (DL) at Bottom Level of Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). FPDLHSurWWWSD 2 39. = mgLLLS*PLLHSurWW d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic).252 kN/m /m 2 7. = gEH*PDLHSoilAb b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL)on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).579 kN/m /m FPHWWUSD 2 85.252 kN/m /m 2 7.935 kN/m /m FPLLHSurWWWSD 2 8...b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). FPDLHSurWWUSD 2 11.935 kN/m /m c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live FPLLHSurAbWSD Load (LL) on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).331 kN/m /m FPHWWWSD 2 55. = gEH*PDLHSoilWW b) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Dead Load (DL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). LAbTInner SAverCount&Ab. = mgLLLS*PLLHSurAb d) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to All Applied Loads (DL & LL) at Bottom Level of Abutment (Perpendicular to Traffic). FPHAbWSD 2 7.375 m . = gES*PDLHSurAb FPDLHSurAbWSD 2 39.141 kN/m /m 2 54.518 kN/m /m 5 Computation of Coefficients for Calculation of Moments on Abutment Wall & Wing Walls: i) Span Ratio of Abutment & Wing Walls in respect of Horizontal to Vertical Spans : a) Horizontal Span Length of Abutment Wall (Inner Distance) b) Horizontal Span of Length of Wing Walls (Inner Distance between Abutment Wall & Wing Wall Counterfort). 9. = gES*PDLHSurWW c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic). = gES*PDLHSurWW c) Factored Horizontal Pressure Intensity due to Surcharge Live Load (LL) on Wing Walls (Paralle to Traffic).902 kN/m /m FPLLHSurWWUSD 2 14.
083 ii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments for Freely Supported Triangular Loadings on Abutment Walls : (Using Table53 of Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook UK.550 .480 b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Wing Wall for Vertical Span Strip.G.H/V 1. () ve Moment Coefficient of Wing Wall for Vertical Span Strip at Middle d) Position on Bottom Surface.500.058 iv) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Uniformly Loadings on Abutment Walls : (Using Table4./H1. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Wing Wall for Horizontal Span Strip.2. Seventh Edition) a) Since k = 0.005 0.890 kWWUnSupp.) a) k = 0.H/V 0. Let Consider k = 0. 4.055 ()cSHAbT 0.550 k 0.3 & 4.4 of Book Design of Concrete Structures. H1 4.529 > 0.033 0.Winter.003 iii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments for Unsupported Triangular Loadings on Wing Walls : (Using Table53 of Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook UK.V/H 0.480 kAbSupp. e) () ve Moment Coefficient at of Wing Wall for Horizontal Span Strip on Face of Vertical Edge k (+)cSVWWT (+)cSHWWT ()cSVWWT 0.480 0.) a) k = 1. g) Abutment Span Ratio for Vertical to Horizontal with Freely Supported on Top = H1/LAbTInner h) Wing Wall Span Ratio for Vertical to Horizontal with Unsupported on Top = H1/SAverCount&Ab.V/H 2.038 0.529 kWWUnSupp.c) Total Vertical Depth of Abutment Wall/Wing Walls (From Back Wall Top upto Well Cap Top) d) Abutment Span Ratio for Horizontal to Vertical with Freely Supported on Top = LAbTInner/H1 e) Wing Wall Span Ratio for Horizontal to Vertical with Unsupported on Top = SAverCount&Ab.890 0.890 b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Abutment Wall for Vertical Span Strip c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Abutment Wall for Horizontal Span Strip d) () ve Moment Coefficient on Bottom Surface of Abutment Wall for Vertical Span Strip at Middle Position under Triangular Loading e) () ve Moment Coefficient of Abutment Wall for Horizontal Span Strip on Face of Vertical Edge k (+)cSVAbT (+)cSHAbT ()cSVAbT 1.947 m kAbSupp.009 ()cSHWWT 0.
b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Abutment Vertical Span Strip. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Abutment Horizontal Span Strip. d) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Abutment Vertical Span Strip. e) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Abutment Horizontal Span Strip. f) () ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Abutment Vertical Span Strip g) () ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Abutment Horizontal Span Strip
(+)cSVAbUDL
0.052
(+)cSHAbUDL
0.005
(+)cSVAbULL
0.070
(+)cSHAbULL
0.007
()cSVAbUDL+LL
0.085
()cSHAbUDL+LL
0.014
v) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Uniformly Loadings on Wing Walls : (Using Table4.2; 4.3 & 4.4 of Book Design of Concrete Structures G.Winter. Seventh Edition) a) Since k > 2.083, Let Consider k = 1.000. b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Wing Wall Vertical Span Strip. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Wing Wall Horizontal Span Strip. d) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Wing Wall Vertical Span Strip. e) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Wing Wall Horizontal Span Strip. g) () ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Wing Wall Vertical Span Strip h) () ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Wing Wall Horizontal Span Strip k (+)cSVWWUDL 1.000 0.020
(+)cSHWWUDL
0.023
(+)cSVWWULL
0.028
(+)cSHWWULL
0.030
()cSVWWUDL+LL
0.033
()cSHWWUDL+LL
0.061
6 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Abutment under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVAbT*FPDLHSoilAbUSD*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVAbUDL*FPDLHSurAbUSD*H12 (+)MSVAbTUSD 47.550 kNm/m
(+)MSVAbSurDLUSD
15.146 kNm/m
c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSVAbULL*FPLLHSurAbUSD*H12 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads
(+)MSVAbSurLLUSD
21.407 kNm/m
(+)MSVAbUSD
84.104 kNm/m
ii) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVAbT*FPDLHSoilAbUSD*H12 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSVAbUDL+LL*FPDLHSurAbUSD*H12 c) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live = ()cSVAbUDLLL*FPLLHSurAbUSD*H12 d) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSVAbTUSD 79.250 kNm/m
()MSVAbSurDLUSD
24.758 kNm/m
()MSVAbSurLLUSD
25.995 kNm/m
()MSVAbUSD
130.003 kNm/m
iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHAbT*FPDLHSoilAbUSD*LAbTInner2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHAbUDL*FPDLHSurAbUSD*LAbTInne2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSHAbULL*FPLLHSurAbUSD*LAbTInne2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSHAbTUSD 25.736 kNm/m
(+)MSHAbSurDLUSD
5.202 kNm/m
(+)MSHAbSurLLUSD
4.370 kNm/m
(+)MSHAbUSD
35.309 kNm/m
iv) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHAbT*FPDLHSoilAbUSD*LAbTInne2 b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHAbUDL+LL*FPDLHSurAbUSD*LAbTInne2 c) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSHAbUDLLL*FPLLHSurAbUSD*LAbTInne2 d) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSHAbTUSD 10.295 kNm/m
()MSHAbSurDLUSD
14.567 kNm/m
()MSHAbSurLLUSD
15.294 kNm/m
()MSHAbUSD
40.156 kNm/m
7 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Wing Walls under Strength Limit State (USD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients :
a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVWWT*FPDLHSoilWWUSD*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVWWUDL*FPDLHSurWWUSD*H12 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSVWWULL*FPLLHSurWWUSD*H12 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads
(+)MSVWWTUSD
0.000 kNm/m
(+)MSVWWSurDLUSD
5.825 kNm/m
(+)MSVWWSurLLUSD
9.990 kNm/m
(+)MSVWWUSD
15.816 kNm/m
ii) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVWWT*FPDLHSoilWWUSD*H12 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSVWWUDL+LL*FPDLHSurWWUSD*H12 c) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSVWWUDLLL*FPLLHSurWWUSD*H12 d) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSVWWTUSD 12.968 kNm/m
()MSVWWSurDLUSD
9.612 kNm/m
()MSVWWSurLLUSD
11.774 kNm/m
()MSVWWUSD
34.354 kNm/m
iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHWWT*FPDLHSoilWWUSD*SAverCount&Ab2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHWWUDL*FPDLHSurAbUSD*SAverCount&Ab2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSHWWULL*FPLLHSurWWUSD*SAverCount&Ab2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSHWWTUSD 12.620 kNm/m
(+)MSHWWSurDLUSD
1.544 kNm/m
(+)MSHWWSurLLUSD
2.714 kNm/m
(+)MSHWWUSD
16.878 kNm/m
iv) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHWWT*FPDLHSoilWWUSD*SAverCount&Ab2 b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHWWUDL+LL*FPDLHSurWWUSD*SAverCount&Ab2 c) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSHWWUDLLL*FPLLHSurWWUSD*SAverCount&Ab2 ()MSHWWTUSD 19.262 kNm/m
()MSHWWSurDLUSD
4.095 kNm/m
()MSHWWSurLLUSD
5.016 kNm/m
d) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads
()MSHWWUSD
28.374 kNm/m
8 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Abutment under Service Limit State (WSD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVAbT*FPDLHSoilAbWSD*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVAbUDL*FPDLHSurAbWSD*H12 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSVAbULL*FPLLHSurAbWSD*H12 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSVAbTWSD 31.700 kNm/m
(+)MSVAbSurDLWSD
10.097 kNm/m
(+)MSVAbSurLLWSD
12.233 kNm/m
(+)MSVAbWSD
54.030 kNm/m
ii) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVAbT*FPDLHSoilAbWSD*H12 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSVAbUDL+LL*FPDLHSurAbWSD*H12 c) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live = ()cSVAbUDLLL*FPLLHSurAbWSD*H12 d) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSVAbTWSD 52.834 kNm/m
()MSVAbSurDLWSD
16.505 kNm/m
()MSVAbSurLLWSD
14.854 kNm/m
()MSVAbWSD
84.193 kNm/m
iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHAbT*FPDLHSoilAbWSD*LAbTInner2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHAbUDL*FPDLHSurAbWSD*LAbTInne2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSHAbULL*FPLLHSurAbUSD*LAbTInne2 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSHAbTWSD 17.158 kNm/m
(+)MSHAbSurDLWSD
3.468 kNm/m
(+)MSHAbSurLLWSD
4.370 kNm/m
(+)MSHAbWSD
24.996 kNm/m
iv) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHAbT*FPDLHSoilAbWSD*LAbTInne2 ()MSHAbTWSD 10.295 kNm/m
b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHAbUDL+LL*FPDLHSurAbWSD*LAbTInne2 c) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSHAbUDLLL*FPLLHSurAbUSD*LAbTInne2 d) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads
()MSHAbSurDLWSD
9.711 kNm/m
()MSHAbSurLLUSD
8.740 kNm/m
()MSHAbWSD
28.745 kNm/m
9 Factored Moments due to Horizontal Loads on Wing Walls under Service Limit State (WSD): i) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVWWT*FPDLHSoilWWWSD*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVWWUDL*FPDLHSurWWWSD*H12 c) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSVWWULL*FPLLHSurWWWSD*H12 d) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads (+)MSVWWTWSD 0.000 kNm/m
(+)MSVWWSurDLWSD
3.884 kNm/m
(+)MSVWWSurLLWSD
5.709 kNm/m
(+)MSVWWWSD
9.592 kNm/m
ii) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVWWT*FPDLHSoilWWWSD*H12 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSVWWUDL+LL*FPDLHSurWWUSD*H12 c) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSVWWUDLLL*FPLLHSurWWWSD*H12 d) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSVWWTWSD 12.968 kNm/m
()MSVWWSurDLWSD
6.408 kNm/m
()MSVWWSurLLWSD
6.728 kNm/m
()MSVWWWSD
26.104 kNm/m
iii) Calculation of Factored (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHWWT*FPDLHSoilWWWSD*SAverCount&Ab2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHWWUDL*FPDLHSurAbWSD*SAverCount&Ab2 c) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = (+)cSHWWULL*FPLLHSurWWWSD*SAverCount&Ab2 (+)MSHWWTWSD 8.413 kNm/m
(+)MSHWWSurDLWSD
1.029 kNm/m
(+)MSHWWSurLLWSD
1.551 kNm/m
d) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads
(+)MSHWWWSD
10.994 kNm/m
iv) Calculation of Factored () ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span using Coefficients : a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHWWT*FPDLHSoilWWWSD*SAverCount&Ab2 b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHWWUDL+LL*FPDLHSurWWUSD*SAverCount&Ab2 c) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Live Load = ()cSHWWUDLLL*FPLLHSurWWWSD*SAverCount&Ab2 d) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads ()MSHWWTWSD 12.842 kNm/m
()MSHWWSurDLUSD
2.730 kNm/m
()MSHWWSurLLWSD
2.866 kNm/m
()MSHWWWSD
18.438 kNm/m
10 Unfactored Moments due to Horizontal Dead Loads on Abutment Wall : i) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVAbT*PDLHSoilAb*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVAbUDL*PDLHSurAb*H12 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MSVAbTUF 31.700 kNm/m
(+)MSVAbSurDLUF
10.097 kNm/m
(+)MUFSVAbUF
41.797 kNm/m
ii) Calculation of () ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored dead Loads : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVAbT*PDLHSoilAb*H12 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSVAbUDL+LL*PDLHSurAb*H12 c) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads ()MSVAbTUF 52.834 kNm/m
()MSVAbSurDLUF
16.505 kNm/m
()MSVAbUF
69.339 kNm/m
iii) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHAbT*PDLHSoilAb*LAbTInner2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHAbUDL*PDLHSurAb*LAbTInne2 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MSHAbTUF 17.158 kNm/m
(+)MSHAbSurDLUF
3.468 kNm/m
(+)MSHAbUF
20.626 kNm/m
iv) Calculation of () ve Moments on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads :
a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHAbT*PDLHSoilAb*LAbTInne2 b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHAbUDL+LL*PDLHSurAb*LAbTInne2 c) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads 11 Unfactored Moments due to Horizontal Dead Loads on Wing Walls :
()MSHAbTUF
10.295 kNm/m
()MSHAbSurDLUF
9.711 kNm/m
()MSHAbUF
20.006 kNm/m
i) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSVWWT*PDLHSoilWW*H12 b) (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSVWWUDL*PDLHSurWW*H12 c) Total (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads (+)MSVWWTUF 0.000 kNm/m
(+)MSVWWSurDLUF
3.884 kNm/m
(+)MSVWWUF
3.884 kNm/m
ii) Calculation of () ve Moments on Wing Wall in Vertical Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSVWWT*PDLHSoilWW*H12 b) () ve Moment on Vertical Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead = ()cSVWWUDL+LL*PDLHSurWW*H12 c) Total () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads ()MSVWWTUF 8.645 kNm/m
()MSVWWSurDLUF
6.408 kNm/m
()MSVAbUF
15.053 kNm/m
iii) Calculation of (+) ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = (+)cSHWWT*PDLHSoilWW*SAverCount&Ab2 b) (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = (+)cSHWWUDL*PDLHSurWW*SAverCount&Ab2 (+)MSHWWTUF 8.413 kNm/m
(+)MSHWWSurDLUF
1.029 kNm/m
c) Total (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Dead Loads
(+)MSHWWUF
9.443 kNm/m
iv) Calculation of () ve Moments on Wing Wall in Horizontal Span due to Unfactored Dead Loads : a) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Traingular Soil Load = ()cSHWWT*PDLHSoilWW*SAverCount&Ab2 b) () ve Moment on Horizontal Span due to Uniform Surcharge Dead Load = ()cSHWWUDL+LL*PDLHSurWW*SAverCount&Ab2 ()MSHWWTUF 12.842 kNm/m
()MSHWWSurDLUF
2.730 kNm/m
c) Total () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip for all Applied Loads
()MSHWWUF
15.572 kNm/m
12 Computation of Factored Horizontal Shearing Forces on Abutment & Wing Walls (USD) : i) Coefficients for Calculation of Shearing Froces on Abutment & Wing Walls Vertical & Horizontal Faces : (Using Table4.5 of Book Design of Concrete Structures G.Winter. Seveth Edition.) a) Since for Abutment k = 0.529 > 0.500, Let Consider k = 0.550 b) Since Wing Walls k > 2.083, Let Consider k = 1.000. c) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Vetical Span Strip having Shearing Forces Bottom Edge of Abutment Wall d) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Horizontal Span Strip having Shearing Forces on Abutment Wall Vertical Faces e) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Vetical Span Strip having Shearing Forces Bottom Edge of Wing Wall f) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Horizontal Span Strip having Shearing Forces on Wing Wall Vertical Faces. k k cShearVAb 0.550 1.000 0.850
cShearHAb
0.150
cShearVWW
0.330
cShearHWW
0.670
ii) Calculation of Shearing Froces on Abutment & Wing Walls Vertical & Horizontal Faces : a) Total Factored Horizontal Load on Aburment Wall for 1.000m Wide FPH&VAbUSD Strip at its Bottom Level = (0.5*FPDLHSoilAbUSD + FPDLHSurAbUSD + FPDLHSurAbUSD)*H1*LH&V b) Total Factored Horizontal Load on Wing Wall for 1.000m Wide Strip FPH&VWWUSD at its Bottom Level = (0.5*FPDLHSoilWWUSD + FPDLHSurWWUSD + FPDLHSurWWUSD)*H1*LH&V c) Shearing Forces on Abutment Wall at its Bottom Level for Vertical Span Strip = cShearVAb*FPH&VAbUSD d) Shearing Forces on Abutment Wall at its Bottom Level for Horizontal Span Strip on Vertical Faces= cShearHAb*FPH&VAbUSD c) Shearing Forces on Wing Wall at its Bottom Level for Vertical Span Strip = cShearVWW*FPH&VWWUSD d) Shearing Forces on Wing Wall at its Bottom Level for Horizontal Span Strip on Vertical Faces = cShearHWW*FPH&VWWUSD VSVAbUSD 266.333 kN/m
276.636 kN/m
226.383 kN/m
VSHAbUSD
39.950 kN/m
VSVWWUSD
91.290 kN/m
VSHWWUSD
185.346 kN/m
PartIII : Flexural Design of Abutment Wall Against Applied Loads Under Strength Limit State (USD). 1 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Vertical & Horizontal Reinforcements on Abutment Wall : i) Design Strip Width for Abutment Wall in Vertical & Horizontal Direction & Clear Cover on different Faces;
a) Let Consider the Design Width in both Vertical & Horizontal directions are = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of CCov.Earth. = 75mm, Let the Clear Cover on Water Face of Abutment Wall, CCov.Water = 50mm,
b CCovEarth. CCovWater
1.000 m 75.000 50.000 mm mm
ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/deMax. a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.2) : c de
0.420
Variable Variable
As Aps fy fps dp ds
Variable Variable 410.000 Variable Variable Variable
mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm
a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3.4.1Table3.4.11, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe)  Mdnc(Sc/Snc  1) Scfr where; i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Mcr fcpe Variable Nmm N/mm2
Mdnc
Variable
Nmm
Sc
Variable
mm3
Snc
3 0.093750 m
Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tAbWallBot.3/12)/(tAbWallBot../2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces fr Mcr
3 93.750/10^3 m 3 93.750*10^6 mm
2 2.887 N/mm
270658376.983 Nmm
270.658 kNm Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 Variable Variable Variable Nmm Nmm Nmm
g) Table1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.2 Times M & Nature Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr Factored of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Moment on Moment Equation Value Moment Moment of Section Abutment MDLUF 5.7.3.3.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) (1.2*Mcr) M Wall kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm
(+)ve Strip Vertical ()ve Strip Vertical (+)ve Strip Horizontal ()ve Strip Horizontal 69.339 20.626 20.006 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 270.658 324.790 324.790 324.790 130.003 35.309 40.156 172.904 46.961 53.407 324.790 324.790 324.790 324.790 324.790 324.790 41.797 270.658 270.658 270.658 324.790 84.104 1.33 Times
of M, Factored Moment (1.33*M) kNm
111.858
Mr Allowable Min. Moment for RCC
1.2Mcr
kNm
324.790
Maximum Flexural Moment Mu (M Mr) kNm
324.790
iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio pb & Max. Steel Ratio pmax according to AASHTO19968.16.2.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section, pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.843/(599.843 + fy))), b) Max. Steel Ratio, pmax. = f *pb , (Here f = 0.75) pb 0.022
pmax.
0.016
2 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Earth Face of Abutment Wall against the () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural () ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of Abutment ()MSVAbUSD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against () ve Moment value. For () ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Abutment Wall. 130.003 130.003*10^6 324.790 324.790*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m
b) Since ()MSVAbUSD < Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DAbEarthV2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tAbWallBot.CCovEarth. DAbEarthV./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1  (1  (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro  a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqAbEarthV. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 250mm,C/C = Af16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = Aspro/bdpro
/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b)
MU
324.790 kNm/m 324.790*10^6 Nmm/m
DAbEarthV.
16 mm
Af16. depro.
2 201.062 mm
667.000 mm
areq.
27.862 mm
AsreqAbEarthV. sreq spro.
1,347.774 149.181
mm2/m mm,C/C
125 mm,C/C
AsproAbEarthV.
1,608.495
mm2/m
ppro apro Mpro
0.002 36.946 mm 427.693 kNm/m
c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = Aspro*fy(d  apro/2)/10^6
d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design c/deMax. c
Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax
OK OK
0.450 31.40 mm
b1
0.85
d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.047 n) Relation between c/deMax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. or Not)
c/depro
0.047 OK
c/depro<c/demax.
v) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Abutment Wall in Vetrical Strip at Bottom Level. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Abutment Wall on its Vertical Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VSVAbUSD.= VU VU. 226.383 kN/m 226.383*10^3 N/m
b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU  fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTOLRFD5.8.2.9).Here, bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = b, the Design Strip Width. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tAbWallBot Width of Abutment Well.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ. 5.8.3.31, or bv. dv. 1,000.00 mm 600.30
0.9*de. 0.72h f Vp.
600.30 mm 540.000 mm 0.90 N
VnAbBot
3,151.575 kN/m 3151.575*10^3 N/m 4,566.528 kN/m 4566.528*10^3 N/m 3,151.575 kN/m 3151.575*10^3 N/m 4,566.528 kN/m 4566.528*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m
Vn1
ii) Vn2 = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. 5.8.3.32. In which,
Vn2
ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTOLRFD Equ. 5.8.3.31); cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. 5.8.3.33) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO8.16.6.3.1.)
Vc
Vs
b
2.00
Vp.
0.000 N
d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not).
Satisfied
e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Abutment Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall is OK. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 384.923 Nmm 384.923*10^6 kNm 427.693 Nmm 427.693*10^6 kNm 0.90
Mn f
b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2)  A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Abutment Wall in Vertical Direction is being considered as a Cantilever MnVBot Beam having 1.000 m Wide Strips. The Steel Area against Factored Max. Moments at its Bottom will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment M at Bottom of assumed Cantilever Beam in Vertcal on Earth Face = ()MSVAbUSD ()MSVAbUSD 427.693 kNm 427.693*10^6 Nmm
130.003 kNm 130.003*10^6 Nmm
f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied)
Mr>Msvabusd Satisfied
vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4. Where; b) fsDev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.
2 78.475 N/mm
MSVAbWSD
84.193 kNm 84.193*10^6 Nmm
ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which;
Aspro de
2 1,608.495 mm
667.00 mm
fsa
2 243.67 N/mm
i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Wall, CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 16f ; thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea, thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. value of ZMax. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. ZMax.
58.00 mm
2 14,500.00 mm
23,000.00 N/mm
0.6*fy
2 246.000 N/mm
d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. e) Based on fsDve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fsDev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 7,407.341 N/mm fsDev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy
i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Abutment Wall fsDev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allowable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Abutment Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.
j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 3 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Water Face of Abutment Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of (+)MSVAbUSD Abutment Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment Mr value. For (+) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Abutment Wall. b) Since (+)MSVAbUSD< Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Water Face of Abutment Wall. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DAbWaterV2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face, dpro = (tAbWallBot.CCovWater. DAbWaterV./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1  (1  (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro  a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqAbWaterV. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 125mm,C/C = Af16.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section, ppro = Aspro/bdpro
/ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b)
84.104 84.104*10^6 324.790 324.790*10^6
kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m
MU
324.790 kNm/m 324.790*10^6 Nmm/m
DAbWaterV.
16 mm
Af16. depro.
2 201.062 mm
692.000 mm
areq.
26.814 mm
AsreqAbEarthV. sreq spro.
1,297.080 155.011
mm2/m mm,C/C
125 mm,C/C
AsproAbWaterV.
1,608.495
mm2/m
ppro apro Mpro
0.002 36.946 mm 444.180 kNm/m
c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area, = Aspro*fy(d  apro/2)/10^6
d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro and Calculated Design Moment MU. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.045 q) Relation between c/deMax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. or Not) c/deMax. c
Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax
OK OK
0.450 31.404 mm
b1 c/depro
0.85 0.045 OK
c/depro<c/demax.
iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall against Max. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Water Face of Abutment Wall. 4 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Abutment Wall against the () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural () ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of ()MSHAbUSD Abutment Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against () ve Moment value. Mr For () ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. b) Since ()MSHAbUSD < Mr, the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section, thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DAbEarthH2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face, dpro = (tAbWallBot.CCovEarth.  DAbEarthV  DAbEarthH./2) d) With Design Moment MU , Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro; the required value of a = dpro*(1  (1  (2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section, Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro  a/2)) DAbEarthH. 16 mm MU 40.156 40.156*10^6 324.790 324.790*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m
324.790 kNm/m 324.790*10^6 Nmm/m
Af16. depro.
2 201.062 mm
651.000 mm
areq.
28.577 mm
AsreqAbEarthH.
1,382.400
mm2/m
In Flexural Design c/de 0.1. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section.002 36. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.85 0. 1.141 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.495 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.608.000.= VU VU. the Design Strip Width..fVp)/fbvdv. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. where.048 n) Relation between c/deMax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. or Not) c/deMax. Steel Ratio rMax.f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqAbEarthH.3.950 kN/m 39. here bv = b. = Aspro*fy(d . c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.450 31. Where.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU.404 mm b1 c/depro 0. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & bv. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 125mm.2. v) Checking Against Max. VMax = VSHAbUSD.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.946 mm 417.C/C 125 mm.048 OK c/depro<c/demax.Here.444 mm. in mm.42.950*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. 145.C/C = Af16. c Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK 0.900 . vu = (VU .3.8. having c = b1apro. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) sreq spro. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm.3. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. 39. dv.000 mm 585.C/C AsproAbEarthH.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max.9). a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Abutment Wall on its Horizontal Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. (AASSHTOLRFD5. 1. Thus Maximum Shear Force.7. Shear Force on Abutment Wall in Horizontal Strip at Bottom Level.72h in mm.3.9de or 0. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0. which one is greater.7.
427*10^6 kNm 417.141 Nmm 417.00 Vp.975 kN/m 3075. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.1.4.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.31).986 kN/m 4456.3. 5.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. 0.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.6.33) in which.3. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.9*de for the Section. 0. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.5.31.Equ.00.3. Vp = 0.32.975*10^3 N/m 4.000 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0.975 kN/m 3075.075.. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.90 N VnAbBot 3. value of 0.72h f Vp. (AASHTOLRFD.986 kN/m 4456.5.141*10^6 kNm 0.8.3. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment. AASHTO8.3 have Satisfied or Not).8.000 mm 0. is Whereas. 585.7. where.986*10^3 N/m 0.3. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.3. Steel Ratio. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5. (For RCC Structure Elements.16.083bf/cbvdv.8.3.9*de.3.8.72h for the Section. Mr 375.456.900 mm 540. thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement.456.) Vc Vs b 2.8. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5..8.90 Mn f .075. Satisfied e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. In which.8. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure. Mr = fMn.427 Nmm 375. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.975*10^3 N/m 4.986*10^3 N/m 3. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. the Abutment Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement. or 0.h = tAbWallBot Width of Abutment Well. thus Vp = 0. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. 5. thus Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall is OK.Thus value 0.
667 N/mm i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar.608. (AASHTOLRFD5.6fy. DBar = 16f . Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Fixed Ends of assumed Rectangular Beam in Horizontal on Earth Face = ()MSHAbUSD ()MSHAbUSD 417.000 m Wide Strips.7. Where.500. of Concrete Elements. 2 27. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied). dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.3. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.000 mm 2 14.141*10^6 Nmm 40. in Which.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . Moments at its Fixed Ends will have value of Nominal Resistance. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.745 kNm 28. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.4.156*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Mshabusd Satisfied Factored Moment M at Bottom of Vertical Span Strip ( Which one is Greater.2.156 kNm 40.3.495 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia.452 N/mm ()MSHAbWSD 28.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition 58. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.000 mm . The Max.7.000 mm fsa 2 243. vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. Clear Cover = 50mm. thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar.7.745*10^6 Nmm 2 1. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. Aspro de 651.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition. Clear Cover = 50mm. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Abutment Wall in Horizontal Direction is being considered as Fixed End MnHBot Beam having 1.141 kNm 417. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. In a Component of Rectangular Section. b) fsDev. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. The Steel Area against Factored Max.
Allowable Max. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. e) Based on fsDve.6*fy for the Concrete Element. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev.6*fy 2 246. 23.6fy . ZDev.790 kNm/m 324. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Abutment Structure. fsDev.6fy Zdev.790 324. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve.< Zmax. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea. = fsDev. value of ZMax. b) Since (+)MSVAbUSD< Mr. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 2.309 35. Crack Width Parameter.< fs fsa< 0. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.000 N/mm 0. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Horizontal on Abutment Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. ZMax. 16 mm MU 35. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. For (+) ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Abutment Wall.79*10^6 Nmm/m . < ZMax.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.79*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m 324. & Developed value ZDev.000. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment Mr value. value of ZMax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Abutment Wall.Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. 5 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Water Face of Abutment Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of (+)MSHAbUSD Abutment Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max.309*10^6 324. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.196 N/mm fsDev. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Water Face DAbWaterH.591.
sreq spro.C/C = Af16.CCovWater.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqAbWaterH.3.495 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.062 mm 676.42.7./2) d) With Design Moment MU . the required value of a = dpro*(1 . 2 201.3. iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Abutment Wall Earth Face against Max. depro. having c = b1apro. 27.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. m) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.046 q) Relation between c/deMax.281 mm2/m mm.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. = MU/(ffy(dpro .C/C 125 mm.1.329.628 kNm/m k) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area. In Flexural Design c/de 0.7.05 OK c/depro<c/demax.b/spro i) Steel Ratio for the Section.85 0..(1 . g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm. or Not) c/deMax. 1. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.ofAbutment Wall. DAbWaterV .475 mm AsreqAbEarthH. dpro = (tAbWallBot.DAbWaterH. Steel Ratio rMax.946 mm 433.000 mm areq. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.608.3. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Water Face of Abutment Wall . where.apro/2)/10^6 l) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. in mm.C/C AsproAbWaterH. Asreq. 1. c Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK 0. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 125mm. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) Af16.002 36.45 31. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.065 151.40 mm b1 c/depro 0. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DAbWaterV2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face.3. = Aspro*fy(d .
2Mcr.1) Scfr where. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds .PartIV :. CCovWater 1.7. ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa.42 Variable Variable As Aps fy fps dp ds Variable Variable 410. = 75mm.1Table3. Here.3. (AASHTOLRFD5.4.2) : c de 0. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0.11. i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy).3. b CCovEarth.Earth.00 m 75 mm 50 mm ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm.7. Let the Clear Cover on Water Face of Abutment Wall.Flexural Design of Wing Walls Against Applied Loads Under Strength Limit State (USD). where .Mdnc(Sc/Snc . b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) .42 in which.4. a) Let Consider the Design Width in both Vertical & Horizontal directions are = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of CCov.3. which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.1) : . i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa.00 Variable Variable Variable mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1. (AASHTOLRFD5.Water = 75mm. a Section c/de 0. b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/deMax. CCov.3.2*Mcr or 1. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. Mcr fcpe Variable Nmm N/mm2 . fps & dp are = 0. 1 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Vertical & Horizontal Reinforcements on Wing Walls : i) Design Strip Width for Wing Walls in Vertical & Horizontal Direction & Clear Cover on different Faces. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps. iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement.
4. Factored Moment (1.354 16.437 97.022 pmax.437 97.878 28.924 116.924 iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio. 0.443 15.6).924 116.437 97.843/(599.035 Mr Allowable Min.750*10^6 mm fr Mcr 2 2.437 97.797 97.437 kNm Variable Variable Variable Nmm Nmm Nmm Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 g) Table2 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Different Surface & Direction Position Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.437 97. = f *pb .924 41.448 37.924 116.924 116.437 97.3.75) pb 0.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mdnc Variable Nmm Sc Variable mm3 Snc 3 0.7. b) Max. Moment for RCC 1.33 Times of M.924 116. thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1. Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0.924 116.374 45. Steel Ratio.pmax according to AASHTO19968.437 97.437 97.2*Mcr) M Walls kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm (+)ve Strip Vertical ()ve Strip Vertical (+)ve Strip Horizontal ()ve Strip Horizontal 69. (Here f = 0.437 97.(AASHTO LRFD5.2 Times M & Nature Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr Factored of Moment Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Moment on Moment Equation Value Moment Moment of Section Wing MDLUF 5.572 97.924 34.924 Maximum Flexural Moment Mu (M Mr) kNm 116. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.437 97.691 22.924 15.2Mcr kNm 116.ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm. c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements.016 2 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Earth Face of Wing Walls against the () ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : .33*M) kNm 21.737 116.843 + fy))).887 N/mm 97437015.3. pmax.2.437 116.033750 m 3 33.816 1.714 Nmm 97.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) (1.750/10^3 m 3 33. Steel Ratio.339 9.16. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section.2.pb & Max. pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.437 116.3/12)/(tWW/2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa.924 116. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tWW.
788 mm 193.305 mm AsreqWWEarthV.. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DWWEarthV2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU.i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Maximum Flexural () ve Moment at Bottom Face of Wing Wall ()MSVWWUSD is the Calcutated Factored Moment which is Less than Mr. 18.340.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. 2 201. = Aspro*fy(d . 885.232 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.1 : Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK . = MU/(ffy(dpro ./2) d) With Design Moment MU . iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. sreq spro.924 116. For () ve value of Moment the Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Wing Wall.354 34.354*10^6 116. DWWEarthV. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.413 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 100mm.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. depro. Steel Ratio rMax. 1.924*10^6 Nmm/m DWWEarth 16 mm Af16.064 mm2/m mm. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.924*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m b) Since ()MSVWWUSD < Mr.004 30. Mr 34.000 mm areq.924 kNm/m 116.C/C 150 mm.C/C = Af16.3. the required value of a = dpro*(1 .C/C AsproWWEarthV. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.CCovEarth.(1 .484 227.7.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqAbEarthV.062 mm 367. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 100mm. dpro = (tWW.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) MU 116.3. Asreq.
25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.3.Here.8.290*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.512.5.290 kN/m 91.3.075 kN/m 1734.5. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.000.617*10^3 N/m 0. In Flexural Design c/de 0. here bv = b.31).3.450 26.Equ.8. In which.000 mm 0.512. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.300 0.617*10^3 N/m 1. Thus Maximum Shear Force.. 5. (AASSHTOLRFD5.fVp)/fbvdv. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure.734.075*10^3 N/m 2. which one is greater.7.9*de for the Section. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Wing Wall on its Vertical Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. or Not) c/deMax. v) Checking Against Max.31. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tWW Thickness of Wing Wall.3. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.33) in which.8. (AASHTOLRFD.72h in mm. dv.734. 0. where.083bf/cbvdv. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. is Whereas. having c = b1apro. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.000 mm 330. 1. thus Vp = 0. Where.1. 5.85 0. Shear Force on Wing Wall in Vetrical Strip at Bottom Level.9de or 0. the Design Strip Width.2. c 0. or bv. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.170 mm b1 c/depro 0. vu = (VU .72h for the Section.075 kN/m 1734. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.3. Vc Vs .72h f Vp.075*10^3 N/m 2.000 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0.071 OK c/depro<c/demax.90 N VnWWBot 1.. in mm.42. value of 0.617 kN/m 2512.617 kN/m 2512.3.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.9*de. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.3.107 n) Relation between c/deMax.8.32. 91. VMax = VSVWWUSD = VU VU.8. 330.Thus value 0.9).8.30 mm 324. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.
7.7.232*10^6 Nmm 34. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.4. thus Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall is OK. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2. vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.232*10^6 kNm 0.000 m Wide Strips.) b 2.3. thus the Wing Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement.7.354*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Msvwwusd Satisfied Factored Moment M at Bottom of Vertical Span Strip (Which one is Greater.8.00 Vp. AASHTO8.16. Mr 173.232 kNm 193.3.8.00.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.3 have Satisfied or Not).232 Nmm 193. (For RCC Structure Elements.3.ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5. where.6. Steel Ratio.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.4.3. if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied).4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.3. .354 kNm 34. Mr = fMn. 0.909*10^6 kNm 193.90 Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Abutment Wall in Vertical Direction is being considered as a Cantilever MnVBot Beam having 1. of Concrete Elements. Moments at its Bottom will have value of Nominal Resistance. the Wing Wall on its Bottom Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement. Where. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. The Steel Area against Factored Max. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.1. Vp = 0.909 Nmm 173. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Bottom of assumed Cantilever Beam in Vertcal on Earth Face = MSVWWUSD MSVWWUSD 193. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.2.
The Max.322. ZMax.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. value of ZMax. value of ZMax. e) Based on fsDve.340.b) fsDev.000 mm 2 17. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.065 N/mm ()MSVWWWSD 26. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy . = fsDev.< fs fsa< 0. Clear Cover = 50mm. Clear Cover = 50mm. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.6*fy 2 246. thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. & Developed value ZDev. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.702 N/mm fsDev.< Zmax. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. Aspro de 367.6*fy for the Concrete Element. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Abutment Wall. 2 53. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. in Which. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro.104 kNm 26.299 N/mm i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max.413 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation.104*10^6 Nmm 2 1.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea. In a Component of Rectangular Section. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Wing Wall Structure.6fy. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.400.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max.000 mm 23.000 N/mm 0.000.000 mm fsa 2 229. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max.6fy Zdev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. 5. ZDev. DBar = 16f . CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia. dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth. 58.
(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. 18 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcements on Water Face of Wing Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Vertical Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Vetrical Span Strip of Wing Wall (+)MSVWW is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.924*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m 116.C/C AsproWWWaterV. dpro = (tWW. 2 201.924*10^6 Nmm/m Af16.003 DWWWaterV.082 mm AsreqWWEarthV. DWWWaterV. 17.C/C 175 mm. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Vertical Reinforcement on Water Face of the Wing Wall. Asreq. Crack Width Parameter. 1./2) d) With Design Moment MU . < ZMax. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.6fy . Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DAbWaterV2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face.062 mm 392.i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Wing Wall f sDev.924 kNm/m 116.924 116.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress. 16 mm MU 15. For (+) Mr ve value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Wing Wall. = MU/(ffy(dpro .000 mm areq.(1 . g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars for the Section spro = 175mm. ppro = Aspro/bdpro ppro 0.. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm.816*10^6 116. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.315 mm2/m mm.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical on Wing Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.816 15. Allocable Max.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm.343 243.925 mm2/m . the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. sreq spro.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqWWWaterV.CCovWater. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment value.C/C = Af16. depro. the required value of a = dpro*(1 . 826. b) Since (+)MSVWW< Mr.148. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.
431 mm b1 c/depro 0. having c = b1apro. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.924*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m 116. thus it does not require further Checking against Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Water Face of Wing Wall 19 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Wing Wall against the () ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural () ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of Wing ()MSHWWUSD Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. depro.3.3. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect. c Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK 0. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against () ve Moment value.DWWEarthH./ b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) apro Mpro 26. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.42. In Flexural Design c/de 0. dpro = (tWW.3. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis & the Extrime Compressive Face.374 28. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU.924 kNm/m 116.924*10^6 Nmm/m Af16.85 0.440 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.924 116.000 mm .057 q) Relation between c/deMax.7.1./2) DWWEarthH.CCovEarth. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.062 mm 351.374*10^6 116.450 22.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.057 OK c/depro<c/demax.390 mm 178. in mm.3. = Aspro*fy(d . 2 201. or Not) c/deMax. . b) Since ()MSHWWUSD< Mr. Steel Ratio rMax. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. For () ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Earth Face of Wing Wall.DWWEarthV . iv) Since Cackings have been done for Provision of Vertical Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall against Max. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DWWEarthH2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face. where. 16 mm MU 28.7.
Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.632 mm2/m mm. 1. 928.064 OK c/depro<c/demax. Asreq. or Not) c/deMax.450 22. = MU/(ffy(dpro .003 26. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.346*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section.126 216.1.2.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.. where. 19. Thus Maximum Shear Force.C/C AsproWWEarthH.3.fVp)/fbvdv. = Aspro*fy(d . in mm. the required value of a = dpro*(1 . g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 175mm.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm.= VU VU. v) Checking Against Max. Steel Ratio rMax.Here.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. In Flexural Design c/de 0.186 mm AsreqWWEarthH. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Botton Level of Wing Wall on its Horizontal Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. sreq spro. Shear Force on Wing Wall in Horizontal Strip at Bottom Level.3. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section.9). ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) areq.126 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.85 0. VMax = VSHWW.148.3. .7. vu = (VU .d) With Design Moment MU .925 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.064 n) Relation between c/deMax.431 mm b1 c/depro 0.42. 185.C/C = Af16.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. (AASSHTOLRFD5. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.8.346 kN/m 185.(1 .7. having c = b1apro.C/C 175 mm. c Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK 0.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqWWEarthH.390 mm 159.
(For RCC Structure Elements. Mr 143.9de or 0.701. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. 5.000 mm 324. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.464.693 kN/m 2464. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. 1.3.9*de.3.8.5. or bv. In which.3 have Satisfied or Not).3. dv. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5. AASHTO8.00 Vp. 0. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.701. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.31.000.000 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0. 5. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.16.8.214 Nmm .1.72h in mm.) Vc Vs b 2.693 kN/m 2464. value of 0. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure.3.3. 315.000 kN/m 1701.693*10^3 N/m 1.000 kN/m 1701. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.Thus value 0.32. thus Vp = 0.00. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment. (AASHTOLRFD. thus the Abutment Wall does not require any Shear Reinforcement.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.3. is Whereas. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.33) in which.5.000 mm 0.693*10^3 N/m 0.31).bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.Equ. thus Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall is OK.000*10^3 N/m 2.4.464.72h f Vp..8.7.000*10^3 N/m 2.8.900 mm 324.. which one is greater.72h for the Section.083bf/cbvdv.6.90 N VnAbBot 1.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ. the Design Strip Width.3.000 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tWW Thickness of Wing Wall. here bv = b. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5. Where. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. the Wing Wall on its Earth Face does not Require any Shear Reinforcement. Vp = 0.8. 0. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. Steel Ratio.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component. Mr = fMn.3.8.8.9*de for the Section.
3. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.148.374*10^6 Nmm Satisfied f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>Mu Factored Moment MU on Horiziontal Strip Span ( Which one is Greater.126*10^6 Nmm 28. if Mr MU the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement. Where. In a Component of Rectangular Section.6fy.126 kNm 159. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit fsDev.814 N/mm i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.7. Mn f 143. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Fixed Ends of assumed Rectangular Beam in Horizontal on Earth Face = MSHWWUSD MSHWWUSD 159.721 N/mm MSHWWWSD 18. b) fsDev. Clear Cover = 50mm. DBar = 16f . The Max. The Steel Area against Factored Max.4.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) .7. in Which.374 kNm 28. of Concrete Elements.7. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section.214*10^6 kNm 159. (AASHTOLRFD5.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements.000 mm fsa 2 217.where.000 mm .438*10^6 Nmm 2 1.3.3. Moments at its Fixed Ends will have value of Nominal Resistance.000 m Wide Strips.438 kNm 18. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Wing Wall in Horizontal Direction is being considered as Fixed End MnHBot Beam having 1.90 b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.2. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Wing Wall. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.126 Nmm 159. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.925 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth. thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm 58. CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia. Aspro de 351.126*10^6 kNm 0. 2 45.
thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Horizontal on Wing Wall Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the TGirder Structure. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fsDev.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev.< fs fsa< 0. 15 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Water Face of Wing Wall against the (+) ve Moment on Horizontal Span Strip : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) The Calculated Flexural (+) ve Moment in Horizontal Span Strip of Wing (+)MSHWW Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. 16.924*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m . = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. < ZMax.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fsDev. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress. Crack Width Parameter.878*10^6 116. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. 2 20.878 16. 4.6*fy 2 246.6fy Zdev.6fy . the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. For (+) ve Mr value the required Reinforcement will be on Water Face of Wing Wall. value of ZMax.< Zmax. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. & Developed value ZDev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against (+) ve Moment value. value of ZMax. Clear Cover = 50mm. ZDev.6*fy for the Concrete Element.827.918 N/mm fsDev.000 mm 23. e) Based on fsDve.000. ZMax. Allocable Max.000 N/mm 0.924 116.300.
924 kNm/m 116.903 kNm/m k) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.43 mm b1 c/depro 0.b) Since (+)MSVWW< Mr. dpro = (tWW.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm. depro.C/C = Af16. 16 mm Af16.3./2) d) With Design Moment MU .1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. iii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.(1 .390 mm 170. sreq spro.1.7. 1. m) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. = Aspro*fy(d .924*10^6 Nmm/m DWWWaterH.062 mm 376.060 c/deMax. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars for the Section spro = 175mm.921 mm2/m mm.CCovWater.925 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.DWWWaterH. the required value of a = dpro*(1 . In Flexural Design c/de 0. c Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK Not OK 0.219 232.C/C 175 mm.42.450 22.85 0. DWWWaterV . 863. where.7. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.060 .3. thus Mr is the Design Moment MU. 2 201.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqAbWaterH. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DWWWaterH2/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Water Face. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.C/C AsproAbWaterH.apro/2)/10^6 l) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. Steel Ratio rMax.. 17.3.845 mm AsreqWWEarthH. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0. in mm. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) MU 116.3.148.003 26.b/spro i) Steel Ratio for the Section.000 mm areq. Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro . ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Water Face of Wing Wall. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. having c = b1apro.
OK iv) Since Checking have been done for Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Wing Wall against Max.q) Relation between c/deMax. or Not) c/depro<c/demax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. Moment due to Imposed Loads & found Satisfactory in all respect thus it does not required further Checking against Provision of Horizontal Reinforcement on Water Face of Wing Wall .
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147 m 4. b) Height of Wing Wall from Top of Well Cap up to its Top. H H1 6. Design Criteria & Dimentions of Structure : i) Type of Abutment ii) Type of Wingwalls : : Wall Type Abutment. Service Limit State (WSD) Design According to AASHTOLRFD2004.947 m 6350 2147 .M. Structural Design of Wing Wall Counterfort : 1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment Wall & Wing Walls : 300 5225 3000 2100 700 C 2000 B A RL5.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600 1200 1447 1500 2 Structural Type. iii) Design Criteria : iv) Dimensions of Substructural Components : Description a) Height of Wing Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to its Top. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well.00m 600 450 300 H1 = 4947 H = 6147 1900 3000 450 RL2. Notation Dimensions Unit.
750 m 0. HWWall LWWWellCap t. d) Height of Abutment Steam f) Height of Wing Wall g) Length of Wing Walls upon Well cap l) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom m) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top n) Thickness of Counterfort Wall For Wing Wall.775 m 2. s) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAverCount + tWWCountf t) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap. gWSali.500 m 2. SClearCount& AbBot.200 m 1. hSteam.019.000 m 1.900 m 4. 2.450 m 0.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water gc gWC gWNor. hCant.000 No's 3. NWWcount LCountBase.AbwallTop. hWellCap.525 m 3 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight.345.975 m 0.450 m 1.232 2.450 m 1. o) Number of WingWall Counterforts (on each side) p) Length of Counterfort Base (Length at Bottom).450 m 2.680 1.WWTri. Strength of Materials & USD Multiplier Factors : 3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration. v) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls y) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face. t.c) Height of Abutment Well Cap. 1.264 1.AbwallBot. tWWCountf.825 m 0. 2. LWCapToe. SAverCount&Ab.WWRec.447.450 m 3.375 m SEfftCount. u) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls (On Top). q) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom r) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tABWallBot + tAbWallTop)/2+SClearCount& AbBot.172 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 . g = 2 9. tCantWW hCant.045.000 m 0.947 m 2. tWW LCantWW.
400 23. value of Table 3.835.4.000 23.63f/c = 0.2.000 MPa 200000.4). e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.5*(fckj) n r k j R 8 20 0.4. (Max.89 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410. wE 24.63*21^(1/2).63f/c = 0. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.250 18.4. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.424 kg/m a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWNor.DW .12) gDC 1. Table 3.000 MPa iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTOSLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio.90 1.k/3 Value of R = 0.4.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . (Max.29 0.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.4. n = Es/Ec 6 8.855. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.000 10.4.63*21^(1/2)Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.000 gDW 1.000 MPa 164.e) Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) 3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kN/m : gs 3 1.4. Ec = 0.89 fr fy fs ES 2. f) Steel Ultimate strength.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.4. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5. fr = 0.000 8.2.043gc1. value of Table 3.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement.1 .5).2. r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 . wWSali.620 2.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength.10 4 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.000 . value of Table 3.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD5. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.000 gEH 1.6).000 10.
000 1. gLLTU.d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES . SERVICE .1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .6. gLLCE.000 1.000 1.II SERVICE .000 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. gLLLS. value of Table 3. 1.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.1.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.4.000 gLLCR. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gLLSH.1.000 gLLTruck IM 1.2. 1. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking ForceBR .000 .000 0.700 1. gLLWL gLLFR. gLLWA.11. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).1.6. value of Table 3.6.000 gLLLane gLLPL.000 gLLTG.300 1. (Max. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.4.000 gES 1. c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3.12) gEV 1.1. 1. SERVICE .II m 1.4.000 1. gLLWS. Table 3.300 1.2. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing). 1. (Max. gLLBR.4.300 1.II SERVICE .IV SERVICE .I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. Table 3.
Table 3. Where. 1.5. Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil. Page138.000 gLLEQ. DpLS = kgEgheq*109 DpLLAb<6. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge.00m . 1.4.000 ko 0.p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).6. AASHTOLRFD3.31. ko = (1sinff ) .9.441 f 34 O d 19 to 24 O tan d 0. AASHTOLRFD3.45 (AASHTOLRFD3.11.11.(Table 12.141 0.Where.Table 3.018 N/mm 2 18. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 5 Load Coefficients Factors & Intensity of Different Imposed Loads : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure. DpLS = kgEgheq*109 .11.34 to 0. c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*103N/mm2 DpES 2 7. DpLLWW<6.004761 4. f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand.31.331 0.441 2 0.761 0.5.007141 7. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic).004761 4.935 kN/m 2 0. gLLCT.) gLLSE.00m 0.11.45 dim ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES).1. Where. f = 340 . d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. = 0.3 .5.761 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic).34 to 0.00m DpLLWW6.008331 8. DpES = ksqs in Mpa.3 . gLLCV.000 kN/m iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS).6. Where.11. RAINA.007935 N/mm ks wE*103 0.11.5. b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure.s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTOLRFD3.00m DpLLAb6.
900.000 mm WeqAb<6.6.11.00m.11. b) In normal cases. 1.000 mm WeqWW<6.00m. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3) 2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ). The Components will also have to Face the Horizontal Dead Load (DL ) & Live Load (LL) Pressures caused by same Forces acting upon Vertica Faces of Wing Walls having Dimensions with Effective Span Length of Counterforts & Height of Wing Wall.11.6.000 mm 600.6. Whereas for Calculation of Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) the Effective Horizontal Span would be the Length from Middle Point between Abutment Wall and Counterfort + Equivelent Horizontal Length of Cantilever Wing Wall.00m.050. Having.6.000 0.11. At the same time beyond Well Cap there exists a Cantilever Type Wing Wall at Top Level of Counterfort. 0. heqAb6. heqWW<6. d) The Main Reinforcements of Counterfort will be Against Applied Horizontal Forces upon Effective Horizontal Span of Counterfort.00m.000 mm 600. g) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.441 3 1.c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure.6.4. WeqWW6.& H 6000mm.6. but for the present case Wall Cap is existing beyond Counterfort.& H 6000mm.000 0.600 mm m mm m 6 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Counterforts for Bridge substructure : a) On Extrme edge of Well Cap's Earth Side Counterforts are being proposed for Bridge Substructure as an additional Support for the Cantilever Wing Wall Components. Table3. WeqAb6. AASHTOLRFD3.6.00m.2.424 kg/m 2 9.807 m/sec f) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). Having.835. 600.900 600. heqWW6. AASHTOLRFD3. i) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls.4.000 0. 1.11.00m. These Counterforts will have to Face Vertical Dead Loads (DL) due to Soil & Surcharge Pressure including Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure upon an Area of Well Cap having the Dimensions with Effective Span Length of Counterfort & its Base Length.600 600. Table3.42. c) Since the Counterfort posses Triangular shape & the Applied Forces are of Complex Nature. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm . Thus for Calculation of Vertical Loads (DL & LL) Effective Vertical Span would be considered from Counterfort Outer Face up to the Middle Point between Abutment Wall and the Counterfort.000 0. AASHTOLRFD3. The Shear/Web Reinforcements would be under both Vertical & Horizontal Forces accordingly.668 m .41.11. 900. Having H < 6000mm.00m.4. thus it is considered to adopt the Service Limit State Methodology (WSD) in Flexural Design of Counterforts for Wing Wall. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm . d) To reduce the Complex in Calculation of Horizontal Loads upon the LCantWWEqui.41.1.600 mm m mm m h) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).00m. Table3. k gs g heqAb<6. AASHTOLRFD3. Counterforts would have Well Cap/Abutment Cap & Wing Wall/Abutment Wall on their both sides.
c) Effective Span of Counterfort for Horizontal Load Calculations.WWRec. = 2.947 m 90o G/ B C D G q K/ K F hWellCap.50*LCantWW. an Equivalent Horizontal Length is being considered for the Component. 2. Shear & Moments due to Applied 1./2+ tWWCountf. = 3. d) Effective Span of Counterfort for Vertical Load Calculations.*hCant. b) Thickness of Counterfort for Wing Wall.WWTri.2 m LWCapToe.305 m SEff. = SAverCount&Ab.147 m H1 = 4.375 m 0. Thus the Calculated Equivalent Horizontal Length of Cantilever Wing Wall = (LCantWW.000 m G/ H= 6. SEff. tWWCountf.+ LCantWWEqui./2+ tWWCountf..525 m LCountBase.000m Width/Depth Strips are being considered both in Vertical & Horizontal.*hCant. = 0. = E 1.)/H1 e) For Flexural Design & Calculation of Loads. SAverCount&Ab.000 m 1.Trapezoid Shape Cantilever Wing Wall.CoutfVLoad. 1. keeping its Height & Vertical Surface Area same.45 m ii) Computation of Span Lengths for Vertical & Horizontal Loads upon Counterfort : a) Clear span in between Counterfort & Abutment Wall (Average).450 m 3.CoutfHLoad.45 m A q bStripV hStripH 1.638 m . 7 Calculation of Loads upon Counterfort: i) Skech Diagram Showing Dimentions Related to Loads Upon Counterfort : tWW. = SAverCount&Ab. + 0.
535 kN/m pH(DL+LL) 60.DLV 47.CoutfVLoad. = gDE*pEarthDLH b) Intensity of Factored Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to the Horizontal Surcharge Dead Load Pressure upon Horizontal Effective Span Length. (H1<6.*pSurLLH .000m). d) Intensity of Total Factored Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to all Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length.968 kN/m FpH(DL+LL) 94. = gDS*pSurDLH c) Intensity of Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort at its Bottom due to the Horizontal Surcharge Live Load Pressure for Wing Wall upon Horizontal Effective Span Length. = ko*H1*SEff. = wC*hWellCap*SEff.642 kN/m . = DpLLWW*SEff.hStripH c) Intensity of Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to the Horizontal Surcharge Live Load Pressure for Wing Wall upon Horizontal Effective Span Length. = pEarthDLH + pSurDLH + pSurLLH iv) Computation of Factored Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort : a) Intensity of Factored Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to Active Horizontal Earth Dead Load Pressure upon Horizontal Effective Span Length. = wE*H1*SEff.iii) Computation of Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort : a) Intensity of Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to Active Horizontal Earth Dead Load Pressure upon Horizontal Effective Span Length.CoutfVLoad. = gLLLS.208 kN/m pSurDLH 26.CoutfHLoad.hStripV.hStripH (H1<6.968 kN/m FpSurDLH 26.400 kN/m pSelf.hStripH b) Intensity of Horizontal Load acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to the Horizontal Surcharge Dead Load Pressure upon Horizontal Effective Span Length.225 kN/m FpSurLLH 60. c) Intensity of Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Vertical Surcharge Live Load Pressure for Wing Wall upon Vertical pEarthDLV 145.hStripV b) Intensity of Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Dead Load Pressure caused by Self Weight of Well Cap upon Vertical Effective Span Length.CoutfHLoad. = DpES*SEff. = FpEarthDLH + FpSurDLH + FpSurLLH v) Computation of Vertical Loads acting upon Counterfort : a) Intensity of Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Active Vertical Earth Dead Load Pressure upon Vertical Effective Span Length.225 kN/m pSurLLH 27.208 kN/m pEarthDLH 7.813 kN/m FpEarthDLH 7.000m).160 kN/m pSurLLV 13. d) Intensity of Total Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to all Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length.Wt.CoutfHLoad.
697 34.947 m o g) Let q be the Angle formed at Top between the Earth Side Vertical Face of Wing Wall & Counterfort's Inclined Face. (H1<6. h) From Sketch Diagramvalue of tanq = GF/H1 1 i) From the Calcutated value of tanq.615 kN/m 8 Calculation of Shearing & Moments Forces acting upon Counterfort due to Applied Forces : i) Selection of Plane for Critical Section to Calculate action of Shearing Forces & Moments : a) The Critical Section of Counterfort Prevails at B. the Perpendicular Distance from Earth Face of the Counterfort up to the Critical Point should be determined.Effective Span Length. thus to Calculate the Effective Depth of Flexural Reinforcement on Tension Face. Horizontal Forces on its Bottom Level.DLV c) Intensity of Factored Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Vertical Surcharge Live Load Pressure for Wing Wall upon Vertical Effective Span Length.488 sinq .hStripV.Wt. GF BF H1 3.DLV + pSurLLV vi) Computation of Factored Vertical Loads acting upon Counterfort : a) Intensity of Factored Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F &r G due to Active Vertical Earth Dead Load Pressure upon Vertical Effective Span Length. (H1<6000m). = FpEarthDLV + FpSelf.000m).813 kN/m pH(DL+LL) 206.160 kN/m FpSurLLV 13.CoutfVLoad.572 0 j) Thus Value of sinq = sin34. b) Since the Counterfort is of Triangular Shape having Max.*pSurLLV.609 rad 0.615 kN/m FpSelf.642 kN/m FpV(DL+LL) 206. d) Intensity of Total Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level due to all Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length. the Point on Toe Face of Wing Wall at Top Surface of Well Cap. d) Intensity of Total Factored Vertical Loads acting upon Counterfort on its Bottom Level at F & G due to all Vertical Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length. d) From Sketch Diagram Distance between Point B & F = LCountBase.900 m 4. = gDC*pSelf.892 0 0.Wt.Wt.DLV + FpSurLLV FpEarthDLV 145. = DpLLWW*SEff. + tWW e) Height of Wing Wall from Top of Well Cap up to its Top.Wt.DLV 47. the value of q = tan tanq q 0.450 m 3. = gDV*pEarthDLV b) Intensity of Factored Vertical Load acting upon Counterfort Bottom Level at F & G due to Dead Load Pressure caused by Self Weight of Well Cap upon Vertical Effective Span Length. c) From Sketch Diagram Distance between Point G & F = LCountBase. = pEarthDLV+ pSelf. = gLLLS.
0 k) Value of cosq = cos34. 25 mm .025 kNm/m MTotalH 1.Layers 25f Bars will be required as Flexural Reinforcement for the Calculated Moments at Bottom Level of Counterforts b CCover. Since the Parallel Lines GK & BK/ are very colse.DLH*H1 + FpSurLLH*H1 b) The Vertical Shearing Force on Counterfort Critical Section at B is the Total Factored Vertical Loads (DL & LL) on its Bottom Level for the Effective Verticla Span Length = FpV(DLLL)*LCountBase. b = 450mm b) Since the all Faces of Counterfort will be Covered by Earth. c) Let Consider .125. BK/ 3.199 m ii) Calculation of Shearing Forces acting upon Critical Section of Counterfort due to Applied Forces : a) The Horizontal Shearing Force on Counterfort Critical Section at B is the Total Factored Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on its Bottom Level for the Effective Horizontal Span Length = 0.820 2.50*FpSurDLH *H12 c) Bending Moment at B due to Factored Horizontal Live Load Surcharge Pressure = 0. VCriticalH 614.796 kNm/m MSurDLH 320. thus it may Consider GK = G/K/ n) Acoordingly from Geometry of Sketch Diagram Design Depth of Counterfort on its Bottom Level is BK/ = GK + tWW*cosq .900 kNm/m MSurLLH 746. GK = AG sinq = H1*sinq / / m) Let Consider G a Point on Wing Wall Vertical Face on a Line BK which is Parallel to GK & Drown up to Inclined Inclined Face of Counterfort.830 m l) From Geometry of Sketch Diagram the Perpendicular Distance from Point G up to Inclined Face of Counterfort.821 kN iii) Calculation of Design Moments for Provision of Reinforcements Against Applied Horizontal Forces: a) Bending Moment at B due to Factored Horizontal Dead Load Earth Pressure = 1/3*FpEarthDLH *H12 b) Bending Moment at B due to Factored Horizontal Dead Load Surcharge Pressure = 0.721*10^6 Nmm/m 9 Flexural Design of Reinforcements for Counterfort at Bottom Level against Calculated Factored Moment : i) Provisions of Different Elements for Design & Checking for Effective Depth of Counterfort on its Bottom: a) Width of Counterfort for Flexural Design.721 kNm/m 1125.488 cosq GK 0.561 kN VCriticalV 712. 450 mm 75 mm DBarMain.50*FpEarthDLH*H1 + FpSur. thus 75mm Clear Covers are being proposed on its all Faces.50*FpSurLLH*H12 d) Total Factored Bending Moment at B due to all applied Forces = MEarthDLH + MSurDLH + MSurLLH MEarthDLH 58.
371 mm 5. ii) Design of main Reinforcement for Counterfort against Calculated Factored Moment on its Bottom Level: a) Required Steel Area against Calculated Moment = MTotalH/jdfs b) No's of 25f bars required = Asreq/Af25 c) As per Convention & Practice of Design. 1. dproB. 8 nos.991 mm V 405. Clear Cover & Bar Layer Spacing the Provided Effective Depth for Tensial Reinforcements of Counterfort on its Bottom Leval at B.022 nos.874 mm 32 mm 3.DBar f) Since the Counterfort acts as a TBeam.465.687*10^3 N d/ tv 3. 2 490.082.506. Let provide with 8 No's 25f bars as Main Reinforcements for the Counterforts in 2Layers havin 4nos. thus against the Calculated Factored Moment on Bottom Level of Counterfort at B the Required Effective Depth. AsproMain 2 3.232 N/mm 2 0.338 mm g) Since the Provided Effective Depth for Tensial Reinforcement dpro > dreq. thus Formula for the Effective Shearing Force on Bottom Level V = VTotalH . Computed from Table 5.222 N/mm f) Since tv > tc thus Shear Reinforcements in the form of Vertical and Horizontal Ties are required for Counterforts to Provide Reinforcements as well as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements for UnReinforced Surfaces. = (MTotalH /Rb)1/2 Af25 sBarLayers.918 mm dreqB. p tc 2 0. the Calculated Effective Depth. thus the Ptovision of Counterfort Depth on its Bottom Level is OK.CCover . Bars on Each Layer. NBarspro. = BG/ . v) Curtailment of Main Reinforcements in Counterforts: .687 kN 405. b) d/ is Horizontal Effective Depth of Counterfort having value = dpro/cosq / c) The Shearing Stress due to calculated Shearing Force V & Effective Depth d = V/bd/ Asreq NBarsreq.1 of Book Treasure of RCC Design (In S.(MTotalH/d/)*tanq.sBerLayers/2 . 2 2. d) Provided Steel Area againest Provided Main Rinforcements = Af25*NBarspro iii) Checking of Design for Reinforcement in respect of Shear: a) Since the Counterfort TBeam posses variable Depth (Distance between Earth Face of Counterfort & Water Face of Wing Wall). f/C =21MPa.758.I Units) of Sushik Kumar.926.240 N/mm d) Percentage of Steel Provided for the section = 100*As/bd/ e) With p = 0.577 mm 2 0. where.d) XSectional Area of 25f Main Bars = p*DBar2/4 d) Let the Spacing between 2Layers of Main Reinforcement Bars = 32mm e) With 2Layers of Main Bars.147. the Permissible Shearing Stress in concrete.
*hStripH Fp1/2EarthDLH 3.430*10^3 N/m Effective Span Length. the Depth of Section .a) Since Horizontal Earth Pressure on Counterforts reduces with reduction of Depth in upward direction and Bending Moment also reduces accordingly. Thus it is Recommended not reduce the Number of Main Bars of Counterfort.50*Fp1/2EarthDLH*1/3*(1/2H1)2 + Fp1/2SurDLH*(1/2*H1)2 Fp1/2SurLLH*(1/2*H1)2 MH1/2H 53.CoutfHLoad.*hStripH c) At Depth 1/2H1 from Top the Intensity of Factored Horizontal Surcharge Dead Load Pressure. 2 d) XSectional of 2Legged 10f bars as Horizontal Ties = 2*pDBarHor /4 DBarHor.CoutfHLoad.430 kN/m 308.CoutfHLoad.611 mm e) Steel Area required for Horizontal Ties against Horizontal Forces VH1(DL+LL) at Depth H1 from Top of Wing Wall = VH1(DL+LL)/fs f) Spacing required for 2Legged Horizontal Ties at Depth H1 from Top of Wing sreq. the requrment of Steel Area for the Section also reduces. = gLLLS. Af10 AsreqTieH1 10 mm 2 157.DpLLWW*SEff.000 m long Trapezium Shape Extended Cantilever Part at Top Level.*hStripH d) At Depth 1/2H1 from Top the Intensity of Factored Horizontal Surcharge Live Load Pressure. whose Self Weight and Imposed Loads should be supported by the Counterfort. = gDSDpES*SEff. On the mentioned ground 50% of Main Reiforcement from Depth 1/2H1 Depth can be Cut off. No of Bars required for a Section h2.225 kN/m Fp1/2SurLLH 23. = Fp1/2EarthDLH + Fpp1/2SurDLH+ Fpp1/2SurLLH f) Factored Miment due to Horizonal Loads at a Depth 1/2H1 for Section = 0. = FpH(DL+ LL) c) Let Provide 2Legged 10f bars as Horizontal Ties for the Counterfort.400*10^3 N/m b) Factored Horizontal Shearing Force at Depth 1/2H1 from Top due to V1/2H1(DL+LL) 53.h.8v(f) it Appaires that the Calculated Moment at a Depth 1/2H1 is about 1/3rd of Moments at Bottom Level. For these reduction of Moments in respect of Depth (h).524 kNm/m g) From Calculations Sl.892 mm c/c . = FpH(DL+ LL) VH1(DL+LL) 94. = gDEko*1/2H1*SEff.TieH1 272.080 mm 2 575. But the Wing Walls have a 3. b) At Depth 1/2H1 from Top the Intensity of Factored Horizontal Earth Dead Load Pressure.400 kN/m 94.602 kN/m e) Intensity of Total Factored Horizontal Loads acting upon Counterfort at Fp1/2H(DL+LL) 1/2H1 from Top due to Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) upon the Horizontal Effective Span Length.604 kN/m Fp1/2SurDLH 26.430 kN/m Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) acting upon Counterfort for its Horizontal 53. 10 Design of ShearWeb (Tie) Reiforcements for Counterforts: i) Design of Horizontal Ties for Counterforts: a) Factored Horizontal Shearing Force at Depth H1 from Top due to Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) acting upon Counterfort for its Horizontal Effective Span Length.
6147 kN/m b) Vertically Downward Factored Shearing Force at Point F due to Earth & Self Weight of Well Cap Dead Loads (DL)and Suecharge Live Load (LL) = FpV(DL+LL) c) Vertically Downward Factored Shearing Force at Point G due to Earth & Self Weight of Well Cap Dead Loads (DL)and Suecharge Live Load (LL) = FpV(DL+LL) VDF 206. = E 1. = 3.147 m H1 = 4.615*10^3 N/m VDG d) Since the Vertically Factored Shearing Forces at Points F & G have same Magnitude.reqH1.2 m LWCapToe. thus it requires to Provide Shearing/Web Reinforcements for its full Horizontal Length.6147 kN/m FpV(DL+LL) F = 206.525 m LCountBase. DBarHor.615*10^3 N/m 206. e) Let Provide 2Legged 12f bars as Horizontal Ties for the Counterfort.45 m A q sproTieH11/2H1 200 mm c/c H= 6..Wall = Af10*hStripH/As. g) Let Provide 200mm C/C spacing for 2Legged Horizontal Ties with 10f bars for Total Depth.615 kN/m 206.947 m 90o G/ B C D G q K/ K F hWellCap.615 kN/m 206.45 m FpV(DL+LL)G = 206. 12 mm . = 2. ii) Design of Vertical Ties for Counterforts: a) Sketck Diagram Showing Vertical Load Upon Counterfort : tWW. = 0.
FG 179.846 mm e) Area of Steel required as Vertical Ties for Counterforts at Points F & G = VDF&G/fs e) Spacing for 2Legged Vertical Ties with 12f in between F & G = Af12*hStripV/AsreqVTie f) Let Provide 150mm C/C Spacing for Vertical Ties with 2Legged 12f bars in between Points F & G of Counterfort.(F& G) 150 mm C/C .195 mm 2 1. sreqVert.542 mm sproVirt.259.2 f) XSectional of 2Legged 12f bars as Horizontal Ties = 2*pDBarHor /4 Af12 AsreqVTie 2 226.
b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall. Ultimate Stress Design (AASHTOLRFD2004). Unit. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. Design Criteria & Dimensions of Structure : i) Type of Abutment ii) Type of Wingwalls : : Wall Type Abutment. c) Height of Abutment Well Cap. iii) Design Criteria : iv) Dimensions of Substructure Components : Description a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall.147 m 4.947 m 1.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD N. Notation Dimensions H H1 hWellCap. 6350 2147 6.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600 1200 1447 1500 2 Structural Type.200 m Page 499 . Structural Design of Cantilever Portion of Wing Walls: 1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment Wall & Wing Walls : 300 5225 3000 2100 700 C 2000 B A RL5.00m 600 450 300 H1 = 4947 H = 6147 1900 3000 450 RL2.
450 m 3.000 23.019.045.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 ii) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kN/m : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compacted Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWNor.000 No's 0.450 m 0.835.447.350 m 0.680 1. 1.450 m 1. g = 2 9. Strength of Materials & Load Multiplier Factors : 3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitational Acceleration. hCantiWWTrian. wE 24.232 2. f/c (Normal Concrete) f/c 21.975 m 9.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compacted Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor.345.000 m 2.900 m 2. hBackwall HWWall LWWWellCap LAbTInner tWWCountf. g) Thickness of Wing Wall Counterforts h) Number of WingWall Counterforts (on each side) i) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap.000 MPa Page 500 .90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Height of Back Wall f) Height of Wing Wall g) Length of Wing Walls upon Well cap h) Inner Distance in between Wing Walls (Transverse).000 m 1.172 1.947 m 2. gs 2.250 18. gWSali.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.500 m 3 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight.000 10.264 1. wWSali.000 10. j) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls k) Horizontal Length of Cantilever Wing Walls l) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls m) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls hSteam.000 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.147 m 4. NWWcount tWW tCantWW LCantiWW hCantiWWRec.
2.000 MPa 200000. n = Es/Ec 6 8. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.10 v) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD5.500 Page 501 . For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in StrutandTie Models For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD5.750 0. b1 b 0.855.800 1. Es for fy = 410 MPa fc Ec 8.5). fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Load Condition (SLC) = 0. value of Table 3.DW . value of Table 3. (Max. fShear. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete. fPileResistanc.63*21^(1/2).6).5*(fckj) n r k j R 8 20 0. fAncCopmConc. d) Poisson's Ration = 0. fAncTenSteel.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.4. Ec = 0.90 1.887 MPa MPa fr fy fs ES 2.k/3 Value of R = 0.2.700 0.2.000 MPa 164.63*21^(1/2)Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.2.000 1.12) gDC 1. r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) Value of j = 1 .900 1.900 0.63f/c = 0.000 0. fStrut&Tie.2. fBearig..4.85 0.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.4.29 0. f) Steel Ultimate strength.85 4 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors under Strength Limit State Design (USD): a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.4. fr = 0. fSpir/Tie/Seim.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.250 gDW 1.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD5.5.63f/c = 0.043gc1.4.700 0.620 2.400 23.4).2.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Load Condition (SLC) = 0. fFlxPres.887 MPa 410.000 MPa iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTOSLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio.7. : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Compression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4).4.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlxRin.1).40fy g) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement.000 0.
6.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .000 Page 502 .750 1.750 1. gLLLS. (Max. 1.500 gEV 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .1.6. gLLWS.000 gLLSH. (Max.6. c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load AllowanceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3. gLLTU. (Max.000 gLLCR. STRENGTH .4.2.330 gLLLane gLLPL.000 1.400 1. gLLCE.750 1.4. 1. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls. Table 3.750 1. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLWA.750 1. gLLBR. value of Table 3. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).1.000 gLLTruck IM 1. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.750 1. value of Table 3. 1.000 1.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.4.12) ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.000 1.11.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .350 gES 1.III STRENGTH .2.1. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking ForceBR .V gEH 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.500 m 1. gLLWL gLLFR. value of Table 3.
1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane m 1.1 .11. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV gLLTG.000 gLLSE.4.000 gES 1. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls. 1. 1. Table 3. (Max. value of Table 3. Table 3. value of Table 3.4.4.000 gLLEQ.000 gEV 1.000 gLLTruck IM 1.4.000 5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.4.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surcharge Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES . value of Table 3.6.4. (Max.4. 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.1. (Max.6.2. gLLCT.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.000 gDW 1. value of Table 3.1.2.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.DW .12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities. value of Table 3.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).6. c) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3.000 gLLLane 1. SERVICE .1. Table 3.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .1.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLCV.4.000 1.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.4.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV. (Max.000 Page 503 .000 gEH 1.12) gDC 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.
gLLLS. ko = (1sinff ) .90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.300 1.000 gLLSH.9.000 1.000 gLLSE. 1. 1. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLTU.441 f 34.700 1. 1.Where. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Breaking ForceBR . q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV 6 Load Coefficients Factors & Intensity of Different Imposed Loads : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure. Page138.II SERVICE . gLLWA.000 ko 0.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. 1.300 1. gLLCT.300 1. 1. f = 340 .II SERVICE . RAINA's Book) SERVICE . o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLWL gLLFR. 1. gLLCV. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).IV SERVICE .000 gLLEQ. Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil.000 gLLTG. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gLLCR.II gLLPL. f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand.(Table 12.000 0. gLLBR. gLLCE.000 1. gLLWS. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 O Page 504 .000 1.
AASHTOLRFD3.00m.6.6.761 0. Where.11. 900.Table 3.41.000 mm 600. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm . = 0.6.00m.5.6.935 kN/m 2 0.11.6.45 dim ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES).90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soil AASHTOLRFD3. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. 1.141 0. WeqAb6.4.600 mm m mm m h) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).761 0.31.31.34 to 0. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .42.900 600.807 m/sec N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressure due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic). k gs g heqAb<6.004761 4.3 .000 0.11.1.11.1.11.4.000 kN/m iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS). Where.11. Where.441 2 0. AASHTOLRFD3. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 DpLLAb<6.6.5.00m. Table3.34 to 0.050.6. AASHTOLRFD3.005 4. Table3. 900. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 .008331 8.11. heqAb6.6. : a) Constant Earth Pressure both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). heqWW<6.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.11.00m c) ks is Coefficient of Lateral Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure.4. c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge (Mpa) = wE*103N/mm2 DpES 2 7.) d 19 to 24 O tan d 0. DpES = ksqs in Mpa. Table3.Table 3. AASHTOLRFD3.11.4. DpLLWW<6. f) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).018 N/mm 2 18. Having.424 kg/m 2 9.5.331 0.007 7.11.11. AASHTOLRFD3.000 mm Page 505 . Having.45 (AASHTOLRFD3.000 mm 600.2. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3) 2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ). heqWW6.5.00m.3 .00m 0.835.00m DpLLWW6.6.00m DpLLAb6. b) ks is Coefficient of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure. g) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm. AASHTOLRFD3.11. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressure due to Uniform Surcharge.000 0.41.00m.441 3 1.00m.& H 6000mm.000 mm WeqAb<6.008 N/mm ks wE*103 0.
00 m LSteip2 = DVStrip3 = DVStrip4 = 1.500 m 1.000m Depth & the Bottom One is of 0. WeqWW6. thus the Flexural Design should be done considering the Cantilever Wing Walls are of Span Strips in Horizontal Direction Each having 1. Shearing Forces & Moments Let considered the Cantilever Wing Walls being divided in 4 (Four) Horizontal Span Strips of whom Top 3 (Three) have 1.00m.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD i) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls.000 m 3m DVStrip13 DVStrip4 1.& H 6000mm.00 m LSteip(Aver)3 = 0.000 0. Moment occurs on Support Edge due to Total Applied Loads. = 2. 600. But the Cumulative Horizontal Loads on Upper Strip is Higher than that of Deeper Strip due to greater Span Length.00m.500m Depth. Thus to ensure the sustainability of these Type of Wing Walls those should Designed as a Cantilever Flexural Component against the affect of Horizontal Loads & Forces (DL & LL) accordingly.000 0. c) For the Design purpose & Calculation of Imposed Loads (DL & LL).600 600. Since in Cantilever Component Max.50 m LSteip(Aver)4 = 0.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. = 1. Under Horizontal Pressure (DL & LL) the Wing Walls behave as Cantilever Structure having Fixed End on Bottom in Horizontal Plane. Load Intensity caused by Horizontal Earth Pressures (DL) & Surcharge Loads (DL & LL) are Higher at Deep Depth & those gradually reduce with reduction of Depth.000 m 0. Having H < 6000mm.000 m 2m hCantiWWTrian. But the Cantilever Wing Walls have Vertical Fixed End due to their Trapezoidal Shape having Variable Depth. These Wing Walls also have to Face the same Horizontal Loads/Pressure (DL & LL) as that of Normal Wing Walls. d) Sketch Diagram of Cantilever Wing Wall & Arrangement of Design Strips : LCantiWW = DVStrip1 = 1. b) Cantilever Wing Walls have Vertical Fixed End & their Depth gradually reduces with distance from Support. WeqWW<6.500 m 3m 3m hCantiWWRec.000m Depth.600 mm m mm m 7 Philosophy in Flexural Design of Cantilever Wing Walls of Bridge Structure : a) The Wing Walls of Bridge Substructure will have to face Horizontal Dead Load (DL) & Live Load (LL) Pressures due to Earth & Surcharge upon them.00 m LSteip1 = DVStrip2= 1. On Rectangular Portion Loads will the Total for Span & on Triangular Portion those will the Average of Top & Bottom Span Strips.500 m LSteipTop4 = 8 Calculations of Horizontal Loads Upon Design Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall: i) Design Strips & Strip Dimensions : Page 506 .
000 m 3. f) Average Horizontal Length of 4th Strip on Wing Wall's Triangular Portion (Considering Equivalent Rectangular Shape for the Strip). = 3. 0. b) Intensity of Surcharge Dead Load Horizontal Pressure at any Depth h.500 m 4.000 m 1.000m . 1. = 3.000 m LStrip(Aver)4. For Present Case Depth h < 6.000m for Top 3Strips & for Bottom One D = 0. = LSteip1 = DVStrip2= 1. DVStrip13.000 m 0.50 m LSteip(Aver)4 = 0. DVStrip4 NStrip. 3. c) Intensity of Surcharge Live Load Horizontal Pressure at any Depth h.500m b) Total Number of Horizontal Strips for Design in Cantilever Wing Walls c) Horizontal Length of 1st. Which is a Constant Factor for Site Soil Condition. LStrip1 LStrip2 LStrip(Aver)3. Which is a Constant Factor for Site Soil Condition.00 m LSteip(Aver)3 = 0. where wEko in kN/m3 .000 m 3m Page 507 . wE*ko 3 7. LCantiWW = DVStrip1 = 1.000 m 2.500 m 2m hStrip4Bot.935 kN/m DpLLWW 2 8.331 kN/m d) Sketch Diagram showing Depth of Different Levels Horizontal Strips from Top of Cantilever Wing Wall.000m. Which is a Constant Factor for Site Soil Condition & Depth h 6.00 m hStrip1Bot. = 2.000 m 3m hStrip2Bot. on Cantilever Wing Wall can Expressed by pSurLLWW = DpLLWW in kN/m2 . on Cantilever Wing Wall can Expressed by pSurDL = DpES in kN/m2 .000 nos. Strips on Wing Wall's Rectangular Portion d) Horizontal Length of 2nd Strips on Wing Wall's Rectangular Portion e) Average Horizontal Length of 3rd Strip on Wing Wall's Triangular Portion (Considering Equivalent Rectangular Shape for the Strip).DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD a) Let the Design Strips in Horizontal Direction with having Depth in Vertical Direction D = 1.500 m ii) Intensity of Horizontal Earth & Surcharge Pressure (DL & LL) on Wing Wall Components : a) Intensity of Horizontal Earth Pressure at any Depth h.500 m 3m hStrip3Bot. on Cantilever Wing Wall can Expressed by pEarth = wE*ko*h .00 m LSteip2 = DVStrip3 = DVStrip4 = 1.935 kN/m DpES 2 7.
804 kN PEStrip2 47.943 kN iv) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : a) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip1 = DpES*DVStrip1*LStrip1 b) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip2 = DpES*DVStrip2*LStrip2 c) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip3 = DpES*DVStrip3*LStrip(Aver)3 d) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip4 = DpES*DVStrip4*LStrip(Aver)4 PSurDLStrip1 23.869 kN PSurDLStrip4 1. a) Total Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip1 = wEko*hStrip1Bot*DVStrip1*LStrip1 b) Total Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip2 = wEko*hStrip2Bot*DVStrip2*LStrip2 c) Total Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip3 = wEko*hStrip3Bot*DVStrip3*LStrip(Aver)3 d) Total Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip4 = wEko*hStrip4Bot*DVStrip4*LStrip(Aver)4 PEStrip1 23.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD LSteipTop4 = 1.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.083 kN vi) Total Horizontal Dead Loads (DL) due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips : Page 508 .984 kN v) Total Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : a) Total Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip1 = DpLLWW*DVStrip1*LStrip1 b) Total Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip2 = DpLLWW*DVStrip2*LStrip2 c) Total Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip3 = DpLLWW*DVStrip3*LStrip(Aver)3 d) Total Horizontal Live Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip4 = DpLLWW*DVStrip4*LStrip(Aver)4 PSurLLStrip1 24.993 kN PSurLLStrip2 24.804 kN PSurDLStrip3 15.607 kN PEStrip4 6.804 kN PSurDLStrip2 23.000 m iii) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Earth Pressure on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : (Considering Intensity of Horizontal Earth Pressure on Bottom of Strip is Effective on full Depth).662 kN PSurLLStrip4 2.607 kN PEStrip3 47.993 kN PSurLLStrip3 16.
737 kN Page 509 .90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD a) Total Horizontal Dead Load due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Strip1 = PEStrip1 + PSurDLStrip1 b) Total Horizontal Dead Load due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Strip2 = PEStrip2 + PSurDLStrip2 c) Total Horizontal Dead Load due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Strip3 = PEStrip3+ PSurDLStrip3 d) Total Horizontal Dead Load due to Earth & Surcharge Pressure on Strip4 = PEStrip4+ PSurDLStrip4 PDLStrip1 47.975 kN iii) Factored (USD) Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip1 = gLLLS*PSurLLStrip1 b) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip2 = gLLLS*PSurLLStrip2 PSurLLStrip1USD 43.705 kN 71.737 kN PSurLLStrip2USD 43.705 kN PSurDLStrip3USD 23.804 kN PSurDLStrip4USD 2.414 kN ii) Factored (USD) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip1 = gES*PSurDLStrip1 b) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip2 = gES*PSurDLStrip2 c) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip3 = gES*PSurDLStrip3 d) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip4 = gES*PSurDLStrip4 PSurDLStrip1USD 35.411 kN PDLStrip3 63.71 kN PSurDLStrip2USD 35.926 kN 9 Calculations of Factored Horizontal Loads Upon Design Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall under Strength Limit State Design (USD): i) Factored (USD) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Earth Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip1 = gEH*PEStrip1 b) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip2= gEH*PEStrip2 c) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip3 = gEH*PEStrip3 d) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip4 = gEH*PEStrip4 PEStrip1USD PEStrip2USD PEStrip3USD PEStrip4USD 35.411 kN 10.476 kN PDLStrip4 8.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.607 kN PDLStrip2 71.411 kN 71.
804 kN PSurDLStrip3WSD 15.984 kN iii) Factored (WSD) Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips : Page 510 .DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.034 kN 10 Calculations of Factored Horizontal Loads Upon Design Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall under Service Limit State Design (WSD): i) Factored (WSD) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Earth Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip1 = gEH*PEStrip1 b) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip2= gEH*PEStrip2 c) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip3 = gEH*PEStrip3 d) Factored Horizontal Earth Pressure on Strip4 = gEH*PEStrip4 PEStrip1WSD PEStrip2WSD PEStrip3WSD PEStrip4WSD 23.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD c) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip3 =gLLLS*PSurLLStrip3 d) Factored Horizontal Live Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip4 = gLLLS*PSurLLStrip4 PSurLLStrip3USD 29.607 kN 47.804 kN PSurDLStrip2WSD 23.943 kN ii) Factored (WSD) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Different Strips : a) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip1 = gES*PSurDLStrip1 b) Total Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip2 = gES*PSurDLStrip2 c) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip3 = gES*PSurDLStrip3 d) Factored Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip4 = gES*PSurDLStrip4 PSurDLStrip1WSD 23.869 kN PSurDLStrip4WSD 1.373 kN PStrip4USD 17.607 kN 6.158 kN PSurLLStrip4USD 3.853 kN PStrip3USD 124.148 kN PStrip2USD 150.804 kN 47.645 kN iv) Factored (USD) Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : a) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip1 = PEStrip1USD + PSurDLStrip1USD + PSurLLStrip1USD b) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip2 = PEStrip2USD + PSurDLStrip2USD + PSurLLStrip2USD c) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip3 = PEStrip3USD + PSurDLStrip3USD + PSurLLStrip3USD d) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip4 = PEStrip4USD + PSurDLStrip4USD + PSurLLStrip4USD PStrip1USD 115.
373*10^6 Nmm 4.280*10^6 Nmm 124.662 kN PSurLLStrip4WSD 2.600 kN PStrip2WSD 96.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.403 kN PStrip3WSD 80.900 kNm 108.900*10^6 Nmm Page 511 .009 kN 11 Calculation of Moments on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall at Counterfort Face .993 kN PSurLLStrip3WSD 16.138 kN PStrip4WSD 11.259 kNm 4.259*10^6 Nmm MStrip2USD MStrip3USD MStrip4USD ii) Moments on Different Strips at Counterfort Face due Factored Loads under Service Limit Stale (WSD) : a) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip1 = PStrip1WSD*LStrip1/2 MStrip1WSD 108.722*10^6 Nmm 226.373 kNm 124. i) Moments on Different Strips at Counterfort Face due Factored Loads under Strength Limit Stale (USD) : a) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip1 = PStrip1USD*LStrip1/2 b) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip2 = PStrip2USD*LStrip2/2 c) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip3 = PStrip3USD*LStrip(Aver)3/2 d) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip4 = PStrip4USD*LStrip(Aver)4/2 MStrip1USD 172.083 kN iv) Factored (WSD) Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Different Strips of Cantilever Wing Wall : a) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip1 = PEStrip1WSD + PSurDLStrip1WSD + PSurLLStrip1WSD b) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip2 = PEStrip1WSD + PSurDLStrip1WSD + PSurLLStrip1WSD c) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip3 = PEStrip3WSD + PSurDLStrip3WSD + PSurLLStrip3WSD d) Factored Total Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Strip4 = PEStrip4WSD + PSurDLStrip4WSD + PSurLLStrip4WSD PStrip1WSD 72.280 kNm 226.993 kN PSurLLStrip2WSD 24.722 kNm 172.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD a) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip1 = gLLLS*PSurLLStrip1 b) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip2 = gLLLS*PSurLLStrip2 c) Factored Horizontal Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip3 =gLLLS*PSurLLStrip3 d) Factored Horizontal Live Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Strip4 = gLLLS*PSurLLStrip4 PSurLLStrip1WSD 24.
752*10^6 Nmm MStrip3WSD MStrip4WSD iii) Moments on Different Strips at Counterfort Face due Unfactored Dead Loads : a) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip1 = PDLStrip1*LStrip1/2 b) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip2 = PDLStrip2*LStrip2/2 c) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip3 = PDLSrip3*LStrip(Aver)3/2 d) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip4 = PDLStrip4*LStrip(Aver)4/2 MDLStrip1UF 71. a) Let Consider the Design Width in Vertical direction for Strip1 = 1000mm Strip2 = 1000mm Strip3 = 1000mm Strip4 = 500mm b) Let the Clear Cover on Earth Face of CCov.00 0.232*10^6 Nmm MDLStrip2UF MDLStrip3UF MDLStrip4UF 12 Computation of Related Features required for Flexural Design of Main Reinforcements (Horizontal) for Cantilever Wing Walls : i) Design Strip Width for Cantilever Wing Walls in Vertical Direction & Clear Cover on different Faces.50 75 50 m m m m mm mm ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement. = 75mm.00 1.752 kNm 2.Water = 50mm. b1 b2 b3 b4 CCovEarth. CCov.00 1.138 kNm 80. a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for c/deMax.476*10^6 Nmm 2.605*10^6 Nmm 80.7.138*10^6 Nmm 2.411*10^6 Nmm 107.411 kNm 71.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD b) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip2 = PStrip2WSD*LStrip2/2 c) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip3 = PStrip3WSD*LStrip(Aver)3/2 d) Moment at Counterfort Face due to Factored Loads on Strip4 = PStrip4WSD*LStrip(Aver)4/2 MStrip2WSD 144.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. where . Let the Clear Cover on Water Face.Earth.1) : . ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 c de 0.116 kNm 107116*10^6 Nmm 63.605 kNm 144.3. a Section c/de 0.476 kNm 63. (AASHTOLRFD5. b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm.232 kNm 2.42 in which.42 Variable Variable As Aps Variable Variable mm2 mm2 Page 512 . CCovWater 1. i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy). Here.3.
fps & dp are = 0. d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.1Table3. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm.887 N/mm 97437015. Strip2 & Strip3).4. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0.Mdnc(Sc/Snc 1) Scfr where.2*Mcr or 1.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa.3/12)/(tCantWW. which one is less.437 kNm Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 Variable Variable Variable Nmm Nmm Nmm Page 513 .033750 m 3 33.4. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*tCantWW.7. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm.750*10^6 mm fr McrStrip1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr fcpe Variable Nmm N/mm2 Mdnc Variable Nmm Sc Variable mm3 Snc 3 0. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.3. (For Strip1. (AASHTOLRFD5.3 2 2. Strip2 & Strip3). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements. i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa.11.714 Nmm 97. Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0. thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr (For Strip1.6). b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) . iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.2Mcr./2).90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm. iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement.4. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds .750/10^3 m 3 33.2. v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa.3.2.(AASHTO LRFD5.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3.2) : fy fps dp ds Variable Variable Variable N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.
90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD g) For Strip4 having Strip Width b = 0.437 97.437 48.875/10^3 m 3 16.437 97.411 107. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DStrip12/4 DStrip1 Af16.722*10^6 Nmm/m Page 514 .719 97.280 124. Factored Moment (1.437 48.022 pmax.843 + fy))).2Mcr (M Mr) kNm kNm 116. Moment Equation Value Moment Moment of Section Wing MDLUF 5.75) pb 0.437 48.33 Times of M.3.857 48.437 97.924 58.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) (1.437 97.722*10^6 116.373 4.2.500m. b) Max.437 97.062 mm MStrip1USD Mr 172. pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.722 kNm/m 172.924 116.476 2. Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.3/12)/(tCantWW. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Strip1.2*Mcr) M Wall kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm Strip1 Strip2 Strip3 Strip4 71.924*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m MU 172.3.259 1. 0. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. 16 mm 2 201.722 226.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section. thus MStrip1 is the Design Moment MU.462 iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio.500m. = f *pb . Since the Strip is facing Earth Loads.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. thus requird Reinforcements will be on Earth Side.7.462 172.116 63.720 300.924 116. Mcr = Sncfr McrStrip4 48718507. b) Since MStrip1USD> Mr. Snc 3 0.017 m 3 16.843/(599.953 165.280 124. Steel Ratio.722 172.373 58.924 116.pb & Max. (Here f = 0.pmax according to AASHTO19968. pmax.664 Mr Maximum Allowable Flexural Min.33*M) kNm 229.924 116.924 58.016 13 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall against Calculated the Moments on Strips1 : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) Calculated Flexural Moment in Horizontal Span Strip1 of Cantilever Wing Wall is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.462 172.719 116. Snc = (b*tCantWW.16. Moment Moment for RCC Mu 1.437 97.232 97. Thus MStrip1 is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against Moment value.415 5. Steel Ratio.722 226.924 116.719 97./2).719 kNm Nmm g) Table1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for Minimum Reinforcement of Strips Direction Strip No.2 Times M for Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr Factored Moments Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking Moment on Cant.875*10^6 mm h) For Strip4 having Strip Width b = 0.
148 kN/m 115. the required value of a = dpro*(1 .3. in mm.7.861 151.619 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.450 39. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.107 OK c/depro<c/demax.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. Asreq.107 n) Relation between c/deMax. 367.C/C 100 mm.(1 .42.761 mm2/m mm.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. Steel Ratio rMax. dpro = (tCant. 115.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 125mm.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face.C/C = Af16. = MU/(ffy(dpro .7. where.1.3. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) depro. VStrip1 = PStrip1USD = VU VU.010. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.388 mm AsreqStrip1Earth sreq spro. In Flexural Design c/de 0. or Not) c/deMax. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqStrip1Earth g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 125mm.C/C AsproStrip1Earth 2.182 mm 283.000 mm areq.148*10^3 N/m Page 515 .3. c Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK 0.WW CCovEarth.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. 1. Thus Shear Force.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max.255 mm b1 c/depro 0.85 0.503 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area. having c = b1apro. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0. 27.005 46. DStrip1/2) d) With Design Moment MU .3. v) Checking Against Calculated Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip1 : a) The Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip1 is the Total Factored Load on the Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. = Aspro*fy(d .324.
3..8.075*10^3 N/m 2.000 mm 330.8. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tCantWW Thickness of Cant. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.5. Vp = 0.6. or bv. the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip1 Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement. Steel Ratio.8. 5.617*10^3 N/m 0.512.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section.2. 1. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.5. vu = (VU . Whereas. 0. (For RCC Structure Elements. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.00. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5. Provided Steel Ratio < Max. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure. value of 0.512.) Vc Vs b 2.075*10^3 N/m 2.617*10^3 N/m 1.31.72h for the Section.Here. In which. which one is greater. 330.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.8.300 mm 324.31).90 N VnStrip1 1.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.617 kN/m 2152. thus Vp = 0.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.9*de. (AASHTOLRFD. thus the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip1 does not require any Shear Reinforcement.8.8.3.083bf/cbvdv.3.00 Vp. (AASSHTOLRFD5. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. here bv = b.000 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0. dv.3.32.075 kN/m 1734.4. Where. Wing Wall. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.fVp)/fbvdv.9*de for the Section.Equ. 0.8. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.000.3 have Satisfied or Not).617 kN/m 2152.3.000 mm 0.075 kN/m 1734.734.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. 5.300 0.3.1.33) in which. AASHTO8.3. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.72h in mm.9de or 0.8.Thus value 0. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9). For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2. thus Flexural Design for Provisio of Horizontal Page 516 .734.16.72h f Vp. the Design Strip Width.
900*10^6 Nmm 2 2. Where.3. Mr = fMn. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip1 is being considered as a Cantilever MnStrip1 283.3.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.503*10^6 Nmm at its Support Face will have value of Nominal Resistance. of Concrete Elements.6fy.722*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at Support Face ( Which one is Greater.722 kNm 172. in Which.7.619 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation.482 N/mm Page 517 . c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. b) fsDev. Moments 283. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. (AASHTOLRFD5. where.000 m Wide Strips.7.000 mm fsa 2 262.900 kNm 108. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.010.3. Mr 255.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD Reinforcement on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip1 is OK. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.581 N/mm MStrip1WSD 108.7. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Support Face of Cantilever Beam is on its Earth Face = MStrip1USD MStrip1USD 172.3. Aspro de 367.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.503*10^6 kNm 0.7. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit fsDev.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.2.4. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.90 Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) Mr>MStrip1USD Satisfied vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement. 2 147.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . at any Section the Nominal Resistance.152*10^6 kNm 283. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section.152 Nmm 256.503 Nmm 283. The Steel Area against Factored Max.503 kNm Beam having 1.
600. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. ZMax.931. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Cant.833 N/mm fsDev.<ZMax.000 mm 23.000 N/mm 0. In a Component of Rectangular Section. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. DBar = 16f .Crack Width Parameter.6fy. ZDev. e) Based on fsDve. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. value of ZMax. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. though Computed Tensile Stress fsa>0. thus value of Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. Wing Wall fsDev. Clear Cover = 50mm. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. = fsDev. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea. dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth. Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Cant. 14 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall against Calculated the Moments on Strips2 : Page 518 . thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement.6fy Not Satisfy Zdev. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress. Wing Wall Strip1 Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev.< fs Satisfy fsa > 0. value of ZMax.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Cant. Wing Wall Structure. The Max.6*fy for the Concrete Element. but Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.6*fy 2 246. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. 58.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. 12. & Developed value ZDev. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.000. Allowable Max.000 mm 2 11. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia.< Zmax. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.
341 mm AsreqStrip2Earth sreq spro. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) MStrip2USD Mr 226.951 114. thus requird Reinforcements will be on .apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DStrip22/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face.7.280 226.(1 . DStrip2/2) d) With Design Moment MU .90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD i) Design Moment for the Section : a) Calculated Flexural Moment in Horizontal Span Strip2 of Cantilever Wing Wall is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.680. Asreq. Thus MStrip2 is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against Moment value. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Strip2.576 mm 369. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. depro. thus MStrip2USD is the Design Moment MU. dpro = (tCant.280*10^6 116.826 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.373 mm2/m mm.3. Earth Side b) Since MStrip2USD > Mr.C/C 75 mm. = MU/(ffy(dpro .924*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m MU 226.3. 1.280 kNm/m 226.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 100mm. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. Since the Strip is facing Earth Loads. the required value of a = dpro*(1 .062 mm 367.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section.757.543 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqStrip2. 16 mm 2 201.280*10^6 Nmm/m DStrip2 Af16. g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 100mm.WW CCovEarth.924 116.1 : Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro OK OK Page 519 . Steel Ratio rMax. 36.007 61.000 mm areq.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max.C/C AsproStrip2Earth 2.C/C = Af16. = Aspro*fy(d .
value of 0.075 kN/m 1734.075*10^3 N/m 2. 330.9*de for the Section.fVp)/fbvdv.9de or 0.000 mm 0.5.3. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.853*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. dv.2. c 0.450 52.3. or bv.9). VStrip2 = PStrip2USD = VU VU.3.340 mm b1 c/depro 0.075*10^3 N/m 2.734.8. (AASSHTOLRFD5. vu = (VU .. (AASHTOLRFD.42.8.32. 0. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.617*10^3 N/m 0.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. 1.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.8. v) Checking Against Calculated Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip2 : a) The Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip2 is the Total Factored Load on the Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.Thus value 0.8.7.000. thus Vp = 0.72h in mm.075 kN/m 1734. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5. here bv = b. or Not) c/deMax.900 N VnStrip1 1.512.31.Here.734.1. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.72h f Vp. having c = b1apro. which one is greater.Equ. Whereas. 5. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure.143 OK c/depro<c/demax. Wing Wall. the Design Strip Width.143 n) Relation between c/deMax.617 kN/m 2152. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tCantWW Thickness of Cant.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ. in mm. In which.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.3.617*10^3 N/m 1. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value Vc Vs Page 520 .3.5.. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.512.3. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.31).000 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0.9*de. Thus Shear Force.72h for the Section.617 kN/m 2152.000 mm 330. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section. 150.300 mm 324. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.85 0.853 kN/m 150. In Flexural Design c/de 0. Where.083bf/cbvdv. where.8.300 0.
152*10^6 kNm 369. thus Flexural Design for Provisio of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip2 is OK.7.7.280*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at Support Face ( Which one is Greater. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.3.280 kNm 226.8.543 Nmm 283. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2. Mr 332. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. (AASHTOLRFD5. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. Moments 283.7.543 kNm Beam having 1. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.33) in which.503*10^6 kNm 0.) b 2. where. the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip2 Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement.8. 0.000 m Wide Strips. Mr = fMn. Steel Ratio.90 Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.4.2. Provided Steel Ratio < Max. 5. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.3.3. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Support Face of Cantilever Beam is on its Earth Face = MStrip2USD MStrip2USD 226. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.3.589 Nmm 255.3.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.00 Vp. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) Mr>MStrip2USD Satisfied vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement. Vp = 0. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.00.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component. (For RCC Structure Elements.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) .6.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements.3 have Satisfied or Not). AASHTO8. The Steel Area against Factored Max. thus the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip2 does not require any Shear Reinforcement.1.16.3.8.503*10^6 Nmm at its Support Face will have value of Nominal Resistance. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip2 is being considered as a Cantilever MnStrip2 369.4) : Page 521 .
7. b) fsDev. value of ZMax. Clear Cover = 50mm. 58.000 N/mm 0.6fy.6*fy 2 246. in Which. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia.000 mm 23. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.000 mm fsa 2 288. Clear Cover = 50mm. thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar.000 mm 2 8. 2 146.605*10^6 Nmm 2 2. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.700. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev.4.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. of Concrete Elements. The Max. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. Where. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.000. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall.238 N/mm Page 522 . value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea.6*fy for the Concrete Element. = fsDev.826 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. thus value of Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. ZMax. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.98 N/mm MStrip2WSD 144. In a Component of Rectangular Section. dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Cant.605 kNm 144. DBar = 16f . Aspro de 367. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.701.3. e) Based on fsDve.680.899 N/mm i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. 11. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.*(dcA)1/3 ZDev. Wing Wall Structure. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.
Crack Width Parameter. & Developed value ZDev. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section. the required value of a = dpro*(1 . thus requird Reinforcements will be on Earth Side. Wing Wall Strip2 Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. dpro = (tCant. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. though Computed Tensile Stress fsa>0.<ZMax. Thus MStrip3 is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against Moment value. value of ZMax.000 mm 2 201. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. depro. Wing Wall fsDev. DStrip3/2) d) With Design Moment MU .C/C DStrip3 Af16. Since the Strip is facing Earth Loads.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress.< Zmax. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. 943. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DStrip32/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face.504 mm AsreqStrip3Earth sreq spro.C/C Page 523 .924*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m MU 124.6fy. fsDev.109 mm2/m mm.6fy Not Satisfy Zdev. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Strip3. 15 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall against Calculated the Moments on Strips3 : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) Calculated Flexural Moment in Horizontal Span Strip3 of Cantilever Wing Wall is Greater than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr.470 213. b) Since MStrip3USD> Mr.373 kNm/m 124. 19. thus MStrip3 is the Design Moment MU.373*10^6 Nmm/m 367. 16. Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Cant.C/C 175 mm.000 mm areq.373*10^6 116.but Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.924 116.373 124. Asreq.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqStrip3 g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 175mm.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Cant.< fs Satisfy fsa > 0. Allowable Max. = MU/(ffy(dpro .062 mm MStrip3USD Mr 124.WW CCovEarth.(1 .
Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm.663 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.3.72h 330.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max.fVp)/fbvdv. v) Checking Against Calculated Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip3 : a) The Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip3 is the Total Factored Load on the Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.3.C/C = Af16. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section. where.7. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) AsproStrip3Earth 1. Whereas.390 mm 166. here bv = b.2.061 OK c/depro<c/demax.000 mm 330.9*de for the Section.431 mm b1 c/depro 0.Here. or Not) c/deMax.300 mm 324. VStrip3= PStrip3USD = VU VU.000 mm Page 524 . having c = b1apro. vu = (VU . Wing Wall.373*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section.8. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.300 0.72h for the Section. = Aspro*fy(d .Thus value 0.9de or 0. 0. Thus Shear Force. Steel Ratio rMax.373 kN/m 124.85 0.1. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tCantWW Thickness of Cant.925 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. Where. in mm.3.003 26.3. the Design Strip Width. 124. which one is greater.148.9). e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.9*de. bv. value of 0.061 n) Relation between c/deMax.apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU.7. (AASSHTOLRFD5.72h in mm.450 22. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. 1. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0. In Flexural Design c/de 0. dv.000.42.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0. c Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro OK OK 0.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.
thus Flexural Design for Provisio of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip3 is OK.) Vc Vs b 2.8.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.5. thus Vp = 0.075*10^3 N/m 2.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ. AASHTO8.000 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0.512.. Steel Ratio.3.16. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. or f Vp. (For RCC Structure Elements.00. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.083bf/cbvdv. the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip3 Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement.8. 5. Vp = 0. Mr 149.000 Vp.6.3.8.1. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.90 Mn f Page 525 . c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.663 Nmm 193.3.8. Mr = fMn.075*10^3N/m 2.232*10^6 kNm 0.3. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.8. 0.734.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.32.909*10^6 kNm 166.5. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.734.4. where.31).25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.90 N VnStrip1 1. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure. 0.617 kN/m 2152.617*10^3 N/m 1. 5.31. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s..Equ.512.8.3.617*10^3 N/m 0.997 Nmm 173. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.075 kN/m 1734.3 have Satisfied or Not).3. In which. (AASHTOLRFD.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.7. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.8. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.617 kN/m 2152. thus the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip3 does not require any Shear Reinforcement.075 kN/m 1734. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.33) in which.3.3.
The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.300.000 m Wide Strips. The Max. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State of Loads fsDev. if Mr MStrip2USD the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.00 mm 2 20.814 N/mm i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar. Moments at its Support Face will have value of Nominal Resistance. b) fsDev.7.3. in Which.7.4. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall. of Concrete Elements.2.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5.3.3. Clear Cover = 50mm. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0. The Steel Area against Factored Max. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.232*10^6 Nmm 124.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. (AASHTOLRFD5.6fy. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip2 is being considered as a Cantilever MnStrip3 Beam having 1.148. CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia. In a Component of Rectangular Section.925 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . 2 190.373*10^6 Nmm Satisfied f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>MStrip3USD Factored Moment MStrip2USD at Support Face ( Which one is Greater.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.7. DBar = 16f . Aspro de 367.138*10^6 Nmm 2 1. Where. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.056 N/mm MStrip3WSD 80.000 mm fsa 2 217. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Support Face of Cantilever Beam is on its Earth Face = MStrip3USD MStrip3USD 166. dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth.138 kNm 80.000 mm Page 526 . Clear A 58.663 kNm 193.373 kNm 124.
6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. e) Based on fsDve.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress. value of ZMax. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. ii) Provision of Reinforcement for the Section : MStrip4USD Mr 4.< Zmax. b) Since MStrip4 USD < Mr.839 N/mm fsDev. = fsDev.6*fy 2 246 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev.462*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m MU 58.068. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. Wing Wall fsDev. Wing Wall Structure. value of ZMax. thus Component does require any Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea.Crack Width Parameter. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. 23. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max.6*fy for the Concrete Element.259*10^6 58. Allowable Max. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. thus value of Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. & Developed value ZDev. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. 20.6fy .90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD Cover = 50mm.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Cant. Since the Strip is facing Earth Loads. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.462 kNm/m 58. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. Wing Wall Strip3 Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.6fy Zdev.000. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Cant.462*10^6 Nmm/m Page 527 . ZMax. < ZMax. 16 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcements on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall against Calculated the Moments on Strips4 : i) Design Moment for the Section : a) Calculated Flexural Moment in Horizontal Span Strip4 of Cantilever Wing Wall is Less than the Allowable Minimum Moment Mr. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Cant.462 58. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. ZDev. Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Provision of Reinforcement against Moment value.thus Mr is the Design Moment MU.< fs fsa< 0. thus requird Reinforcements will be on Earth Side.000 N/mm 0.259 4.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.
061 OK c/depro<c/demax.000 mm areq.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) e) Steel Area required for the Section. In Flexural Design c/de 0. or Not) c/deMax.b/spro iii) Chacking in respect of Design Moment & Max. 16 mm 2 201. e) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.3.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 16f bars having Spacing 175mm. in mm. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.C/C = Af16.3. dpro = (tCant.7. Page 528 .450 22. = Aspro*fy(d .3.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. Steel Ratio rMax.3. having c = b1apro.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. where.WW CCovEarth.85 0.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD a) Let provide 16f Bars as Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Strip4.390 mm 83. 442. 18. b) XSectional of 16f Bars = p*DStrip42/4 c) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Reinforcement on Earth Face.(1 . = MU/(ffy(dpro .463 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.C/C 175 mm.1. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / b) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) DStrip4 Af16.a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars = Af16b/AsreqStrip4 g) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 16f bars for the Section spro = 175mm.C/C AsproStrip4Earth 574. the required value of a = dpro*(1 .apro/2)/10^6 d) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. iv) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.431 mm b1 c/depro 0. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0. depro.742 227. Asreq.062 mm 367.003 26. c Mpro>Mu pmax>ppro OK OK 0.064 mm2/m mm. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro. Steel Ratio : a) Steel Ratio for the Section.061 n) Relation between c/deMax.305 mm AsreqStrip4Earth sreq spro.42.7.332 kNm/m c) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area. DStrip4/2) d) With Design Moment MU .
309 kN/m 1256.03 kN/m 17. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.3.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.8.4.16.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces Vn>Vu Satisfied VU for the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.9*de. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.9).038 kN/m 867.8. Wing Wall. 17. thus Vp = 0.3. Whereas. 0.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD v) Checking Against Calculated Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip4 : a) The Shear Force at Counterfot Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip4 is the Total Factored Load on the Strip which is also the Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.8.) Vc Vs b 2.3 have Satisfied or Not). VStrip4 = FPStrip4 USD = VU VU.000 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. here bv = b. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.8.3.72h in mm.000 Vp.000 mm 330.32. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5. Vp = 0. Page 529 . 330. (AASHTOLRFD. Where.300 0. vu = (VU .309 kN/m 1256.33) in which.8.1. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tCantWW Thickness of Cant. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.256..5.2. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.90 N VnStrip4 867.00.083bf/cbvdv.9*de for the Section.256. which one is greater. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.9de or 0. value of 0. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.3. dv.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. Thus Shear Force.309*10^3 N/m 0.8. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure.000 mm 0.31. 5. (AASSHTOLRFD5.Thus value 0. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.038*10^3 N/m 1. the Design Strip Width. or bv.fVp)/fbvdv. 500.31). 5.3.8.Here.72h for the Section. AASHTO8.5.309*10^3 N/m 867.3..6. 0.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.300 mm 324.3.034*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. In which.Equ.038 kN/m 867.72h f Vp. (For RCC Structure Elements.038*10^3 N/m 1.
2. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment. vi) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.752*10^6 Nmm 2 574.332 Nmm 83. of Concrete Elements.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) .90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.7.3. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State of Loads fsDev. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip4 is being considered as a Cantilever MnStrip4 Beam having 0.3. if Mr MStrip4USD the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) vii) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.7. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. Mr 74. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Support Face of Cantilever Beam is on its Earth Face = MStrip4USD MStrip4USD 83.4.500 m Wide Strips. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.7. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.259*10^6 Nmm Satisfied f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Mr>MStrip4USD Factored Moment MStrip4USD at Support Face ( Which one is Greater.998 Nmm 74. thus Flexural Design for Provisio of Horizontal Reinforcement on Earth Face of Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip4 is OK.998*10^6 kNm 83. (AASHTOLRFD5.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.3. The Steel Area against Factored Max.332*10^6 kNm 0. the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip4 Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which. Moments at its Support Face will have value of Nominal Resistance. Mr = fMn.90 Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. 2 13.332 kNm 83.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component. Where. where. Steel Ratio. thus the Cantilever Wing Wall on Strip4 does not require any Shear Reinforcement. Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Aspro Page 530 .259 kNm 4.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. b) fsDev.3.7.752 kNm 2.332*10^6 Nmm 4.463 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.055 N/mm MStrip4WSD 2.
6fy . value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max.000.000 mm 23. dc = DBar/2 + CCovEarth. Wing Wall Structure. ZMax. DBar = 16f .6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. thus it’s Components are of Severe Exposure Category having Allowable Max.Crack Width Parameter. ZDev. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. de 367. & Developed value ZDev. thus dc = (16/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. Wing Wall Strip4 Earth Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. 17 Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements both on Earth & Water Faces of Cantilever Wing Page 531 .378. Allowable Max.6*fy 2 246 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. In a Component of Rectangular Section. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Cant. Since Clear Cover on Earth Face of Back Wall.6*fy for the Concrete Element.In Abutment Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. thus value of Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve.< fs fsa< 0. Clear Cover = 50mm. The Depth is Summation Earth/Water Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. 1. 58. < ZMax.6fy Zdev. Wing Wall fsDev.00 mm 2 20. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. value of ZMax.000 N/mm 0.< Zmax.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. in Which. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. The Max. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Cant. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev.< fsa Computed Tensile Stress. = fsDev. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Cant. value of ZMax.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. Clear Cover = 50mm.6fy. CCovEarth = 75mm & Bar Dia.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. = 23000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. which is Calculated A by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.492 N/mm fsDev.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure is very close to Sea. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.814 N/mm i) dc= Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest dc Tension Bar.000 mm fsa 2 217. e) Based on fsDve.300.
1. In a Component having Less 1200mm Thickness. Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements should not Spaced further Apart than 3.(Here Thickness = 450mm). hVer. i) 3.*hVer.00*tCont.8. Both in Vertical & Horizontal Direction on Water Face. 3.000 m 1. Steel Area required as Shrinkage Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components having its Thickness 1200mm or Less. As 0.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD Walls in Vertical & Horizontal Directions : i) Requiment of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements for Cantilever Wing Walls : a) The Flexural Design of Cantilever Wing Walls are being done Considering the Structure as Constituents of Multiple Cantilever Beam Strips having Span Length in Longitudinal.8.413 nos.11Ag/fy in both way. h) According to AASHTOLRFD5.1. Width in Vertical & Depth in Transverse Direction.1.8. f) XSectional Area of 16f bar = pDBarS&TV&H2/4 g) Spacings required for 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature in Vertical Direction on Earth Face Both Vertical & Horizontal Direction on Water Face.00*tCont. thus under Concept of Flexural Design the Longitudinal Reinforcements are on Earth Face in Vertical Plane.00 Times the Component's Thickness or 450mm.062 mm 749.000 mm 300 mm Page 532 . e) Let provide 16f bars as Shrinkage & Temperature in Vertical Direction on Earth Face Both in Vertical & Horizontal Direction on Water Face. Provisions.000 mm 450.WW sAllowS&TV&H1 sproS&TV&H 1. b) On Earth Surface Cantilever Wing Walls the Main Reinforcements are in Horizontal Direction.293 mm AgStrip DBarS&TV&H 2 1000000. = Af16*b/AsreqS&TV&H LHor.000 m AsreqS&T 2 268.10. The Surfaces where there is no such type of Reinforcements on that surface Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements should arrange according to AASHTOLRFD5.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11. Since the Cantilever Wing Walls are Subject to Horizontal Earth & Surcharge Pressures. thus on Earth Face Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements are required in Vertical Direction.10. Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements i) Let provide 300 mm Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements with 16f Bars in Vertical Direction on Earth Face. b 1.000 m 1.000 mm 16 mm Af16 sreqS&TV&H 2 201. c) According to AASHTOLRFD5. d) Here Ag is Gross Area of Strip on Vertical Surface = LHor. ii) Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on Earth Face in Vertical and for Wate Face both in Vertical & Horizontal Direction : a) Since the Thickness/Depth of Cantilever Wing Walls is less than1200mm.350.WW ii) Allowable Max. Whereas on Water Face Provision of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements are required both in Vertical & Horizontal Directions. thus to Calculate the Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on both Faces in Vertical & Horizontal Directions a Strip is being Considered having Length of each Arm b = 1000mm.00 Times of Cantilever Wing Wall Thickness = 3.10. According to Principle of RCC Design all Concrete Surfaces should have Reinforcements in both Directions either under Flexural Tension/Compression or under Flexural Shear/Web/Torsion.
> AsreqS&TV&H. thus i) Allowable Max.500.0015Ag.0015Ag. = sAllowS&TV&H2. åAb = 1. For Components of Solid Structural Concrete Wall & Footing having Less 1200mm Thickness. Since the Cantilever Wing Walls are Concrete Wall Structure. the Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements Bars should not Exceed 300mm in Each Direction on all Faces and Steel Area of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements need not Exceed value of Ab = 0.206 mm2/m k) According to AASHTOLRFD5. Page 533 . Spacing for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements sAllowS&TV&H2 300.DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.b/sproS&TV&H AsproS&TV&H 670.10.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD j) The provided Steel Area with 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements having Spacing 300mm. Steel Area for Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement (Whether Ab > AsproS&TV&H or not. If Ab < AsproS&TV&H . & sproS&TV&H. thus Provisions for the Shrinkage & Temperature on Surfaces of Cantilever Wing Wall is OK. then Provisions of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement have Satisfied.000 mm /m i) Status between Provided Steel Area of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement & Allowable Max.C/C = Af16.8. otherwise Not Satisfied) åAb > AsproS&T Satisfied l) Since Calculated Ab > AsproS&TV&H.000 mm 2 Ab = ii) Calculated value of Ab = 0.1.
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DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD Page 557 .
90km ON BAGHAIHUTMACHALONGSEZEK ROAD Satisfy Page 558 .DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR CHAMPATOLI BRIDGE AT 11.
00m 600 450 300 2525 2150 5500 600 2150 1447 450 2750 3000 3000 450 RL2.147 m 4.200 m 1.947 m Notation Dimensions Unit.147 m 4. c) Height of Abutment Well Cap. a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall.947 m 1. b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall. hSteam. 6350 H1 = 4947 1775 H = 6147 1500 450 300 2750 1900 2147 . hbwall HWWall 6. Structural Design of Abutment Well Cap : 1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment & Wing wall: 12750 3000 600 3450 600 3450 600 3450 600 600 C 2000 5225 2100 300 700 B A RL5. d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Height of Back Wall f) Height of Wing Wall H H1 hWellCap.900 m 2.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 3450 450 2450 9350 10250 3450 450 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600 2 Dimension of Different SubStructural Components & RCC Well for Foundation: Description i) Dimensions of SubStructure.O.
825 m AWellCap.750 m 10. 2. 9.000 m 2. 2 66.500 m 12. h) Width (Longitudinal Length) of Abutment Well Cap. LwwallCant. LWCapTrans LABWallTrans.975 m 5. 2. z) Surface Area of Well Cap ii) Dimensions of RCC Well for Foundation. t. tWingwall twwallCant.825 m 0. i) Length (Transverse Length) of Abutment Well Cap.Count. 2.350 m 0.& Ab.500 m . hwwallCant.525 m LWCapHeelAver.879 m WWellYY 5. + tWWCount. SAverCount&Ab.450 m 0.750 m 0. y) Average Length (Longitudinal) of Well Cap on Heel Side from Abutment Wall Face. l) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom m) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top n) Thickness of Counterfort Wall (For Wing Wall) o) Number of WingWall Counterforts (on each side) p) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom q) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tABWallBot + tAbWallTop)/2+SClearCount& AbBot. a) Width of Well in YY Direction (In Longitudinal Direction) WWellCapHell LAbCapLong. k) Inner Length of Abutment Wall in between Wing Walls (Transverse).AbwalTop.775 m 2.450 m 3.AbwalBot. tWWCountf.Tri. hwwallCant. j) Transverse Length of Abutment Wall (Outer Face to Outer Face) in XX Direction. r) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAverCount + tWWCountf s) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap. NWWcount SClearCount& AbBot.= SAver.375 m SEfftCount.500 m 2.450 m 0.000 No's 1.000 m 1.250 m LAbTInner t.g) Width of Wall Cap on Heel Side (From Abutment Wall Face). LWCapToe. t) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls u) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls v) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face.Rec.450 m 1.
SPockYY. Whereas in next 0.450 m SPocketXXCentral.000 Nos 4.25m from Road Top Level) up to 2. m) Distance between Inner Faces of Outer Pockets in XX Direction (Transverse Span Length). + tWall p) Effective Span Length in XX Direction (C/C Distance between Well Walls.75m to 4. o) Effective Span Length in YY Direction (C/C Distance between Well Walls.) = SPockYY.450 m SEffYY. n) Distance between Inner Faces of Central Pocket in XX Direction (Transverse Span Length).250 m 4. From depth about 3. LParti.75m there exists Bedrock (Gray Shale) having 50 and over SPT values .75m depth Subsoil posses Medium dency gray sandy silt having SPT Value renging 12 to 37.2.2.) = SPockXXCentral/Outer + tWall(tWallPerti) 3 Information about Soil.600 m 0. g) Diameter of Outer Circle. NPock. Abutment & Wingwalls: a) Type of Subsoil : LWellXX HWellpro. h) Diameter of Inner Circle = DOuter .300 m 7. LRect.300 m SPockXXOuter. 3.b) Length of Well in XX Direction (In Transverse Direction) c) Depth of Well from Bottom of Well Cap up to Bottom of Well Curb d) Wall thickness of Well.80m) there exists Medum densey gray fine sand with SPT value renging from 37 to 50. f) Thickness of Partition Walls of Well.600 m 5.50m depth Subsoil posses Loss gray fine Silty sand having SPT Value ranging 7 to 12.15m (About depth 2. Foundation.2* tWall i) Transverse Length of Rectangular Portion of Well Cap =LWellXX . .050 m a) At Borehole NoBH07 (Cox's Bazar End).900 m SEffXX 4.75m from depth 2. From depth about 4.2*tWall k) Number of Pockets within Well l) Distance between Inner Faces of Pockets in YY Direction (Longitudinal Span Length). 12.50m to 3. from GL (GL is .80m there exists Bed rock (Gray Shale) having SPT value 50 over. tWell.750 m 6. DInner. 3. 4. In next 2.500 m 4.325 m 0. b) At Borehole NoBH08 (Teknuf End).75m there exists Medium dense gray fine sand with SPT value ranging from 12 to 40. from GL (GL is .300 m 3.25m from Road Top Level) upto 2. tWallPerti DOuter.DOuter j) Length of Partition Walls = DOuter .
80m) from the Ground Level.172 1. wWSali.045. c) Type of Abutment d) Type of Wingwalls : : e) Design Criteria : 4 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight.019. Flexural Multiplier Factors.2. More over the Slain Water is also an important factor for RCC Construction Works in these area. Material Strength & Soil Pressure: 3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration.345. but due to ground their formation those posses a very poor Mechanical bonding among it contitutent. wE 24. Wall Type Wing Walls Integrated with Abutment Wall having Counterforts over Well & Cantilever Wings beyond Well. which caused by the Wave action & Cyclonic Strom. Overturning etc.75m to 4. In Designing of any Permanent Bridge/Structure on this Road.But there exites Bedrock at a considerably short depth (About 3. g = 2 9.250 18.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor.424 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 ii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWNor. More over against Salinity effect necessary meassary can provide for RCC Caissions.264 1.000 kN/m^3 kN/m^3 kN/m^3 kN/m^3 kN/m^3 iii) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD5. specially in Foundation Design all the prevalling adverse situations should be considered for their Survival and Durability.232 2.4. Thus it is recommended to Provide RCC Caissions embedded into the Bedrock at least 1.5. Though as per Soil Investigation Report there exist Loss to Medium dency gray sandy silt on Seashore Subsoil.447.000 10. Strength Limit State of Design (USD) According to AASHTOLRFD2004.000 23.Presence of Bedrock is an important for the Foundation of any Structue on this Road. gs 2. RCC Caissons embedded into the Bedrock will be a Solid mass to save guard the Structure against Errosion.50m into Bedrock as Foundation of Delpara Bridge. Sliding. Marin Drive Road have every risk to effected by Wave action & Cyclonic Strom from Sea.1). To encounter all mentioned adverse situations Provision of RCC Caissons embedded into the Bedrock will be best one as Foundation of Bridges on this Road. Wall Type Abutment.000 10.b) Type of Foundation : Due to its Geographical position. : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) . gWSali.835.680 1.
63*21^(1/2). fPileResistanc.40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete. r = fs/fc Value of k = n/(n + r) = 9.043gc1.85 0.0.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement. fBearig.90 1.7. fStrut&Tie. / b) Corrected SPT Value for N>15. Ec = 0.903 1. fShear.a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4).102 kN/m3 N N/ p 50 Over 33 2 770 kN/m vi) Subsoil Investigation Report & Side Codition Data: a) SPT Value as per Soil Boring Test Report. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.50f/c (AASHTO LRFD5.000 + 20) Value of j = 1 .2.70 0.887 fr fy fs ES 2. p = 7. Say N/ = 33 c) Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soil as per Soil Investigation Report witht SPT Value 50 over.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5..75 0.80 1.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.2.620 2. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21. = 770kN/m2 5 Intensity of Different Imposed Loads.2 Ton/ft2.307/3 Value of R = 0. f) Steel Ultimate strength.855.000 MPa 164.5). fAncCopmConc.k/3 = 1 .70 0.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlxRin. b1 b 0.000 MPa v) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTOSLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio.000 MPa 200000.90 0.85 vi) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength. For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in StrutandTie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b 1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD5. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.15) = 15 + 1/2(50 .4.5 . fAncTenSteel.291 0.15) = 15 + 1/2(50 .400 23. fSpir/Tie/Seim. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.2. N = 15 + 1/2(N .4).00 0.6). Load Coefficients & Multiplier Factors : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : . fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.000 8. fFlxPres.00 0. fr = 0.4.5*(fckj) n r k j R 8 19.2.000/(9.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410.15) = 32.2.63f/c = 0. n = Es/Ec 6 8.00 1.4.524 0.
f = 340 . H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .004761 4. Where.9.34 to 0. f) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).761 0.441 34 O d 19 to 24 O Tan d 0.) ko f 0.3 .5.331 0.935 kN/m 2 0.6.6. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 . c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure. 900.00833 8.00m DpLLWW<6. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 DpLLAb<6.s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTOLRFD3.000 mm .34 to 0.900 m 600. f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand.Where. Where.441 3 1.007935 N/mm ks wE*103 0. Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil.11.41.31.441 2 0.Table 3.45 dim ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES).45 (AASHTOLRFD3.6.00m. heqAb6.41.5.000 mm 600.000 mm WeqAb<6.018 N/mm N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic). AASHTOLRFD3. Table3.31.4.007141 7.141 0. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). WeqAb6. Page138.1.Table 3.4. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*103N/mm2 iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS).5. = 0. Where.835.4. AASHTOLRFD3.11.11.2.6.807 m/sec DpES 2 7. d) gsis Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3) 2 e) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ).004761 4.11.00m 0. k gs g heqAb<6. g) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm.6.00m DpLLAb6. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge. DpES = ksqs in Mpa. ko = (1sinff ) . AASHTOLRFD3. b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure.00m DpLLWW6.424 kg/m 2 9.5.00m.00m.761 0.11. AASHTOLRFD3.a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure.6.1.11. Table3.3 .(Table 12.& H 6000mm.11.6. 900. Having.11.11.000 mm 0. RAINA.11.00m. AASHTOLRFD3.
& H 6000mm.1.11.00m.500 kN 162.1. 0. vi) Wind Load Intensity on Live Load (WL) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Longitudinal Direction (Parallel to Traffic).2.001645 Mpa 2 1.3.000 mm WeqWW<6.800 kN/m pWindSupLong.750 kN pWindLLSupLet. j) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls. AASHTOLRFD3. having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Force. 0.4).000 mm 600.31).550 N/mm 0.4.500 kN 55. Having. 0. (AASHTOLRFD3.8. 600.0.2. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic). Table3.1.3. for Two Lane Bridge. (AASHTOLRFD3.500N/mm having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force. for Two Lane Bridge.000 0. AASHTOLRFD3.00m.3). Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force.3. Table.000 0.31). i) 25% of the Axle Weight of Design Truck/Design Tendem. = 0.42.2. 0. (AASHTOLRFD3.1. or pLL25%Truck.00m.1.1. heqWW<6.0008 Mpa 2 0.8.645 kN/m pWindLLSupLong. Table3.950 kN/m pWindSupLet. Having H < 6000mm. Table. heqWW6. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Lateral Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) = 0. 0.8.0019*sin600 Mpa.6. (AASHTOLRFD3.000950 Mpa 2 0. WeqWW6. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction of Wind Flow (Perpendicular to Traffic).8.550 kN/m pWindSubLet.600 m i) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).8. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .00m. vii) Intensity on Breaking Force (BR) : a) Intensity of Horizontal Breaking on Superstructure is the Greater value of pLLSupBreak.0019*cos600 Mpa.500 kN/m .21. ii) 5% of Design (Truck + Lane Load) or (Design Tendem + Lane Load) pLL5%(Tru+Lane.(AASHTOLRFD3.2.1.11.3.3). = 0.6.550 N/mm. Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force.2.8.500 N/mm 0. v) Wind Load Intensity on Substructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Lateral Direction (Parallel to Traffic). 1.600 600.8.900 kN/m pWindSubLong.1. = 0.) Breaking Force is for Two Lane Bridge & its Action at 1800mm above Deck.0009 Mpa 2 0. 0. 162.8.600 mm m mm m iv) Wind Load Intensity on Superstructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Lateral Direction of Wind Flow (Parallel to Traffic).050.6.
250 gDW gEH 1. (Applicable for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading only) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL.2. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3.750 1. Table 3.6 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors under Limit State (USD) according to AASHTOLRFD3.000 . gLLWL 1.2.500 1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck . gLLBR. gLLWA.1.V m gLLTruck IM 1.750 1. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL STRENGTH .12) gDC 1. value of Table 3.III STRENGTH .12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV . Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.4. gLLLS. value of Table 3.4. (Max. value of Table 3.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .6.500 gEV gES 1.750 1.400 1.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.750 1.500 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors under Limit State (USD) according to AASHTOLRFD3. value of Table 3.330 gLLLane gLLPL.1.000 1. (Max.4.750 1.4.6.1: a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.DW .4.4.11. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR .750 1.6.000 1. gLLCE.1: a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max. gLLWS. (Max.1.350 1.4. value of Table 3. (Max.
000 1. gLLSH. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls. gLLCR.000 1. value of Table 3. 1.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV . value of Table 3.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.000 1.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.000 gDW gEH 1. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls. gLLEQ. gLLTG.11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH .4. (Max.4.000 1.12) gDC 1. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).4. gLLTU.DW .4.4.000 7 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.4. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV gLLFR.4. gLLCV.000 gEV gES 1.4. (Max. Table 3. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.000 1. value of Table 3.11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m m 1.1 .000 1. Table 3. (Max. (Max.000 .000 1.1. value of Table 3. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).4. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). value of Table 3.k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLSE. gLLCT.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .
o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing).1.000 1.(ASSHTO LRFD3.000 1.6. Table 3. gLLEQ gLLCT.700 1.6.300 1.I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. gLLSE. 1.1.000 1. gLLWA.300 1. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1.000 1.000 1.300 1. gLLCE. SERVICE .000 gLLLane gLLPL. gLLLS.11.000 1.1. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).6.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .IV SERVICE . gLLSH. gLLBR.000 8 Calculations of Vertical Loads on Abutment Well Cap.II SERVICE . Moments & Shearing Forces under Limite State Condition (USD) : . gLLWS gLLW gLLFR gLLTU. gLLCR. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 1.2. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV SERVICE .2. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR . gLLCV.II SERVICE .000 0.000 1. gLLTG.II gLLTruck IM 1. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3.000 1.
These Load will be active over the Wall Cap Total Surface Area. Value of these Load will compute by dividing the Total Load in these respect by the Total Surface Area of Well Cap.102. Soil & Surcharge upon Well Cap are on Heel Side.325 kN 366.278 kN 209. ii) Imposed Vertical Loads (LL+ DL) on Well Cap from Superstructure. e) For Calculation of Moment & Shear Total vertical Loads are considered be to an Uniformly Distributed Load over the Total Surface Area of Well Cap for which the Unit of Pressure will kN/m 2.976. Action of these Loads will be on Heel Side only.494 kN 2. b) Loads from Superstructure will act upon Well Cap through the Abutment Wall & its Position is in XX Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic). RDLSoil. d) Dead Load Reactions from Wing Wall Counterforts e) Dead Load Reactions from Wing Walls (Including Cantilevers) f) Dead Load Reaction from Self Weight of Well Cap g) Earth Pressure on Heel Side of Well Cap RDLSupr1 RDLSupr2 RLLSuprWheel RLLSuprLane RLLSuprPede.822 kN RDLWWCountf RDLWW RDLWellCapSelfWt. c) Since Loads from Wing Walls. These Load will be active over the Total Surface Area of Well Cap. Value of these Uniformly Distribued Load will compute by dividing the Total Load in these respect by the Total Surface Area of Well Cap on Heel Side.265 kN . 2 d) Self Weight of Well Cap will also be an Uniformly Distributed Load having its Unit in kN/m .524.221 kN 232.500 kN 551. Countrforts.i) Philosophy in Computation of different Loads (DL & LL) upon Well Cap: a) Since the Well Cap will have to receive all Vertical Loads both from Live Load Elements & Dead Loads from the Superstructure & Substructure Components. thus computation of these Loads should done accordingly. thus all Loads from Superstructure & Loads of Abutment Wall including Components resting on it will be Computated as Uniformly Distributed Load in XX Direction having its Unit in kN/m.950 kN 2. Surcharge Load and its Self Weight. Substructure.500 kN 112. Soil Load. Self Weight of Well Soil & Surcharge : a) Superstructure Dead Load Reaction (Without Utilites & Wearing Course) b) Superstructure Dead Load Reaction only for Utilites & WC c) Superstructure Live Load Reaction due to Wheel Load (Without IM) d) Superstructure Live Load Reaction due to Lane Load e) Superstructure Live Load Reaction due to Pedestrian Load f) Dead Load Reaction from Abutment Wall Components (Stem+ BWall+Seat). The Value of these Load will be compute by dividing the Total Vertical Loads upon Well Cap by the Total Surface Area of Well Cap.438 kN 574. Value of these Uniformly Distributed Load will compute by dividing the Total Load in these respect by the Total Length of Well Cap in XX Direction. thus Loads will also considered as Uniformly Distributed Load but the Unit will be kN/m2. 184. RDLAbWall 1.
875 kN RDLAbWallUSD 689.407 kN RDLWWUSD 458.838. 297. = gDC*RDLAbWall d) Factored Dead Load from Wing Wall Counterforts = gDC*RDLWWCountf e) Factored Dead Load from Wing Walls (Including Cantilevers) = gDC*RDLWW f) Factored Dead Load due to Self Weight of Well Cap = gDC*RDLWellCapSelfWt.00m) = DpLLAb*WEqAb*H1*LAbTInner RLLSur. h) Factored Live Load Surcharge on Well Cap Heel Side (For H1 <6.336.*RLLSur.h) Live Load Surcharge on Well Cap Heel Side (For H1 <6.USD 520. g) Factored Earth Load on Heel Side of Well Cap = gEV*RDLSoil.057 kN RLLSur.212 kN SRAllVLoad.188 kN RDLSoil.USD 12.617.513 kN iv) Computation of Factored Vertical Pressure on Well Cap through Abutment Wall for 1 (one) Meter Strip Length in XX Direction due DL & LL from Superstructure.778 kN RDLWWCountfUSD 230.00m) = gLLLS. Self Weight of Abutment & its Components : a) Total Vertical Reaction on Well Cap from Superstructure.470. i) Summasion all Factored Vertical Loads upon Well Cap RDLSupr1USD 2.875 kN RLLSuprPede.USD 2.264 kN iii) Factored Vertical Load Reactions Upon Abutment Cap under Strength Limit State (USD) : a) Factored Superstructure Dead Load (Without Utilites & Wearing Course) = gDC*RDLSupr1 b) Factored Superstructure Dead Load Reaction only for Utilites & WC = gDW*RDLSupr2 c) Factored Superstructure Live Load Reaction due to Wheel Load (Including IM) = m*IMgLLTruckRLLSuprWheel d) Superstructure Live Load Reaction due to Lane Load = mgLLLane*RLLSuprLane e) Factored Superstructure Live Load due to Pedestrian Load = mgLLPL*RLLPede.USD 3.348 kN RDLSupr2USD 314.156.532 kN .USD 196.500 kN RLLSuprLaneUSD 406.156 kN RLLSuprWheelUSD 1. f) Factored Dead Load from Abutment Wall Components (Stem+ BWall+Seat). Self Weight SRSupr+AbWallUSD of Abutment & its Components = (RDLSupr1USD+ RDLSupr2USD+ RLLSuprWheelUSD 5.414.118 kN RDLSelfWt.
/AWellCap viii) Calculations of Upward Reactions at Supports having Span in YY Direction : a) Span Length in YY Direction (C/C Distance between Well Walls.879 m 12.057 kN 520.724 kN pHeel.) = SEffYY.USD e) Pressure from Surcharge upon Heel Side = RDLSur. b) Concentrated Vertical Pressure on Well Cap for per meter Length in XX Direction due to Superstructure.USD + RDLAbWallUSD) b) Verticall Pressure on Well Cap for per meter Length in XX Direction due to Superstructure.USD 2 37. Self Weight of Abutment & its Component.617. Counterforts.192 kN/m AWellCapHeel PDLWWallUSD PDLCountUSD PDLSoil.USD pSelfWt.900 m 424.118 kN 230. Soil & Surcharge on Heel Side for Unit Surface Area (kN/m2): a) Surface Area of Well Cap on Heel Side = LWCapTrans*WWellCapHell b) Pressure from Wing Walls upon Heel Side = RDLWWUSD c) Pressure from Counterforts upon Heel Side = RDLWWCountUSD d) Pressure from Soil upon Heel Side = RDLSoil.661 kN/m /m .669 kN/m v) Computation of Factored Vertical Pressure (DL & LL) on Well Cap due to Wing Walls.188 kN 2 47./AWellCapHeel. Soil & Surcharge g) Unit Pressure upon Well Cap on Heel Side from Wing Walls.669 kN/m AWellCap SRAllVLoad.407 kN 2.084. LYY. vi) Computation of Vertical Pressure (Load) on Well Cap due its Self Weight : a) Pressure due to Self Weight of Well Cap = RDLSelfWt.USD wXXUSD 2 66.USD 2 107.513 kN 2 188.USD b) Unit Pressure upon Well Cap for Self Weight = PSelfWtUSD. Self Weight of Abutment & its Component.+ RLLSuprLaneUSD + RLLSuprPede.USD PDLSur. PSup+AbWallUSD 4.USD 3.838.156.931 m 458.USD SPWellCapHeel. = SRSup+AbWallUSD/LWCapTrans PSup+AbWallUSD 424.USD c) Vertical Load upon Well Cap for per meter Square per meter Length in XX Direction = SRAllVLoadUSD.212 kN 4. Counterforts./AWellCap PSelfWt. Soil & Surcharge = SPWellCapHeelUSD.688 kN/m vii) Computation of Total Vertical Pressure (Load) on Well Cap as Uniformly Distributed Load over Total Surface Area of Well Cap : a) Surface Area of Well Cap = AWellCap b) Total Vertical Loads upon Well Cap = SRAllVLoad.USD f) Total Pressure upon Well Cap Heel Side due to Factored Loads from Walls.
915 kN/m 525.pHeellUSD*(tWall/2)2/2 143.469 kNm/m 852./2) .469*10^6 Nmm/m x) Shearing Force in YY Direction at different Points due to Factored (USD) Vertical Loads : i) Shearing Force at Inner Face of Well Wall on Heel Side.pSelfWt. RBUSD =((PSup+AbWallUSD*LYY/2)+(pSelfWt.810 kNm/m MHeelWellWall.644*10^6 Nmm/m c) (+) ve Bending Moment Just on Inner Face of Abutment Wall on Heel Side. MAbInnHeel.USD*LYY2/2)+(pHeelUSD*(LYY/2)2)/2)/LYY RBUSD 393.192 kN/m /m e) Sketch Diagram of Different Imposed Loads (Factored) & Reactions in YY Direction as Simple Supported Single Span Beam of 1.USD*(LYY/2)2/2) (+)MMiddYYUSD 823. MMiddYYUSD = (RBUSD*LYY/2 .USD+ pSelfWt.450 m C B Toe End 4.USD 2 47. = LYY/2 = 47.tWall.pSelfWt.000m Width.832 kN/m RA = 525./2)2/2.tWall. Counterforts.USD 759.USD*(LYY/2tAbwalTop.455 kNm/m 823. (+)MHellWellWall.USD)*tWall/2 VHeelWWall.644 kNm/m 2 Side./2) .6691 kN/m pHeel.USD 479.(pHeel.688 kN/m /m pSelfWt.tWall.192 C LYY/2 = kN/m2/m 2.469 kNm/m 852.USD 2 107. VHeelWWallUSD = RAUSD .USD*LYY /2)+(PHeelUSD*LYY/2*(LYY/4+LYY/2)))/LYY g) Reaction RB at Support PositionB on Toe End.pHeelUSD*(WWellCapHell .pSelfWt. Soil & Surcharge. RAUSD 2 =((PSup+AbWallUSD*LYY/2)+(pSelfWt.368*10^3 N/m .USD 143. (+)MMax.832 kN/m f) Reaction RA at Support PositionA on Heel End. = Heel End A 107.900 RB = 393.810*10^6 Nmm/m e) Max.USDYY 852. PSup+AbWall = 424. MAbOutToe.368 kN/m 479./2)2/2 (+)MAbInnHeel./2) /2) 759.469*10^6 Nmm/m d) (+) ve Bending Moment Just at Inner Face of Well Wall on Heel Side.450 m LYY = 2.USD = (RBUSD*(LYY/2tAbwalTop.USD*(WWellCapHell . d) Unit Pressure upon Well Cap for Self Weight pHeel.455*10^6 Nmm/m b) (+)ve Bending Moment Just on Outer Face of Abutment Wall on Toe (+)MAbOuterToe.USD*(tWall/2)2/2 .688 kN/m2/m pSelfWt.USD 852.pSelfWt.c) Unit Pressure upon Well Cap on Heel Side from Wing Walls.915 kN/m ix) Moments in YY Direction (about XX) at different Points due to Factored (USD) Vertical Loads : a) (+) ve Bending Moment at Middle of Span at Position C.USD = RAUSD*(WWellCapHell . (+) Moment Value in YY Direction occurs on Inner Face of Abutment Wall on Heel Side of Well Cap.USD = RAUSD*tWall/2 .
LXX 4.150 m R1L& R1R R2L& R2R 382.(pHeel. VR1XXUSD 353.000m Width.050 m LXXTotal wXX 12.528 kN/m 111./2) VAbHeelUSD 111.726*10^6 Nmm/m xiii) Shearing Force in XX Direction at different Points due to Factored (USD) Vertical Loads : a) Shearing Force on Inner Face of Well Wall at Support Position R1.079 kN e) Reaction at Support R1L = R1R = wXX *LXX/2 f) Reaction at Support R2L = R2R = 2*wXX *LXX/2 xii) Moments in XX Direction (about YY) at different Points due to Factored (USD) Vertical Loads : a) (+) ve Bending Moment at Middle Position of Each Span MMiddUSD = wXX*1/14*(LXX)2/2 b) () ve Bending Moment at Support Positions R1 & R2.293) kN/m ()278.tWall. VAbToeUSD = RBUSD .661 kN/m 4.912 kN/m 288. MR1&R2XXUSD = wXXUSD*1/10*(LXX)2/2 (+)MMiddXXUSD 110.528*10^3 N/m VToeWWall.726 kNm/m 154.(pHeel.740 kN/m .519 kNm/m 110.039 m LXX = R2L = 4.293*10^3 N/m VAbToeUSD 288. wXX = 188. VAbHeelUSD = RAUSD .519*10^6 Nmm/m ()MWallR1&R2XXUSD 154.661 kN/m /m d) Sketch Diagram of Imposed Loads (Factored) & Reactions in XX Direction as a Multi Span Continuous Beam in XX Direction with 1.USD*tWall/2 l) Shearing Force at Span Center Position VCenterSpanUSD = RAUSD .079 STotal = R2R = 12.(pSelfWt.)*LYY/2 .USD 379.050 m 382.PSup+AbUSD m) Shearing Force at just Outer Face of Abutment Wall on Toe Side.039 m LXX = R1L = 4.05 m LXX = 764.j) Shearing Force at just Inner Face of Abutment Wall on Heel Side.757*10^3 N/m VCenterSpan.757 kN/m 379.pSelfWt./2) k) Shearing Force at Inner Face of Well Wall on Toe Side.tAbwalTop.912*10^3 N/m xi) Calculations of Upward Reactions at Supports having Span in XX Direction : a) Span Length in XX Direction Central & Side Pockets of Well (C/C Distance between Well Walls) = SEffXX b) Total Span Length of Well c) Vertical Load upon Well Cap for per meter Square in XX Direction.USD)*(WWellCapHell .079 m R1R = 382.USD)*(LYY/2..150 m 2 188.USD (278. VToeWWallUSD = RBUSD .USD + pSelfWt.USD+ pSelfWtUSD.050 m 764.039 kN 764.
524.VR1XXUSD = wXXUSD*(LXX .264 kN .097*10^3 N/m 9 Computation of Factored Moments & Shearing Forces under Service Limit State (WSD) : i) Factored Vertical Load Reactions Upon Abutment Cap under Service Limit State (WSD) : a) Factored Superstructure Dead Load (Without Utilites & Wearing Course) = gDC*RDLSupr1 b) Factored Superstructure Dead Load Reaction only for Utilites & WC = gDW*RDLSupr2 c) Factored Superstructure Live Load Reaction due to Wheel Load (Including IM) = m*IMgLLTruckRLLSuprWheel d) Superstructure Live Load Reaction due to Lane Load = mgLLLane*RLLSuprLane e) Factored Superstructure Live Load due to Pedestrian Load = mgLLPL*RLLPede.WSD 112. The Section on Inner Face of Well Wall on Heel Side in YY Direction posses the Highest Shearing Force VCritical.tWall/2)/2 b) Shearing Force at both Face of Well Wall on Support Position R2. VR2XXUSD = wXXUSD*(LXX .500 kN RLLSuprPede..265 kN RLLSur.950 kN RDLSoil.500 kN RDLAbWallWSD 551.WSD 2.74010^3 N/m 353. f) Factored Dead Load from Abutment Wall Components (Stem+ BWall+Seat).WSD 2.740 kN/m 353.438 kN RLLSuprWheelWSD 574.950 kN RDLSelfWt.278 kN RDLSupr2WSD 209. = gDC*RDLAbWall d) Factored Dead Load from Wing Wall Counterforts = gDC*RDLWWCountf e) Factored Dead Load from Wing Walls (Including Cantilevers) = gDC*RDLWW f) Factored Dead Load due to Self Weight of Well Cap = gDC*RDLWellCapSelfWt.368 kN/m 492.tWall/2)/2 VR2XXUSD 353.822 kN RDLWWCountfWSD 184.221 kN RLLSuprLaneWSD 232.102. 479.976.325 kN RDLWWWSD 2. h) Factored Live Load Surcharge on Well Cap Heel Side (For H1 <6.00m) RDLSupr1WSD 1.524.WSD 297. g) Factored Earth Load on Heel Side of Well Cap = gEV*RDLSoil.74010^3 N/m x) Critical Section of Well Cap in Combined application of Shearing Force both in YY & XX Direction : a) The Critical Section of Well Cap in respect of Shearing Force which has the Highest Calculated Factored Shear Force.
524.879 m 11.WSD SPWellCapHeel.WSD 2 135.805 kN/m iii) Computation of Factored Vertical Pressure (DL & LL) on Well Cap due to Wing Walls.325 kN 2.*RLLSur.735 kN pHeel./AWellCap PSelfWt.524. Self Weight SRSupr+AbWallWSD of Abutment & its Components = (RDLSupr1WSD+ RDLSupr2WSD+ RLLSuprWheelWSD + RLLSuprLaneWSD + RLLSuprPede.102.WSD wXXWSD 2 66.265 kN 297.WSD b) Unit Pressure upon Well Cap for Self Weight = PSelfWtWSD. Self Weight of Abutment & its Components : a) Total Vertical Reaction on Well Cap from Superstructure.WSD PDLSur.514 kN ii) Computation of Factored Vertical Pressure on Well Cap through Abutment Wall for 1 (one) Meter Strip Length in XX Direction due DL & LL from Superstructure.931 m 2.290.WSD f) Total Pressure upon Well Cap Heel Side due to Factored Loads from Walls.WSD 11.264 kN 5. Counterforts.820 kN/m /m .950 kN 184. i) Summasion all Factored Vertical Loads upon Well Cap SRAllVLoad.950 kN 2 37.WSD + RDLAbWallWSD) b) Verticall Pressure on Well Cap for per meter Length in XX Direction due to Superstructure.290. Soil & Surcharge on Heel Side for Unit Surface Area (kN/m2): a) Surface Area of Well Cap on Heel Side = LWCapTrans*WWellCapHell b) Pressure from Wing Walls upon Heel Side = RDLWWWSD c) Pressure from Counterforts upon Heel Side = RDLWWCountWSD d) Pressure from Soil upon Heel Side = RDLSoil.WSD e) Pressure from Surcharge upon Heel Side = RDLSur.WSD pSelfWt. Self Weight of Abutment & its Component.754 kN/m AWellCapHeel PDLWWallWSD PDLCountWSD PDLSoil.514 kN 2 168. = SRSup+AbWallWSD/LWCapTrans PSup+AbWallWSD 3. Counterforts.= gLLLS.WSD 2.146.656. Soil & Surcharge = SPWellCapHeelWSD/AWellCapHeel.WSD 2 37. Soil & Surcharge g) Unit Pressure upon Well Cap on Heel Side from Wing Walls. iv) Computation of Vertical Pressure (Load) on Well Cap due its Self Weight : a) Pressure due to Self Weight of Well Cap = RDLSelfWt.759 kN 286.WSD c) Vertical Load upon Well Cap for per meter Square per meter Length in XX AWellCap SRAllVLoad.686 kN/m v) Computation of Total Vertical Pressure (Load) on Well Cap as Uniformly Distributed Load over Total Surface Area of Well Cap : a) Surface Area of Well Cap = AWellCap b) Total Vertical Loads upon Well Cap = SRAllVLoad.
WSD 677./AWellCap vi) Calculations of Upward Reactions at Supports having Span in XX Direction : a) Span Length in YY Direction (C/C Distance between Well Walls.pSelfWt.pSelfWt.039*10^6 Nmm/m . d) Unit Pressure upon Well Cap for Self Weight LYY.222 kN/m f) Reaction RA at Support PositionA on Heel End.tWall.WSD*(tWall/2) /2 .754 C LYY/2 = kN/m2/m 2.007 kN/m vii) Moments in YY Direction (about XX) at different Points due to Factored (WSD) Vertical Loads : a) (+) ve Bending Moment at Middle of Span at Position C.pSelfWt.900 RB = 319.pHeelWSD*(WWellCapHell ./2) /2. PSup+AbWallWSD 4.258 kNm/m 668.000m Width.450 m C B Toe End 4.805 kN/m pHeel./2) /2) 668.WSD*(WWellCapHell . MAbOutToe. RAWSD =((PSup+AbWallWSD*LYY/2)+(pSelfWt.WSD*(LYY/2)2/2) (+)MMiddWSD 668.WSD = (RBWSD*(LYY/2tAbwalTop.WSD 668.450 m LYY = 2. (+)MHellWellWall.WSD*(LYY/2tAbwalTop. = Heel End A 135.WSD 2 135.222 kN/m RA = 485. MAbInnHeel.805 kN/m pHeel.WSD = RAWSD*tWall/2 .Direction = SRAllVLoadWSD.686 kN/m2/m pSelfWt.957 kNm/m 2 2 MHeelWellWall.WSD*LYY2/2)+(pHeelWSD*(LYY/2)2)/2)/LYY RBWSD 319. MMiddYYWSD = (RBWSD*LYY/2 .pSelfWt. Self Weight of Abutment & its Component.USD = RAWSD*(WWellCapHell . = LYY/2 = 37.tWall. b) Concentrated Vertical Pressure on Well Cap for per meter Length in XX Direction due to Superstructure.WSD 129.686 kN/m /m pSelfWt.007 kN/m 485. RBWSD =((PSup+AbWallWSD*LYY/2)+(pSelfWt.900 m 286. Soil & Surcharge.WSD*LYY2/2)+(PHeelWSD*LYY/2*(LYY/4+LYY/2)))/LYY g) Reaction RB at Support PositionB on Toe End.258 kNm/m 2 Side. c) Unit Pressure upon Well Cap on Heel Side from Wing Walls.WSD 2 37.tWall.) = SEffYY.434 kNm/m Side. PSup+AbWall = 286.434*10^6 Nmm/m 2 2 .258*10^6 Nmm/m b) (+)ve Bending Moment Just on Outer Face of Abutment Wall on Toe MAbOuterToe./2) /2 d) (+) ve Bending Moment Just at Inner Face of Well Wall on Heel Side./2) 677.754 kN/m /m e) Sketch Diagram of Different Imposed Loads (Factored) & Reactions in YY Direction as Simple Supported Single Span Beam of 1. Counterforts.258*10^6 Nmm/m c) (+) ve Bending Moment Just on Inner Face of Abutment Wall on Heel (+)MAbInnHeel.pHeellWSD*(tWall/2) /2 135./2) .
820 kN/m /m d) Sketch Diagram of Imposed Loads (Factored) & Reactions in XX Direction as a Multi Span Continuous Beam in XX Direction with 1.(pHeel.150 m R1L& R1R R2L& R2R 341.271 kN/m 21.WSD+ pSelfWtWSD.050 m LXX = 683. LXX 4.820 kN/m 4. VAbToeWSD = RBWSD ./2) VHeelWWall.WSD*tWall/2 d) Shearing Force at Span Center Position VCenterSpanWSD = RAWSD .510) kN/m ()226.WSDYY 677. VAbHeelWSD = RAWSD .005 kN/m 235.000m Width.tAbwalTop.(pSelfWt.434 kNm/m 677.WSD)*tWall/2 b) Shearing Force at just Inner Face of Abutment Wall on Heel Side.050 m 341. (+)MMax.WSD 433.WSD)*(LYY/2.150 m 2 168.)*LYY/2 . wXXWSD = 168.720 m R1 = 341.WSD + pSelfWt. (+) Moment Value in YY Direction occurs on Inner Face of Abutment Wall on Heel Side of Well Cap.(pHeel.WSD+ pSelfWt.895 kNm/m .271*10^3 N/m VToeWWall.434*10^6 Nmm/m viii) Shearing Force in YY Direction at different Points due to Factored (WSD) Vertical Loads : a) Shearing Force at Inner Face of Well Wall on Heel Side./2) c) Shearing Force at Inner Face of Well Wall on Toe Side.e) Max.190 kN/m 433.860 m LXX = R2 = 4.050 m LXXTotal wXXWSD 12.681*10^3 N/m VCenterSpan.pSelfWt.WSD)*(WWellCapHell . VToeWWallWSD = RBWSD .PSup+AbWSD e) Shearing Force at just Outer Face of Abutment Wall on Toe Side.681 kN/m 307.WSD (226.(pHeel.860 m LXX = R1 = 4.720 kN e) Reaction at Support R1L = R1R = wXX *LXX/2 f) Reaction at Support R2L = R2R = 2*wXX *LXX/2 x) Moments in XX Direction (about YY) at different Points due to Factored (WSD) Vertical Loads : a) (+) ve Bending Moment at Middle Position of Each Span (+)MMiddXXWSD 98. VHeelWWallWSD = RAWSD .050 m 683.860 kN 683.190*10^3 N/m VAbHeelWSD 21.510*10^3 N/m VAbToeWSD 235.720 STotal = R2 = 12.WSD 307.005*10^3 N/m ix) Calculations of Upward Reactions at Supports having Span in XX Direction : a) Span Length in XX Direction Central & Side Pockets of Well (C/C Distance between Well Walls) = SEffXX b) Total Span Length of Well c) Vertical Load upon Well Cap for per meter Square in XX Direction.tWall.
190*10^3 N/m 10 Calculations of Unfactored Vertical Dead Loads on Abutment Well Cap & Moments : i) Computation of Unfactord Dead Load (DL) Vertical Pressure on Well Cap from Different Components of Bridge Superstructure. Well Cap) & Soil : a) Surface Area of Well Cap on Heel Side = LAbTWCap*WWellCapHell b) Total Vertical Pressure on Well Cap from Superstructure.tWall/2)/2 b) Shearing Force at both Face of Well Wall on Support Position R2. Substructure (Abutment..453 kNm/m 138. Self Weight of Abutment & its Components = (RDLSupr1+ RDLSupr2+ RDLAbWall) c) Verticall Pressure on Well Cap for per meter Length in XX Direction due to Superstructure.781 kN/m PSelfWt. 433.537*10^3 N/m VR2XXWSD 316.UF 2.UF SPWellCapHeel. = SPDLSup+AblUF/LAbTWCap d) DL Pressure from Wing Walls upon Heel Side = RDLWWUF e) DL Pressure from Counterforts upon Heel Side = RDLWWCountUF f) DL Pressure from Soil upon on Heel Side = RDLSoil.UF h) Total DL Pressure upon Well Cap Heel Side due to Factored Loads from Walls.. VR1XXWSD = wXXWSD*(LXX .MMiddWSD = wXXWSD*1/14*(LXX)2/2 b) () ve Bending Moment at Support Positions R1 & R2. MR1&R2XXWSD = wXXWSD*1/10*(LXX)2/2 98.538 kN PDLSup+AbWallUF 214. The Section on Inner Face of Well Wall on Heel Side in YY Direction posses the Highest Shearing Force VCritical.102. j) DL Pressure due to Self Weight of Well Cap = RDLSelfWt.tWall/2)/2 VR1XXWSD 316.UF/AWellCapHeel.264 kN 2.325 kN 2.950.950 kN .537 kN/m 316.UF g) DL Pressure from Surcharge upon Heel Side = RDLSur. VR2XXWSD = wXXWSD*(LXX .UF AWellCapHeel SPDLSupr+AbUF 2 37. 2 77.348 kN pUFDLHeelUF.494 kN 184.453*10^6 Nmm/m xi) Shearing Force in XX Direction at different Points due to Factored (WSD) Vertical Loads : a) Shearing Force on Inner Face of Well Wall at Support Position R1.265 kN 297.524.UF PDLSur. Wing Walls& Counterforts.537 kN/m 316. Soil & Surcharge = SPWellCapHeel. Counterforts.537*10^3 N/m xii) Critical Section of Well Cap in Combined application of Shearing Force both in YY & XX Direction : a) The Critical Section of Well Cap in respect of Shearing Force which has the Highest Calculated Factored Shear Force.UF 366.190 kN/m 433.709 kN/m PDLWWallUF PDLCountUF PDLSoil.931 m 2. Self Weight of Abutment & its Component.895*10^6 Nmm/m ()MWallR1&R2XXWSD 138. Soil & Surcharge i) Unfactored DL Unit Pressure upon Well Cap on Heel Side from Wing Wall Counterforts.737.
) = SEffYY.pDLWCapUF*(tWall/2) /2 .754 kN/m /m Heel End A LYY/2 = RAUF = 2. MAbInnHeel.212.559*10^6 Nmm/m 2 2 .tWall.493 kN/m 342.775 kN/m c) Reaction RA at Support PositionA on Heel End.218*10^6 Nmm/m c) (+) ve Bending Moment Just on Inner Face of Abutment Wall on Heel (+)MAbInnHeel.pDLHeelUF.pDLHeelUF.836 kN 2 122.434 kNm/m 2 2 MHeelWellWall./2) /2.489*10^6 Nmm/m e) Max.k) DL Unit Pressure upon Well Cap for Self Weight = PSelfWtUF.= 2 77.*(LYY/2)2/2) (+)MDLMiddUF 493.781 kN/m /m pUFDLWCap = 2 37.UF = RA*(WWellCapHell . PUFDLSup+AbWall = 214.UF 92.493 kN/m iii) Unfactored Moments in YY Direction (about XX) at different Points due to Vertical Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Bending Moment at Middle of Span at Position C.*(tWall/2) /2 95. MDLMiddYY UF = (RBUF*LYY/2 .559 kNm/m Side.775 kN/m C LYY/2 = 2.UFYY 503. (+) Moment Value in YY Direction occurs on Inner Face of (+)MMax.tWall./2) /2) 457.UF=(RBUF*(LYY/2tAbwalTop.UF = RAUF*tWall/2 .*LYY2/2)+(PUFDLHeel*LYY/2*(LYY/4+LYY/2)))/LYY d) Reaction RB at Support PositionB on Toe End. RAUF =((PUFDLSup+AbWalll*LYY/2)+(pUFDLWCap.450 4.218 kNm/m 2 Side.UF 457.UF*(LYY/2tAbwalTop. (+)MHellWellWall.900 m b) Sketch Diagram of Different Imposed Unfactored Dead Loads & Reactions in YY Direction as Simple Supported Single Span Beam of 1.pDLWCapUF*(WWellCapHell .UF 503.*(WWellCapHell .tWall./2) . 4.754 kN/m 8./2) /2 d) (+) ve Bending Moment Just at Inner Face of Well Wall on Heel Side./AWellCap l) Summation of all Unfactored Vertical DL upon Well Cap = SRAllVDL.048 kNm/m 493.450 m LYY = 342./AWellCap pDLWCapUF SRAllVDL.pDLWCapUF. MDLAbOutToe.801 kN/m /m ii) Calculations of Unfactored Upward Dead Load Reactions at Supports having Span in XX Direction : a) Span Length in YY Direction (C/C Distance between Well Walls.559 kNm/m ./2) 503. LYY.048*10^6 Nmm/m b) (+)ve Bending Moment Just on Outer Face of Abutment Wall on Toe (+)MAbOuterToe.UF wXXUF 2 37.pDLWCap.UF*(LYY/2)2)/2)/LYY 247.9 m m RBUF = B Toe End 247.UF m) Unfactored Vertical DL upon Well Cap for per meter Square per meter Length in XX Direction = SFRAllVDLUF. RBUF RBUF =((PDLSup+AbWallUF*LYY/2)+(pDLWCapUF*LYY2/2)+(pDLHeel.709 kN/m pUFDLHeel.000m Width.
. 503. MWall1&R2XX UF= wXXUF*1/10*(LXX)2/2 (+)MMiddXXUF 71.712*10^6 Nmm/m 11 Features related to Flexural Design of Reinforcements for Well Cap in botn YY & XX Directions: i) Design Strip Width for Well Cap in YY & XX Directions & Clear Cover of Different Faces.937*10^6 Nmm/m ()MWallR1&R2XXUF 100. = 75mm. CCovSide.345 m 4. CCov. i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy). CCovTop.345 STotal = 12.42 in which. Let the Clear Cover at Vertical Surface of Well Cap.Vert. Let the Clear Cover at Top Surface of Well Cap. where .000m Width. wXXUF = 122.937 kNm/m 71.672 kN 497. =75mm. Here.Bot. b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm.000 m 75 mm 75 mm 75 mm ii) Calculations of Limits For Maximum Reinforcement.3.Abutment Wall on Heel Side of Well Cap. CCov. b CCovBot.3. Section c/de 0.050 R2R = m LXX = 497.712 kNm/m 100. ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 c de 0. 1.345 kN e) Reaction at Support R1L = R1R = wXX *LXX/2 f) Reaction at Support R2L = R2R = 2*wXX *LXX/2 v) Unfactored Moments in XX Direction (about YY) at different Points due to Vertical Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Bending Moment at Middle Position of Each Span MMiddUF = wXXUF*1/14*(LXX)2/2 b) () ve Bending Moment at Support Positions R1 & R2.Top = 75mm.672 m LXX = R1L = 248. a) Let Consider the Design Width in both YY & XX Directions are = 1000mm b) Let the Clear Cover at Bottom Surface of Well Cap.050 m R2L = LXX = 497.672 m 4.42 Variable Variable As Variable mm2 . CCov.150 m R1L& R1R R2L& R2R 248.1) : .559*10^6 Nmm/m iv) Calculations of Unfactored Upward Dead Load Reactions at Supports having Span in YY Direction : a) Sketch Diagram of Imposed Unfactored Dead Loads & Reactions in XX Direction as a Multi Span Continuous Beam in XX Direction with 1.7. (AASHTOLRFD5.801 kN/m 4.050 m R1R = 248. a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for a c/deMax.
3.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces Mcr fcpe Variable Nmm N/mm2 Mdnc Variable Nmm Sc Variable mm3 Snc 3 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.88702269 N/mm 692885445. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds .2*Mcr or 1. fps & dp are = 0.3/12)/(hWellCap.(AASHTO LRFD5.6).00 Variable Variable Variable mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe) .2.4.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3.4.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.1Table3. (AASHTOLRFD5. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm.7.2) : Aps fy fps dp ds Variable 410. iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement. iv) Snc = Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic/Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3.Mdnc(Sc/Snc . which one is less. Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0. For the Rectangular RCC Section value of Snc = (b*hWellCap./2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in Mpa. i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to Effective Prestress Forces at Extreme Fiber only where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance of all Prestressing Losses in MPa.4.3.89 kNm Nmm Nmm Nmm Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3 Variable Variable Variable .11. thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.000*10^6 mm fr Mcr 2 2. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm.1) Scfr where.077 Nmm 692. In Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0.000/10^3 m 3 240.240 m 3 240.2Mcr. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps. c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements.iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa.
the required value of a = dpro*(1 .463 831.885 692.559 692.726 1095. Mid.885 692.885 692.3.885 692. 831.327 1133.644 852.463*10^6 b) Since MMax.885 692.469 143.463 831.434 692.463 831. Allowable Factored Min. Moment for RCC Moment 1. For (+) ve. (Here f = 0.33*M) kNm kNm Maximum Flexural Moment Mu (M Mr) kNm HeelWall 92. 0. DMainbarYY.885 692.g) Table1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for requirment of Minimum Reinforcement at Different Sections Location Value of Value of Actuat Acceptable 1.712 692.pb & Max.75) 12 Flexural Design of Reinforcements for Well Cap in YY Directions: i) Design of Reinforcements in YY Direction (Parallel to Traffic) against Max.469 831. Monents in YY Direction. b) Max.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) (1.33 Times Mr of M.885 692.885 692. Moment the Mr 831.885 692.CCovBot.463 852. dpro = (hWellCap. = f *pb .885 (+) ve.885 692.2 : a) Balanced Steel Ratio or the Section. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.885 692.843/(599.885 692.pmax according to AASHTO19968.048 457.463 831. Af25.195 1010.463 831. c) Let provide 25f bars as Main Reinforcement on Bottom Surface in YY Direction of Well Cap. Moments in XX Direction.218 503.016 831.463 831.463 831.885 692. d) XSectional of 25f Main bars = p*DMainbar2/4 e) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Main Reinforcement on Bottom Surface.16.463 kNm/m 831. pb = b*b1*((f/c/fy)*(599.810 110.783 191.885 831.2Mcr (1. & () ve. (+) Middle () on Wall 71.USDYY > Mr. pmax.022 pmax.455 which is Less than Mr the Allowable Minimum Moment for Flexural Design.463 831.463 831.885 692.937 100.843 + fy))).2 Times of Section Unfactored Mcr1 Cracking Mcr of Mcr under Dead Load As per Moment Cracking Cracking for Moment Equation Value Moment Moment Moment MDLUF 5.885 692.2*Mcr) Calculation kNm kNm kNm kNm kNm (+)ve.885 iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio.(1 .463 831./2) f) With Design Moment MU .785 831.463*10^6 Nmm/m 25 mm DMainbarYY. thus MMax.268 146.112. AbInHeel 493.990 205.500 mm areq.874 mm 1.463 831.463 M Factored Moment of Section M kNm 1.USDYY 823. 2 490. 823.463 831.2.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) MU kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m pb 0.463 831.689 mm .463 823. depro.463 Reinforcements will be on Bottom Surface of Well Cap.7. (+) ve Moment: a) In YY Direction the Maximum Moment occurs at Inner Face of Abutment (+)MMax. Span AbOutToe.519 154.455 759.463 831. Steel Ratio. Steel Ratio.USDYY is the Design Moment MU.3. 42.455*10^6 Thus Mr is the Governing Moment for Flexural Design. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.
bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.368 kN/m 479. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due bv.3. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Inner Face of Well Wall on Heel Side. which is also Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. or Not) ii) Checking Against Max.C/C j) The provided Steel Area with 25f bars having Spacing 150mm.g) Steel Area required for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force.a/2)) h) Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars = Af25. m) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.450 76. c/deMax.C/C = Af25.3. dv. (AASSHTOLRFD5. VMax = VHeelWWallUSD.Here.b/spro k) Steel Ratio for the Section.018 mm2/m mm.2.200 mm 1. 2. l) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. = Aspro*fy(d .YY i) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars for the Section spro = 125mm. ii) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design iii) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.585 kNm/m j) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area.9). having c = b1apro. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.7.fVp)/fbvdv. 479.1 : i) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.000.YY sreq spro. c Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK 0.42. in mm. the Design Strip Width. = MU/(ffy(dpro .157 240.926.. Steel Ratio rMax.3.apro/2)/10^6 k) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU.000 mm 1.004 90.368*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / i) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) AsreqBot. vu = (VU .069 OK c/depro<c/demax. In Flexural Design c/de 0. where. 1.= VU VU.250 .3.069 n) Relation between c/deMax.045. Shear Force on Well Cap in XX Direction.7.b/AsreqBot.1.85 0.8.001. here bv = b.C/C 125 mm.670 mm b1 c/depro 0.991 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0. ii) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.718.C/C AsproBotYY. Asreq. 3.
4.. In which.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.584*10^3 N/m 5.8.256.8.5.563 kN/m 5256.9*de.90 N VnHeel 5.33) in which.72h for the Section.563*10^3 N/m 7. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.00. 0.32. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.585 Nmm i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm Mn .546. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment. (AASHTOLRFD. 5.001. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.000 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0.8. Vp = 0.000 mm 0.72h in mm. (For RCC Structure Elements.Thus value 0.256.563 kN/m 5256.8.3.3.) Vc Vs b 2. Mr = fMn. AASHTO8.616.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu Satisfied For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.7. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.3.. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure.015*10^6 kNm 1.584 kN/m 7616. where.5.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.72h f Vp. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.to Flexural having value = 0. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. 5. thus the Well does not require any Shear Reinforcement. iii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. thus the Flexural Design of Reinforcement on Bottom Surface of Well Cap in YY Direction (Parallel to Traffic Direction) is OK.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.3.8.9de or 0. Steel Ratio. 1.8.616. which one is greater.31. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.000 Vp.563*10^3 N/m 7.1. Mr 1. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.8.726 Nmm 1298.3.584*10^3 N/m 0.3. 0.083bf/cbvdv. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.250 mm 864. is Whereas.31).718.6.3. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = hWellCap Depth of Well Cap.9*de for the Section. Where. or 0.16. thus Vp = 0.Equ. value of 0. the Well Cap Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement.584 kN/m 7616.3 have Satisfied or Not).3.
thus dc = (25/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Well Cap is being considered as s Simple Supported Rectangular Beam having 1. In a Component of Rectangular Section. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. Moments at its Mid Span will have value of Nominal Resistance.90 b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5.239*10^6 Nmm MMax.2.434 kNm 677.063 N/mm MMax.585 kNm 1442. Where. of Concrete Elements.WSDYY 677. The Steel Area against Factored Max.7.455 kNm 823.3.455*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M for the Section ( Which one is Greater.3.4.500 mm fsa 2 171. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) Mr>MMax. DBar = 25f .991 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation.7. f 0.349 N/mm dc 62.1442. The Depth is Summation Bottom/Top Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.000 m Wide Strips.500 mm A 2 15.434*10^6 Nmm Aspro de 2 3.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. dc = DBar/2 + CCovBot. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev. (AASHTOLRFD5. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section.112. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. which is Calculated 1.USDYY Satisfied iv) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0. i) dc=Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar.USDYY MnYY 1. The Max.718.239*10^6 kNm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.000 mm . should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.625.6fy. b) fsDev. Clear Cover = 50mm. CCoverBot = 75mm & Bar Dia.USDYY 823. Since Clear Cover at Bottom of Well Cap.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.7.926.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . 2 155.3. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment MU at Mid Span of assumed Rectangular Beam in YY Direction = MMax. in Which.
= 17000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.384. ZDev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the TGirder Structure. Clear Cover = 50mm. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. = fsDev.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.< fs fsa< 0.000 N/mm 0.In Well Cap the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc.6*fy for the Concrete Element.000. MU kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m 831. (+) ve Moment occurs just at Middle of all Spans in XX (+)MMiddXXUSD 110. & Developed value ZDev. < ZMax. Allocable Max.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. value is ZMax.6fy . 17.XXUSD < Mr. 13 Flexural Design of Reinforcements for Well Cap in XX Directions for (+) Moment on Bottom Surface : i) Design of Reinforcements in XX Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) against (+) ve Moment: a) The Max. Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fsDev. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. value of ZMax. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. Crack Width Parameter.463 kNm/m . thus Mr is Governing Moment for Design.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. e) Based on fsDve.519 Direction the value of MMidd.519*10^6 for the Section.6*fy 2 246. b) Since ()MMiddXXUSD > Mr.< Zmax.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. ZMax. Minimum Flexural Strength Moment 110.463*10^6 Direction. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure will be a Buried Components thus the Allowable Max.by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.168 N/mm fsDev. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.6fy Satisfy Satisfy Zdev. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. For (+) ve Moment Mr 831.463 value the Reinforcements will be on the Bottom Surface of Well Cap in XX 831. 15. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in YY Direction at Well Cap Bottom Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.
where.482 232.C/C = Af25. or Not) c/deMax. = Aspro*fy(d .3.CCovBot.XXBot. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro. Steel Ratio rMax.85 0.7.3.000 mm Af25. c) Let provide 25f bars as Reinforcement on Bottom Surface in XX Direction of Well Cap. 43.450 47.044 OK c/depro<c/demax.114.C/C j) The provided Steel Area with 25f bars having Spacing 200mm.7. .369 mm2/m ppro apro 0.874 mm 1. In Flexural Design c/de 0. having c = b1apro.1.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) g) Steel Area required for the Section.375 mm m) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area. c 0.42.3.(1 . DMainYY .149 200. ppro = Aspro/bdpro / l) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) 831.XX sreq spro.Bot/2) f) With Design Moment MU .DBarXX.463*10^6 Nmm/m DBarXX.C/C AsproBotXX.044 e) Relation between c/deMax.apro/2)/10^6 Mpro 1. 2 490.3.454.563 kNm/m Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax Not OK Not OK n) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. . C/C mm.087. o) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. dpro = (hWellCap.919 mm b1 c/depro 0. Asreq. in mm. 2.thus () MMidd.705.XXUSD is the Design Moment MU. d) XSectional of 25f Bars = p*DBarXXBot.b/AsreqBot. 2.000 mm2/m mm. the required value of a = dpro*(1 .1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.a/2)) h) Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars = Af25.500 mm areq. dpro. = MU/(ffy(dpro .YY i) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars for the Section spro = 200mm. ii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.Bot 25.2/4 e) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Main Reinforcement in YY on Bottom Surface 25f.b/spro k) Steel Ratio for the Section. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face.002 56.711 mm AsreqBot.
aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0. 353. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.8. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Inner Face of Well Wall on XX Direction.306*10^3 N/m 0. Thus Maximum Shear Force. Shear Force on Well Cap in XX Direction. VMax = VR1XXUSD= VU VU. 1. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. In which.8.3.306 kN/m 3164. 5.iii) Checking Against Max.750 0.3.Thus value 0. thus Vp = 0.2. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.Equ.3. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.306*10^3 N/m 5. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.740 kN/m 353.438 kN/m 5138. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.000.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.Here.138. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure. the Shear Forces for the Section in XX Direction > the Critical Shear Forces in YY Direction.33) in which.8.000 mm 978.8. here bv = b.72h f Vp.8.8.31). dv. thus the Flexural Design of Bottom Surface Reinforcement of Well Cap in XX Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) is OK. thus the Well does not require any Shear Reinforcement. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. Where..25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.306 kN/m 3164. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = hWellCap Depth of Well Cap.083bf/cbvdv.438*10^3 N/m 3.9*de for the Section.74010^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU .3 have Satisfied or Not).fVp)/fbvdv. . value of 0. 0.5.8.9de or 0.164.90 N VnXXMid 3. the Design Strip Width. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.3.9*de.000 N/m ii) Vn2 = 0. (AASHTOLRFD. or bv.306 kN/m 3164.306*10^3 N/m Vn1 3.000 mm 0.. Vc Vs d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu Satisfied For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.31. Steel Ratio.72h in mm. is Whereas. which one is greater. 978.32.72h for the Section.750 mm 864. (AASSHTOLRFD5.9).164.5.164. 5.3. which is also Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.
Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5.519 kNm 110. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which. The Steel Area against Factored (+) Moments in XX at its Mid Span will have value of Nominal Resistance.065.6fy.977 kNm 1065.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment (+) M at Mid Span of assumed Rectangular Beam in XX Direction = (+) MMiddXXUSD (+)MnXX 1. b) fsDev.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Well Cap is being considered as s Simple Supported Rectangular Beam having 1.3.895*10^6 Nmm 2 2. Aspro de 1.379 Nmm 959. Mr 959. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section.379*10^6 kNm 1.7.087.90 i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.000 N/mm .3. 2 37. (AASHTOLRFD5.7.500 mm fsa 2 170. of Concrete Elements.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition. Mr = fMn. in Which. at any Section the Nominal Resistance.052 N/mm (+)MMiddXXUSD 98. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) Mr>MMiddXXUSD Satisfied v) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.977*10^6 kNm 0.895 kNm 98.7.977*10^6 Nmm (+)MMiddXXUSD 110.065.519*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M for the Section ( Which one is Greater. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.3.977 Nmm 1065.4.3. where. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.7.2. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.454.iv) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.369 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. Where.000 m Wide Strips.
6fy Satisfy Satisfy Zdev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev.6*fy for the Concrete Element. value of ZMax. 14 Flexural Design of Reinforcements for Well Cap in XX Directions for () Moment on Top Surface : i) Design of Reinforcements in XX Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) against () ve Moment: . Allocable Max.000.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.705. = 17000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure will be a Buried Components thus the Allowable Max. e) Based on fsDve. < ZMax.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. = fsDev.000 mm A 2 20.6fy . value is ZMax. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. The Max. The Depth is Summation Bottom/Top Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. dc = DBar/2 + CCovBot. Crack Width Parameter. In a Component of Rectangular Section.000 mm ZMax.6*fy 2 246. 3. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. Clear Cover = 50mm. Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fsDev. CCoverBot = 75mm & Bar Dia. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the TGirder Structure. DBar = 25f .< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress. Since Clear Cover at Bottom of Well Cap. dc 50. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement.000. & Developed value ZDev. thus dc = (25/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in YY Direction at Well Cap Bottom Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.000 N/mm 0. Clear Cover = 50mm.i) dc=Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar.150 N/mm fsDev. ZDev.< Zmax. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. 17.< fs fsa< 0.In Well Cap the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max.
(1 .874 mm 1. Design Strip Width b & Effective Depth dpro.046 237.689 mm AsreqTop.(2MU)/(b1f/cbdpro2))(1/2)) g) Steel Area required for the Section.b/AsreqBot.500 mm areq.XX sreq spro. Asreq.463 kNm/m 831.450 47. 2. b) Since () MWallR1&R2XXUSD > Mr.463 () ve Moment value the Reinforcement will be on Top Surface of Well Cap in 831.375 mm 1. dpro.a/2)) h) Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars = Af25.3. c Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK 0.Top 25.3. thus () MWallR1&R2XXUSD is the Design Moment MU. MU kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m 831. 2. o) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. c) XSectional of 25f Bars = p*DBarXXBot. = MU/(ffy(dpro .CCovTop . where.C/C mm.C/C = Af25b/spro k) Steel Ratio for the Section. = Aspro*fy(d . In Flexural Design c/de 0.7.919 mm .2/4 e) The provided Effective Depth for the Section with Main Reinforcement on Top Surface. . ppro = Aspro/bdpro / l) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = Aspro*fy/(b1*f c*b) DBarXX.a) The Calculated ()ve Moments occur at Support Positions of Well ()MWallR1&R2XXUSD 154.726 Cap in XX Direction having equal value.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. 42.000 mm2/m mm.3.apro/2)/10^6 n) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. the required value of a = dpro*(1 . b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis& the Extrime Compressive Face. () MWallR1&R2XXUSD < Mr.065.369 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.3.000 mm Af25.YY i) Let the provided Spacing of Reinforcement with 25f bars for the Section spro = 200mm.134 kNm/m m) Resisting Moment for the Section with provided Steel Area. Steel Ratio rMax.091.7.1.463*10^6 Nmm/m b) Let provide 25f bars as Reinforcement on Top Surface in XX Direction of Well Cap. c/deMax.726*10^6 Required Minimum Flexural Strength Moment which Governs the Design. the 154.112. 2 490.42. the Allowable Minimum Moment for the Section.C/C j) The provided Steel Area with 25f bars having Spacing 200mm.454.Top/2) f) With Design Moment MU . For Mr 831.DBarXX. ii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.C/C AsproTopXX.463*10^6 XX Direction. dpro = (hWellCap.002 56.706 200.
9de or 0.8. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.8. or Not) iii) Checking Against Max.3. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.. Where.563 kN/m 5256. 5.3.3.72h f Vp. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.85 0.32.537*10^3 N/m b1 c/depro 0.2.563*10^3 N/m 3.having c = b1apro. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = hWellCap Depth of Well Cap.fVp)/fbvdv.250 0.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.31.043 OK c/depro<c/demax. In which.001.31).72h in mm.8. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s.3.Here.048 kN/m 3237. Vc Vs . Thus Maximum Shear Force. Shear Force on Well Cap in XX Direction. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.048*10^3 N/m 0.72h for the Section. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section. value of 0.043 e) Relation between c/deMax.5.083bf/cbvdv. which one is greater.048*10^3 N/m 5.237.8.9*de for the Section.048*10^3 N/m Vn1 3.048 kN/m 3237.000. 316.000 mm 1. 1.9).237.3. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. thus Vp = 0. is Whereas. VMax = VR1XXUSD= VU VU. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. the Design Strip Width.250 mm 864.Equ.256.237. in mm. b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section.. here bv = b.90 N VnXXR1&R2 3. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.5.000 N/m ii) Vn2 = 0. or bv. which is also Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.000 mm 0.048 kN/m 3237. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Inner Face of Well Wall on XX Direction.33) in which. 1. (AASHTOLRFD.537 kN/m 316.9*de. 0. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure. dv. 5.Thus value 0. (AASSHTOLRFD5.001.8.8. vu = (VU .25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.
thus the Flexural Design of Bottom Surface Reinforcement of Well Cap in XX Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) is OK. b) fsDev.453 kNm 138.90 i) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm ii) f is Resistance Factor of Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.726 kNm 154. where.7. The Steel Area against Factored () Moments in XX Well Wall Face will have value of Nominal Resistance.8.062.770 kNm 1062. of Concrete Elements. thus the Well does not require any Shear Reinforcement. Steel Ratio. (AASHTOLRFD5.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) c) In a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Rectangular Elements.7.000 m Wide Strips.3.7.3.062. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) v) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.770*10^6 Nmm ()MWallR1&R2XXUSD 154. 2 50. at any Section the Nominal Resistance. iv) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) e) Calculated Factored Moment () M at Well Wall Face of assumed Rectangular Beam in XX Direction = () MWallR1&R2XXUSD ()MnXX 1. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) d) Since Well Cap is being considered as s Simple Supported Rectangular Beam having 1.2. e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.706 N/mm ()MWallR1&R2XXUSD 138.3.770 Nmm 1062.493 Nmm 956. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.2: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component.d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu Satisfied For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.453*10^6 Nmm . is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.3 have Satisfied or Not).493*10^6 kNm 1. Mr 956.726*10^6 Nmm f) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Mr>MWallR1&R2XXUSD Satisfied Actual Factored Moment M for the Section ( Which one is Greater.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition.770*10^6 kNm 0.7.3 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) . Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. Mn f b) The Nominal Resistance of Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.4. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.3. the Shear Forces for the Section in XX Direction > the Critical Shear Forces in YY Direction. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment. Where. Mr = fMn.
112. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.070.000 N/mm dc 50.000 N/mm 0. Clear Cover = 50mm. Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fsDev.6*fy for the Concrete Element. CCoverBot = 75mm & Bar Dia. < ZMax. Crack .000 mm ZMax.ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation.6*fy 2 246.In Well Cap the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. The Depth is Summation Bottom/Top Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.000. dc = DBar/2 + CCovBot.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max.< Zmax. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure will be a Buried Components thus the Allowable Max. value is ZMax. which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.6fy . = 17000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. DBar = 25f .6fy Satisfy Satisfy Zdev. Since Clear Cover at Bottom of Well Cap. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.000 mm A 2 20.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0. ZDev.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress.500 mm fsa 2 170. thus dc = (25/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. 5. Allocable Max.< fs fsa< 0. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Tensile Reinforcement for the Section.6fy. Aspro de 2 2. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. 17.644 N/mm fsDev. & Developed value ZDev. Clear Cover = 50mm. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. in Which. i) dc=Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar. The Max. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the TGirder Structure. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. = fsDev. In a Component of Rectangular Section. value of ZMax.369 mm 1.000. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev.454. e) Based on fsDve.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro.
S&TYY 2 268. thus the provision of Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Surface of Wel Cap in YY Direction is OK. the Required Steel Area against Temperature & Shrinkage Reinforcement on any Cocrete Exposed Surface in both Directions = (1/8)*25^2*3.2.YY AgStrip DBar. thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. thus let provide Specing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements for Top Surface in YY Direction = 300m C/C. 2 201.000 m 1. 300..5. > AsreqTop & sproTop> sreqTop.Width Parameter.413 mm i) Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements will less of 3times sproS&TTopYY.1&. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in YY Direction at Well Cap Bottom Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.250 mm /m d) According to AASHTOLRFD5.10.000m X 1. g) XSectional Area of 16f bar = pDBar2/4 h) Spacing of 16f bars as Shrinkage & Temperature on Top of Well Cap in YY Direction = Af16. Since the Thickness of Component is 1200mm. Steel Area required as Shrinkage AsreqS&TTop.000 mm Af16 sreqS&TTopYY.28mm 2/m bYY.000 mm j) Since AsproTop.YY Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Components having its Thickness 1200mm or Less.10.8.062 mm 2 749.000 m 2 256. On Top Surface in YY Direction (Parallel to Traffic) Reinforcements can Provide as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on same Surface according to provisions of AASHTOLRFD. bXX ASS&T 1. As 0.(Here Well Cap Thickness = 1200mm). 15 Arrangement of Reinforcement on Top & Bottom Surface of Well Cap under Provision of Distribution Reinforcement or as Temperature & Shrinkage Reinforcement in YY (Parallel to Traffic) & also XX (Perpendicular to Traffic) Directions Including the Vertical Faces.8. but on Top Surface the Provided Reinforcements are in XX Direction only. c) Under Provision of AASHTO19968.11Ag/fy in both way. i) Arrangement of Reinforcement on Horizontal Surfaces : a) Since on Bottom Surface of Well Cap. Reinforcements are being Provided both in YY & XX Directions. b) Let consider a 1.293 mm 2 1000000.000m Strip of Surface of Well Cap for Calculation of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement on Top Surface in YY Direction. e) Here Ag is Gross Area of Strip on Top Surface = bYY*bXX f) Let provide 16f bars as Shrinkage & Temperature on Top of Well Cap in YY Direction.000 mm 16.1. ii) Arrangement of Reinforcements on Vertical Faces both in Vertical & Horizontal Direction : .20. Thus it requires provision of Reinforcements in YY Direction.bXX/AsreqS&TTop. the Component thickness or 450mm.
3. f) XSectional Area of 16f bar = pDBarHor2/4 g) Number of 16f Bars required as Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces in Horihontal Direction = AsreqS&TVFace/Af16. e) Let provide 16f bars as Shrinkage & Temperature on Well Cap Vertical Faces in Horihontal Direction.000 mm h) Spacing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements will less of 3times sproS&TTopYY. 16 Checking against Shearing Forces at Critical Sections of Well Cap.8.10.062 mm 1. hVer. thus it is Recommended to bent up & down those Bars alternately from Bottom & Top.951 mm 2 1200000./(NBarHorpro. thus the provision of Shrinkage & Temperature on Top Surface of Wel Cap in YY Direction is OK. a) According to AASHTOLRFD5. Loads of Abutment Wall (DL). i) Spacing of 4nos.6. Steel Area required as Shrinkage AsreqS&TVFace Temperature Reinforcement for Structural Componentshaving its Thickness 1200mm or Less. 400.13.8. ii) Just on the .10. h) Let provide 4 nos 16f Bars as Shrinkage & Temperature on Vertical Faces in Horihontal Direction.8. thus let provide Specing of Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements for Top Surface in YY Direction = 300m C/C. > AsreqTop & sproTop> sreqTop.13.000 m 1. sproS&THor. k) Since the Well Cap Bottom & Top Surfaces are being Provided with Flexural as well Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement Bars having Spacing ranging 150mm to 300mm C/C. 4.*hVer..11Ag/fy in both way. As 0.. 16f bars as Shrinkage & Temperature on Well Cap Vertical Faces in Horizopntal Direction = hVer.200 m c) According to AASHTOLRFD5.1 & C 5. 2 201.1. 300.a) The Vertical Faces of Well Cap Require Reinforcements in both Vertical & Horizontal Directions.601 nos.000 mm j) Since AsproTop. b) Since the Well Cap has a Thickness/Depth of 1200mm. those can also provide as Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcement under Provisions of AASHTOLRFD. = 1000mm & Vertical Height hVer. These arrangement will fulfill the requirements of Vertical Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements for Vertical Faces of Well Cap. NBarHorpro. 5. thus let consider a Strip of Well Cap Vertical Surface having Horizontal Length LHor. Since the Thickness of Component is 1200mm.000 mm Af16 NBarHorreq. = 1200mm (Depth of Well Cap) for Calculations of its Shrinkage & Temperature Reinforcements on both Directions.1 the Critical Sections of Footings (Here Well Cap) prevaile on 2 (Two) Loactions.(Here Well Cap Thickness = 1200mm). the Component thickness or 450mm. i) At a Distance dv from Face of Abutment Wall Toe Side (River Face).1) AgStrip DBarHor 2 321. 1.5. LHor.3. d) Here Ag is Gross Area of Strip on Vertical Surface = LHor.000 nos.3.000 mm 16. Soil & Surcharge Loads (DL + LL).6.2. i) Checking of Shearing Forces at Critical Sections of Well Cap along XX Direction due to Vertical Loads from Superstructure (DL + LL).
3.3.616.3. Soil & Surcharge Loads (DL + LL) as TwoWay Action According to Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.8.00. g) Checking of Shearing Forces at Critical Section on Abutment Wall Heel Face of Well Cap along XX Direction due to Vertical Loads from Superstructure (DL + LL).3..31).33) in which. thus no further Checking ie Required.(LYY/2 . 5.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.3.) Vc Vs b 2.1. b) According to AASHTOLRFD5. diii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.000 Vp. Loads of Abutment Wall (DL).3 have Satisfied or Not).3 for TwoWay Action without Transverse/Shear Reinforcement the Nominal . Soil & Surcharge Loads (DL + LL) have already been done in Serial No12ii & found Satisfactory.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.584 kN/m 7616.584*10^3 N/m 5.563*10^3 N/m Vn1 7.563 kN/m 52563.6. For Footing/Foundation Slab b = 2. 5.5dv to Calcutate the Parimeter bo of the Concetrated Loads.8. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.dv)*pSelfWt.3.3.563*10^3 N/m 7.8.256.13.8. or VUdvToe 348.tAbWalBot/2 .. For Footing/Foundation Slab Vs = 0.1 the Critical is Located at a Distance not Less than 0. Loads of Abutment Wall (DL).8.4.6. thus the Shear Resistances for both the Locations should Satisfy the Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.6 : a) According to AASHTOLRFD5. b) Since the Well Cap is being Designed Considering it has One Way Action. In which.083bf/cbvdv. ii) Checking of Punching Shear Forces at Critical Sections of Well Cap along XX Direction due to Vertical Loads from Superstructure (DL + LL).3.3.6.5.563 kN/m 52563.8. Vn2 di) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.492 kN/m VnHeel 5.616.32.8.  N e) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu Satisfied For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.Equ.Back Face of Abutment Well on Heel Side (Earth Face).5.3. (AASHTOLRFD.31. c) The Calculated Factored Shearing Forces on Toe Side of Well Cap at Critical Section at a Distance dv from the = RBUSD . thus the Well does not require any Shear Reinforcement.8.16. div) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.584*10^3 N/m N/m ii) Vn2 = 0.256.13. AASHTO8. (For RCC Structure Elements.USD d) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5. Vp = 0.13. dii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. f) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.584 kN/m 7616.3.
13.USD+ pHeel)*LWCapTrans.369 kN 180439.130.33/bc)f/cbodv i) Computed value on Toe Side for Vn2 = 0. the Provided Steel Ratio < Max.5*dv)*pSelfWt.5*dv from the Abutment Wall Face = ((RAUSD .005 m 26.5*dv from the Abutment Wall Face = ((RBUSD .6.3. Steel Ratio.(LYY/2 .918 kN 180439. the Calculated Imposed Max.067 kN Vn1 Vn2 41.105 kN VUTotalCritToe2 7. d) bo is Perimeter of the Critial Section at a distance 0. h) Computed value on Toe Side for Vn1 = (0.5*dv)*pSelfWt. l) Since VCd2 > VCd1 > VU. g) The Calculated Factored Total Shearing Forces at Critical on Heel Side at a Distance 0.17+0.864 26.3 are being Satisfied./LAbCapLong.3.0.412.918*10^3 N Satisfied j) Relation betweenComputed values of Vn1 & Vn2 for Tor Side Vn1<Vn2 k) All Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. m) Since the Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.1 & AASHTOLRFD5.tAbWalBot/2 . c) bc is Ratio of Long Side to Short Side of Rectangule through which the Horces bc Concentrated Load or Reaction Transmitted having value = LAbWallTrans.tAbWalBot/2 . bo = 2*{(2*0.6.250 mm 4. Thus the Well Cap does not Require any Punching Shear Reinforcement. Shear Forces (Nominal & Punching) < the Computed Shear Forces (Nominal & Punching) and the Well Cap does not require any Shear Reinforcement.USD)*LWCapTrans. where. Vn = (0.17+0. thus the Flexural Design of the Well Cap for Reinforcement on Top & Bottom Surface in all respect (both in XX & YY Direction) is OK.13.075.0.Shear Resitance of Concrete for the Section. f) The Calculated Factored Total Shearing Forces at Critical on Toe Side at a Distance 0. .5*dv from Face of Load bo 3 Action Face having value.33 f/cbodv dv VUTotalCritToe1 1.5dv +LABWallTrans) + (tAbWallBot+2*0.(LYY/2 .5dv)} /10 m e) dv is Effective Shear Depth in mm. thus the Structure is Safe in Respect Critical Shear.33/bc)f/cbodv 0.005*10^3 mm 1.33 f/cbodv .001.
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00m 600 450 300 2525 2150 5500 1447 450 600 2750 3000 3000 450 RL2. RW&D. WCarrWay. LGir.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).Length of Girder beyond Bearing Center Line. Substructure & RCC Well for Foundation : Description i) Dimentions of Superstructure : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Span Length (Clear C/C distance between Bearings) Addl.20m 1775 750 2525 1200 3450 450 2450 9350 10250 3450 450 1200 C 600 4300 5500 600 2 Dimensions of Bridge Superstructur.225 m m m m m m m m m m Notation Dimensions Unit.000 7.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.400 0.300 25.300 1. WBDeck.175 0. P. 24.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . WCurb. PW&B. Structural Design of RCC Wells for Bridge foundation: 1 Sketch Diagram of Abutment & Wing wall: 12750 3000 600 3450 600 3450 600 3450 600 600 C 2000 5225 2100 300 700 B A RL5.350 0. WRPost. Total Girder Length (a+2b) Carriageway Width Width of Side Walk on Each Side Width of Curb/Wheel Guard Width of Railing Curb/Post Guard Total Width of Bridge Deck Width & Depth of Railings Width & Breath of Railing Post SL SAddl. Page 637 6150 1900 H1 = 4947 1775 H = 6147 2150 450 300 2750 1500 2147 . WSWalk.225 10.250 0.250 0..
bXGirder.150 m 0.000 m 0.750 m Page 638 . d) Height of Abutment Steam e) Height of Back Wall f) Height of Wing Wall g) Width of Wall Cap on Heel Side (From Abutment Wall Face). C/CDGirder.947 m 2.070 m 0.200 m 0. i) Length (Transverse Length) of Abutment Well Cap.125 m 1. hCurb. ASupVert.650 m 0.. C/CDRPost.000 nos 2.150 m 0.147 m 4.500 m 12.750 m 10. NXGirder. k) Inner Length of Abutment Wall in between Wing Walls (Transverse).200 m 1.000 m 1.075 m 0.250 m LAbTInner t.350 m 0.108 m ii) Dimensions of SubStructure.075 m 5.000 nos 5.900 m 0. c) Height of Abutment Well Cap. h) Width (Longitudinal Length) of Abutment Well Cap. b) Height of Abutment Wall from Top of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall. l) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Bottom H H1 hWellCap.525 m 5.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).250 m 2. hSteam.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. hXGirder.075 m 2 87.900 m 2.000 nos 2. FXGirderV.300 m 3.947 m 1.147 m 4. FXGirderH.350 m 0. FMGirderV. hGirder. Rnos.AbwalBot. j) Transverse Length of Abutment Wall (Outer Face to Outer Face) in XX Direction. 1. a) Height of Abutment Wall from Bottom of Well Cap up to Top of Back Wall. 9.000 m 1. k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) wi) x) y) Height of Railing Post Height of Wheel Guard/Curb Number of Railings on each Side C/C distance between Railing Posts Thickness of Deck Slab Thickness of Wearing Course Number of Main Girders Number of Cross Girders Depth of Main Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Depth of Cross Girders (Including Slab as TGirder) Width of Main Girders Width of Cross Girders C/C Distance Between Main Girders Distance of Slab Outer Edge to Exterior Girder Center Clear Distance Between Main Interior Girders Filets : i) Main Girder in Vertical Direction ii) Main Girder in Horizontal Direction iii) XGirder in Vertical Direction vi) XGirder in Horizontal Direction z) Vertical Surface Area of Superstructure's Exposed Elements hRPost.GirderEdg. ClDInt. 6. CDExt.Girder. tSlab.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . hbwall HWWall WWellCapHell WAbCap LAbTWCap LABTrans. bGirder. tWC NGirder. FMGirderH.
tWallPerti DOuter. tWellWall. 0.2* tWall i) Transverse Length of Rectangular Portion of Well Cap =LWellXX . 2. a) Width of Well in YY Direction (In Longitudinal Direction) b) Length of Well in XX Direction (In Transverse Direction) c) Depth of Well from Bottom of Well Cap up to Bottom of Well Curb d) Wall thickness of Well.& Ab.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .450 m 0. f) Thickness of Partition Walls of Well.450 m 1.Tri. y) Average Length (Longitudinal) of Well Cap on Heel Side from Abutment Wall Face.775 m 2.525 m LWCapHeelAver.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. LRect.= SAver. iii) Dimensions of RCC Well for Foundation. DInner. 2.250 m Page 639 .000 m 1. hwwallCant.825 m WWellYY LWellXX HWellpro. g) Diameter of Outer Circle.600 m 0.300 m 7.750 m 6. LWCapToe.500 m 4. r) Effective Span of Wing Wall Counterfort = SAverCount + tWWCountf s) Thickness of Wing Walls within Well Cap. hwwallCant..500 m 12. tWWCountf.325 m 0.DOuter t.Rec.450 m 3.AbwalTop.600 m 5. LwwallCant.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).000 No's 1.450 m 0. + tWWCount. t) Thickness of Cantilever Wing Walls u) Length of Cantilever Wing Walls v) Height of Rectangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls w) Height of Triangular Portion of Cantilever Wing Walls x) Longitudinal Length of Well Cap on Toe Side from Abutment Wall Outer Face. tWingwall twwallCant.500 m 2. SAverCount&Ab. 5. m) Thickness of Abutment Wall (Stem) at Top n) Thickness of Counterfort Wall (For Wing Wall) o) Number of WingWall Counterforts (on each side) p) Clear Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall at Bottom q) Average Spacing between Counerfort & Abutment Wall = (tABWallBot + tAbWallTop)/2+SClearCount& AbBot.375 m SEfftCount. NWWcount SClearCount& AbBot.825 m 0.Count.000 m 2. h) Diameter of Inner Circle = DOuter .
750) m 1.17 1.633 m 38..26 1.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.450 m W1/2WellYY AWell.68 1. 3.g. LStaining.807 m/sec ) a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) gc gWC gWNor. gs 2.447. (XX) Line from Well Cap Toe Face = (LAbTWCap*(W1/2WellYY)2*1.019.5*pDOuter2/4)*0. t) RL of Height Flood Level (HFL) u) RL of Maximum Scoring Level (MSL) v) Depth of Well Portion within Bedrock.YY. 2.23 2. NPock.5*pDOuter2/4 + LRect*W1/2WellYY s) Distance of c. 3. Line in XX. gWSali. + 2*LParti r) Surface Area of Well Cap = LAbTWCap*W1/2WellYY + 0.100 m (4.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .750 m 2 63.450 m SPocketXXCentral. n) Distance between Inner Faces of Central Pocket in XX Direction (Transverse Span Length). SPockYY.879 m bc.345.300 m SPockXXOuter.835.g.045.50*DOuter*3/4 + LRect*W1/2WellYY2/2)/AWellCap.2*tWall k) Number of Pockets within Well l) Distance between Inner Faces of Pockets in YY Direction (Longitudinal Span Length).494 m AWellCap. 2.000 Nos 4.939 m HFLRL MSLRL HBRock 2.50+ (0. m) Distance between Inner Faces of Outer Pockets in XX Direction (Transverse Span Length). 2 66. 4. = WWellYY/2 p) Surface Area of Well at Top & Bottom Level = pDOuter2/4 + LRect*DOuter q) Total Length of Staining of Well (Main & Partitions) through Center line = p*(DOuter+ DInner)/2 + 2*LRect.500 m 2 9. g = LParti.300 m 3.42 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 3 ii) Unit Weight of Materials in kN/m Related to Design Forces : Page 640 .g. 3 Design Data in Respect of Unit Weight & Strength of Materials : i) Unit Weight of Different Materials : 3 i) Unit Weight of Different Materials in kg/m : (Having value of Gravitional Acceleration. o) Width of Well from its c.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). j) Length of Partition Walls = DOuter .
000/(9. a) b) c) d) e) Unit weight of Normal Concrete Unit weight of Wearing Course Unit weight of Normal Water Unit weight of Saline Water Unit weight of Earth (Compected Clay/Sand/Silt) wc wWC wWNor. Es for fy = 410 MPa f/c fc Ec 21.2.307*0.903 1.000 MPa 164. fPileResistanc.25 18..50f/c (AASHTO LRFD5. Ec = 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. fAncTenSteel.6)..5.40fy h) Modulus of Elasticity of Reinforcement.102 v) Subsoil Investigation Report & Bearing Capacity of Bedrock : Page 641 . b1 b 0.85 0.00 0.00 10. fFlxPres. e) Modulus of Rupture of Concrete.2.043gc1. fShear.524 0.898) = 1.000 MPa 200000.307/3 Value of R = 0.384 Value of Ratio of Steel & Concrete Flexural Strength.4. wE 24.70 0. wWSali.291 0.00 23.2.75 0.k/3 = 1 . fy (60 Grade Steel) g) Steel Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.00 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 ii) Design Data for Resistance Factors for Conventional Construction (AASHTO LRFD5.90 0. subject to cracking and considered to be neglected (AASHTO LRFD5.2.400*0.) Value of b for Flexural Tension of Reinforcement in Concrete fFlxRin.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).00 0.80 1. For Bearing on Concrete For Compression in StrutandTie Modeis For Compression in Anchorage Zones with Normal Concrete For Tension in Steel in Anchorage Zones For resistance during Pile Driving Value of b1 for Flexural Compression in Reinforced Concrete (AASHTO LRFD5.400 23.7. f) Steel Ultimate strength.63*21^(1/2).40f/c c) Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.00 10.4).4.85 iii) Strength Data related to Ultimate Strength Design( USD & AASHTOLRFD2004) : a) Concrete Ultimate Compressive Strength.70 0.000 MPa iv) Strength Data related to Working Stress Design & Service Load Condition ( WSD & AASHTOSLS ) : a) b) c) d) e) Modular Ratio.887 MPa MPa MPa MPa 410. fAncCopmConc.5*(8.63f/c Mpa (AASHTO LRFD5.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . : (Respective Resistance Factors are mentioned as f or b value) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) For Flexural & Tension in Reinforced Concrete For Flexural & Tension in Prestressed Concrete For Shear & Torsion of Normal Concrete For Axil Comression with Spirals or Ties & Seismic Zones at Extreme Limit State (Zone 3 & 4).90 1.400 Value of k = n/(n + r) = 9.620 2. d) Poisson's Ration = 0.156 n r k j R 8 19. fr = 0.5).2.00 1. n = Es/Ec>6 8.1). r = fs/fc = 164/8. fStrut&Tie.0.4.000 + 20) Value of j = 1 . fSpir/Tie/Seim.000 8.887 fr fy fs ES 2.4.63f/c = 0.855. f/c (Normal Concrete) b) Concrete Allowable Strength under Service Limit State (WSD) = 0.5*(fckj) = 0.2. fBearig.
15) = 15 + 1/2(50 .2 Ton/ft2.5.761 0. Where. f is Effective Friction Angle of Soil b) For Back Filling with Clean fine sand. RAINA.5. d) Value of Tan d (dim) for Coefficient of Friction. Page138. Where.007141 7.004761 4. b) ks is Coefficien of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge = ko for Active Earth Pressure. f = 340 .Where. Say N/ = 33 c) Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity of Bedrock (Soil Investigation Report witht SPT Value 50 over. d) gs is Unit Weight of Soil (kg/m3) k gs 0. p = 7. / b) Corrected SPT Value for N>15.00m 0.6.45 dim ii) Dead Load Surcharge Lateral/Horizontal Pressure Intensity (ES).11.(Table 12. AASHTOLRFD3.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.15) = 15 + 1/2(50 .761 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 N/mm2 kN/m2 b) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Live Load Surcharge for Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic).6.5 .3 .3 .00m DpLLAb6.1.11. = 770kN/m2) 4 Intensity of Different Imposed Loads. : a) Constant Earth Pressur both Vertical & Horizontal for Live Load Surcharge on Abutment Wall (Perpendicular to Traffic). DpES = ksqs in Mpa. AASHTOLRFD3.31.11.441 3 1.007935 N/mm 2 7. Where. = 0.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). DpLS = kgsgheq*109 DpLLAb<6. a) SPT Value as per Soil Boring Test Report.018 N/mm iii) Live Load Surcharge Vertical & Horizontal Pressure Intensity (LS).4. N = 15 + 1/2(N .835. DpLLWW<6. DpLS = kgsgheq*109 .34 to 0.441 2 0.31.141 0.s Book) c) Angle of Friction with Concrete surface & Soli AASHTOLRFD3. : a) Constant Horizontal Earth Pressur due to Uniform Surcharge.331 0.00m DpLLWW6.008331 8.) N N/ p 50 Over 33 2 770 kN/m ko 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .15) = 32.004761 4. Load Coefficients & Multiplier Factors : i) Coefficient for Lateral Earth Pressure (EH) : a) Coefficient of Active Horizontal Earth Pressure.9.5.34 to 0.499 kg/m Page 642 .45 (AASHTOLRFD3. Silty or clayey fine to medium sand Effective Friction Angle of Soil.Table 3.935 kN/m ks wE*103 0.00m c) ks is Coefficien of Latreal Earth Pressure = ko for Active Earth Pressure.11. ko = (1sinff ) ..11.441 f 34 O d 19 to 24 O Tan d 0. c) qs is Uniform Surcharge applied to upper surface of Active Earth Wedge(Mpa) = wE*103N/mm2 DpES 2 0.Table 3.5.11.
8.6.3). for Two Lane Bridge. (AASHTOLRFD3. AASHTOLRFD3. AASHTOLRFD3.6. h) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Abutment having H < 6000mm. vi) Wind Load Intensity on Live Load (WL) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Longitudinal Direction (Parallel to Traffic). (AASHTOLRFD3. Having H < 6000mm.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Table3.4.0009000 Mpa 2 0.4.31).1.3.2. Table3.550 kN/m pWindSubLet.000 0.600 600. (AASHTOLRFD3. AASHTOLRFD3.00m.6. Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force.000 0.00m. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic).000 mm 900.11. having action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Force.00m.500 N/mm 0.6. 0.8.1.. Table3.000 mm 600. = 0. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .11. g heqAb<6. = 0.3).25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . heqWW6.1. H < 6000mm & for having H 6000mm .2.00m.11.500 kN/m Page 643 . 0. g) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm).000 0.& H 6000mm.42.1. 1.11.600 mm m mm m iv) Wind Load Intensity on Superstructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Lateral Direction of Wind Flow (Parallel to Traffic). 0.900 600.21.2.6.00m.41.000950 Mpa 2 0. e) Since wE.050. AASHTOLRFD3. v) Wind Load Intensity on Substructure Elements (WS) : a) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Substructure Elements in Lateral Direction (Parallel to Traffic).000800 Mpa 2 0.550 N/mm. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Vertical Fcaes of Superstructure Elements in Longitudinal Direction of Wind Flow (Perpendicular to Traffic). 0.3.600 mm m mm m i) heq is Equivalent of Height of Abutment Wall Soil for Vehicular Load (mm). AASHTOLRFD3.000 0.1. Table.11.2.6.807 m/sec 900.0019*cos600 Mpa.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).950 kN/m pWindSupLet. b) Horizontal Wind Load Intensity on Live Load upon Superstructure in Lateral Direction (Perpendicular to Traffic) = 0.& H 6000mm. thus gs = wE*10^3/g 2 f) g is Gravitational Acceleration (m/sec ). Having.0019*sin600 Mpa.41.11. heqWW<6.550 N/mm 0. 2 9. Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force. WeqWW6. WeqAb<6. heqAb6. 0. 600.8.4.001645 Mpa 2 1.900 kN/m pWindSubLong.1. the Unit Wieght of Soil = 18kN/m 3.8.000 mm 600. = 0.8. Having.000 mm WeqWW<6.800 kN/m pWindSupLong.00m. Table3.8.2.00m. WeqAb6. 0.00m.500N/mm having pWindLLSupLet.6. j) Width of Live Load Surcharge Pressure for Wing Walls.2.1.645 kN/m pWindLLSupLong.
750 Page 644 .500 gLLTruck IM 1.2.750 1.4.500 gEH 1.6.4. Table.250 gDW 1. value of Table 3.4).330 gLLLane gLLPL. (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. for Two Lane Bridge. i) 25% of the Axle Weight of Design Truck/Design Tendem. or pLL25%Truck..1.500 kN 162.6. 1. vii) Intensity on Breaking Force (BR) : a) Intensity of Horizontal Breaking on Superstructure is the Greater value of pLLSupBreak.12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities. value of Table 3.11.1.6.12) ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3.) Breaking Force is for Two Lane Bridge & its Action at 1800mm above Deck.500 kN 55.(AASHTOLRFD3.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Table 3.4. (Max.750 1.4. (Max.500 gEV 1.750 1.3. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3.750 kN 5 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Strength Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.8. (Max. value of Table 3.6. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls. gLLCE. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.4.8. 162. ii) 5% of Design (Truck + Lane Load) or (Design Tendem + Lane Load) pLL5%(Tru+Lane.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . (AASHTOLRFD3.3. (Max.000 gDC 1. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE m 1.DW .12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .2.12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES . Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls. action at 1800mm above Deck & Considering 600 Skew Angle of Main Force. value of Table 3. value of Table 3.350 gES 1.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .1.31).1.1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .
12) b) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Wearing Course & Utilities.000 1.000 gLLSH.000 gLLEQ. 1.DW . o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG (With Elastomeric Bearing). gLLWL gLLFR. gLLCV. 1.4. 1.4. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV STRENGTH .750 1. Applicable to Abutment & Wing Walls.000 gLLTG.400 1. gDC 1. gLLCT.V gLLBR.000 gLLSE.000 gEH 1.000 1. gLLWA. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). value of Table 3.1 .000 1.000 Page 645 .750 1. 1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .4. value of Table 3. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 gDW 1. 1. gLLTU.12) c) Multiplier Factor for Horizontal Active Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEH . 1.000 gLLCR. gLLLS. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).000 6 Different Load Multiplying Factors for Service Limit State Design (USD) & Load Combination : i) Permanent & Dead Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3. (Max.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.4. g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR . gLLWS. (Max. Table 3.. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).11&2 : a) Dead Load Multiplier Factor for Structural Components & AttachmentsDC Applicable to All Components Except Wearing Course & Utilities (Max.III STRENGTH .
.000 1.2.000 0.000 gLLCR.6. gLLWA.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .4.000 gLLSH. Table 3. Horizontal & Vertical Loads on Abutment & Wing Walls.II SERVICE . (Max.000 1. value of Table 3.000 ii) Live Load Multiplier Factors for Service Limit State Design (WSD) According to AASHTOLRFD3.000 gES 1.4. gLLLS.12) d) Multiplier Factor for Vertical Earth Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeEV .1.11. 1. gLLWS gLLWL gLLFR gLLTU. c) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Dynamic Load AllowenceIM as per Provision of ASSHTO LRFD3.000 1. n) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Shrinkage of ConcreteSH (With Elastomeric Bearing).700 1.1) b) Multiplier Factor for Truck Loading (HS20 only)LLTruck .12) e) Multiplier Factor for Surchage Pressure on Substructure Components of BridgeES .000 1.000 gLLTruck IM 1. value of Table 3.000 gLLTG.II SERVICE . 1.2. value of Table 3.12) gEV 1.II m 1.300 1.6.300 1.1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).11&2 : a) Multiplier Factor for Multiple Presence of Live Load ( No of Lane = 2)m (ASSHTO LRFD3. f) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Centrifugal ForceCE g) Multiplier Factor for Vhecular Breaking ForceBR .1.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.4.000 Page 646 .000 1. o) Multiplier Factor for Temperature GradientTG SERVICE . 1. gLLCE. Applicable toAbutment & Wing Walls. m) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Creep on ConcreteCR (With Elastomeric Bearing).IV SERVICE .1.000 gLLLane gLLPL.I (Applicable only for Truck Loading & Tandem Loading) d) Multiplier Factor for Lane LoadingLLLane e) Multiplier Factor for Pedestrian LoadingPL. 1. h) Multiplier Factor for Live Load SurchargeLS i) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureWA j) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on StructureWS l) Multiplier Factor for Wind Load on Live LoadWL k) Multiplier Factor for Water Load & Stream PressureFR l) Multiplier Factor for deformation due to Uniform Temperature Change TU (With Elastomeric Bearing). Table 3. gLLBR.300 1.4. SERVICE .4. (Max.6.
0.287 kN 2 770.714 kN 5.030.857 kN 9. PV pBedrock pImpos.024. Soil. 2. p) Multiplier Factor for Settlement of ConcreteSE (With Elastomeric Bearing).108.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). b) Formula for Checking of Wall Thickness. a) Provided Thickness of RCC Staining Walls for Well Foundation. t = Kdh K 0. d) d = DOuter the Outer Diameter which is the Smaller dimension of RCC Well e) h = HWellpro.185. Where.000 7 Checkings in Respect of RCC Staining Walls Thickness & Bearing Capacity of Bedrock : i) Checking for Thickness of RCC Staining Walls of Well Foundation.600 m d h treq. gLLCV. RLLSub&Soil.Area of Well = PV/AWell RDLSupr. 1.325 m 0.729.030 tWellpro. d) Total Vertical Forces due to Dead & Live Load e) Bearing Capacity of Bearock as per Soil Investigation Report 2 f) Per m Load on Bedrock from Superstructure & Substructure (DL & LL) through RCC Well for Bridge Foundation = Total Load/ X.000 gLLEQ gLLCT.500 m 6.000 kN/m 2 141. q) Multiplier Factor for Earthquake EQ r) Multiplier Factor for Vehicular Collision ForceCT t) Multiplier Factor for Vessel Collision ForceCV gLLSE. Surcharge etc. t = Kdh.817 kN/m g) Relation between Bearing Capacity of Beadrock & Imposed Pressure through Well Satisfy OK Page 647 . 1.. ii) Checking Bearing Capacity of Bedrock underneath RCC Well Foundation against all Imposed Vertical Loads from Superstructure & Substructure (DL & LL) : a) Dead Load Reaction from Total SuperStructure b) All Live Load Reaction (Wheel+IM Load. RLLSuper. c) K is Coefficient for Dumbbell shap TwinD & One Rectangular Type RCC Well Foundation in predominantly Sandy Strata having value = 0.K.415 m g) Since the Provided thickness for RCC Staining Walls of Well tWall > treq.716 kN 1. Depth of Well (Since GL > LWL) f) Thus the Required thickness of Well Wall. 5.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. thus the Provision is O. (With Elastomeric Bearing). Lane Load & Pedestrian Loads) c) Vertical Loads from Substructural Componts.
Wheel. f) Vertical LL Reaction on Well due to Wheel Load (Without IM) g) Vertical LL Reaction on Well due to Lane Load on Superstructure h) Vertical LL Reaction on Well due to Pedestrian Load i) Vertical Reaction due to Surcharge LL on Well Cap on Abutment Wall Face =DpLLAb*WeqAb*LAbTInner j) Vertical Reaction due to Surcharge LL on Well Cap on Wing Wall Face =2*DpLLWW*WeqWW*LWCapHeelAver. RLLVPedes.173 kN RDLHSoilCapRec.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . RLLV. c) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) due to Lateral Soil Pressure on Vertical Face of Well Cap for Triangular Pressure Block (Perpendicular to Traffic).102. RLLVLane.500 kN 112.976.5*k0*wE*H12*LABTrans. thus it is capable to Uphold the Imposed Loads of Bridge Structure. RDLVSoil.627.500 kN 247.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. b) Horizontal Surcharge Dead Load (DL) Pressure on Vertical Face of Well Cap for Rectangular Pressure Block (Parallel to Traffic).265 kN 574. h) Since Bedrock Bearing Capacity pBedrock > pImpos.139 kN ii) Horizontal Loads (DL & LL)on Superstructure & Substructure due to Lateral Siol Pressure & others: a) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) due to Lateral Soil Pressure on Vertical Faces of Abutment Wall & Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic).278 kN 209. 72.Soil & Surcharge Elements : i) Vertical Loads on RCC Well from Superstructure & Substructure Components. thus it is considered an uniform intensity of Vertical Loads upon the Walls with equal magnitude per meter Length of Staining. = k0*wE*H1*hWellCap*LAbTWCap. d) Horizontal Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Vertical Faces of Abutmen Wall & Wing Walls (Perpendicular to Traffic)..438 kN 3.398 kN RLLVSurWW. RDLVUt.592 kN 2. Soil & Surcharge : a) Since all the Vertical Loads (DL & LL) from Superstructure & Substructure will transmit to the Bedrock through the Staining of RCC Well. 8 Computation of Loads (DL & LL) from Superstructure. Substructure.&WC. RDLVSub. =0.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). 600. 1.221 kN 232. RLLVSurAb. 16.334 kN Page 648 . RDLVSupr. RDLHSoilAb 995.839 kN RDLHSurAb 402. b) Vertical DL Reaction on Well from Superstructure without Utility & WC c) Vertical DL Reaction on Well from Utility & WC on Superstructure d) Vertical DL Reaction on Well from Substructure Components.557 kN RDLHSoilCapTri. = 0.5* ko*gE*(hWellCap)2*LAbTWCap. e) Vertical DL Reaction on Well from Soil Load upon Well Cap.
887 kN FRLLVLane. e) HorizontalDead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure on Vertical Face of Well Cap (Perpendicular to Traffic).*H1*LAbTrans.USD 4.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .*ASupVert.&WC.732. = gDC*RDLVSub. f) Factored Vertical LL on Well due to Lane Load on Superstructure FRDLVSupr.750 kN RLLHBreak. 2.490 kN FRDLVSoilUSD. j) Horizontal Live Load (LL) due to Wind on Live Load = pWindLLSupLet. 13. i) Horizontal Live Load (LL) due to Wind on Substructure = pWindSubLet. k) Horizontal Live Load (LL) due to Breaking Force of Vehicle on Bridge Deck =pLLSupBreak. 162.101 kN RLLHSurAb 109. f) Horizontal Surcharge Live Load (LL) Pressure on Vertical Faces of Abutmen Wall & Wing Walls (Perpendicular to Traffic). = DpES*hWellCap*LAbTWCap.004. = DpLLAb*hWellCap*LAbTWCap.258 kN RLLHWindSuper. Substructure.USD 2. b) Factored Vertical DL due to Utility & WC = gDW*RDLVUt.838.*LGir.Wheel.398 kN RLLHSurAb 362.156 kN FRDLVSub.534.171 kN RLLHWindLL.500 kN 9 Computation of Factored Loads (DL & LL) under Strength Limit State Design (USD) from Superstructure.Wheel.. h) Horizontal Live Load (LL) due to Wind on Superstructure = pWindSupLet. = DpLLAb*H1*LABTrans. 13. 48. e) Factored Vertical LL on Well due to Wheel Load (Including IM) = m*gLLTruck*RLLV.USD 406.&WC.USD 1. Soil & Surcharge Elements : i) Factored Vertical Loads on RCC Well : a) Factored Vertical DL from Superstructure without Utility & WC = gDC*RDLVSupr.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). g) Horizontal Surcharge Live Load (LL) Pressure on Vertical Face of Wall Cap (Perpendicular to Traffic).STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. RDLHSurWCap 121. = DpES*H1*LABTrans.145 kN FRDLVUt.USD 314. = gEV*RDLVSoil. c) Factored Vertical DL from Substructure Components.057 kN FRLLV.750 kN RLLHWindSub.875 kN Page 649 . d) Factored Vertical DL from Soil Load upon Well Cap.
= gLLLS.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). l) Factored Vertical Load on per meter Length of Staining of Well (Including Partition Walls) = FVLoad.760 kN FRLLVPedes.USD 12.USD 432.243 kN FVLoad. g) Factored Vertical LL on Well due to Pedestrian Load = m*gLLPedes*RLLVPedes.*RLLVSurWW.USD 28.*RLLHSurAb g) Factored Horizontal Surcharge LL Pressure on Vertical Face of Wall Cap (Perpendicular to Traffic).488./LStaining..836 kN c) Factored Horizontal DL due to Lateral Soil Pressure on Vertical FRDLHSoilCapTri.USD 196. k) Total Factored Vertical Loads upon RCC Well. = gEH*RDLHSoilCapTri.258 kN 603.947 kN FRLLVSurWW.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.676 kN 324. = gLLLS. ii) Factored Horizontal Loads on Superstructure & Substructure: a) Factored Horizontal DL due to Lateral Soil Pressure on Abutment Wall & Wing Walls (Parallel to Traffic).25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . h) Factored Vertical LL due to Surcharge on Abutment Wall Face = m*gLLSur. = gEH*RDLHSoilCapRec. d) Factored Horizontal DL Surcharge Pressure on Vertical Faces of Abutmen Wall & Wing Walls (Perpendicular to Traffic).USD 19.492. b) Factored Horizontal DL due to Lateral Soil Pressure on Vertical Face of Well Cap for Rectangular Pressure Block (Parallel to Traffic).875 kN FRLLVSurAb.*RLLHSurWCap h) Factored Horizontal LL due to Wind on Superstructure FRDLHSurAbUSD 109.USD 900.*RLLVSurAb.USD Face of Well Cap for Triangular Pressure Block (Perpendicular to Traffic).250 kN Page 650 . = gES*RDLHSurWCap f) Factored Horizontal Surcharge LL Pressure on Vertical Faces of Abutmen Wall & Wing Walls (Perpendicular to Traffic). = gES*RDLHSurAb e) Factored Horizontal DL Surcharge Pressure on Vertical Face of Well Cap (Perpendicular to Traffic).202 kN FRLLHWindSuper. =gEH*RDLHSoilAb.257 kN FRLLHSurAbUSD 633. i) Factored Vertical LL due to Surcharge on Wing Wall Face = m*gLLSur.433 kN/m FRDLHSoilCapReC. FRDLHSoilAbUSD 1.501 kN FRDLHSurWCapUSD 72.676 kN FRLLHSurWCapUSD 191. = m*gLLLane*RLLVLane.USD pStaining.
USD 284.00m kN/m c) Intensity of Total Horizontal Load (DL + LL) at Well's Bedrock Level.USD 13.761 kN/m PHTopUF 56.992 kN/m 11 Factored Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Faces of RCC Well under Strength Limit State Design (USD) : i) Factored Horizontal Load Intensity due to Soil & Surcharge at Top Level : a) Factored Itensity of DL Earth Pressure at Well's Top Level FPHSoilTop.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).375 kN SPHWellCapUSD pHYYUSD 4. 7.USD 73. i) Factored Horizontal LL due to Wind on Substructure = gLLWS. j) Factored Horizontal LL due to Wind on Live Load = m*gLLWL.388.761 kN/m PHRockUF 94.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. 4. 48.HBRock) kN/m b) Horizontal Dead Load Surcharge (DL) Itensity on Earth Face at Bedrock Level = DpES kN/m c) Horizontal Live Load Surcharge (LL) Itensity on Earth Face at Bedrock Level = DpLLAb³6.181 kN/m 10 Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Faces of RCC Well for per meter Length at Top & Bedrock Level: i) Intensity Horizontal Earth Loads on Vertical Face at Top Level of Well (Perpendicular to Traffic) : a) Horizontal Earth Load (DL) Itensity on Earth Face at Well's Top Level (Just below Well Cap) = ko*wE*H kN/m b) Horizontal Dead Load Surcharge (DL) Itensity on Earth Face at Well's Top Level (Just below Well Cap) = DpES kN/m c) Horizontal Live Load Surcharge (LL) Itensity on Earth Face at Well's Top Level (Just below Well Cap) = DpLLAb³6.USD 67.. 4.*RLLHWindLL.160 kN/m Page 651 .058 kN/m PHSurDLRock 7.306 kN 344.774 kN/m PHSurDLTop.*RLLHBreak. PHSoilRock 87.935 kN/m PHSurLLRock.708 kN/m ii) Intensity Horizontal Earth Loads on Vertical Face at Bedrock Level of Well (Perpendicular to Traffic) : a) Horizontal Earth Load (DL) Itensity on Earth Face at Bedrock Level = ko*wE*(H + HWellpro. = gLLWS. l) Total Factored Horizontal Pressure m) Factored Horizontal Pressure per meter Legnth = SPHWellCapUSD/LWEllXX FRLLHWindSub.440 kN FRLLHWindLL.*RLLHWindSuper.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . k) Factored Horizontal LL due to Breaking Force of Vehicle on Bridge Deck = m*gLLBR.00m kN/m d) Intensity of Total Horizontal Load (DL+ LL) at Well's Top Level.935 kN/m PHSurLLTop.750 kN FRLLHBreak.. PHSoilTop.*RLLHWindSub.
kN/m c) Factored Itensity of LL Surcharge Pressure at Well's Bedrock Level = mgLLLS*PHSurLLRock.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .005 Page 652 . = mgLLLS*PHSurLLTop. b) Vertical Height of Well Wall (From Bedrock Top upto Well Cap Bottom) =HWellpro.399 ii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Triangular Loadings on Well Wall : (Using Table53 of Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook UK. = gEH*PHSoillTop.USD 11. kN/m b) Factored Itensity of DL Surcharge Pressure at Well's Top Level.) a) kFixed.. = gES*PHSurDLTop.USD 142.715 b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Well Wall for Vertical Span at Top Level.USD 8.USD 8.488 kN/m hRockWell 4.715 0.902 kN/m FPHSurLLTop. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Well Wall for Vertical Span at Bottom.H/V = 0. 3.715 kFixedV/H 1. 12 Computation of Coefficients for Calculation of Moments on Well Wall : i) Span Ratio of Well Wall in respect of of Horizontal to Vertical Spans : a) Horizontal Span Length of Well Wall (Inner Distance between Partations) = SPocketXXCentral.331 kN/m FPHTop.825 m kFixed.USD 85.331 kN/m FPHRock. FPHSurDLTop. kN/m d) Intensity of Factored Total Horizontal Load (DD + LL) at Well's Top.H/V 0.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). kN/m c) Intensity of Factored Total Horizontal Load (DD & LL) at Bedrock.HBRock c) Bach Wall Span Ratio for of Horizontal to Vertical with Fixed on Top = SLWell/hBRockWell d) Bach Wall Span Ratio for of Vertical to Horizontal with Fixed on Top = hBRockWell/SLWell SLWell.450 m FPHSoilRockUSD 130. .062 kN/m ii) Factored Horizontal Load Intensity due to Soil & Surcharge at Bedrock Level : a) Factored Itensity of DL Earth Pressure at Well's Bedrock Level = gEH*PHSoilRock. kN/m b) Factored Itensity of DL Surcharge Pressure at Well's Bedrock Level = gES*PHSurDLRock. k (+)cSVTTop (+)cSVTBot 0.010 0.USD 11.902 kN/m FPHSurLLRock.586 kN/m FPHSurDLRock. kN/m c) Factored Itensity of LL Surcharge Pressure at Well's Top Level.
e) () ve Moment Coefficient of Well Wall for Vertical Span Strip at Bottom f) () ve Moment Coefficient of Well Wall for Horizontal Span Strip on Faces (+)cSHT ()cSVT ()cSHT 0.5 of Book Design of Concrete Structures. e) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for LiveLoad (LL) on Well Wall Horizontal Span Strip.500 13 Factored Horizontal Moments on Face of Well Wall under Strength Limit State of Design (USD): i) Philosophy in Calculation of Moment & Shear : a) Moments on Horizontal Span of Well due to Imposed Horizontal Loads are to be Calculate Considering 1(One) meter wide strips of Well Wall in Vertical & Fixed Ends in both Horizontal & Vertical Faces with Well Partitions & Bedrock at Bottom & Well Cap on Top. Page 653 .018 (+)cSVULL 0. c) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Well Wall Horizontal Span Strip. Moments & Shearing Forces will be based upon Respective Coefficients.399 .000 0.027 (+)cSHULL 0.Winter) a) Since kFixedV/H = 1.000 (Case2) b) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Horizontal Span Strip having Shearing Forces on Well Wall Vertical Faces c) Coefficiant of Shearing Forces for Vertical Span Strip having Shearing Forces on Well Wall Horizontal Face at Bedrock k cShearHDL+LL 1.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).025 iii) Coefficients for Calculation of Moments related to Uniformly Loadings on Well Wall : (Using Table4. thus let Consider kFixedV/H = 1.045 iv) Coefficients for Calculation of Shearing Froces on Well Wall Vertical Faces : (Using Table4. The.000 (Case2) b) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load (DL) on Well Wall Vertical Span Strip.500 cShearVDL+LL 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.G.000 0. f) () ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Well Wall Vertical Span Strip g) () ve Moment Coefficient for Dead Load & Live Load (DL + LL) on Back Wall Horizontal Span Strip k (+)cSVUDL 1.399 . thus let Consider kFixedV/H = 1. d) (+) ve Moment Coefficient of Well Wall for Horizontal Span Strip at Middle..010 0.2.045 ()cSHUDL+LL 0.018 (+)cSHUDL 0. 4.G. The Horizontal Span Length is the C/C distance of Partition Walls.Winter) a) Since kFixedV/H = 1.3 & 4.020 0.027 ()cSVUDL+LL 0.4 of Book Design of Concrete Structures. d) (+) ve Moment Coefficient for Live Load (LL) on Well Wall Vertical Span Strip.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .
USD*SLWell.313*10^6 Nmm/m (+) MHSurDLRockUSD (+) MHSurLLRockUSD (+) MTotalHRockUSD iv) () Moments on Faces of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Top Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) () ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHT*FPHSoilTop.550 kNm/m 2.USD*SLWell.643*10^6 Nmm/m (+) MHSurDLTop.2 d) Total Horizontal () ve Moment atWell Top Level () MHSoillTop.375 kNm/m 6.677 kNm/m 2.USD 21. b) Horizontal Span Length = SPocketXXCentral.2 b) () ve Moment due to Lateral Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHUDL+LL*FPHSurDLTop.643*10^6 Nmm/m () MHSurDLTop.USD*SLWell.677*10^6 Nmm/m 32.550*10^6 Nmm/m 2.770*10^6 Nmm/m 6.2 b) (+) ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHUDL*FPHDLSurRock. SLWell 3.607 kNm/m 22.770 kNm/m 21.USD*SLWell.USD*SLWell..25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .643 kNm/m 22.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.USD*SLWell.2 c) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Live Load (LL) Surcharge Wall = (+)cSHULL*FPHSurLLTop.USD*SLWell.USD*SLWell.550*10^6 Nmm/m 2.550 kNm/m 2.450 m ii) (+) Moments on Mid of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Top Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHT*FPHSoilTop.2 d) Total Horizontal (+) ve Moment at Bedrock Level (+) MHSoilRockUSD 31.USD () MHSurLLTop.2 c) () ve Moment due to Lateral Live Load (LL) Surcharge Wall = ()cSHUDL+LL*FPHSurLLTop.USD () MTotalHTopUSD v) () Moments on Faces of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : Page 654 .375*10^6 Nmm/m 4.416 kNm/m 17.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).677*10^6 Nmm/m 36.416*10^6 Nmm/m 2.462 kNm/m 2.086*10^6 Nmm/m 2.677*10^6 Nmm/m 22.USD 17.USD (+) MTotalHTopUSD iii) (+) Moments on Mid of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHT*FPHSoilRockUSD*SLWell.2 b) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHUDL*FPHSurDLTop.677 kNm/m 2.313 kNm/m 36.2 d) Total Horizontal (+) ve Moment atWell Top Level (+) MHSoilTop.2 c) (+) ve Moment due to Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure upon Wall = (+)cSHULL*FPHLLSurRock.086 kNm/m 31.USD (+) MHSurLLTop.
b) Vertical Span Length = hRockWell hRockWell 4.462 kNm/m 4.695 kNm/m 49.987 kNm/m 4.858*10^6 Nmm/m 6.2 c) () ve Moment due to Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure upon Wall = ()cSHULL+DL*FPHLLSurRock.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .695*10^6 Nmm/m () MHSurDLRockUSD () MHSurLLRockUSD () MTotalHRockUSD 14 Factored Vertical Moments on Bedrock Face of Well Wall under Strength Limit State of Design (USD): i) Philosophy in Calculation of Moment & Shear : a) Moments on Vertical Span of Well due to Imposed Horizontal Loads at Bedrock are to be Calculate Considering 1(One) meter wide strips of Well Wall in Horizontal & Fixed Ends in both Horizontal & Vertical Faces with Well Partitions & Bedrock at Bottom & Well Cap on Top.679 kNm/m 23.679*10^6 Nmm/m (+) MVSurDLUSD (+) MVSurLLUSD (+) MTotalVRockUSD iii) () Moments on Faces of Well Wall Vertical Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) () ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSVT*FPHSoilRockUSD*hRockWell.469*10^6 Nmm/m () MVSurDLRockUSD Page 655 . a) () ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHT*FPHSoilRockUSD*SLWell.2 c) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Live Load (LL) Surcharge Wall = (+)cSVULL*FPHSurLLRock.375 kNm/m 6.2 d) Total Horizontal () ve Moment at Bedrock Level () MHSoilRockUSD 38.2 b) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSVUDL*FPHSurDLRock.USD*hRockWell.2 b) () ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSVUDL*FPHDLSurRock.2 () MVSoilRockUSD 20.462*10^6 Nmm/m 49.491 kNm/m 3.USD*hRockWell.201 kNm/m 15.469 kNm/m 12.491*10^6 Nmm/m 23.USD*hRockWell.2 d) Total Horizontal (+) ve Moment atWell Top Level (+) MVSoilUSD 15.268 kNm/m 20.375*10^6 Nmm/m 4.987*10^6 Nmm/m 3.268*10^6 Nmm/m 12.USD*hRockWell.2 b) () ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHUDL+LL*FPHDLSurRock.USD*SLWell.201*10^6 Nmm/m 4.825 m ii) (+) Moments on Mid of Well Wall Vertical Span due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSVT*FPHSoilRock.USD*SLWell. The Horizontal Span Length is the C/C distance of Partition Walls.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). The Moments & Shearing Forces will be based upon Respective Coefficients.858 kNm/m 38..STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.
kN/m c) Factored Itensity of LL Surcharge Pressure at Well's Bedrock Level = mgLLLS*PHSurLLRock. kN/m b) Factored Itensity of DL Surcharge Pressure at Well's Top Level.876 kN/m 171. = gES*PHDLSurWellTop.WSD FPHRock.896*10^3 N/m 16 Factored Horizontal Loads (DL & LL) on Faces of RCC Well under Strength Limit State Design (WSD) : i) Factored Horizontal Load Intensity due to Soil & Surcharge at Top Level : a) Factored Itensity of DL Earth Pressure at Well's Top Level = gEH*PHSoilWellTop. kN/m c) Factored Itensity of LL Surcharge Pressure at Well's Top Level.WSD 87.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .774 kN/m 7.058 kN/m 7.469 kN/m ii) Factored Horizontal Load Intensity due to Soil & Surcharge at Bedrock Level : a) Factored Itensity of DL Earth Pressure at Well's Bottom Level = gEH*PHSoilRock. FPHSoilTop.753 kN/m 17 Factored Horizontal Moments on Outer Face of Well Wall under Service Limit State of Design (WSD): i) Philosophy in Calculation of Moment & Shear : Page 656 .USD*hRockWell VVRockUSD 171. = mgLLLS*PHSurLLTop. kN/m d) Intensity of Factored Total Horizontal Load (DD & LL) at Well's Top.896 kN/m 122.WSD 48.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.USD*hRockWell.761 kN/m 61.935 kN/m 4. c) () ve Moment due to Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure upon Wall = ()cSHULL+DL*FPHLLSurRock.WSD FPHTop..876*10^3 N/m VHWallRockUSD 122.WSD FPHSurLLTop.WSD FPHSurLLRock.464*10^6 Nmm/m () MTotalVRockUSD 15 Factored Shearing Forces on both Horizontal & Vertical Span of Well Wall Support Faces under Strength Limit State of Design (USD): i) Shearing Forces in Horizontal Span at Bottom Level on Faces of Partition Walls : a) The Maximum Shearing Forces occoures at Bottom Level on Partion Wall Faces having value = cShearHDL+LL*FPHBRock.728*10^6 Nmm/m 41.WSD FPHDLSurTop. kN/m c) Intensity of Factored Total Horizontal Load (DD & LL) at Bedrock.464 kNm/m 41.USD*SLWell ii) Shearing Forces in Vertical Span at Bottom Level on Bedrock Level : a) The Maximum Shearing Forces occoures at Bottom Level on Bedrock Face having value = cShearVDL+LL*FPHBRock. kN/m b) Factored Itensity of DL Surcharge Pressure at Well's Bottom Level = gES*PHDLSurRock.761 kN/m 99.935 kN/m 4.2 d) Total Horizontal () ve Moment at Bedrock Level () MVSurLLRockUSD 8. FPHSoilRockWSD FPHSurDLRock.728 kNm/m 8.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
a) Moments on Horizontal Span of Well due to Imposed Horizontal Loads are to be Calculate Considering 1(One) meter wide strips of Well Wall in Vertical & Fixed Ends in both Horizontal & Vertical Faces with Well Partitions & Bedrock at Bottom & Well Cap on Top. The Horizontal Span Length is the C/C distance of Partition Walls. The. Moments & Shearing Forces will be based upon Respective Coefficients. b) Horizontal Span Length = SPocketXXCentral. SLWell 3.450 m
ii) (+) Moments on Mid of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Top Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHT*FPHSoilTop.wSD*SLWell.2 (+) MHSurDLTop.WSD (+) MHSoilTop.wSD 11.611 kNm/m 11.611*10^6 Nmm/m 1.700 kNm/m 1.700*10^6 Nmm/m (+) MHSurLLTop.WSD 1.530 kNm/m 1.530*10^6 Nmm/m (+) MTotalHTopWSD 14.840 kNm/m 14.840*10^6 Nmm/m iii) (+) Moments on Mid of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHT*FPHSoilRockWSD*SLWell.2 b) (+) ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHUDL*FPHDLSurRock.WSD*SLWell.2 c) (+) ve Moment due to Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure upon Wall = (+)cSHULL*FPHLLSurRock.WSD*SLWell
.2
b) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHUDL*FPHSurDLTop.WSD*SLWell.2
c) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Live Load (LL) Surcharge Wall = (+)cSHULL*FPHSurLLTop.WSD*SLWell
.2
d) Total Horizontal (+) ve Moment atWell Top Level
(+) MHSoilRockWSD
20.724 kNm/m 20.724*10^6 Nmm/m 1.700 kNm/m 1.700*10^6 Nmm/m 1.530 kNm/m 1530*10^6 Nmm/m
(+) MHSurDLRockWSD
(+) MHSurLLRockWSD
d) Total Horizontal (+) ve Moment at Bedrock Level
(+) MTotalHRockWSD
23.954 kNm/m 23.954*10^6 Nmm/m
iv) () Moments on Faces of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Top Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) () ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHT*FPHSoilTop.wSD*SLWell.2 () MHSurDLTop.WSD () MHSoillTop.WSD 14.513 kNm/m 14.513*10^6 Nmm/m 4.250 kNm/m 4.250*10^6 Nmm/m () MHSurLLTop.WSD 2.550 kNm/m 2.550*10^6 Nmm/m () MTotalHTopWSD 21.313 kNm/m
b) () ve Moment due to Lateral Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHUDL+LL*FPHSurDLTop.WSD*SLWell.2
c) () ve Moment due to Lateral Live Load (LL) Surcharge Wall = ()cSHUDL+LL*FPHSurLLTop.WSD*SLWell.2
d) Total Horizontal () ve Moment atWell Top Level
Page 657
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
21.313*10^6 Nmm/m v) () Moments on Faces of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) () ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHT*FPHSoilRockWSD*SLWell.2 () MHSurDLRockWSD () MHSoilRockWSD 25.905 kNm/m 25.905*10^6 Nmm/m 4.250 kNm/m 4.250*10^6 Nmm/m () MHSurLLRockWSD 2.550 kNm/m 2.550*10^6 Nmm/m () MTotalHRockWSD 32.705 kNm/m 32.705*10^6 Nmm/m 18 Factored Vertical Moments on Bedrock Face of Well Wall under Service Limit State of Design (WSD): i) Philosophy in Calculation of Moment & Shear : a) Moments on Vertical Span of Well due to Imposed Horizontal Loads at Bedrock are to be Calculate Considering 1(One) meter wide strips of Well Wall in Horizontal & Fixed Ends in both Horizontal & Vertical Faces with Well Partitions & Bedrock at Bottom & Well Cap on Top. The Horizontal Span Length is the C/C distance of Partition Walls. The Moments & Shearing Forces will be based upon Respective Coefficients. b) Vertical Span Length = hRockWell hRockWell 4.825 m
b) () ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHUDL+LL*FPHDLSurRock.WSD*SLWell.2
c) () ve Moment due to Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure upon Wall = ()cSHULL+DL*FPHLLSurRock.WSD*SLWell.2
d) Total Horizontal () ve Moment at Bedrock Level
ii) (+) Moments on Mid of Well Wall Vertical Span due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSVTBot*FPHSoilRock.WSD*hRockWell
.2
(+) MVSoilWSD
10.134 kNm/m 10.134*10^6 Nmm/m
b) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSVUDL*FPHSurDLRock.WSD*hRockWell.2
(+) MVSurDLWSD
3.325 kNm/m 3.325*10^6 Nmm/m
c) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Live Load (LL) Surcharge Wall = (+)cSVULL*FPHSurLLRock.WSD*hRockWell
.2
(+) MVSurLLWSD
2.992 kNm/m 2.992*10^6 Nmm/m
d) Total Horizontal (+) ve Moment atWell Top Level
(+) MTotalVRockUSD
16.451 kNm/m 16.451*10^6 Nmm/m
iii) () Moments on Faces of Well Wall Vertical Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Loads : a) () ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSVT*FPHSoilRockWSD*hRockWell.2 () MVSurDLRockWSD () MVSoilRockWSD 20.268 kNm/m 20.268*10^6 Nmm/m 8.312 kNm/m 8.312*10^6 Nmm/m 4.987 kNm/m
b) () ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSVUDL+LL*FPHDLSurRock.WSD*hRockWell.2 c) () ve Moment due to Live Load (LL) Surcharge Pressure upon
() MVSurLLRockWSD
Page 658
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
Wall = ()cSHULL+DL*FPHLLSurRock.WSD*hRockWell.2 d) Total Horizontal () ve Moment at Bedrock Level () MTotalVRockWSD
4.987*10^6 Nmm/m 33.567 kNm/m 33.567*10^6 Nmm/m
19 Unfactored Dead Load (DL) Horizontal Moments on Bedrock Face of Well Wall : i) Philosophy in Calculation of Moment & Shear : a) Moments on Horizontal Span of Well due to Imposed Horizontal Loads are to be Calculate Considering 1(One) meter wide strips of Well Wall in Vertical & Fixed Ends in both Horizontal & Vertical Faces with Well Partitions & Bedrock at Bottom & Well Cap on Top. The Horizontal Span Length is the C/C distance of Partition Walls. The. Moments & Shearing Forces will be based upon Respective Coefficients. b) Horizontal Span Length = SPocketXXCentral. SLWell 3.450 m
ii) (+) Moments on Mid of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Dead Loads : a) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHT*PHSoilRock*SLWell.2 b) (+) ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSHUDL*PHDLSurRock.*SLWell.2 c) Total Horizontal (+) ve Moment at Bedrock Level (+) MHSoilRockUF 20.724 kNm/m 20.724*10^6 Nmm/m 1.700 kNm/m 1.700*10^6 Nmm/m 22.424 kNm/m 22.424*10^6 Nmm/m
(+) MHSurDLRockUF
(+) MTotalHRockUF
iii) () Moments on Faces of Well Wall Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Dead Loads : a) () ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHT*PHSoilRock*SLWell.2 () MHSurDLRockUF () MHSoilRockUF 25.905 kNm/m 25.905*10^6 Nmm/m 4.250 kNm/m 4.250*10^6 Nmm/m () MTotalHRockUF 30.155 kNm/m 30.155*10^6 Nmm/m 20 Unfactored Dead Load (DL) Vertical Moments on Bedrock Face of Well Wall : i) Philosophy in Calculation of Moment & Shear : a) Moments on Vertical Span of Well due to Imposed Horizontal Loads at Bedrock are to be Calculate Considering 1(One) meter wide strips of Well Wall in Horizontal & Fixed Ends in both Horizontal & Vertical Faces with Well Partitions & Bedrock at Bottom & Well Cap on Top. The Horizontal Span Length is the C/C distance of Partition Walls. The Moments & Shearing Forces will be based upon Respective Coefficients. b) Vertical Span Length = hRockWell hRockWell 4.825 m
b) () ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSHUDL+LL*PHDLSurRock.*SLWell.2
c) Total Horizontal () ve Moment at Bedrock Level
ii) (+) Moments on Mid of Well Wall Vertical Span due to Applied Lateral Dead Loads :
Page 659
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
a) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSVTBot*PHSoilRock.*hRockWell.2 b) (+) ve Moment due to Lateral Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = (+)cSVUDL*PHSurDLRock.*hRockWell.2 c) Total Horizontal (+) ve Moment atWell Top Level
(+) MVSoilUF
10.134 kNm/m 10.134*10^6 Nmm/m 3.325 kNm/m 3.325*10^6 Nmm/m 13.459 kNm/m 13.459*10^6 Nmm/m
(+) MVSurDLUF
(+) MTotalVRockUSD
iii) () Moments on Faces of Well Wall Vertical Span at Bedrock Level due to Applied Lateral Dead Loads : a) () ve Moment due to Lateral Soil Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSVT*FPHSoilRock*hRockWell.2 b) () ve Moment due to Dead Load (DL) Surcharge Pressure upon Well Wall = ()cSVUDL+LL*FPHDLSurRock.*hRockWell.2 c) Total Horizontal () ve Moment at Bedrock Level () MVSoilRockUF 20.268 kNm/m 20.268*10^6 Nmm/m 8.312 kNm/m 8.312*10^6 Nmm/m 28.580 kNm/m 28.580*10^6 Nmm/m
() MVSurDLRockUF
() MTotalVRockUF
21 Events related to Flexural Design of Horizontal & Vertical Reinforcements of Well Walls both Inner & Outer Faces : i) Events for Provision of Reinforcements on RCC Well Walls : a) Thicness of Well Wall, tWall 600.000 mm 0.600 m 18 mm 18 mm 14 mm 14 mm 50 mm 75 mm 559.000 mm 0.559 m 534.000 mm 0.534 m 525.000 mm
b) Let Provide 18f bars as Horizontal Reinforcements on Inner Face of Well. c) Let Provide 18f bars as Horizontal Reinforcements on Outer Face of Well. d) Let Provide 14f bars as Vertical Reinforcements on Inner Face of Well. e) Let Provide 14f bars as Vertical Reinforcements on Outer Face of Well. f) Let Provide 50mm Clear Cover of Well Walls on Inner Face, g) Let Provide 50mm Clear Cover of Well Walls on Outer Face, h) Effective Depth for Horizontal Tensial Reinforcement on Inner Faces of Wall = tWall  CCovInner  DBerHorInner./2 i) Effective Depth for Horizontal Tensial Reinforcement on Outer Faces of Wall = tWall  CCovOuter  DBerHorOuter./2 j) Effective Depth for Vertical Tensial Reinforcement on Inner Faces of Wall
DBarHor.Inner DBarHor.Outer DBarVer.Inner DBarVer.Outer CCovInner CCovOuter deInnerH
deOuterH
deInnerV
Page 660
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
= tWall  CCovInner  DBerHorInner  DBerVerInner./2 k) Effective Depth for Vertical Tensial Reinforcement on Outer Faces of Wall = tWall  CCovOuter  DBerHorOuter  DBerVerOuter./2 l) Strip Width for Horizontal Span (In Vertical Direction), b = 1.000m deOuterV
0.525 m 500.000 mm 0.500 m 1,000.000 mm 1.000 m 1,000.000 mm 1.000 m
2 254.469 mm 2 254.469 mm
bH
m) Strip Width forVertical Span (In Horizontal Direction), b = 1.000m
bV
n) XArea of 18f HoriBar = p*f18.2/4 o) XArea of 14f HoriBar = p*f14.2/4 ii) Limits For Maximum Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1) : . a) With Maximum Amount of Prestressed & Nonprestressed Reinforcement for a Section c/de 0.42 in which; b) c is the distance from extreme Compression Fiber to the Neutral Axis in mm c) de is the corresponding Effective Depth from extreme Compression Fiber to the Centroid of Tensial Forces in Tensial Reinforcements in mm. Here; i) de = (Apsfpsdp + Asfyds)/(Apsfps + Asfy), where ; ii) As = Steel Area of Nonprestressing Tinsion Reinforcement in mm2 iii) Aps = Area of Prestressing Steel in mm2 iv) fy = Yeiled Strength of Nonprestressing Tension Bar in MPa. vi) fps = Average Strength of Prestressing Steel in MPa. xi) dp = Distance of Extreme Compression Fiber from Prestressing Tendon Centroid in mm. xii) ds = Distance of Centroid of Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement from the Extreme Compression Fiber in mm. d) For a Structure having only Nonprestressed Tensial Reinforcement the values of Aps, fps & dp are = 0. Thus Equation for value of de stands to de = Asfyds/Asfy & thus de = ds . iii) Limits For Manimum Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.2) :
Af18, Af14.
c/deMax.
0.420
c de
Variable Variable
As Aps fy fps dp ds
Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable
mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm
a) For Section of a Flexural Component having both Prestressed & Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements should have Minimum Resisting Moment Mr 1.2*Mcr or 1.33 Times the Calculated Factored Moment for the Section Based on AASHTOLRFD3.4.1Table3.4.11, which one is less.For Compnents having Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcements only Mr = 1.2Mcr. b) The Cracking Moment of a Section Mcr = Sc(fr + fcpe)  Mdnc(Sc/Snc1) Scfr where; Mcr Variable Nmm
Page 661
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
i) fcpe = Compressive Stress in Concrete due to effective Prestress Forces only at Extreme Fiber where Tensile Stress is caused by Externally Applied Forces after allowance for all Prestressing Losses in MPa. For Nonprestressing RCC Components value of fcpe = 0. ii) Mdnc = Total Unfactored Dead Load Moment acting on the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section in Nmm. iii) Sc = Section Modulus for the Extreme Fiber of the Composite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. iv) Snc=Section Modulus of Extreme Fiber of the Monolithic or Noncomposite Section where Tensile Stress Caused by Externally Applied Loads in mm3. For the Rectangular RCC Well Section value of Snc = (bHtWall3/12)/(tWall/2) v) fr = Modulus of Rupture of Concrete in RCC in Mpa,(AASHTO LRFD5.4.2.6). c) For Nonprestressing & Monolithic or Noncomposite Beam or Elements, Sc = Snc & fcpe = 0, thus Equation for Cracking Moment Stands to Mcr = Sncfr d) Thus Calculated value of Mcr according to respective values of Equation e) The value of Mcr = Scfr f) Cpoputed value of Mcr = 1.33*MExt Factored Moment due to External Forces
fcpe

N/mm2
Mdnc

Nmm
Sc
Variable
mm3
Snc
3 60000000.000 mm 3 0.06000 m 3 60.000/10^3 m 2 2.887 N/mm
fr Mcr
173221361.27 Nmm 173.221 kNm Variable Variable Variable Nmm Nmm Nmm
Mcr1 Mcr2 Mcr3
g) Table1 Showing Allowable Resistance Moment M r for requirment of Minimum Reinforcement at Different Sections
Nature of Moment And Span Direction kNm/m (+) ve. Moment in Horizontal () ve. Moment in Horizontal (+) ve. Moment in Vertical () ve. Moment in Vertical
Unfactored Moment for the
Section
22.424
Value of Actuat Acceptable Mcr1 Cracking Mcr As per Moment Cracking Equation Value Moment 5.7.3.3.21 Sncfr (Mcr1Sncfr) kNm/m kNm/m kNm/m 173.221 173.221 173.221
1.2 Times M 1.33 Times of Mcr Factored of M,
Cracking Moment Moment of Section
Factored Moment (1.33*M)
Mr Allowable Min. Moment for RCC
1.2Mcr
Maximum Flexural Moment
(1.2*Mcr) kNm/m 207.866
M kNm/m 36.313
kNm/m 48.297
kNm/m 207.866
Mu (M Mr) kNm/m 207.866
30.155
173.221
173.221
173.221
207.866
49.695
66.094
207.866
207.866
13.459
173.221
173.221
173.221
207.866
23.679
31.494
207.866
207.866
28.580
173.221
173.221
173.221
207.866
41.464
55.147
207.866
207.866
iv) Calculations for Balanced Steel Ratio  pb & Max. Steel Ratio  pmax ( AASHTO 8.16.3) :
Page 662
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
a) Balanced Steel Ratio for Grider Section according to AASHTO19968.16.2.2 pb =0.85*0.85*((f/c/fy)*(599.843/(599.843 + fy))), b) Max. Steel Ratio, pmax. = f *pb , (Here f = 0.75)
pb pmax.
0.022 0.016
22 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcement on Inner Faces of Well Wall having Strips Width Direction in Vertical : i) Provision Horizontal Reinforcements on Inner Face of Well Wall against ( + ) ve. Moment : a) The Calculated (+) ve Moment occurs at Middle of Well Horizontal (+) MTotalHRockUSD Span having (+) MTotalHRockUSD <Mr, the Allowable Minimum .For (+) ve value, the Main Reinforcement will be on Inner Face of Wall. Mr 36.313 36.313*10^6 207.866 207.866*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m
b) Since (+) MTotalHRockUSD < Mr, the Minimum Flexural Strength Moment.Thus Mr is the Ultimate DesignMoment MU. c) Effective Depth for Horizontal Tensial Reinforcement on Inner Face of Wall = tWall  CCovInner  DBerHorInner./2
/ 2 1/2 d) With Design Moment MU the value of a = dpro*(1((12MU/)/(b1f cbdpro )) )
MU
207.866 kNm/m 207.866*10^6 Nmm/m 559.000 mm 0.559 m 21.235 mm 1,027.242 247.721 150.000 mm2/m mm,C/C mm,C/C
deInnerH
areq. AsHreqInn sreq spro.
e) Steel Area required for the Section, Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro  a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement = Af18,*b/AsHreqInn g) Let the Spacing of Reinforcement with 18f bars for the Section = 150mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 18f bars having Spacing 150mm,C/C = Af18,*b/spro i) Steel Ratio with provided Steel Area, AsHproInn/bdpro
/ j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = AsHproInn*fy/(0.b1*f c*b)
AsHproInn
1,696.460
mm2/m
ppro apro Mpro
0.003 38.966 mm 375.260 kNm/m Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK
k) Resisting Moment with provided Steel Area = Aspro*fy(de  apro/2)/10^6
l) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. m) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax.
n) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, thus the Flexural Design for Reinforcement on Inner Face of Well Wall in Horizontal Direction is OK.
Page 663
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
ii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis & the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b 1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.059 e) Relation between c/deMax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. or Not) c/deMax. c 0.450 33.121 mm
b1 c/depro
0.85 0.059 OK
c/depro<c/demax.
iii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.1: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; b) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm c) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 337.734 kNm 337.734*10^6 Nmm 375.260 kNm 375.260*10^6 Nmm 0.90
Mn f
d) The Nominal Resistance for a Flanged Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestessing AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2)  A/sf/y(d/sa/2) + 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2). e) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2). In Horizontal Rectangular Section Width b = bH & ds = de, thus the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) f) For Fixed Supported & Single Reinforced Rectangular Section with Provided (+)MnMid Steel Area against Factored (+) ve.Max. Moments at its Mid Span will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) g) Calculated Factored (+) ve. Moment M at Mid Span (+)MTotalHRockUSD 375.260 kNm 375.260*10^6 Nmm
36.313 kNm 36.313*10^6 Nmm Satisfied
h) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Mr>MTotalHRockUSD Actual Factored Moment M at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) iv) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Well Wall in Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Face of Well Wall for Horizontal Span which is also Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VHWallRockUSD .= VU VU.
122.896 kN/m 122.896*10^3 N/m
b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU  fVp)/fbvdv,
Page 664
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
(AASSHTOLRFD5.8.2.9).Here, bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = bH, the Design Strip Width. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tWellWall Thickness of Well Wall.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Wall is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ. 5.8.3.31, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 503.100
0.9*de. 0.72h f Vp.
503.100 mm 432.000 mm 0.90 N
VnWellWall
2,641.275 kN/m 2641.275*10^3 N/m 3,827.120 kN/m 3827.120*10^3 N/m 2,641.275 kN/m 2641.275*10^3 N/m 3,827.120 kN/m 3827.120*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m
Vn1
ii) Vn2 = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. 5.8.3.32. In which,
Vn2
ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTOLRFD Equ. 5.8.3.31); cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. 5.8.3.33) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO8.16.6.3.1.)
Vc
Vs
b
2.000
Vp.
0.000 N
d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not).
Satisfied
e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus on Innerside of Well Well does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Well Wall Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus the Flexural Design of Reinforcement on Inner Surface of Well Wall in Horizontal Direction is OK.
Page 665
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
v) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4. Where; b) fsDev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.
2 25.259 N/mm
(+)MTotalHRockWSD
23.954 kNm 23.954*10^6 Nmm
2 1,696.460 mm
ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Horizontal Tensile Reinforcement on Inner Face of Well Wall. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc=Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation Bottom/Top Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face. The Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCovInner Since Clear Cover at Inner Face of Well Wall, CCovInner = 50mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 18f ; thus dc = (18/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Well Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure will be a Buried Components thus the Allowable Max. value is ZMax. = 17000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element.
Aspro de
559.000 mm
fsa
2 167.561 N/mm
dc
59.000 mm
A
2 17,700.000 mm
ZMax.
17,000.000 N/mm
0.6*fy
2 246.000 N/mm
d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the RCC Well Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve.
Page 666
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
e) Based on fsDve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fsDev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev.
ZDev.
2,562.694 N/mm fsDev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy
i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fsDev.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allocable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Horizontal for Well Wall on Outer Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 23 Flexural Design of Horizontal Reinforcement on Outer Faces of Well Wall having Strips Width Direction in Vertical : i) Provision Horizontal Reinforcements on Outer Face of Well Wall against (  ) ve. Moment : a) The Calculated () ve Moment occurs at Middle of Well Horizontal Span having () MTotalHRockUSD > Mr the Allowable Minimum .For () ve value, the Main Reinforcement will be on Outer Face of Wall. () MTotalHRockUSD Mr 32.705 32.705*10^6 207.866 207.866*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m
b) Since () MTotalHRockUSD> Mr, the Minimum Flexural Strength Moment.Thus () MHWellBotUSD is the Ultimate DesignMoment MU. c) Effective Depth for Horizontal Tensial Reinforcement on Outer Face of Wall = tWall  CCovOuter  DBerHorOuter./2
/ 2 1/2 d) With Design Moment MU the value of a = dpro*(1((12MU/)/(b1f cbdpro )) )
MU
207.866 kNm/m 207.866*10^6 Nmm/m 534.000 mm
deOuterH
areq. AsHreqOut. sreq spro.
22.272 mm 1,077.377 236.193 100.000 mm2/m mm,C/C mm,C/C
e) Steel Area required for the Section, Asreq. = MU/[ffy(dpro  a/2)] f) Spacing of Reinforcement = Af18,*b/AsreqOut. g) Let the Spacing of Reinforcement with 18f bars for the Section = 100mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 18f bars having Spacing 100mm,C/C = Af18,*b/spro i) Steel Ratio with provided Steel Area, AsHproOut/bdpro
/ j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = AsHproOut*fy/(0.b1*f c*b)
AsHproOut
2,544.690
mm2/m
ppro apro
0.005 58.449 mm
Page 667
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
k) Resisting Moment with provided Steel Area = Aspro*fy(d  apro/2)/10^6
Mpro
526.644 kNm/m Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK
l) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. m) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax.
n) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, thus the Flexural Design for Reinforcement on Outer Face Wall in Horizontal Direction is OK. ii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis & the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b 1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.093 e) Relation between c/deMax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. or Not) c/deMax. c 0.450 49.682 mm
b1 c/depro
0.850 0.093 OK
c/depro<c/demax.
iii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.1: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; b) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm c) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 473.979 kNm 473.979*10^6 Nmm 526.644 kNm 526.644*10^6 Nmm 0.90
Mn f
d) The Nominal Resistance in a Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestressing AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2)  A/sf/y(d/sa/2) + 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2). e) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2). In a Rectangular Section Structure Width b = bH & ds = de, thus the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) f) For Fixed Supported & Single Reinforced Rectangular Section with Provided Steel Area against Factored () ve.Max. Moments at Partion Faces will have value of Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) g) Calculated Factored () ve. Moment M at Mid Span MnFace 526.644 kNm 526.644*10^6 Nmm
() MTotalHRockUSD
32.705 kNm 32.705*10^6 Nmm
h) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual
Mr>MTotalHRockUSD
Page 668
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
Factored Moment M at face of Span ( Which one is Greater, if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) iv) Checking Against Max. Shear Force on Well Wall in Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Face of Well Wall for Horizontal Span which is also Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. Thus Maximum Shear Force, VMax = VHWallRockUSD= VU VU.
Satisfied
122.896 kN/m 122.896*10^3 N/m
b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. vu = (VU  fVp)/fbvdv, (AASSHTOLRFD5.8.2.9).Here, bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section, here bv = bH, the Design Strip Width. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.9de or 0.72h in mm, which one is greater. Where; de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tWellWall Thickness of Well Wall.Thus value 0.9*de for the Section; is Whereas, value of 0.72h for the Section; biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (Sinec the Well Wall is a RCC Structure, thus Vp = 0. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.8.3.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ. 5.8.3.31, or bv. dv. 1,000.000 mm 480.600
0.9*de. 0.72h f Vp.
480.600 mm 432.000 mm 0.90 N
VnWellWall
2,523.150 kN/m 2523.150*10^3 N/m 3,655.961 kN/m 3655.961*10^3 N/m 2,523.150 kN/m 2523.150*10^3 N/m 3,655.961 kN/m 3655.961*10^3 N/m 0.000 N/m
Vn1
ii) Vn2 = 0.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. 5.8.3.32. In which,
Vn2
ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.083bf/cbvdv, (AASHTOLRFD Equ. 5.8.3.31); cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. 5.8.3.33) in which, For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.8.3.4. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.00. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N; (For RCC Structure Elements, Vp = 0. AASHTO8.16.6.3.1.)
Vc
Vs
b
2.000
Vp.
0.000 N
Page 669
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.8.3 have Satisfied or Not).
Satisfied
e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section, thus the Well does not require any Shear Reinforcement. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, the Well Wall Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement, thus the Flexural Design of Reinforcement on Outer Surface of Well Wall in Horizontal Direction is OK. v) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement, (AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition, Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev. of Concrete Elements, should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.4. Where; b) fsDev. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which, i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.
2 24.068 N/mm
()MTotalHRockWSD
32.705 kNm 32.705*10^6 Nmm
2 2,544.690 mm
ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Horizontal Tensile Reinforcement on Outer Face of Well Wall. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy, in Which; i) dc=Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar. The Depth is Summation the Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face with Max. Clear Cover = 50mm. In a Component of Rectangular Section, dc = DBar/2 + CCovOuter.Since Clear Cover at Inner Face of Well Wall, CCovOuter = 75mm & Bar Dia, DBar = 18f ; thus dc = (18/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar, which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max. Clear Cover = 50mm.In Well Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc, thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 30000
Aspro de
534.000 mm
fsa
2 214.187 N/mm
dc
50.000 mm
A
2 10,000.000 mm
ZMax.
17,000.000 N/mm
Page 670
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure will be a Buried Components thus the Allowable Max. value is ZMax. = 17000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0.6*fy for the Concrete Element. 0.6*fy
2 246.000 N/mm
d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Well Wall Structure, thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. e) Based on fsDve. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. = fsDev.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. value of ZMax. & Developed value ZDev. ZDev. 1,910.259 N/mm fsDev.< fs fsa< 0.6fy Zdev.< Zmax. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy
i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fsDev.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress; the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.6fy ;the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. < ZMax. Allocable Max. Crack Width Parameter, thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Horizontal for Well Wall on Outer Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm, thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. 24 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Inner Faces of Well Wall having Strips Width Direction in Horizontal : i) Provision Horizontal Reinforcements on Inner Face of Well Wall against (+) ve. Moment at Bedrock Level: a) The Calculated (+) ve Moment at Bedrock Level occurs at Middle in (+) MTotalVRockUSD between Pertition Walls having (+) MTotalVRockUSD <Mr, the Allowable Minimum .For (+) ve value, the Main Reinforcement will be on Inner Face of Wall. Mr 23.679 23.679*10^6 207.866 207.866*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m
b) Since (+) MTotalVRockUSD < Mr, the Minimum Flexural Strength Moment.Thus Mr is the Ultimate DesignMoment MU. c) Effective Depth for Vertical Tensile Reinforcement on Inner Face of Wall = tWall  CCovInner  DBerHorInner  DBerVerInner./2
/ 2 1/2 d) With Design Moment MU the value of a = dpro*(1((12MU/)/(b1f cbdpro )) )
MU
207.866 kNm/m 207.866*10^6 Nmm/m 525.000 mm 0.525 m 22.671 mm 1,096.67 232.038 mm2/m mm,C/C
deInnerV
areq. AsVreqInn sreq
e) Steel Area required for the Section, Asreq. = MU/(ffy(dpro  a/2)) f) Spacing of Reinforcement = Af14,*b/AsVreqInn
Page 671
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY ; 16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
g) Let the Spacing of Reinforcement with 14f bars for the Section = 150mm,C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 14f bars having Spacing 150mm,C/C = Af14,*b/spro i) Steel Ratio with provided Steel Area, AsVproInn/bdpro
/ j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = AsVproInn*fy/(0.b1*f c*b)
spro.
150.000
mm,C/C
AsVproInn
1,696.460
mm2/m
ppro apro Mpro
0.001 38.966 mm 351.612 kNm/m Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK
k) Resisting Moment with provided Steel Area = Aspro*fy(de  apro/2)/10^6
l) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU. m) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max. Steel Ratio rMax.
n) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment, Provided Steel Ratio < Max. Steel Ratio, thus the Flexural Design for Reinforcement on Inner Face Wall in Vertical Direction is OK. ii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.3.1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD.7.3.3.1; In Flexural Design c/de 0.42; where, b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis & the Extrime Compressive Face, having c = b 1apro, in mm. c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.063 e) Relation between c/deMax. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax. or Not) c/deMax. c 0.450 33.121 mm
b1 c/depro
0.85 0.063 OK
c/depro<c/demax.
iii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.1: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component, Mr = fMn, where; b) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm c) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing. Mr 316.450 kNm 316.450*10^6 Nmm 351.612 kNm 351.612*10^6 Nmm 0.90
Mn f
d) The Nominal Resistance for a Flanged Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestressing AASHTOLRFD5.7.3.2.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2)  A/sf/y(d/sa/2) + 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2). e) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements, at any Section the Nominal Resistance, Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2). In a Rectangular Section Structure
Page 672
5..3.876*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section. (AASHTOLRFD.625*10^3 N/m 3.000 mm 0. Moment M at Mid Span (+)MTotalVRockUSD 351. thus the Nominal Resistance.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ. here bv = bV.90 N VnWellWall 2.72h f Vp.8.3. or bv.625*10^3 N/m 3.594. dv.594. Thus Maximum Shear Force. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) f) For Fixed Supported & Single Reinforced Rectangular Section with Provided (+)MnMid Steel Area against Factored (+) ve.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Bedrock of Well Wall in Vertical Span. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tWellWall Thickness of Well Wall. which one is greater.fVp)/fbvdv.612 kNm 351.= VU VU. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) g) Calculated Factored (+) ve.343 kN/m 3594.8.612*10^6 Nmm 23.000.876 kN/m 171. 1. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) iv) Checking Against Max. value of 0.083bf/cbvdv.000 mm 472.2.8. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0.9*de.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).Max. is Whereas.9de or 0. 0. Vc Page 673 . Width b = bV & ds = de.Here.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.9).8.32. 472. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.Equ.9*de for the Section. VMax = VVWallRockUSD . (AASSHTOLRFD5.Thus value 0.343 kN/m 3594. the Design Strip Width. 171.500 mm 432. which is also Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section.31. Moments at its Mid Span will have value of Nominal Resistance. In which.. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.343*10^3 N/m 2.625 kN/m 2480. (Sinec the Well Cap is a RCC Structure. vu = (VU . aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0.3.343*10^3 N/m Vn1 ii) Vn2 = 0. Shear Force on Well Cap in XX Direction.5. 5.480.31). biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N.625 kN/m 2480. thus Vp = 0.3. Where..679 kNm 23.500 0.480.8.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.72h for the Section.72h in mm.679*10^6 Nmm Satisfied h) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Mr>MTotalHRockUSD Actual Factored Moment M at Mid Span ( Which one is Greater.
v) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement.8. thus the Flexural Design of Reinforcement on Inner Surface of Well Wall in Vertical Direction is OK. DBarH = 18f and DBarV = 14f thus dc = (18 +14/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar.3.8. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. Provided Steel Ratio < Max. (AASHTOLRFDEqu. 5.3.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.451*10^6 Nmm 2 1. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. Steel Ratio.7. 2 18.33) in which.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition. Where. dc = DBarH + DBarV/2 + CCovInner Since Clear Cover at Inner Face of Well Wall.8. Clear Cover = 50mm.500. the Well Wall Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement. Vp = 0.000 N/m b 2.000 mm A 2 22.000 mm fsa 2 142.3 have Satisfied or Not).6.3.00.) Vs 0. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5. (AASHTOLRFD5. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.471 N/mm (+)MTotalVRockWSD 16.696.7.3.3.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .4.1. of Concrete Elements. 0.000 mm Page 674 . thus on Innerside of Well Well does not require any Shear Reinforcement. The Depth is Summation of Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face with Max.000 Vp. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0.460 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. AASHTO8. which is Calculated Aspro de 525.791 N/mm dc 75.6fy. in Which. b) fsDev.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.4.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.16. Satisfied e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Horizontal Tensile Reinforcement on Inner Face of Well Wall. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which. i) dc=Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar. (For RCC Structure Elements.. In a Component of Rectangular Section.451 kNm 16. CCovInner = 50mm & Bar Dia. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.
2. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. 17. value of ZMax.866 207. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical for Well Wall on Inner Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.199. 25 Flexural Design of Vertical Reinforcement on Outer Faces of Well Wall having Strips Width Direction in Horizontal : i) Provision Vertical Reinforcements on Outer Face of Well Wall against ( . ZMax.< Zmax. Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars. = 17000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0.464 41.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. value is ZMax.For () ve value.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress. ZDev. < ZMax.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.866*10^6 kNm/m Nmm/m kNm/m Nmm/m b) Since () MTotalVRockUSD> Mr. the Minimum Flexural Strength Moment.In Well Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. Moment : a) The Calculated () ve Moment occurs at Middle of Well Horizontal Span having () MTotalVRockUSD > Mr the Allowable Minimum .16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fsDev. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure will be a Buried Components thus the Allowable Max. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. Allocable Max.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.000.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .< fs fsa< 0.000 N/mm 0. () MTotalVRockUSD Mr 41.6fy Zdev.6*fy 2 246.6*fy for the Concrete Element.092 N/mm fsDev. = fsDev. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement.6fy . Clear Cover = 50mm. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max.) ve. & Developed value ZDev. the Main Reinforcement will be on Outer Face of Wall.Thus MU 207. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the TGirder Structure. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm. e) Based on fsDve. Crack Width Parameter.866 kNm/m Page 675 .464*10^6 207.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev.
544. n) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment.005 58. Mr 442.500 m 23. Steel Ratio rMax.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).154.7.b1*f c*b) AsVproOut 2. c) Effective Depth for Vertical Tensile Reinforcement on Inner Face of Wall = tWall . c) b1 is Factor for Rectangular Stress Block for Flexural Design d) Thus for the Section the Ratio c/de = 0.1: a) Factored Flexural Resistance for any Section of Component. In Flexural Design c/de 0. Provided Steel Ratio < Max. c 0.2.450 49. Asreq.1. sreq spro.690 mm2/m ppro apro Mpro 0.C/C h) The provided Steel Area with 14f bars having Spacing 100mm. or Not) c/deMax.*b/AsVreqOut.3. e) Steel Area required for the Section.449 mm 491.000 mm 0. & c/depro (Whether c/depro< c/deMax.7.42. Steel Ratio.979*10^6 Nmm Page 676 .3.85 0. having c = b 1apro. g) Let the Spacing of Reinforcement with 14f bars for the Section = 100mm.866*10^6 Nmm/m deOuterV 500. in mm. = MU/[ffy(dpro . where.860 mm 1.apro/2)/10^6 l) Relation between Provided Resisting Moment Mpro amd Calculated Design Moment MU.099 OK c/depro<c/demax.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.054 kNm 473.181 220.682 mm b1 c/depro 0.DBerVOuter.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .1 : a) Accodring to AASHTOLRFD. () MTotalVRockUSD is the Ultimate DesignMoment MU.CCovOuter . AsVreqOut.DBerHorOuter .3. b) c is the Distance between Neutral Axis & the Extrime Compressive Face.C/C = Af14. Mr = fMn. ii) Checking according to Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5. AsVproOut/bdpro / j) With provided Steel Area the value of 'a' = AsVproOut*fy/(0. thus the Flexural Design for Reinforcement on Outer Face Wall in Vertical Direction is OK.a/2)] f) Spacing of Reinforcement = Af14.3. m) Relation between Provided Steel Ration rpro and Allowable Max.099 e) Relation between c/deMax. iii) Checking for Factored Flexural Resistance under Provision of AASHTOLRFD5.C/C mm.3. where.C/C areq.171 kNm/m Mpro>Mu ppro<pmax OK OK k) Resisting Moment with provided Steel Area = Aspro*fy(d .*b/spro i) Steel Ratio with provided Steel Area.7./2 / 2 1/2 d) With Design Moment MU the value of a = dpro*(1((12MU/)/(b1f cbdpro )) ) 207.000 mm2/m mm..476 100.
000. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) f) For Fixed Supported & Single Reinforced Rectangular Section with Provided Steel Area against Factored () ve. Mn f 491.2 is Mn = Apsfps(dpa/2) + Asfy(dsa/2) .9de or 0. (Sinec the Well Wall is a RCC Structure. In a Rectangular Section Structure Width b = bH & ds = de. dv.90 d) The Nominal Resistance in a Rectangular Section with One Axis Stress having both Prestressing & Nonprestressing AASHTOLRFD5. which one is greater.464*10^6 Nmm h) Relation between the Computed Factored Flexural Resistance Mr & the Actual Factored Moment M at face of Span ( Which one is Greater. thus the Nominal Resistance. Moments at Bedrock Faces will have value of Nominal Resistance. if Mr M the Flexural Design for the Section has Satisfied otherwise Not Satisfied) Mr>MTotalVRockUSD Satisfied iv) Checking Against Max.171*10^6 Nmm () MTotalVRockUSD 41.9).876 kN/m 171. bi) bv is Minimum Width of the Section.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .fVp)/fbvdv. 171. here bv = bV. de = dpro the provided Effective Depth of Tensile Reinforcement & h = tWellWall Thickness of Well Wall.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2).8. a) The Maximum Shear Force occurs at Bedrock of Well Wall for Vertical Span which is also Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. vu = (VU . thus Vp = 0. 0.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). at any Section the Nominal Resistance.000 mm 0.125. 1. VMax = VVWallRockUSD= VU VU. b) Mn is Nominal Resistance Moment for the Section in Nmm c) f is Resistance Factor for Flexural in Tension of Reinforcement/Prestressing.464 kNm 41.171 kNm 491.Max. e) For a Nonprestressing Structural Component having Either of I or T Section with Flenge & Web Elements.000 mm 450.9*de.171*10^6 Nmm 0.7.85f/c(bbw)b1hf(a/2hf/2).90 N VnWellWall 15. biii) f is Resistance Factor for Shear biv) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N. aii) dv is Effective Shear Depth taken as the distance measured perpendicular to the neutral axis between Resultants of the Tensile & Compressive Forces due to Flexural having value = 0. 450.A/sf/y(d/sa/2) + 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. Moment M at Bedrock Face of Span MnFace 491. value of 0. (AASSHTOLRFD5.72h f Vp. the Design Strip Width. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) g) Calculated Factored () ve.876*10^3 N/m b) The Shearing Stress on Concrete due to Applied Shear Force at a Section.2.9*de for the Section.72h in mm.000 mm 432.72h for the Section. c) The Nominal Shear Resitance Vn for the Section is the Lesser value of bv.3.Thus value 0.597 kN/m Page 677 . Where.. Mn = Asfy(dsa/2) + 0.Here. Shear Force on Well Wall in Horizontal Span at Bedrock Level.2. is Whereas. Thus Maximum Shear Force.171 kNm 491.000 0.
000 kN/m 46125. 5. or Vn1 15125. the Well Wall Section does not Require any Shear Reinforcement. Aspro de 500.4.000 N/m ii) Vn2 = 0.3.33) in which.3.8.000 mm Page 678 . Where.32. (AASHTOLRFD. f) Since Resisting Moment > Designed Moment. should not exceed fs the Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement under provision of AASHTOLRFD5.4) : a) Under Service Limit State Load Condition. Satisfied e) Since Nominal Shear Resitance for the Section Vn > VU the Calculated Ultimate Shearing Force for the Section. (AASHTOLRFD5.000 N d) Statue between Computed Nominal Shear Resitance Vn & Factored Shearing Forces VU Vn>Vu For the Section (Whether Vn > VU or Vn < VU & Provisions of AASHTOLRFD5.597 kN/m 15125. Vn2 ci) Vc is Nominal Shear Resistance of Conrete in N & value = 0. cii) Vs is Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement in N having value = Avfydv(cotq + cota)sina /s. Steel Ratio.597*10^3 N/m 46.597 kN/m 15125.25f/cbvdv + Vp Equ.544.3.3. In which. For Footing/Foundation/Slab Vs = 0. of Concrete Elements. (AASHTOLRFDEqu.3 have Satisfied or Not).7.8.8. thus the Flexural Design of Reinforcement on Outer Surface of Well Wall in Vertical Direction is OK.8. ciii) b is Factor for the Diagonally Cracked Concrete to transmit Tension as per AASHTOLRFD5.. iii) de is Effective Depth between Extreme Compression Fiber to Centroid of the Horizontal Tensile Reinforcement on Outer Face of Well Wall.597*10^3 N/m 0.125.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .7. (For RCC Structure Elements.) Vc Vs b 2.125.00.3. i) M is Calculated Moment for the Section under Service Limit State fsDev.125. 2 26. civ) Vp is component of Prestressing Force in direction of Shear Force in N..4.. b) fsDev. v) Checking in respect of Control of Cracking By Distribution of Reinforcement. 5.567 kNm 33.000 Vp.3.382 N/mm ()MTotalVRockWSD 33.083bf/cbvdv.1.690 mm ii) Aspro is the Steel Area for the Section under USD Design Calculation. is Developed Tensile Stress in Provided Reinforcements of Section under the Service Limit State of Loads = M/Asprode in which.3.Equ.8.6. AASHTO8. For Footing/Foundation/Slab b = 2.31. Vp = 0. Provided Steel Ratio < Max.16. Developed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement fsDev.597*10^3 N/m 15.31).8.3 : i) Vn1 = Vc + Vs + Vp Equ.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). 0.3. any of Equations as mentioned in Aritical 5.000*10^3 N/m 15.3.5. thus the Well does not require any Shear Reinforcement.5.567*10^6 Nmm 2 2.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.8.
6*fy for the Concrete Element. value of Z = 23000 c) Structure with Buried Components the Max. the Computed Tensile Stress fsa < 0. DBarH = 18f and DBarV = 14f thus dc = (18 +14/2 + 50)mm ii) A = Area of Concrete Surrounding a Single Tension Bar. = fsDev. i) dc=Depth of Concrete Extreme Tension Face from the Center of the Closest Tension Bar.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .455 N/mm dc 75.743. value of ZMax. value is ZMax. ZDev. c) fsa is Computed Tensile Stress of Reinforcement having its value = Z/(dcA)1/3 0.6fy. < ZMax.000 mm ZMax. j) More over though the Structure is a Nonprestressed one & value of dc have not Exceeds 900 mm. 2.000.000 N/mm d) Since the Calculated value of fsDev. CCovOuter = 75mm & Bar Dia. In a Component of Rectangular Section. the value of Crack Width Parameter ZDev. & Allowable Tensile Stress fs g) Relation between Computed Tensile Stress fsa & Calculated value of 0. Satisfy Satisfy Satisfy i) Since Developed Tensile Stress of Tension Reinforcement of Well Cap fsDev. The Max. e) Based on fsDve. value of Z = 17000 Since the Structure will be a Buried Components thus the Allowable Max.< Zmax. thus Component does require any additional Longitudinal Skein Reinforcement. Clear Cover = 50mm.6fy Zdev. value of Z = 30000 b) Structure with Severe Exposure Components the Max.000 N/mm 0. thus Provisions of Tensile Reinforcement in Vertical for Well Wall on Outer Surface in respect of Control of Cracking & Distribution of Reinforcement are OK.6*fy 2 246..16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). is responsible for Controlling the formation of Cracks under Applied Loads to the Well Wall Structure. iii) Z = Crack Width Parameter for Cast In Place Components in N/mm.875 N/mm fsDev. Allocable Max. thus Area of Concrete that Surrounding a Single Tension Bar can Compute by A = 2dc*spro. 17.In Well Wall the Tension Bars in One Layer & as per Condition Distance of Neutral Axis from Tension Face = dc. thus value of the Crack Width Parameter Z should calculate based the value of fsDve. For a) Structure with Moderate Exposure Components the Max.6fy .000 mm A 2 15. Crack Width Parameter.6fy h) Relation between Allowable Max. The Depth is Summation of Clear Cover & Radius of the Closest Bar to Tension Face.the Developed Crack Width Parameter ZDev. Clear Cover = 50mm. which is Calculated by Dividing the Total Concrete Area bounded in between Extreme Tension Face & a Straight Line parallel to Neutral Axis of Component having equal distance from the Centrioed of Main Tension Reinforcement Bars on both side & Diving the Area by the total Number of Main Bars as Tensile Reinforcement having Max.< fsa the Computed Tensile Stress.< fs fsa< 0. fsa 2 163. & Developed value ZDev.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.*(dcA)1/3 f) Relation between of Developed Tensile Stress fsDev. in Which.000. dc = DBarH + DBarV/2 + CCovOuter Since Clear Cover at Outer Face of Well Wall. = 17000N/mm iv) The Computed value of 0. Page 679 . Here spro is Spacing between Provided Tension Bars.
266 kNm/m 18 mm 18 mm 14 mm 14 mm 50 mm 75 mm 425.531 kN/m 221. f) Provided Clear Cover of Well Walls on Outer Face.425 m Page 680 .0 mm 4 0.+ DBerV.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.8*T +dScour) + H iii) Events Related to Calculation of Core Width : a) Provided Diameter of Horizontal Reinforcements on Inner Face of Well.USD/2 g) Coefficient of Horizontal Subgreade Modulus of Soil = ήh h) Stiffness Factor T = (EcI/ήh)0.USD 4.CCovOuter 2*DBerH.018 m d) Assumed Depth of Scour = HWellpro.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). .500.000 kN/m 3.2 i) Minimum Depth required Well Wall = 4* T ii) Calculation of Moment due to Applied Horizontal Forces : a) Maximum Horizontal Force on Assumed Column Strip = pHYYUSD b) Moment due to Max.CCovInner .HBRock e) Factored Vertical Load upon Assumed Column Strip = pStainingUSD f) Factored Horizontal Load At Top of Well Due to Soil & Surcharge Equally Carried by Wells Rear & Front Walls = FPHWellTop.825 m 4 324.433 kN/m 42. g) Core Width of Well Wall = tWall . b) Provided Diameter of Horizontal Reinforcements on Outer Face of Well.100 12.000 mm 0. DBarHInner DBarHOuter DBarVInner DBarVOuter CCovInner CCovOuter d H M dScour N PHWellTop.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .000m b) Depth of Assumed Column Strip = tWellWall = 0. 26 Design of Well Wall under Provisions of Compression Member : i) Dimensions of Assumed Rectangular Column Strip of Well Wall & Related Features: a) Width of Assumed Column Strip = 1..531 kN/m ήh T Ldreq 3 1.000 m 0.400 m 42. Horizontal Pressure with Scour Depth = 0. d) Provided Diameter of Vertical Reinforcements on Outer Face of Well. c) Provided Diameter of Vertical Reinforcements on Inner Face of Well. e) Provided Clear Cover of Well Walls on Inner Face.600m 3 c) Moment of Inertia of Assumed Column Strip = bh /12 b h I 1.5*(1.600 m 18000000000.
h) Ratio between Core Width of Wall & Total Thickness of Wall = d/h i) XSectional Area of 14f Bar = p*Df142/4 d/h Af14 0.0001 + (410250)*(0.09 & Nmin/h2f/c = 0.75.with hs/h =0.75 & fy = 410N/mm2 p1/f/c = 0.0000+(0.71 : (Example of the Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings). d/h = 0.0000+(0.0002 p1/f/c 0.03 0.03 the Commutated value of p1/f/c = 0.80.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).80 & 0.0001 p1/f/c 0.0001 Page 681 . M/bh2f/c =0. d/h = 0.71 2 153.00050.00050.0000+(0.938 mm iii) Events Related to Provision of Compression Reinforcements Using UK CodeBS8110: a) For Assumed Rectangular Column Section tne Value of N/bhSf/c b) For Assumed Rectangular Column Section tne Value of N/bhSf/c N/bhf/c M/bh2f/c 0.03 the value of p1/f/c = 0.0000)*4/18 b) With values fy = 460N/mm2.0000+ (410250)*(0.75 M/bh2f/c = 0. M/h3f/c =0.with d/h =0.03.0000)*4/13 c) Thus form values a & b for fy =410N/mm2. d/h = 0.03 the value of p1/f/c = 0.0002 p1/f/c 0.03 & N/bhf/c = 0.00020. ivi) Compution of Data Sheet 53 for Value of fy = 410 kN/mm2 a) With values fy = 250N/mm2.0000)*5/17 b) With values fy = 460N/mm2. d/h = 0.75 for fy = 410N/mm2: a) Against d/h = 0.N/bhf/c = 0.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . N/bhf/c = 0.00010.80 & fy = 410N/mm2 p1/f/c = 0. M/bh2f/c = 0.03 the value of p1/f/c = 0 c) Thus form values a & b for fy =410N/mm2.80.80.0001)/(460250) ivii) Compution of Data Sheet 54 for Value of fy = 410 kN/mm2 a) With values fy = 250N/mm2.03 iv ) Calculations for Reinforcement by Using the BS8110 British Code of Practic Data Sheet 53 for d/h = 80 & Sheet 54 for d/h = 75 for Calculation of value of p1/f/c & computing same for d/h = 0.0001 iviii) Compution of Value of p1/f/c againstd/h = 0.03 the value of p1/f/c = 0.09 the Commutated value of p1/f/c = 0.75.0001 p1/f/c 0.0002 b) Against d/h = 0.N/bhf/c = 0.03. M/bh2f/c = 0.03r.00050.0000)/(460250) p1/f/c 0. M/bh2f/c = 0.0000 p1/f/c 0..71 for fy = 410 N/mm2 using the Computed value of p1/f/c Computed Values of d/h = 0.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.03. N/bhf/c = 0.
.150 mm2/m Page 682 .25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .0001.002 for Rectangular Section the Required Total Steel Area for both Faces Wall.150 mm d) Relation between Required Compression Component Steel Area & Provided AsComp. & p1 = 0. d) Provided Steel Area as Vertical Reinforcement for per meter Length of the Staining of Well on Inner Face = AsVproInn. e) Since the Provision of Vertical Reinforcements of Well Wall as Flexural Component is Higher than that Required as Compression Component. 2 4.544.20% of the Actual Grosse CrossSectional Area of Staining & at least of which Onethird (33%) on Inner Face. 2.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).200 % %Min.260.mm2 e) Provided Steel Area as Vertical Reinforcement for per meter Length of the Staining of Well on Outer Face = AsVproOut. Filling Material & Finally the Top Plugging.000 mm c) Steel Area Provided for the Rectangular Section as Vertical Reinforcements under Flexural Arrangement for both Faces = AsVproInn + AsVproOut AsTotalFlx.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18.460 mm2/m AsVproOut.71 & fy =410N/mm2 p1/f/c = 0. ii) Checking of Vertical Reinforcements for RCC Well inrespect of Compression Member : a) The Provided Vertical Reinforcement for RCC Wells should not be less than 0.696. d/h = 0.690 mm2/m AsVproTotal.mm2 d) Provided Total Steel Area as Vertical Reinforcement for per meter Length %Min. f c = 21N/mm .71. 27 Checking for Provisionsof Vertical Reinforcements of RCC Well Wall as Compression Component : i) Philosophy in Designing Vertical Reinforcements for RCC Well as Compression Member & Checking: a) The RCC Well will have to Receive all Vertical Load Reactions (DL & LL) from Superstructure & Substructures. 4. After completion the Outer Horizontal Pressures will be Balanced by the Lateral Pressures of filled Inner Materials.241. c) Min of Steel Area Required on Inner Face of the Staining Wall in respect Total Total Steel Area as Vertical Reinforcement for of Staining.241. p1 =0. Flexural Component Steel Area (Whether Requirement of Compression Component is being Satisfied). The Substructure Pager79). As = p1*b*h p1 AsComp.<AsTotalFlx. c) Thus for d/h =0. 1. It will also have to Receive Horizontal Loads those will Imposed upon Well's Outer Surfaces due to Lateral Soil & Surcharge Pressure in between Well Cap Bottom & Bedrock Top during Construction.0001*f/c 2 / 2 b) For fy = 410N/mm .0001 iviv) Calculations for Reinforcements Considering Well Wall as Compression Component : a) With Commutated value of p1/f/c = 0. After Construction Inner Pockets of Well will be filled up by Bottom Plugging. 0.Inner 33.0001+(0.RAINA.00020.002 2 1.Gross 0. thus the Structue is Safe as a Compression Component also. Satisfied. (Concrete Bridge Practice : Analysis.000 % AsVproInn. b) Min of Steel Area Required as Vertical Reinforcement on the Staining Wall as % of Grosse CrossSectional Area. Design and Economice.0001)*9/5 p1/f/c 0.
b) Minimum Requirment as Hoop Reinforcement by Volume for Unit Horizontal Length of Staining of Well.150 mm2/m AsHreqInn.077.000 % h) Whether the Provided Steel Area against Vertical Reinforcement on Inner Face Satisfied the Minimum Reqirment or Not. 0. The Substructure Pager79)./AsVproTotal. thus Arranges for Vertical Reinforcement is OK. %AsVInn.241.460 mm2/m AsHproOut. 4.16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). c) Provided Steel Area as Horizontal Reinforcement for per meter Height of Staining of Well on Inner Face = AsHproInn. g) Required Steel Area as Horizontal Reinforcement as per Calculation for per meter Height of Staining of Well on Outer Face = AsHreqOut.+ AsHproOut. Design and Economice.242 mm2/m AsHreqOut.696. e) Percentage of Steel Area Provided as Vertical Reinforcement against Grosse Crossesectional Area for 1 (One) meter Length of of Staining of Well.+ AsVproOut. g) Percentage of Steel Area on Inner Face against Total Provided Steel Area as Vertical Reinforcement on Staining of Well = 100*AsVproInn.690 mm2/m AsHproTotal. for per meter Height of Staining of Well (Both Faces) = AsHreqInn. 1. = 100*AsVproTotal/b*tWall %AsV 0. Provision Satisfied 40.RAINA. 2.mm2 e) Provided Total Steel Area as Horizontal Reinforcement for per meter Height of Staining of Well (Both Faces) = AsHproInn.mm2 d) Provided Steel Area as Horizontal Reinforcement for per meter Height of Staining of Well on Outer Face = AsHproOut. 1.544.619 mm2/m Page 683 . (Concrete Bridge Practice : Analysis.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. of Staining of Well (Both Faces) = AsVproInn. 1. 2..+ AsHreqOut.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY .027. f) Required Steel Area as Horizontal Reinforcement as per Calculation for per meter Height of Staining of Well on Inner Face = AsHreqInn. VsHoop.104. 28 Checking of Provided Horizontal Reinforcements for RCC Well Wal in Respect of Hoop Tension : i) Provisions of Hoop Tension for Horizontal Reinforcements in Staining of Well : a) The Staining of RCC Well should Provide Hoop Reinforcement at lest 0.707 % f) Whether the Provided Total Steel Area against Vertical Reinforcement have Satisfied the Minimum Reqirment or Not.377 mm2/m h) Required Total Steel Area as per Calculation as Horizontal Reinforcement AsHreqTotal. Provision Satisfied g) Since the Percentage of Steel Area Provided as Vertical Reinforcement against Grosse Crossesectional Area of Staining of Well have Satisfied the Minimum Requirment & also the Steel Area on Inner Face of the Staining have Satisfied the Minimum Requirement against Total Provided Steel Area as Vertical Reinforcement.040 % AsHproInn.04% by Volume against Unit Length of Staining.
= 1000*1000*tWell. mm3 l) Percentage of Addl. 0. VHSteelAddl. Steel Volume Provided as Horizontal Reinforcement = 100*VHSteelAddl. Page 684 .. Steel Volume Provided as Horizontal Reinforcement of Staining of Well have Satisfied the Minimum Required Volume of Steel as Hoop Reinforcement. 3 2136531.000 mm /m VHSteelAddl.AsHreqTotal./VStain. Provision Satisfied n) Since the Addl. thus Design of Staining of Well for Reinforcement in Respect of Hoop Tension is OK.531 mm2/m VStain.216 mm /m %HSteelAddl. Steel Volume as Horizontal Reinforcement for Unit Length of Staining have Satisfied the Minimum Reqirment of Hoop Reinforcement or Not.136. AsHproAddl..16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY). 2.356 % m) Whether the Provided Addl. Steel Volume in 1 (One) meter Length & 1 (One) Height of Staining of Well. = 1000*AsHproAddl. i) Additional Horizontal Steel Provided against Calculated Steel for per meter Length of Staining of Rcc Well (Both Faces) = AsHproTotal.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18. j) Grosse Volume of Concreta for 1 (One) meter Length & 1 (One) Height of Staining of Well.25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . 3 600000000. k) Provided Addl. VStain.
25km ON COX'S BAZARTEKNUF MARIN DRIVE ROAD UNDER COX'S BAZAR ROAD DIVISION (IMPLEMENTION AUTHORITY . Page 685 .STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF DELPARA BRIDGE AT 18..16 ECB BANGLADESH ARMY).
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