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Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304

www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng
Hydrodynamic coecients of a oating,
truncated vertical cylinder in shallow water
Y. Drobyshevski

ICON Engineering, 13 B Langham Street, Nedlands 6009, WA, Australia


Received 14 March 2003; received in revised form 1 July 2003; accepted 23 July 2003
Abstract
The paper seeks to apply the methodology of matched asymptotic expansions to obtain
analytical solutions for hydrodynamic properties of a circular cylindrical platform (truncated
circular cylinder) in extremely shallow water. By matching potentials of the uid ows out-
side and under the cylinder bottom with the inner ow near its edge the radiation problems
are solved for heave, surge and pitch motions. Closed asymptotic formulae are derived for
all hydrodynamic coecients of the oating cylinder, which include the rst-order terms in
the gap height. The formulae are discussed and shown to compare well with numerical
results published in literature.
# 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Shallow water; Waves; Circular cylinder; Matched asymptotic expansions
1. Introduction
A truncated circular cylinder represents a convenient generic shape for a variety
of applications in ocean engineering, with many cylindrical structures operating
under the eects of wave-induced loads and motions. On the other hand, owing to
the particular domain geometry, which allows the Laplace equation to be solved by
separation of variables, hydrodynamic properties of cylindrical bodies have ren-
dered themselves to ecient theoretical solutions, thereby providing valuable infor-
mation for comparison with model tests and benchmarking of the more general
numerical tools. Due to its signicant practical and theoretical importance the
problem of wave interaction with a truncated circular cylinder attracted much

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E-mail address: yuriy@bigpond.com (Y. Drobyshevski).
0029-8018/$ - see front matter #2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2003.07.003
interest and was studied by a number of authors. A methodology involving eigen-
function expansions of the velocity potential in cylindrical coordinates was
developed and implemented in various forms by Miles and Gilbert (1968), Garret
(1971), Yeung (1981), Sabuncu and Calissal (1981). Extensive numerical results are
given in these studies for hydrodynamic coecients of circular cylinders in nite
depth waters.
In the present paper, attention is focused on extreme shallow water conditions,
when the under-bottom clearance is small compared with the structure dimensions
and water depth, a situation frequently encountered in marine operations. The
hydrodynamic problem is considered by the use of the method of matched asymp-
totic expansions, generally following an approach rst developed by Tuck (1971,
1975) to study ows through small apertures. The heave, surge and pitch radiation
problems for a oating truncated cylinder are solved in a closed form, and asymp-
totic formulae are derived for all hydrodynamic coecients. These formulae, which
include the rst-order terms in the gap height, provide good accuracy over a range
of water depths and allow for straightforward numerical implementation. Further
review, references and a solution of the two-dimensional problem for a rectangular
structure are given in the previous paper by this author, which will be hereinafter
referred to as (D).
The material is set out as follows. In Section 2, the radiation problem is for-
mulated for a circular vertical sided platform in extremely shallow water. General
expressions are given for the inner and outer velocity potentials, with particular
emphasis on the radiation solutions for the vertical bottom-mounted cylinder,
which will be further used in this study. In Section 3, the heave radiation problem
is solved by constructing and matching potentials of the outer ows (outside and
under the bottom of the cylinder) with the inner ow near the edge of the struc-
ture. After the radiation potential has been determined, heave hydrodynamic coef-
cients are obtained and the zero and innite frequency limits of the heave added
mass are examined. Sections 4 and 5 are devoted to the surge and pitch radiation
problems, which are solved following the same procedure. For all modes of
motions, the added mass and damping coecients are obtained by integrating the
uid pressure over the structure surface, whereas the wave exciting forces are
found by using the HaskindNewman formula, which enabled to avoid solving the
diraction problem. The obtained formulae for the hydrodynamic coecients are
discussed and shown to compare well with numerical results by Yeung (1981).
2. Formulation of the radiation problem
2.1. The boundary value problem
Consider a circular vertical sided structure (a truncated circular cylinder) of
radius a and draft T oating in the inviscid incompressible uid of depth H. The
origin of the coordinate system is xed at the free surface level; the z-axis points
vertically downwards, as shown in Fig. 1. Surgent, heave ft and pitch wt
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 270
motions of the structure, positive directions of which are shown in Fig. 1, are here-
inafter denoted by indices i 1; 3; 5, respectively. The perturbed uid motion due
to small amplitude oscillations of the structure with unit velocity amplitudes can be
described by the velocity potential:
Ux; y; z; t Reux; y; z e
irt
; 1
where r denotes the circular frequency, and the time-independent potential ux; y; z
is the solution of the following boundary value problem:
@
2
@x
2

@
2
@y
2

@
2
@z
2
_ _
ux; y; z 0 everywhere in the fluid 2
@
@z

r
2
g
_ _
ux; y; 0 0 on the free surface jrj > a; z 0 3
@u
@z
0 on the seabed z H 4
@u
@n

cosn; x
cosn; z
zcosn; x xcosn; z
_
_
_
_
_
_
; for
i 1
i 3
i 5
_
_
_
_
_
_
on the body surface
5
Equation (2) is the Laplace equation, (3) is the linearized boundary condition on
the free surface, conditions (4) and (5) are the kinematic boundary conditions on
the hull surface and the seabed. Here n denotes the unit normal vector pointing
into the uid, and r is the radius of the polar coordinates r; h dened such that:
x rcosh; y rsinh 6
Fig. 1. Coordinate system.
271 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
For the vertical circular cylinder with a at rigid bottom, the boundary con-
dition (5) can be rewritten in the following form:
@u
@r
f
i
z; h
cosh
0
zcosh
_
_
_
_
_
_
; for
i 1
i 3
i 5
_
_
_
_
_
_
on the side surface 7
@u
@z
g
i
r; h
0
1
rcosh
_
_
_
_
_
_
; for
i 1
i 3
i 5
_
_
_
_
_
_
on the bottom 8
The boundary value problem (2)(5) must be supplemented by the radiation con-
dition, which requires the potential to include outgoing waves only far away from
the structure.
An essential assumption of this study is that the gap between the structure bot-
tom and the seabed is small compared with the water depth, whereas the structure
radius and the depth are of the same order of magnitude, that is:
h=H e; e51; aa a=H O1; T=H O1 9
If the small parameter e tends to zero an outside observer in the far eld sees the
structure as a cylinder extending over the entire water depth, which oscillates with
its bottom sliding against the seabed. The ow through the narrow under-keel gap
resembles oscillating sources (sinks) distributed over the line of contact with the
seabed, the strength of which is unknown. At the same time, it can be shown that
the uid motion under the structure bottom suciently far from the edges is nearly
a two-dimensional horizontal ow, which is also unknown. According to the
method of matched asymptotic expansions these approximations, which involve
several unknowns, can be considered as the outer elds.
Coming to the inner eld, i.e. to the immediate vicinity of the structure edge,
it must be noted that for any given angle h (Fig. 2) the essential uid motion of
interest occurs in the vertical plane normal to the structure surface. Physically, it
can be inferred from the fact that the cylinder radius is substantially larger than
the under-bottom clearance h Oe, so that the geometry of the uid domain
with a characteristic dimension Oe varies very slowly in the h-direction. Hence,
within the inner eld the uid has mainly to ow in the vertical plane normal to
the cylinder surface, whereas a slow geometry change in the other h-direction can
only result in a constant uid velocity in that direction, the potential of which is
locally a constant. Therefore, an additive constant must be retained in the inner
potential to provide a correct description of the ow that must properly match the
outer solutions. Perhaps the more rigorous explanation follows from the fact that
the potential is a harmonic function, and is therefore uniquely dened everywhere
in a domain by given values of the function and its normal derivative on the
boundary. Although the general form of the inner potential can be constructed in a
straightforward manner, it will involve some unknowns.
All the unknowns can be determined and the outer and inner potentials can be
completely dened only after their appropriate expansions are matched to ensure
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 272
that both solutions describe a physically continuous ow eld. This will enable us
to compute the velocity potential everywhere in the uid and to evaluate the press-
ure and hydrodynamic forces on the structure. After essential common derivations,
the analysis is carried out separately for heave, surge and pitch motions. Only the
rst-order asymptotic solution in the gap height h will be sought, so that all the
formulae for hydrodynamic coecients will be derived with the rst-order terms in
the gap height h included, if not stated otherwise. The term Oe
2
(or
Oh=H
2
) will be omitted in most of the expressions for the sake of brevity.
2.2. The ow outside the structure
In the outer led, the ow outside the structure can be described by the follow-
ing potential:
ux; y; z u
1
x; y; z u
2
x; y; z: 10
Here the potential u
1
y; z corresponds to the boundary condition (7) imposed
on the side surface of the cylinder, which now appears to be extended over the
entire uid depth, whereas the potential u
2
y; z describes the ow through the
under-bottom gap. Each of the two potentials can be sought in the following gen-
eral form, pertinent to the three-dimensional uid domain with vertical sided
Fig. 2. Inner zone ow.
273 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
boundaries:
ux; y; z G
0
x; y Z
0
z

1
m1
G
m
x; y Z
m
z: 11
Here Z
0
z; Z
m
z m 1; 2; 3; . . . make the complete orthogonal set of functions
satisfying boundary conditions on the free surface and on the seabed, which are
dened as:
Z
0
z N
1=2
0
cosha
0
z H; N
0
1 sinh2u
0
=2u
0
=2; 12
Z
m
z N
1=2
m
cosa
m
z H; N
m
1 sin2u
m
=2u
m
=2; 13
u
0
a
0
H; u
m
a
m
H; m 1; 2; 3; . . . 14
where a
0
and a
m
are the roots of the dispersion equations:
a
0
tanha
0
H m; m r
2
=g 15
a
m
tana
m
H m; m 1; 2; 3 . . . 16
Functions G
0
x; y and G
m
x; y for m 1; 2; 3; . . . can be considered as Fourier
coecients of decomposition (11), with the following inversion formulae:
G
0
x; y
1
H
_
H
0
ux; y; z Z
0
zdz;
G
m
x; y
1
H
_
H
0
ux; y; z Z
m
zdz; 17
Substituting (11) into Laplace equation (2), using (17) and taking into account that
the functions Z
k
z are orthogonal, one can show that these functions satisfy the
following partial dierential equations:
@
2
@x
2

@
2
@y
2
a
2
0
_ _
G
0
x; y 0; 18
@
2
@x
2

@
2
@y
2
a
2
m
_ _
G
m
x; y 0; m 1; 2; 3 . . . 19
and boundary conditions on the body contour C : fx n; y gg in the water-
plane:
@G
0
@n

1
H
_
H
0
@u
@n

C
Z
0
zdz w
0
n; g; 20
@G
m
@n

1
H
_
H
0
@u
@n

C
Z
m
zdz w
m
n; g: 21
Thus for a vertical sided structure the three-dimensional problem is reduced to a
pair of equations (18) and (19), in two dimensions. The elementary solutions,
which satisfy the radiation condition in the far eld, are known to have the follow-
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 274
ing form:
G
0
R A H
2
0
a
0
R; 22
G
m
R B K
0
a
m
R: 23
Here H
2
0
is the Hankel function of the second kind, K
0
is the modied Bessel
function of the second kind, A and B are arbitrary constants, and R

x n
2
y g
2
_
is the distance between the singularity point n; g and the
eld point x; y. More general solutions can be obtained by distributing singula-
rities (22), (23) over the body contour. Applying the Green theorem it can be
shown that these solutions satisfy the following integral equations, which are
equivalent to (18), (20) and (19), (21), respectively:
G
0
x; y
i
4
_
C
w
0
n; gH
2
0
a
0
R G
0
n; g
@H
2
0
@n
a
0
R
_ _
ds; 24
G
m
x; y
1
2p
_
C
w
m
n; gK
0
a
m
R G
m
n; g
@K
0
@n
a
m
R
_ _
ds: 25
Finally, it follows from (24) and (25) that functions G
m
vanish quickly as the
eld point moves away from the structure, whereas the far led behaviour of G
0
can be expressed in the form:
G
0
x; yj
r!1

iQa
0
; h

8pa
0
r
p e
ia
0
rp=4
O1=r; 26
where the analogue of the Kochin function is introduced as follows:
Qa
0
; h
_
C
w
0
n; g wn; g; h G
0
n; g
@w
@n
_ _
ds; 27
wn; g; h expfia
0
ncosh gsinhg: 28
One can conclude therefore that expressions (26)(28) dene the far led behav-
iour of the potential (11) in the form of the radiated outgoing waves. It should be
noted that the above results, which were essentially established by Haskind (Has-
kind, 1973), are valid for any vertical sided structure in nite depth waters. For a
vertical plate, circular and elliptical cylinders equations (24), (25) can be solved
analytically. Considering a circular cylinder of the radius a, let us assume that the
normal derivatives on the boundary (20), (21) are given in the form:
w
0
n; g

1
n0
a
n
cosnh; 29
w
m
n; g

1
n0
b
m
n
cosnh: 30
275 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
Assuming similar presentations for the functions G
0
x; y and G
m
x; y
(m 1; 2; 3; . . .), substituting them into the integral equations (24), (25) and using
the addition theorem for Bessel functions (Abramowitz and Stegun, 1964), one can
nd:
G
0
r; h a

1
n0
a
n

H
2
n
a
0
r
k
0
H
2
0
n
k
0

cosnh; 31
G
m
r; h a

1
n0
b
m
n

K
n
a
m
r
k
m
K
0
n
k
m

cosnh; 32
where k
0
a
0
a, k
m
a
m
a, and the prime denotes the derivative. The above expres-
sions enable us to construct all the required solutions for the perturbed uid ow
outside the structure. For example, the potential u
1
y; z, corresponding to the bot-
tom-mounted cylinder involved in small surge motions with unit velocity amplitudes,
can be readily obtained by using boundary condition (7) and expressions (20), (21):
w
0
a; h
1
H
_
H
0
cosh Z
0
zdz
sinhu
0
u
0
N
1=2
0
cosh; 33
w
m
a; h
1
H
_
H
0
cosh Z
m
zdz
sinu
m
u
m
N
1=2
m
cosh: 34
Upon comparing the above formulae with (29), (30) and using (31), (32) one
gets:
G
0
r; h
asinhu
0
u
0
N
1=2
0
H
2
1
a
0
r
k
0
H
2
0
1
k
0

cosh; 35
G
m
r; h
asinu
m
u
m
N
1=2
m
K
1
a
m
r
k
m
K
0
1
k
m

cosh; 36
and the surge radiation potential (11) is therefore given by:
u
1
a
sinhu
0
u
0
N
0
H
2
1
a
0
rcosha
0
z H
k
0
H
2
0
1
k
0

1
m1
sinu
m
u
m
N
m
K
1
a
m
rcosa
m
z H
k
m
K
0
1
k
m

_ _
cosh:
37
Following a similar procedure, the pitch potential u
1
can be found, which corre-
sponds to the bottom-mounted cylinder pitching about the y-axis in the water-
plane:
u
1
H
2
coshu
0
1
u
3
0
N
0
H
2
1
a
0
rcosha
0
z H
H
2
0
1
k
0

1
m1
1 cosu
m

u
3
m
N
m
K
1
a
m
rcosa
m
z H
K
0
1
k
m

_
cosh: 38
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 276
Noting that for heave motions, the potential u
1
y; z is identically zero, let us
construct the potential u
2
y; z describing the ow through the under-bottom gap.
As the outer eld observer sees the small under-bottom gap shrinking to zero, the
normal uid velocity on the structure can be described by the Dirac delta-function,
which is zero everywhere on the body side surface but has a nite integral ux qh
at the bottom z H. Hence, boundary conditions (20), (21) can be written as:
w
0
a; h
1
H
_
H
0
@u
@n

C
Z
0
zdz
qh
HN
1=2
0
; 39
w
m
a; h
1
H
_
H
0
@u
@n

C
Z
m
zdz
qh
HN
1=2
m
: 40
Using (31) and (32) and further representing the strength function by the Fourier
series:
qh

1
n0
q
n
cosnh; 41
the required potential can be found in the following form:
u
2

a
H

1
n0
q
n
H
2
n
a
0
rcosha
0
z H
N
0
k
0
H
2
0
n
k
0

1
m1
K
n
a
m
rcosa
m
z H
N
m
k
m
K
0
n
k
m

_ _
cosnh:
42
The above expression is suitable for all modes of motions and will be used
below.
2.3. Flow under the structure bottom
As the under-bottom clearance is small compared with the dimensions of the
structure, vertical coordinate z H is a small quantity. Therefore, the velocity
potential can be sought in the form of the series:
ux; y; z u
0
x; y z Hu
1
x; y z H
2
u
2
x; y
Oz H
3
: 43
Due to the boundary condition on the seabed (4) and the Laplace equation (2)
the above expression reduces to:
ux; y; z u
0
x; y
z H
2
2
@
2
@x
2

@
2
@y
2
_ _
u
0
x; y Oz H
3
: 44
Having applied condition (8) on the structure bottom to (44), one obtains the
Poisson dierential equation for the rst-order potential:
@
2
@x
2

@
2
@y
2
_ _
u
0
x; y
gx; y
h
; 45
277 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
which in polar coordinates is:
@
2
@r
2

1
r
@
@r

1
r
2
@
2
@h
2
_ _
u
0
r; h
gr; h
h
: 46
For a particular mode of motion and given boundary condition on the cylinder
bottom, the right-hand side of (46) is dened and the equation can be solved with-
out diculties.
2.4. The inner ow
To examine the ow near the edge of the structurefr a; z Tg (Fig. 2), one
can directly follow the approach used for the two-dimensional problem (D); this
will not be repeated here. It should be noted only that the introduction of local
stretched coordinates with the x
1
-axis normal to the cylinder surface transforms
the side surface locally into a tangential plane. The essential uid motion in the
inner ied is therefore a two-dimensional ow in the vertical plane, normal to the
cylinder, whereas the ow in the h-direction is taken into account by an unknown
additive constant. By analogy with the two-dimensional problem, the two expan-
sions of the velocity potential near the structure edge are:
ux
1
; zj
x
1
a!1
Uh f H; h x
1
a

2Uhh
p
1 log2 Ch; 47
ux
1
; zj
x
1
a!1

2Uhh
p
logjwj
2Uhh
p
log
2h
p
_ _
f H; hx
1
a Ch; 48
where
w

x
1
a
2
z H
2
_
: 49
Here Uh and Ch are the unknown normal uid velocity near the edge, and a
common constant, respectively, and f H; h is the normal velocity on the side sur-
face of the structure according to boundary condition (7).
3. Heave
Due to the symmetry of heave motions, the unknown uid ux through the
under-bottom gap must be constant over the periphery of the structure, so that
only the rst term in the series (41) should be retained:
qh q
0
q: 50
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 278
Expression (42) therefore gives the potential:
ur; h; z
aq
H
H
2
0
a
0
rcosha
0
z H
N
0
k
0
H
2
0
0
k
0

1
m1
K
0
a
m
rcosa
m
z H
N
m
k
m
K
0
0
k
m

_ _
: 51
For the purposes of matching the expansion of the potential (51) is required near
the structure edge. Note that the series in (51) is not converging when r ! a and
z ! H, and therefore needs special treatment; a similar situation occurred in the
two-dimensional problem. This should be anticipated as the potential must involve
the logarithmic singularity near the source point, and therefore the following
expansion can be suggested:
ur; h; zj r!a
z!H

2q
p
logjwj A Or
2
: 52
Here the distance w is dened by (49) and the constant A should be determined
as:
A lim
r!a
z!H
ux; y; z
2q
p
logjwj: 53
Substituting (51) into (53) and applying the limit r ! a one gets:
A
2q
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

H
2
0
k
0

H
2
0
0
k
0

2q lim
z!H

1
m1
cosa
m
z H
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
0
k
m

K
0
0
k
m


1
p
logjz Hj
_ _
: 54
The above formulae can be simplied if the logarithmic singularity is extracted
explicitly from the series in brackets. This can be conveniently done using the fol-
lowing identity (Abramowitz and Stegun, 1964):
log 2sin
pz H
2H
_ _

1
m1
1
m
cos
mpz H
H
_ _
: 55
Adding and subtracting (55) from (54) and applying the limit z ! H, one
obtains:
A 2q
1
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

H
2
0
k
0

H
2
0
0
k
0

1
p
log
p
H
_ _
F
0
_ _
; 56
279 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
where
F
0
F
0
mH; aa

1
m1
K
0
k
m

K
0
0
k
m

1
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m


1
mp
_ _
: 57
The constant F
0
, an analogue of the constant introduced in the two-dimensional
problem (see equation (27) of (D)), is presented in Fig. 3 as a function of the fre-
quency parameter ma. Unlike its two-dimensional compatriot, constant (57)
depends not only on the water depth, but also on the radius of the structure. Its
zero frequency (m ! 0; u
m
mp) and the innitely large frequency (m ! 1;
u
m
p2m 1=2) limits are given by the formulae:
F
0
0
1
p

1
m1
K
0
k
m

K
0
0
k
m

1
_ _
1
m
; k
m
mpaa; 58
F
0
1
1
p

1
m1
K
0
k
m

K
0
0
k
m

2
2m 1

1
m
_ _
; k
m
paa2m 1=2; 59
and are also presented in Table 1. It follows from the above expressions that for
wide structures, when aa a=H41 and therefore K
0
k
m
=K
0
0
k
m
% 1 for all fre-
quencies, the constant F
0
becomes equal to the constant in two dimensions.
Fig. 3. Constant F
0
.
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 280
Substituting (56) into equation (52), one obtains the following expansion of the
potential outside the structure:
ux; y; zj r!a
z!H

2q
p
logjwj
2q
1
p
log
p
H
_ _
F
0

1
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

H
2
0
k
0

H
2
0
0
k
0

_ _
: 60
For the under-bottom ow, boundary condition (8) gives gr; h 1. Due to the
ow symmetry, the potential must be independent of the angle h, so that:
ur; hj
C
ua; h u
0
; 61
where u
0
is an unknown constant. Equation (46) then becomes:
@
2
@r
2

1
r
@
@r
_ _
ur
1
h
: 62
Assuming that the radial uid velocity under the centre of the platform is con-
tinuous and zero, the solution can be sought in the following form:
ur Ar
2
B; 63
where A and B are constants. Upon substituting (63) into (62) and using (61) one
gets:
ur r
2
a
2
=4h u
0
: 64
Finally, the expansion of the potential near the edge of the structure can be writ-
ten as a Taylor series:
urj
r!a
u
0

a
2h
r a Or a
2
: 65
The outer potentials (51) and (64) involve certain unknowns, which can be
now determined by matching expansions of these potentials with appropriate
expansions of the inner solution. The expansion of the outer ow potential (60)
must match the expansion of the inner potential (48), whereas the under-bottom
potential (65) must match expansion (47) of the inner potential. Taking into
Table 1
Zero and innite frequency limits of the constant F
0
a=H Zero frequency Innite frequency
1.0 0.0579 0.2692
2.0 0.0227 0.3442
3.0 0.0157 0.3787
4.0 0.0000 0.3919
5.0 0.0000 0.4002
6.0 0.0000 0.4060
8.0 0.0000 0.4373
10.0 0.0000 0.4373
281 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
account that both the uid velocity and the additive constant must be independent
of the polar angle in the inner expansions (47), (48), i.e. Uh U; Ch C, the
matching conditions yield the following relations:
a 2hU; 66
C u
0

a
p
1 log2; 67
q hU a=2; 68
u
0
a F
0

1
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

H
2
0
k
0

H
2
0
0
k
0

1
p
1 log
4h
H
_ _ _ _
_ _
: 69
According to (66), (68) the uid volume displaced by the vertically moving struc-
ture, which creates the ux through the gap h, is equal to the footprint area. As all
the quantities involved in expressions (51) and (64) have been now determined, the
potential can be computed for both the outside and the under-bottom regions, and
all hydrodynamic coecients can be obtained.
Using expressions (64) and (69), one can nd the added mass and radiation
damping, dened by the known general formulae:
l
ij
qRe
_
S
u
i
@u
j
@n
ds
_ _
; k
ij
qrRe
_
S
u
i
@u
j
@n
ds
_ _
: 70
Here subscripts i and j denote modes of motion, and the integral is taken over the
immersed surface of the structure S. For the circular cylinder and heave motions
these formulae give:
l
33
qRe
_
2p
0
dh
_
a
0
urrdr qpa
2
a
2
8h
Reu
0

_ _
; 71
k
33
qrIm
_
2p
0
dh
_
a
0
urrdr qpra
2
Imu
0
: 72
Having substituted (69) into the above formulae, one can represent the added
mass and damping in the following closed form:
l
33
qpa
3
a
8h

1
p
1log
4h
H
_ _ _ _

J
0
k
0
J
1
k
0
N
0
k
0
N
1
k
0

u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0
J
2
1
k
0
N
2
1
k
0

F
0
_ _
;
73
k
33

qpa
3
r
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

2
pk
0
J
2
1
k
0
N
2
1
k
0

: 74
Here J
k
and N
k
are Bessel and Neumann functions, respectively, and the constant
F
0
is given by (57). The limiting values of the added mass corresponding to the
zero and the innitely large frequencies can be found directly from (73) using
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 282
known properties of cylindrical functions:
l
33
j
r!0
qpa
3
a
8h

1
p
1log
4h
H
_ _ _ _

a
2H
log
k
0
2
C
_ _
F
0
0
_ _
; 75
l
33
j
r!1
qpa
3
a
8h

1
p
1log
4h
H
_ _ _ _
F
0
1
_ _
; 76
where Clogc 0:577215. . . is the Euler constant. It can be seen that the heave
added mass involves the logarithmic singularity and tends to innity when the fre-
quency approaches zero. It should be noted that such behaviour of the heave
added mass and a similar asymptotic formula were established by Yeung (1981).
The latter however involves a dierent constant term because of a simplied
approach employed for matching the potentials, as recognized by Yeung.
The exciting force on the structure can be conveniently obtained by using the
HaskindNewman formula (Newman, 1977):
X
j
t ie
irt
qr
_
R
u
W
@u
i
@n
u
j
@u
W
@n
_ _
ds: 77
Equation (77) involves the potential of oncoming waves u
W
and the radiation
potential u
j
for a given mode of motion j. The integration is performed over a con-
trol surface (a cylinder of the innitely large radius) located in the far led, which
greatly simplies the task as only the far eld behavior of the radiation potential is
needed. This can be found from (51):
ur; h; zj
r!1

acosha
0
z H
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0
H
2
0
n
k
0

2
pa
0
r

e
ia
0
rp=4
O
1
r
_ _
: 78
The potential of oncoming waves propagating in the positive x-direction is given
by:
u
W
r; h; z i
gr
0
r
cosha
0
z H
coshu
0
e
ia
0
rcosh
; 79
with r
0
denoting the wave amplitude. Substituting (78) and (79) into (77), and
using the method of stationary phase to evaluate the integral, one obtains the fol-
lowing expression for the exciting force:
X
3
t
2iqgr
0
a
2
k
0
coshu
0
H
2
1
k
0

e
irt
X
1
3
iX
2
3
e
irt
; 80
X
1
3

2qgr
0
a
2
k
0
coshu
0
N
1
k
0

J
2
1
k
0
N
2
1
k
0

; 81
X
1
3

2qgr
0
a
2
k
0
coshu
0
J
1
k
0

J
2
1
k
0
N
2
1
k
0

: 82
283 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
This completes the solution of the heave radiation problem. To check the appli-
cability range and accuracy of the above formulae comparison was made with pub-
lished numerical results, among which a paper by Yeung (1981) presents extensive
information on the added mass and damping coecients of circular cylinders in
nite depth waters. Figs. 4 and 5 show the added mass, wave radiation damping
and the exciting force amplitude for cylinders with the radius to depth ratio a=H
1:0 and 5.0 in the following non-dimensional form:
ll
33

l
33
qpa
2
H
;

kk
33

k
33
qpa
2
Hr
;

XX
3

jX
3
j
qgpa
2
r
0
: 83
Fig. 4. Heave added mass, radiation damping and exciting force amplitude, a=H 1:0.
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 284
Calculations have been performed for water depth to draft ratios H=T 1:11,
1.33, 4.00, for which numerical results are available in Yeungs paper. It can be
seen that the heave added mass is strongly aected by water depth, increasing rap-
idly as the under-bottom clearance decreases with the tendency being similar to
that for the rectangular prole in two dimensions. For example, if a 100-m diam-
eter structure is towed in a 10-m deep area with the under-keel clearance of 1 m,
the heave added mass exceeds the physical mass of the structure by a factor of 35.
Correspondingly, the heave natural period is about six times greater than it may be
expected from the structural inertia only. Similar to the two-dimensional case,
beyond the low frequency range where the added mass increases sharply, it varies
slowly with the frequency, so that the formula for the innite frequency limit (76)
Fig. 5. Heave added mass, radiation damping and exciting force amplitude, a=H 5:0.
285 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
can be useful for estimation purposes. The radiation damping and the exciting
force are seen to be weakly aected by the seabed proximity. Both gures show
points that have been taken directly from curves provided by Yeung (1981) up to
the best of this authors skills and accuracy. It can be seen that the proposed for-
mulae are in very good agreement with exact results, in particular for the wide cyl-
inder (a=H 5:0) where the asymptotic formulae provide excellent accuracy even
for the water depth of H=T 4:0. Such a surprising result can probably be
explained by the dominating eect of the under-bottom ow, which only con-
tributes to the vertical hydrodynamic forces on the structure and which appears to
be captured well by the present theory.
4. Surge
Using general equation (10), let us represent the potential of the outside ow as
a sum of the two components: the potential (37) describing the ow past an oscil-
lating bottom-mounted cylinder and the potential (42) of the ow through the gap
between the structure bottom and the seabed. The latter can be simplied if the
source strength at the bottom is assumed in the following form, which is similar to
the boundary condition (7):
qh qcosh: 84
Retaining only the corresponding term in the general expression (42), one gets:
u
2
r; h; z
aq
H
H
2
1
a
0
rcosha
0
z H
N
0
k
0
H
2
0
1
k
0

1
m1
K
1
a
m
rcosa
m
z H
N
m
k
m
K
0
1
k
m

_ _
cosh:
85
The expansion of the total potential near the structure edge (r ! a, z ! H) can
be constructed in the same manner as it has been done for the heave potential.
Omitting detailed derivations, one can write the result as:
ur; h; zj r!a
z!H
u
1
a; h; H r acosh
2q
1
p
logjwj
1
p
log
p
H
_ _
F
1

1
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

H
2
1
k
0

H
2
0
1
k
0

_ _
cosh: 86
Here the rst two terms make the expansion for the potential (37) in the form of
its Taylor series, and terms in brackets make the expansion of (85). The new con-
stant F
1
has been introduced:
F
1
F
1
mH; aa

1
m1
K
1
k
m

K
0
1
k
m

1
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m


1
mp
_ _
; 87
which is of the same form as F
0
but involves modied Bessel functions with the
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 286
index 1 rather than 0. The constant F
1
is presented in Fig. 6 as a function of
the frequency parameter ma. The zero and innite frequency limits of (87) are
given by:
F
1
0
1
p

1
m1
K
1
k
m

K
0
1
k
m

1
_ _
1
m
; k
m
mpaa; 88
F
1
1
1
p

1
m1
K
1
k
m

K
0
1
k
m

2
2m 1

1
m
_ _
; k
m
paa2m 1=2; 89
and are also presented in Table 2. It can be seen that the two constants, F
1
and
F
0
, exhibit similar behaviour becoming increasingly close to each other for wide
structures, i.e. when aa a=H41.
For the under-bottom ow, boundary condition (8) gives gr; h 0, so that
Poisson equation (46) reduces to the Laplace equation, which has the following
Fig. 6. Constant F
1
.
Table 2
Zero and innite frequency limits of the constant F
1
a=H Zero frequency Innite frequency
1.0 0.0693 0.2197
2.0 0.0257 0.3250
3.0 0.0171 0.3690
4.0 0.0000 0.3859
5.0 0.0000 0.3962
6.0 0.0000 0.4031
8.0 0.0000 0.4373
10.0 0.0000 0.4373
287 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
general solution bounded everywhere within the footprint area:
ur; h

1
n0
r
n
A
n
cosnh B
n
sinnh: 90
Here A
n
and B
n
are unknown constants. Given boundary condition (7) for surge
motions, let us assume that all the constants are zero except of A
1
, so that the
potential (90) and its expansion near the edge of the structure are given by:
ur; h A rcosh; 91
ur; hj
r!a
Aacosh Ar acosh Or a
2
: 92
All the required expressions have been now prepared, and one can carry out the
matching of expansions of the outer and inner solutions. Expression (86) must
match the expansion of the inner potential (48), whereas the expansion of the
under-bottom potential (92) must match expansion (47) of the inner potential.
Assuming that Uh Ucosh and Ch Ccosh, these conditions yield the follow-
ing equations:
U 1 A; 93

2Uh
p
1 log2 C Aa; 94
Uh q; 95
C 2q
1
p
log
2h
H
_ _
F
1

1
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

H
2
1
k
0

H
2
0
1
k
0

_ _

u
1
a; h; H
cosh
: 96
After some algebra, the ux strength q can be found in the form:
qq
q
a

S
1
1=2 iS
2
D
1
iD
2
; 97
qq
1
Reqq
S
1
1=2D
1
S
2
D
2
D
12
D
22
; 98
qq
2
Imqq
S
2
D
1
S
1
1=2D
2
D
12
D
22
; 99
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 288
where the following notations have been used:
S
1

sinhu
0
A
1
k
0

u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

1
m1
sinu
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

k
m
K
0
1
k
m

; 100
S
2

sinhu
0
A
2
k
0

u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0
; 101
D
1

a
2h

1
p
1 log
4h
H
_ _ _ _
F
1

k
0
A
1
k
0

u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0
; 102
D
2

k
0
A
2
k
0

u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0
; 103
and the following combinations of Bessel functions have been introduced:
A
1
x
1
x
Re
H
2
1
x
H
2
0
1
x
_ _

J
1
xJ
1
x xJ
0
x N
1
xN
1
x xN
0
x
J
1
x xJ
0
x
2
N
1
x xN
0
x
2
; 104
A
2
x
1
x
Im
H
2
1
x
H
2
0
1
x
_ _

2
p
_ _
1
J
1
x xJ
0
x
2
N
1
x xN
0
x
2
: 105
The above expressions for the ux strength qq provide complete solution for the
radiation surge potential, which is given by formulae (11), (37), (85) and (91). The
added mass and damping coecients can be now computed using general formulae
(70). Similar to the two-dimensional problem (D), it is convenient to replace the in-
tegration over the immersed structure surface S by integration over the equivalent
surface S

(Fig. 7). The latter consists of the cylindrical side surface extended down
to the seabed, the horizontal bottom of the structure and a short connecting cylin-
Fig. 7. Integration surface for evaluating added mass and radiation damping.
289 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
der across the under-bottom gap. Hence, the integral in (70) can be rewritten as:
I
ij

_
S

u
i
@u
j
@n
ds a
_
H
0
dz
_
2p
0
u
i
a; h; zf
j
z; hdh
_
a
0
rdr
_
2p
0
u
i
r; h; Hg
j
r; hdh
ah
_
2p
0
u
i
a; h; Hf
j
H; hdh; 106
where the functions f
j
, g
j
are dened by boundary conditions (7), (8) and the three
terms correspond to the three surface components identied above. As the gap
height h is small compared with dimensions of the structure the last integral has
been simplied, consistent with the present rst-order theory. It should be noted
that the rst integral involves the outer potential given by the sum of (37) and (85),
whereas the other two integrals are taken of the potential (91). Upon integrating
and taking the real and imaginary parts according to (70), one obtains the follow-
ing formulae for the added mass and damping coecients:
ll
11

l
11
qpa
2
H
2
sinhu
0
A
1
k
0

u
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

sinhu
0
k
0
qq
1
k
0
qq
2
A
2
k
0

A
1
k
0

_ _ _

1
m1
sinu
m
sinu
m
k
m
qq
1

u
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

K
1
k
m
k
m
K
0
k
m


a
2H
qq
1

h
2H
_
; 107

kk
11

k
11
qpa
2
Hr
2
sinhu
0
A
2
k
0

u
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

sinhu
0
k
0
qq
1
k
0
qq
2
A
1
k
0

A
2
k
0

_ _ _

1
m1
sinu
m
k
m
qq
2
u
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

K
1
k
m
k
m
K
0
k
m


a
2H
qq
2
_
: 108
The surge added mass and damping for the bottom-mounted cylinder that oscil-
lates sliding against the seabed can be obtained from the above expressions by let-
ting qq 0, h 0. The limiting value of the surge added mass (107) corresponding
to the zero frequency is:
ll
0
11

l
0
11
qpa
2
H

2u
0
u
0
a
0
aqq
1

u
0
u
0
u
0


a
H
qq
1

h
H
1
h
H

2a
H
qq
1
: 109
Having noted that for small frequencies the ux strength (98), (99) reduces to:
qq
1
! 1=D
1
; qq
2
! 0; 110
the low frequency limit of the surge added mass can be represented as:
ll
0
11

l
0
11
qpa
2
H
1 e 1
4
be
_ _
Oe
2
; 111
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 290
where
be 1 e 1
2F
1
0
aa

2
paa
_ _

2e
paa
log4e; 112
e h=H; aa a=H
The constant F
1
0 is dened by equation (87) and is also given in Table 2. The
above expression gives the added mass coecient of a circular cylinder moving in
close proximity to the seabed; it is also applicable to a vertical cylinder of the
height 2(Hh) moving in the channel between the two walls spaced at the distance
2H.
Using expression (106) and the pitch boundary conditions on the structure (7),
(8) f
5
z; h zcosh, g
5
r; h rcosh one can obtain the following formulae for the
surgepitch coupling inertia l
15
and the damping term k
15
:
ll
15

l
15
qpa
2
H
2
2
coshu
0
1A
1
k
0

u
2
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

sinhu
0
k
0
qq
1
k
0
qq
2
A
2
k
0

A
1
k
0

_ _ _

1
m1
1 cosu
m
sinu
m
k
m
qq
1

u
2
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

K
1
k
m
k
m
K
0
k
m

1
2
a
h
qq
1
1
_ _
a
2
4H
2

h
H
_ __
; 113

kk
15

k
15
qpa
2
H
2
r
2
coshu
0
1A
2
k
0

u
2
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

sinhu
0
k
0
qq
1
k
0
qq
2
A
1
k
0

A
2
k
0

_ _ _

1
m1
1 cosu
m
k
m
qq
2
u
2
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

K
1
k
m
k
m
K
0
k
m


a
2H
qq
2
1
a
2
4Hh
_ _
_
;
114
Finally, to obtain the surge exciting force from the HaskindNewman formula
(77), one should use the far eld behaviour of the radiation potential:
ur; h; zj
r!1

sinhu
0
k
0
qq
_ _
2acosh cosha
0
z H
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0
H
2
0
n
k
0

2
pa
0
r

e
ia
0
r3p=4
; 115
where the two terms in brackets correspond to the potentials (37) and (85),
respectively. Substituting (115) and (79) into (77), and using the method of
291 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
stationary phase to evaluate the integral, one obtains the surge exciting force on
the cylinder:
X
1
t X
0
1
t 1
qqk
0
sinhu
0
_ _
X
1
1
iX
2
1
e
irt
; 116
where
X
0
1
t
4qgr
0
a
3
m
k
3
0
H
2
0
1
k
0

e
irt
: 117
Expression (117) gives the horizontal force on the bottom-mounted cylinder,
usually referred to as the MacCamy and Fuchs solution, whereas (116) can be con-
sidered as a correction for the small under-bottom clearance. The real and imagin-
ary parts of the exciting force (116) are:
X
1
1
RejX
1
j X
01
1
1
k
0
qq
1
sinhu
0
_ _
X
02
1
k
0
qq
2
sinhu
0
; 118
X
2
1
ImjX
1
j X
01
1
k
0
qq
2
sinhu
0
X
02
1
1
k
0
qq
1
sinhu
0
_ _
; 119
where the components of the force (117):
X
01
1
RejX
0
1
j

4qgr
0
ma
a
2
0
k
0
J
0
k
0
J
1
k
0

J
1
k
0
k
0
J
0
k
0

2
N
1
k
0
k
0
N
0
k
0

2
; 120
X
02
1
ImjX
0
1
j

4qgr
0
ma
a
2
0
k
0
N
0
k
0
N
1
k
0

J
1
k
0
k
0
J
0
k
0

2
N
1
k
0
k
0
N
0
k
0

2
: 121
The solution for the surge hydrodynamic coecients is now completed. Figs. 8
and 9 show the surge added mass and damping coecients (107), (108) and the
non-dimensional amplitude of the exciting force (116):

XX
1

jX
1
j
2qgaHr
0
: 122
Cylinders of the relative radius a=H 1:0, 5.0 have been considered, for water
depth to draft ratios H=T 1:001, 1.25, 2.00. It can be seen that all hydrodynamic
coecients are aected by water depth, with the added mass coecient approach-
ing the expected value of 1.00 as both the under-bottom clearance and the fre-
quency tend to zero. The agreement between the asymptotic formulae and results
by Yeung (1981) is generally good, except of the radius a=H 1:0 at the water
depth H=T 2:00 when expression (107) under-predicts the added mass giving
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 292
even negative values. Such a result is not surprising because of the large depth,
which is certainly beyond the expected range of small under-bottom clearance.
Interestingly, for wider structures, when a=H 5:0, the above discrepancy is not
evident and the agreement between the asymptotic and exact solutions is good for
all water depths considered. Figs. 10 and 11 show the surgepitch coupling inertia
and damping coecients in the non-dimensional form (113), (114). It should be
noted that due to dierent coordinate systems used, the above coecients are of
the opposite sign compared to those dened by Yeung (1981). For the relative
radius a=H 1:0 only the water depth H=T 1:50 has been considered for com-
parison (Fig. 10), where the agreement with Yenugs results is extremely poor. It is
Fig. 8. Surge added mass, radiation damping and exciting force amplitude, a=H 1:0.
293 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
believed that for lesser depths the asymptotic formulae provide increasingly better
accuracy, but unfortunately this is the minimum depth considered by Yeung (1981)
for the pitchsurge coupling coecients. Very small absolute values of the coe-
cients may also account for the discrepancies. One can see from Fig. 11 that for the
radius a=H 5:0 the agreement is excellent for all depths considered, up to the
depth to draft ratio H=T 4:00. The comparison shows that the asymptotic for-
mulae provide better accuracy for relatively wide structures a=H41, when the
under-bottom clearance is small compared with the structure radius, even though it
may be of the same order of magnitude as the draft. For relatively narrow struc-
tures (a=H O1) there is no such advantage, and it is essential for the clearance
to be small compared to both the structure radius and the draft.
Fig. 9. Surge added mass, radiation damping and exciting force amplitude, a=H 5:0.
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 294
Fig. 10. Surgepitch coupling added mass and damping coecients, a=H 1:0.
Fig. 11. Surgepitch coupling added mass and damping coecients, a=H 5:0.
295 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
5. Pitch
The pitch radiation potential can be now found following the same procedure.
The potential of the outside ow can be sought as a sum of the two components
(38) and (42), with the latter based on the strength of the under-bottom ow:
qh qcosh: 123
It follows therefore that the general expression (85) for the potential u
2
used in
the surge radiation problem remains fully applicable. The expansion of the total
potential near the structure edge (r ! a; z ! H) is of the similar form:
ur; h; zj r!a
z!H
u
1
a; h; H Hr acosh
2q
1
p
logjwj
1
p
log
p
H
_ _
F
1

1
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

H
2
1
k
0

H
2
0
1
k
0

_ _
cosh:
124
Here the rst two terms make the expansion for the potential (38) in the form of
its Taylor series, terms in brackets make the expansion of the potential (85), and
the constant F
1
is given by (87).
For the under-bottom ow, boundary condition (8) is g
5
r; h rcosh, and the
solution of Poissons equation (46) can be sought in the form:
ur; h Ar
3
Brcosh: 125
Here A and B are constants. Upon substituting (125) in (46), the potential can be
written as:
ur; h u
0
r
a

a
2
r
8h
1
r
2
a
2
_ _ _ _
cosh; 126
where u
0
is a constant, which gives the potential over the periphery of the cylinder:
ua; h u
0
cosh: 127
The expansion of (126) near the edge of the structure is:
ur; hj
r!a
u
0
cosh
u
0
a

a
2
4h
_ _
r acosh Or a
2
: 128
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 296
Matching expression (124) with the expansion of the inner potential (48), and
the expansion of the under-bottom potential (128) with expansion (47) of the inner
potential, one gets the following four equations:
U H
u
0
a

a
2
4h
; 129

2Uh
p
1 log2 C u
0
; 130
Uh q; 131
C 2q
1
p
log
2h
H
_ _
F
1

1
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

H
2
1
k
0

H
2
0
1
k
0

_ _

u
1
a; h; H
cosh
: 132
After some algebra, the unknown ux strength q can be found in the form:
qq
q
aH

1
D
1
iD
2
S
1

1
2

a
2
8hH
_ _
iS
2
_ _
; 133
qq
1
Reqq
1
D
12
D
22
S
1

1
2

a
2
8hH
_ _
D
1
S
2
D
2
_ _
; 134
qq
2
Imqq
1
D
12
D
22
S
2
D
1
S
1

1
2

a
2
8hH
_ _
D
2
_ _
; 135
where the newly introduced notations are:
S
1

coshu
0
1 A
1
k
0

u
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

1
m1
1 cosu
m

u
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

k
m
K
0
1
k
m

; 136
S
2

coshu
0
1 A
2
k
0

u
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

: 137
Constants D
1
and D
2
have been already dened by formulae (102), (103) and
the combinations of Bessel functions A
1
and A
2
are given by (104), (105). The
pitch added mass and damping coecients can be now computed using expressions
for the potential (11), (38), (123), (126) and formulae (70) and (106). Upon inte-
grating and taking the real and imaginary parts according to (70), one obtains the
297 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
following formulae:
ll
55

l
55
qpa
2
H
3
2
coshu
0
1A
1
k
0

u
2
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

coshu
0
1
coshu
0
k
0
qq
1
k
0
qq
2
A
2
k
0

A
1
k
0

_ _ _

1
m1
1 cosu
m
1 cosu
m
=u
m
k
m
qq
1

u
2
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

K
1
k
m
k
m
K
0
k
m

1
2
qq
1
a
H

a
2
2H
2

h
H
_ _

a
2
8H
2
7
24
a
h
a
H
qq
1
a
h
_ __
; 138

kk
55

k
55
qpa
2
H
3
r
2
coshu
0
1A
2
k
0

u
2
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

coshu
0
1
u
0
k
0
qq
1
k
0
qq
2
A
1
k
0

A
2
k
0

_ _

1
m1
1 cosu
m
k
m
qq
2
u
2
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

K
1
k
m
k
m
K
0
k
m


a
2H
qq
2
1
a
2
4hH
_ _
_
:
139
Using expression (106) and the surge boundary conditions on the structure one
can obtain formulae for the pitchsurge coupling inertia l
51
and the damping term
k
51
:
ll
51

l
51
qpa
2
H
2
2
sinhu
0
A
1
k
0

u
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

coshu
0
1
u
0
k
0
qq
1
k
0
qq
2
A
2
k
0

A
1
k
0

_ _

1
m1
sinu
m
1 cosu
m
=u
m
k
m
qq
1

u
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

K
1
k
m
k
m
K
0
k
m

1
2
a
H
qq
1

a
2
4H
2

h
H
_ __
; 140

kk
51

k
51
qpa
2
H
2
r
2
sinhu
0
A
2
k
0

u
0
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0

coshu
0
1
u
0
k
0
qq
1
k
0
qq
2
A
1
k
0

A
2
k
0

_ _

1
m1
sinu
m
k
m
qq
2
u
m
u
m
sinu
m
cosu
m

K
1
k
m

K
1
k
m
k
m
K
0
k
m


a
2H
qq
2
_
: 141
According to the reciprocity relations, the above coecients must be identical to
the surgepitch coupling terms dened by equations (113), (114). Numerical checks
conrmed that the two sets of formulae give exactly the same results.
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 298
To obtain the pitch exciting force (moment) using the HaskindNewman for-
mula (77), one should use the far eld behaviour of the radiation potential:
ur; h; zj
r!1

coshu
0
1
u
2
0

aqq
H
_ _

2H
2
cosh cosha
0
z H
u
0
sinhu
0
coshu
0
H
2
0
n
k
0

2
pa
0
r

e
ia
0
r3p=4
; 142
where the two terms in brackets correspond to the potentials (38) and (85), respect-
ively. Substituting (142) and (79) into (77), and using the method of stationary
phase to evaluate the integral, one obtains the following expression for the pitch
exciting moment:
X
5
t X
0
5
t 1
qqk
0
u
0
coshu
0
1
_ _
X
1
5
iX
2
5
e
irt
; 143
where
X
0
5
t
4qgr
0
a
2
H
k
2
0
H
2
0
1
k
0

coshu
0
1
u
0
coshu
0
_ _
e
irt
: 144
Expression (144) gives the pitch moment about the y-axis in the water plane act-
ing on the bottom-mounted cylinder, i.e. the moment due to the potential (38)
only, which is further adjusted by (143) to give the moment on the truncated cylin-
der. The real and imaginary parts of the exciting force are:
X
1
5
RejX
5
j X
01
5
1
k
0
u
0
qq
1
coshu
0
1
_ _
X
02
5
k
0
u
0
qq
2
coshu
0
1
; 145
X
2
5
ImjX
5
j X
01
5
k
0
u
0
qq
2
coshu
0
1
X
02
5
1
k
0
u
0
qq
1
coshu
0
1
_ _
; 146
where
X
01
5
RejX
0
5
j

4qgr
0
a
2
Hcoshu
0
1
k
0
u
0
coshu
0
k
0
J
0
k
0
J
1
k
0

J
1
k
0
k
0
J
0
k
0

2
N
1
k
0
k
0
N
0
k
0

2
;
147
X
02
5
ImjX
0
5
j

4qgr
0
a
2
Hcoshu
0
1
k
0
u
0
coshu
0
k
0
N
0
k
0
N
1
k
0

J
1
k
0
k
0
J
0
k
0

2
N
1
k
0
k
0
N
0
k
0

2
:
148
299 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
All pitch hydrodynamic coecients have been now obtained. Before considering
numerical results, let us examine the exciting moment (143) in more detail. Similar
to the two-dimensional case, one can now estimate the frequency of the cancel-
lation eect, at which the wave exciting moment becomes zero due to the opposite
contributions of the uid pressure on the structure side surface and the bottom.
First, let us assume that the under-bottom clearance h is so small that the terms of
the order Oe can be also ignored and the components of the source strength
(134), (135) can be rewritten as:
qq
1

aa
4
1
1 2e=paalog4e
Oe; qq
2
0 Oe: 149
Substituting (149) into (143) one gets:
X
5
% X
1
5
X
01
5
1
aa
4
k
0
u
0
coshu
0
1
1
1 2e=paalog4e
_ _
: 150
Therefore, the frequency at which the exciting moment vanishes can be approxi-
mately determined from the following equation:
coshu
0
1
u
2
0

1
4
a
H
_ _
2
1
1 2e=paalog4e
: 151
Alternatively, for a given frequency parameter u
0
the above equation denes the
structure radius aa a=H at which the exciting moment becomes zero. Equation
(151) is very similar to the corresponding equation in the two-dimensional case.
When H=T ! 1 the limiting solution of (151) is given by:
a=H 2

chu
0
1
_
=u
0
; 152
and the low frequency limit of (152) is:
a=H 2

1=2
_

2
p
1:41421 . . . 153
Hence a circular cylinder with the diameter to draft ratio 2a=T 2

2
p
2:8284
attracts the minimum pitch moment when subjected to long waves in extremely
shallow water. Note that in the two-dimensional case the corresponding beam to
draft ratio was found to be 2.4495. It can be also shown that for a given wave fre-
quency the phase of the exciting moment changes such that if aa > aa
0
(where aa
0

a=H
0
is the solution of equation (151)) the exciting moment acts in phase with
the wave slope at the origin, whereas for aa < aa
0
the moment and the wave slope
are in anti-phase (Fig. 12).
Figs. 13 and 14 show the added mass and damping coecients (138), (139) and
the non-dimensional exciting force amplitude:

XX
5

jX
5
j
qgpa
2
Hr
0
: 154
For the relative radius a=H 1:0 the water depth H=T 1:50 has been con-
sidered for comparison (Fig. 13), at which only the qualitative agreement with
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 300
exact results can be seen due to the large water depth. For the same reason the fre-
quency at which the amplitude of the exciting moment reaches zero is higher than
could be expected from equation (151). For the radius a=H 5:0 however the
agreement is very good and the asymptotic formulae are seen to be fully applicable
up to the depth to draft ratio H=T 4:00.
6. Concluding remarks
The asymptotic formulae for the hydrodynamic coecients presented in this
paper are closed and straightforward; calculations can be performed using spread-
sheets or common programming packages capable of computing cylindrical func-
tions. Some formulae, in particular for the low and high frequency limits of the
added mass, are suitable for hand calculations. Series involved in the formulae con-
verge rapidly; all results presented above have been obtained with 40 terms
retained in each series.
The applicability range and the accuracy provided by the asymptotic formulae
depends on the radius to draft ratio a=T and the relative under-bottom clearance
e h=H. The wider the structure is the greater the range of water depths is where
the formulae can be applied with a negligibly small error. It can be concluded from
the comparison that for the relative radius a=H 5:0 the proposed formulae
for surge hydrodynamic coecients give accurate results for the depth to draft
ratio H=T 2:0 (relative clearance e 0:50), whereas for heave and pitch motions
they can be applied even for deeper waters, which are beyond the expected range
of small under-bottom clearance. For narrower structures (a=H 1:0) the range
of applicable depths reduces and it is important for the under-bottom clearance to
be smaller than the cylinder draft.
Finally, it should be noted that knowing the radiation potential in the analytical
form not only enables us to calculate the hydrodynamic coecients (the benet
Fig. 12. Phase of the pitch exciting moment.
301 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
exploited in this study), but brings some other advantages. For example, the rst-
order potential can be used in further analytical calculation of the second-order
forces on the oating body, which may also provide useful benchmarking exam-
ples. Another essential aspect is that the methodology used in this study can be
readily extended to vertical sided bodies of an arbitrary plan-form. Although
purely analytical solutions will not be possible in this case, the hydrodynamic prob-
lem can be conveniently reduced to one linear integral equation with a weakly
singular kernel formulated over the waterplane contour, thus oering computa-
Fig. 13. Pitch added mass, radiation damping and exciting force amplitude, a=H 1:0.
Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304 302
tional advantages over the complete panel formulation in three dimensions. These
developments are beyond the scope of this paper.
Acknowledgements
A part of this work was performed within a project undertaken by the Center
for Oil and Gas Engineering, the University of Western Australia under sponsor-
ship of the Mineral and Energy Research Institute of Western Australia (MER-
IWA). Financial support and cooperation provided by sponsorsWoodside
Energy, Concrete Oshore Structures Industry, Over Arup & Partner are gratefully
acknowledged.
Fig. 14. Pitch added mass, radiation damping and exciting force amplitude, a=H 5:0.
303 Y. Drobyshevski / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 269304
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