CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Problem and Its Background The fast rising means of an elderly population of around the

globe that





should be answered. For the same instance that elderly person gives a great impact to the community, there needs should be given appropriate rendition of care and extensive understanding. The issue that the elderly are facing is amplified and

interrelated. Our elderly should not be seen as a burden to our society. In fact, they still can be productive citizens in their own little ways. As the world becomes smaller through the use of high

technology that makes it easy for travel and communication, the importance of a more global perspective and the differences in aging across the globe is hardly needed. Most of the countries around the globe are experiencing a demographic transition

towards aging population. As for our country, the Philippines’ population as of the year 2012 in terms of people ages15-64 years is 61.1% (for the male 31,103,967 and for the female

31,097,203) and for the elderly ages 65 years and above is on 4.3% (for male 1,876,805 Demographic

and Profile

for 2012

female CIA

is World


Factbook, July 19, 2012). In such case that is also prevalent to the Municipality of Catarman, Northern Samar were in the aging population is approximately more than 600 elderly in the whole population among the 23 town proper barangay. Older adults collectively experience a wide array of

perceptions coming from younger society. Perceptions about older adults vary from one to another. Family caregivers of adults also often faced with problems adults their our as to be the living by options. some as for the


making thus This




viewed to

declining, themselves.

ignoring only


decide and



obligation not to neglect the idea of improving the perception of the family caregivers with regards to the elderly because it will affect the kind of care rendered to them. Thus, the researchers, as future nurses equipped with the knowledge about the care of the elderly, are inquisitive on how the family caregivers a present perceived the elderly.


Statement of the Problem General Problem This study will seek to find out the Perceptions of Family caregivers about the biologic and psychosocial aspects of the Elderly in Municipality of Catarman, Northern Samar.

Specific Problems Specifically, questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the family caregiver of the elderly in terms of: A. Age B. Sex C. Educational attainment D. Relationship with elderly E. Length of Service as caregiver 2. What are the perceptions of family caregivers in terms of the biologic and psychosocial aspects of the elderly? 3. What is the significant relationship of the demographic profile about of the the family in caregivers terms of to their perception and it will seek to answer the following




psychosocial aspects?

Objectives of the Study This study aims at finding out the perception of Family Caregivers about the elderly in the Municipality of Catarman, Northern Samar. Specifically, this study aims to: 1. Determine caregivers educational the of demographic the elderly profile in terms of of the age, elderly family sex, and




length of service as caregiver. 2. Determine the perceptions of the family caregivers about the elderly in terms of their biologic and psychosocial aspects. 3. Determine the relationship of the demographic profile of the family caregivers to their perception of about the elderly.

Significance of the Study The findings of this study will make the family caregivers aware about the new trends in rendering appropriate care to the elderly persons.









institution will be benefited by this study; Elderly. This study will help the elderly to know about the perceptions of family caregivers towards them. Family Caregivers. This study will help the family to

understand the importance of caring elderly client. Nursing Students. The result of this study will make them aware of the ideas to the perception of the family caregivers towards the elderly. Colleges of Nursing. The result of the study will help the colleges teaching elderly. Researchers. researcher The result of this which study among will of help the to to recognize expound as the to what proper of learning future or proper about








mentioned affect most the perception of family caregivers to the elderly.


Scope and Limitation This study will focus on the Perception of selected family caregivers about the elderly. It will cover the twenty-three (23) town proper barangay out of the 46 mainland Barangays of the municipality of Catarman Northern Samar. Considering the financial and time constraints in

conducting of this study, the respondent will be choosen from the above the (23) urban barangays, located in the town proper, namely: Acacia, Airport Village, Bangkerohan, Baybay, Cabayhan, Cag-abaca, Calachuchi, Cal-igang, Casoy, Cawayan, Dalakit, Ipilipil, Jose Abad Santos, Jose P. Rizal, Lapu-lapu, Mabini,

Mabolo, Molave, Narra, Sampaguita, Santol, Talisay and Yakal. The researchers in the also consider the of the easy accessibility as a of the of the

respondents perceptions


study. the

Hence, finding

study on



veracity of the subjects response and the level of willingness of the respondents to participate in the study.


Hypothesis There is no significant of the relationship family between to the their




perception about the elderly.

Theoretical Framework of the Study This study makes use of a core theory and several theories related to it which will serve as strong bases to make this study realistic. Toughy and Jett Theories of aging served as bases for this study. It was suggested that some cognitive functions in old age decline people regardless of age can continue to learn. The cognitive skills that remain stable are attention span, language skills, communication skills, comprehension and discourse and visual perception. Some of the skills that decline with age are verbal fluency logical analysis, selective attention object

naming and complex vision spatial skills. (Toughy and Jett 2010) According to Toughy and Jett older adults who have higher

cognitive function are the ones that have the highest social interaction. experiences Older and people continue new to learn from and their Jett




2010).It also tackles the four types of aging which includes

chronological age, biological age, psychological age, and social age these ages may not be the same on a person. Chronological age is the number of years a person has lived. Biological age is the predicted by the person’s physical condition and how well vital organ systems a are functioning. ability Psychological and control of age is





learning capacity, skills, emotions, and judgment, Social Age is measured by age graded behaviors that conform to an expected status and role within a particular culture or society. It was anchored on Phillips’ Family Caregiving Dynamics

model. The concept of the model include

both interactional

context factors, such as the caregiver’s role expectations and expectations factors, of the as care recipient, and situational abilities. context It also





includes the perceptions that the caregiver and care recipient have about the situation such as the caregiver burden. This model provides framework for understanding poor caregiving, with attention history of to many factors, including the the prior relationship (Phillips,






Brewer, & Torres de Ardon, 2001)


Conceptual Framework of the Study We know for a fact that as the age of a person increases, the biologic and psychosocial aspects of a person has to be considered significant. These changes could greatly affect the public’s perception most especially to the perceptions of the family caregivers. that This study such will as conceptualize age, sex, on the




attainment, length of service and relationship with elderly have a relationship to the perceptions of the family caregivers about the elderly.


Paradigm of the Study

Independent Variables Prp
Profile of a respondent family caregiver in terms of:  Age  Sex  Educational attainment  Relationship with elderly  Length of service

Dependent Variables

Family Caregivers Perception in terms of: a. biologic aspect b. psychosocial aspect









independent and the dependent variables.


Definition of Terms Elderly. It is conceptually defined rather old especially being past middle age. In this study, it refers to the characteristics of later life of a person. Family Caregiver. It is conceptually defined as a person who provides direct care (as for children, elderly people, or the chronically ill). In this study, it refers to the Family caregivers of the elderly. Perception. elements of It is conceptually environment defined as Awareness of the or





physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience. Furthermore, it is any insight or intuitive judgment that implies beliefs, discernment views, of with a truth or fact. This includes elderly the as





measured by the Self-Assessment on beliefs about the Elderly Questionnaire. In this study, it refers to the insight of the Family

caregivers towards the elderly.


Chapter II Review of Literature Related literature The aging process is of course a biological reality which has its own dynamic, largely beyond human control. However, it is also subject to the constructions by which each society makes sense of old age. In the developed world, chronological time plays a paramount role. The age of 60 or 65, roughly equivalent to retirement ages in most developed countries is said to be the beginning of old age. In many parts of the developing world, chronological time has little or no importance in the meaning of old age. Other socially constructed meanings of age are more significant such as the roles assigned to older people; in some cases it is the loss of roles accompanying physical decline which is significant in defining old age. Thus, in contrast to the chronological milestones which mark life stages in the

developed world, old age in many developing countries is seen to begin at the point when active contribution is no longer

possible." (Gorman, 2002) Unlike services child care, for which typically children involves live finding with the




employee, elder care requires a set of services to respond to a


wide range of often unpredictable medical, emotional, physical and financial possibilities. These services are frequently

required to be delivered some distance from the employee. Elder care takes many forms, including providing meals, transportation to medical appointments, food shopping, financial assistance, assisting with housework or providing emotional support. When elder-care needs occur, they tend to be unpredictable and

involve many unknowns. These needs often cause anxiety about things such as the ability to find and pay for immediate care or ways to take preventative measures like withholding car keys away from an elderly parent. Employees with elder-care

responsibility are often called upon to assist in making costly financial decisions around issues of long-term care. In many cases, they have very little information and little confidence in their ability to get comprehensive information on public and private benefits, service and financial options, and risks of needing extensive care overtime. Adult children usually want to respect the autonomy and decision-making capability of their

older adult relatives. However, most people are not proactive when it comes to elder care and critically important discussions about “what to do if” rarely take place in advance. (Rose and Burut, 2006; pg.62)


The American Journal of Nursing (AJN) recognizes that nurses today will care more adults over 65 than any other

patient population. Caring for older adults requires specific expertise, knowledge and skills that the majority of nurses did not learn in school, and or which less than one percent have has specialized training or certification. During the last decade and primarily because of the aging population spends and the for dual-focus another workforce, has the time as a one adult





issue. Finding and coordinating elder-care services is no easy task, especially for an employed caregiver. The study overwork in America: when the way we work becomes too much (families and work institute 2004) tend found to be that more employees overworked with than elder-care employers


without these responsibilities. Caring for elderly patients can be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it is a demonstration of concern for the person involved, but on the other, the paramount feeling when a patient cannot no longer do the things for themselves that they used to do is uselessness, which leads to sadness, laziness and selfloathing. Patients may eat more and start to gain weight, and actually decline in health. If that is the case, then there is


no better time for these individuals to get off that couch and start moving. This only shows that elderly persons are much dependent with the tender loving care that their health care providers are rendering implemented government thru them. But since that the few programs that about were our the

locally, should

concerning This

necessities also tackles



insights and perspective of each caregiver family member to an elderly person that belongs to their family.

Related Studies The study of Christina Englert, MA, Center for Language & Cognition, University of Groningen talking: examined The how production the of (Sept. 2008 )“Elderly people Identity in Interaction” are socially

Elderly of




constructed and marked in interaction by means of linguistic practices and how this can be influenced by the conversational setting. The aim of this research is to give a general idea of the range of communicative activities of elderly by means of a communication interactional communicative profile. The aim is to describe, from an and and

perspective, activities

relevant that

linguistic are












situations and genres where elderly participate. In every culture life circumstances change for an aging individual and there are typical experiences in the areas of social situations and relationships loss of (e.g. retirement, moving changes but health to a

condition, retirement experiences

widowhood, home). are The

driver’s of out

license, these

processing carried the The


and also

not they



communicatively: behaviour of

shape people.

linguistic, communicative

communicative milieu (e.g.,


neighbourhood, family, shopping places, healthcare settings) of elderly people can be characterized by regular, more or less standardized, stable social relationships with a shared history, specific communicative repertoires and more or less normative rules that govern the interaction. Previous Conversation Analytic studies of the discourse of elderly tend to focus on interactions taking place in caregiving institutions or home-help contexts between the elderly and their care-givers during care activities (cf. Backhaus,

2010; Engbersen, 2009; Heinemann, 2006; Lindström, 2005) According to the study conducted by Caroline G. Lee, the Role of an Aged Care Nurse Practitioner however,



well the





implementation of this advanced role is still in its infancy with few gerontological nursing experts registered as nurse

practitioners (NP). This single Victorian Facility 2002 study was the first to describe the clinical & social benefits or otherwise of ACNP interventions in an Australian context. This study aimed to establish clinical or other outcomes that a Gerontological Nurse Practitioner (ACNP’s) could achieve for older persons in an Australian residential aged, care

facility. In could summary, & this study identified the role interventions they could an ACNP in an




Australian residential aged care facility, given the national legislation governing all aspects of an aged care facility. This study demonstrated that the role was feasible and achieved

positive resident outcomes despite the factors that impeded its introduction. The study about Nurses’ Perceptions and Support of Elderly Loneliness in Nursing Homes (Edith Mutafungwa Degree Programme in Nursing Thesis, February 2009.) The purpose of the study is to find out how nurses perceive elderly loneliness. A

qualitative research method was used in the study. The thesis topic originated from the project “Experiences of Loneliness”, which was innovated by Espoo City. The data was collected from

Taavinkoti December


home) and





November were sent

to to





nurses prior to their participation in the study. In addition, nurses described that the absence of family members in an elder’s life plays a significant role in an

individual’s loneliness. The study showed the supporting methods offered by nurses were nursing assistance, psychological

support, physical support and social participation. According to the study of Maria Linda S. Agus, MAN about the perception of public health Nurses & family caregivers of the elderly in Catarman Northern Samar, the findings of the study with regards to the profile data specifically age as one of the variables is that most of the respondents both from the CHN & family members belonged to the aged bracket of 32-37 & which 35-39 years old respectively, is under the early adult stage.


Chapter III Methodology Locale of the Study Catarman is a first class municipality in the province of Northern Samar. It is the capital and largest town by land area and population in Northern Samar. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 84,833 in 12, 437 household making it the most populous municipality in Eastern Visayas. It has an area of 464.23km2 (179.32 sq. mi). financial, It is also and the commercial, and




government center of the province. It lies on the northern part of Samar Island and southeast of the Philippine capital, Manila. It is bounded to the east by Mondragon, to the west by Bobon, to the south by Lope Strait. de The Vega, and to the is north by the On San the




Pacific coast are flat lowlands with the interior characterized by outlying low hills. Mt. Puyao in Barangay Liberty is the highest peak in the area. Catarman representatively standing for the business region of Northern Samar is in the process of renewing its image as a poor and underdeveloped area in the 1980s. Due to its direct topographic contact to Luzon the area serves now as a trading

center in Northern Samar with increasing volume of trade and commerce annually. At present, Catarman town proper have 23 urban mainland barangays, Baybay, these are Acacia, Airport Village, Bangkerohan, Casoy,





Cawayan, Dalakit, Ipil-ipil, Jose Abad Santos, Jose P. Rizal, Lapu-lapu, Mabini, Mabolo, Molave, Narra, Sampaguita, Santol, Talisay, Yakal. The town also currently has five public health nurses.

Research design This study will utilize the descriptive correlational

survey method of investigation to determine the perception of the public health nurses and family caregivers about the

elderly. Correlational design is used in this study to determine the relationship of the demographic profile of the respondents which are the public health nurses and family caregivers perception about the elderly. to their


Research Respondents The into two identified (2): the respondents first group of this study the are categorize family



caregivers of the elderly and the second group are the five Public Health Nurses of the Municipality of Catarman, Northern Samar.

Research Variables and their Measures The variables that will be use in this study are

quantified in the following manner: Age. This refers to the number of years that the family

caregivers has lived from birth up to present. Gender. It refers to the characteristics which determine whether both of the family caregivers are male or female. Educational attainment. It refers to the highest level of

education attained by family caregivers. Length of service. It refers to the family caregivers’ number of years in service with the elderly. Relationship with the elderly. It refers to the blood relation of the selected family caregiver with the elderly.


Research Instrument The researcher will make use of a standardized tool adopted and modified from a study entitled “Community Health Nurses and Family Members’ Perceptions of the Elderly in the Province of Northern Samar, Proposed Health Teaching Plan” (Agus,1996).

Modification made was inclusion of relationship of the family caregiver to the elderly as one of the variables. Part I of the questionnaire will determine the demographic profiles of the family caregivers. Part caregivers’ aspect of II of this instrument about It the will measure and nine the family

perception the and

biological of

psychosocial biological about the

elderly. twelve


perceptions elderly. It will












appropriate column- SA if they Strongly Agree; A if they Agree; U if they are Undecided; D if they Disagree and SD if they Strongly Disagree.


Sampling Technique This study will utilize the Slovin’s formula to determine the sample size. In order for the barangays to have an equal representation, proportionate sampling will be done after

getting the sample size in every barangay. The researchers will pick from a bowl with name of the families with elderly per barangay and the names that will be picked will be taken as the respondents. This technique will be used based on the belief that researchers’ knowledge about the population can be used to hand-pick sample members to which in this study are the family caregivers.

Date Gathering Procedure Prior to the study, letters of request to conduct the study will be sent out to the Municipal Health Officer of the Rural Health Unit of the selected Municipality which is Catarman,

Northern Samar. The researchers will personally distribute the questionnaires immediately Collection on of to the family day caregivers they will and be retrieve them

the data

very from

administered. will be done




through structured interview schedule.


Scoring and Interpretation of Data The following scoring and interpretation will be employed in this study. A. Demographic Profile of family caregivers will utilize

frequency count and percentages:

a) Age The age of family caregivers will be categorized based from the psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson’s which are as follows: Young Adulthood (18-25 years old) Middle Adulthood (25-60 years old)

b) Gender The gender of family caregivers will be categorized as male or female.

c) Educational Attainment The educational attainment of the family caregivers will be categorized as: Elementary High School

College level College Graduate Others, please specify

e.) Length of Service The length of service of family caregivers will be categorized as: 31-35 years 26-30 years 21-25 years 16-20 years 11-15 years 6-10 years 1-5 years


Relationship with Elderly relationship with the elderly of the family


caregivers will be categorized as: Daughter/Son Grandchild Niece/Nephew Son/daughter in Law Husband/wife

Relatives B. Self-Assessment on Perceptions of the Elderly The researchers will base the scoring and

interpretation of the study from the adopted and modified questionnaire. It will be interpreted through item per item analysis. The responses of family caregivers will be scored as follows:

INTERPRETATION Range Quantitative Interpretation 4.20 – 5.00 Very Positive The respondents perceive the Qualitative Interpretation

elderly as holistically functional individual of the society. 3.40 – 4.19 Positive The respondents perceives elderly as functional individual yet has their own limitation 2.60 – 3.39 Undecided The respondents cannot decide on the abilities of the elderly as

functional human being


1.80 – 2.59



respondents as


the with



decreased functional ability

1.00 – 1.79

Very Negative


respondents who has

perceives absence

the of


functional ability

Interpretation descriptive negatively



result for which

will every




assigning For the

interpretation stated items

response. item



1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,7,11,12 interpretation will be “very positive” to a strongly agree response; “positive to an agree response; “undecided” to an undecided response; “negative” to a disagree response and “very negative” to a strongly disagree response. For the positively stated items which include

9,10,13,14,15,16,17 interpretation will be “very positive” to a strongly disagree response; “positive” to disagree response;

“undecided” to an undecided response; “negative” to an agree response and “very negative” to a strongly agree response.


Statistical Treatment of Data The study was analyzed statistically based on the presented data gathered during our survey on every family caregiver in the province of Northern Samar. These are the statistical tool used in or study. 1. Frequency and personal distribution

Percent (%)


Where: P = Percent (%) f = frequency/response N = total # of case 100constant factor

2. Mean a. The mean was used in analysing the status of

implementation of the data gathered in the survey to measure the overall reaction of several variables The formula is:


Where: X = mean

∑fx = summation of frequency N = total number of respondents

3. The Multiple Regression Analysis to be use to determine the relationship of demographic profile of the family

caregivers to their perception about the elderly.

The Multiple Regression Analysis The Multiple Regression Analysis is used in

predictions. The dependent variable can be predicted given several independent variables. For instance, we can make better predictions of the performance of newly hired

teachers if we consider not only their education but also their years of experience, personality, and other variables that may influence performance. Many mathematical formulas can serve to express

relationship among more than two variables, but the most commonly used in statistics are linear equations.


y = b0 + b1 x1 + b2x2= ... + bnxn

where: y = the dependent variable to be predicted x1x2...xn = the known independent variables that may

influence y = numerical constants which must be determined from observed data

For instance, when there are two independent variables x1 and x2 and we want to fit the equation, the equation model:

y = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2

we must solve the three normal equations: Σy = nb0 + Σx1b1 + Σx2b2 Σx1y = Σx1b0 + Σx b1 + Σx1x2b2 b2

Σx2 = Σx2b0 + Σx1x2b1 + Σ x


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