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Note Set #2

What are Continuous-Time Signals??? Reading Assignment: Section 1.1 of Kamen and Heck

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The arrows here show conceptual flow between ideas. Note the parallel structure between the pink blocks (C-T Freq. Analysis) and the blue blocks (D-T Freq. Analysis). New Signal Models

Ch. 1 Intro

C-T Signal Model Functions on Real Line System Properties LTI Causal Etc D-T Signal Model Functions on Integers

Fourier Series Periodic Signals Fourier Transform (CTFT) Non-Periodic Signals

Frequency Response Based on Fourier Transform

Transfer Function

C-T System Model Differential Equations D-T Signal Model Difference Equations Zero-State Response Zero-Input Response Characteristic Eq.

Ch. 2 Convolution

C-T System Model Convolution Integral D-T System Model Convolution Sum

DTFT (for Hand Analysis) DFT & FFT (for Computer Analysis)

Freq. Response for DT Based on DTFT

Transfer Function

Our first math model for a signal will be a function of time Continuous Time (C-T) Signal:

A C-T signal is defined on the continuum of time values. That is:

f(t) for t

f(t)

Real line

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These are common textbook signals but are also common test signals, especially in control systems.

1, t 0 u (t ) = 0, t < 0

u(t) 1

...

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The unit step signal can model the act of switching on a DC source R

t=0

Vs

R +

Vsu(t)

R +

Vsu(t)

C

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t , t 0 r (t ) = 0, t < 0

Unit slope

r(t) 1 1

...

mt , t 0 mr (t ) = 0, t < 0

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What is

u ( ) d

?

Depends on t value function of t: f(t)

f (t ) = u ( )d What is f(t)?

-Write unit step as a function of -Integrate up to = t u() 1

=t

f (t ) = u ( )d = 1 t = t = r (t )

r (t ) = u ( )d

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we have:

dr (t ) 1, t > 0 = dt 0, t < 0

Not defined at t = 0!

r(t) 1 1 u(t)

...

...

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Time shifting is an operation on a signal that shows up in many areas of signals and systems: Time delays due to propagation of signals

acoustic signals propagate at the speed of sound radio signals propagate at the speed of light

Well see this later

Time Shift: If you know x(t), what does x(t t0) look like? For example If t0 = 2:

x(0

2) = x(2)

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u(t) 1 -2 -1 u(t-2) 1 -2 -1 u(t+0.5) 1 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

...

t

...

t

t

x(t t0) for t0 > 0 +t0 gives Left shift (Advance) t0 gives Right shift (Delay)

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One of the most important functions for understanding systems!! Ironicallyit does not exist in practice!! It is a theoretical tool used to understand what is important to know about systems! But it leads to ideas that are used all the time in practice!! There are three views well take of the delta function:

Infinite height a pulse with: Zero width Unit area

Rough View:

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1

(t ) = lim

0

p (t )

Here we define

p (t )

p (t ) as:

Beware of Fig 1.4 in the book it does not show the real (t) So its vertical axis should NOT be labeled with (t)

Pulse having height of 1/ and width of which therefore has area of 1 (1 = 1/) So as gets smaller the pulse gets higher and narrower but always has area of 1 In the limit it becomes the delta function

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Precise Idea: (t) is not an ordinary function It is defined in terms of its behavior inside an integral: The delta function (t) is defined as something that satisfies the following two conditions: (t ) = 0, for any t 0

(t )dt = 1,

We show (t) on a plot using an arrow (conveys infinite height and zero width)

(t)

Caution this is NOT the vertical axis it is the delta function!!! 0 t

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t0 +

t0

f (t ) (t t )dt = f (t )

0 0

> 0

f(t) f(t0) t0

f(t0) t

(t- t0)

t0

Integrating the product of f(t) and (t to) returns a single number the value of f(t) at the location of the shifted delta function

As long as the integrals limits surround the location of the delta otherwise it returns zero

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t0 +

t0

f (t ) (t t )dt = f (t )

0 0

Example #1:

sin(t ) (t 1)dt = ?

sin(t )

1

Step 1: Find variable of integration Step 2: Find the argument of () Step 3: Find the value of the variable of integration that causes the argument of () to go to zero. Step 4: If value in Step 3 lies inside limits of integration Take everything that is multiplying () and evaluate it at the value found in step 3; Otherwise return zero Step 1: t Step 2: t 1 Step 3: t 1 = 0 t = 1 Step 4: t = 1 lies in [4,7] so evaluate sin(1) = sin() = 0

(t 1)

sin(t ) (t 1)dt = 0

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Example #2:

sin(t ) (t 2.5)dt = ?

0

Step 1: Find variable of integration: t Step 2: Find the argument of (): t 2.5 Step 3: Find the value of the variable of integration that causes the argument of () to go to zero: t 2.5 = 0 t = 2.5 Step 4: If value in Step 3 lies inside limits of integration No! Otherwise return zero

sin(t )

1 2

(t 2.5)

sin(t ) (t 2.5)dt = 0

0

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Example #3:

Because of this handle slightly differently!

21

d = 3dt

Step 1: Find variable of integration: Step 2: Find the argument of (): + 4 Step 3: Find the value of the variable of integration that causes the argument of () to go to zero: = 4 Step 4: If value in Step 3 lies inside limits of integration Yes! Take everything that is multiplying (): (1/3)sin(/3)(/3 3)2 and evaluate it at the value found in step 3: (1/3)sin(4/3)(4/3 3)2 = 6.26sin(4/3)

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( )d = u(t )

integral = 0 for t < 0

For t < 0:

the integrand = 0

()

=t<0 0 Range of Integration Defines the unit step function

For t > 0:

()

0 Range of Integration

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=t>0

Derivative = 0

(t ) =

d u (t ) dt

u(t) Derivative = 0 1

...

t Derivative = (Engineer Thinking)

Our view of the delta function having infinite height but zero width matches this interpretation of the values of the derivative of the unit step function!!

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Periodic Signals

Periodic signals are important because many human-made signals are periodic. Most test signals used in testing circuits are periodic signals (e.g., sine waves, square waves, etc.) A Continuous-Time signal x(t) is periodic with period T if: x(t + T) = x(t) T t

...

x(t)

...

x(t + T)

x(t)

When we say Period we almost always mean Fundamental Period

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1 -/2 p(t) Subscript specifies the pulse width /2 t

We can build a Rectangular Pulse from Unit Step Functions: p(t) = u(t + /2) u(t /2)

1 -/2 u(t + /2)

This is helpful because we will have lots of results that apply to the step function

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-/2 00=0

Building Signals with Pulses: shifted pulses are used to turn other

functions on and off. This allows us to mathematically describe complicated functions in terms of simpler functions.

Continues up forever

2 1

Continues down forever

g(t) = 0.5t + 1

This

t

1 2 1 p2(t - 1)

Delay by 1

Times This

Width of 2

2

Multiplying By Zero Turns Off g(t) Multiplying By One Turns On g(t)

Gives This

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