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The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among thebiosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and

atmosphere of the Earth. Along with thenitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a sequence of events that are key to making the Earth capable of sustaining life; it describes the movement of carbon as it is recycled and reused throughout the biosphere. The global carbon budget is the balance of the exchanges (incomes and losses) of carbon between the carbon reservoirs or between one specific loop (e.g., atmosphere biosphere) of the carbon cycle. An examination of the carbon budget of a pool or reservoir can provide information about whether the pool or reservoir is functioning as a source or sink for carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle was initially discovered [1] by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, and popularized by Humphry Davy. The global carbon cycle is now usually divided into the following major reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange The atmosphere The terrestrial biosphere The oceans, including dissolved inorganic carbon and living and non-living marine biota The sediments, including fossil fuels, fresh water systems and non-living organic material, such as soil carbon The Earth's interior, carbon from the Earth's mantle and crust. These carbon stores interact with the other components through geological processes

The carbon exchanges between reservoirs occur as the result of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. The ocean contains the largest active pool of carbon near the surface of the [2] Earth. The natural flows of carbon between the atmosphere, ocean, and sediments is fairly balanced, so [4] that carbon levels would be roughly stable without human influence.

greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause [1] of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. In the Solar System, the atmospheres

of Venus, Mars, and Titan also contain gases that cause greenhouse effects. Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth; without them, Earth's surface would average about 33C colder than [2][3][4] the present average of 14 C (57 F). Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has contributed to a 40% increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 397 ppm, despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon [5][6] cycle. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (i.e., emissions produced by human activities) [7] come from combustion of carbon based fuels, principallywood, coal, oil, and natural gas.

The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). However, "relatively high," in the case of ozone, is still very small with regard to ordinary oxygen, and is less than ten parts per million, with the average ozone concentration in Earth's atmosphere being only about 0.6 parts per million. The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and [1] geographically. The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson. Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson, who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobsonmeter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. Between 1928 and 1958 Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations, which continue to operate to this day. The "Dobson unit", a convenient measure of the columnar density of ozone overhead, is named in his honor.