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The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
Ahmad Faisal Mahdi, 2Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin, Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor, 4Ahamad Asmadi Sakat and 1Abang Sulaiman Abang Naim 1 Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Technology Mara, 94300 Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia 2 Centre for Islamic Thought and Understanding, University Technology Mara, 94300 Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia 3 Department of Islamic History and Civilization, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 4 Department of Al Quran and Al Sunnah Studies, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract: Problem statement: The objective of this study were to determine the effect of job satisfaction on turnover intentions among the employees in XYZ Sdn. Bhd, Malaysia. Approach: A total of 32 set of complete questionnaires gathered from executives and non-executives of a local printing company were involved in the study and 32 completed the questionnaires. Using structured questionnaires in a controlled environment, the results manage to extract both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction that influences the turnover intention. Results: The statistical results obtained in this study showed that both forms of job satisfaction (intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction) have inverse relationship on employees’ turnover intentions. Conclusion: Eventhough Instrinsic Job Satisfaction have stronger influence on Turnover Intention. Existence of Extrinstic Job Satisfaction also must be consider in measuring the intention. Key words: Intrinsic, Extrinsic, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention INTRODUCTION In an organization, what makes an employee leave or intend to leave are always become the big question for any company. Several studies have examined job satisfaction as an antecedent of turnover intentions (for instance, Mobley et al., 1979; Price and Mueller, 1981; Shore and Martin, 1989; Hellman, 1997; Ghiselli et al., 2001; McBey and Karakowsky, 2001). These studies, however, were conducted in the United States and Canada. The industries investigated were wide ranging covering hospitals, military and food-service companies. Although job satisfaction has been found to be a rather consistent predictor of turnover intentions, the strength of the satisfaction-intention to leave relationship varies according to each setting. In addition, little work has been undertaken using professional subjects within the South East Asian context (for example, Aryee and Wyatt, 1991; Chan and Morrison, 2000). The objective of this study is to examine the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction on turnover intentions of employees. Job satisfaction may be defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences (Dunnette and Locke, 1976). This positive feeling results from the perception of one’s job as fulfilling or allowing the fulfillment of one’s important job values, provided these values are compatible with one’s needs (Dunnette and Locke, 1976). Given that values refer to what one desires or seeks to attain (Locke, 1969), job satisfaction can be considered as reflecting a person’s value judgment regarding workrelated rewards. Locke and Henne (1986) define job satisfaction as the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the achievement of one’s job values in the work situation. Work rewards reflect the intrinsic and extrinsic benefits that workers receive from their jobs (Kalleberg,
Corresponding Author: Ahmad Faisal Mahdi, Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Technology Mara, 94300 Samarahan, Sarawak. Malaysia
1977. Social support has been shown to play an important Intention to turnover refers to an individual’s role in mitigating intention to quit. For example. Supported by growth. 2012 willfulness to leave the organization. promotions. findings that regard to its value as a predictor of the autonomy. task performance and maintaining membership (Katz and Second. there are no consistent refers to job tasks and job content such as variety. 1995. some may place little correlations between intent to leave and actual value on either and others may emphasize one type and turnover whilst the job satisfaction-intention to leave deemphasize the other. 9 (9): 1518-1526. study of salespeople. although not all perceived probability of staying or leaving an findings have been in agreement. 1982. on the other hand. that many studies use intent to leave rather than actual Task rewards refer to those intrinsic rewards directly turnover as the outcome variable due to two main associated with doing the job (Katz and Maanan. according to researchers such as and Beck. not know what determines such intentions. 1996) have attempted to answer the most immediate determinants of actual behavior. 1977). found to differentiate effectively between the leavers which is partly due to the diversity of constructs and worker that stays. Moore employing organization (Cotton and Tuttle. Numerous researchers (Bluedorn. First. referred to through reduced levels of burnout. fringe benefits. However. actual comfortable working conditions. there is evidence to indicate that workers Mottaz. of job satisfaction could be split according to Although a worker’s “intention to leave” is Herzberg’s two dimensions. Mueller. They represent tangible their intention to quit in a cross-sectional study than rewards that are visible to others and include such factors actually tracking them down via a longitudinal like pay. 1975). 1986). And at the same time. Caldwell. Kalliath Intentions are.. 1980). Organizational rewards. an that individual’s value economic (extrinsic) as well as unfavorable economy may reduce a person’s intrinsic job reward. factors such as pays. Barak et al. actually leaving their jobs.Am. Two important groups of work rewards that have (2001) in their review of antecedents to turnover argued been identified include task and organizational rewards. self-direction and responsibility. while it is included by the researchers and the lack of consistency reasonable to argue that intentions are an accurate in their measurements but also relates to the indicator of subsequent behavior. every working may be other factors such as employment person has a certain order of priorities with regard to alternatives that affect a person’s turnover behavior. the individual’s perspective to understand the factors should lead to positive feelings of well-being. J. co-workers and work conditions. Buitendach and Witte Parasuraman (1982) in his studies found a positive (2005) state that extrinsic motivation refers to other significant of relationship. Ajzen. all of which is 2002). both forms of relationship tend to be stronger when greater rewards contribute to job satisfaction (O’Reilly and economic choice existed. Applied Sci. reduced nurses’ turnover intentions as a conscious and deliberate 1519 . They include such factors as interesting typically make a conscious decision to do so before and challenging work.. 1988). however. In addition. as there According to Loscocco (1989). 1981. Some workers may strongly flexibility to move elsewhere leading to lower emphasize both types of rewards. skill utilization. This relationship is variety and opportunities to use one’s skills and supported by the attitude-behavior theory (Fishbein and abilities. it is more practical to ask employees of Maanan. interesting to people’s intention to quit their jobs (Moore. The intrinsic satisfaction considered a sign of quitting. self-fulfillment and selfactual turnover to the workers. Meanwhile. which holds that one’s intention to refer to the extrinsic rewards provided by the perform a specific behavior is the immediate organization for the purpose of facilitating or motivating determinant of that behavior. it is important both manager’s and judged as a way to achieve work and non-work goals. 1977. 2001. and Meyer (1993). work and fair and friendly supervision. researchers still do heterogeneity of populations sampled. greater promotional opportunities. there has been little consistency in the findings. in which intention to quit was So far. security and research to see if they have left. Kramer et al. (1995). Tett (2002) found that social support from supervisors reduced the level of nurses’ burnout and indirectly. Saks. Nevertheless. reasons. high Job satisfaction is one the factors that contribute security. Price and Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) and Igbaria et al. A job that entails high pay. the question of what determines people’s turnover The validity of studying intentions in the workplace intention by investigating possible previous can also be drawn from Sager (1991) longitudinal circumstances that lead to employees’ intentions to quit. It is generally assumed According to Muchinsky and Morrow (1980). turnover may be more difficult to predict. 1988). a relevant research by Spector (1997) that mediate the relationship between job stress and and Hirschfeld (2000) indicate that the different aspects turnover intention. Mottaz. on the other hand. what he or she seeks from work.
valued. security and clients. job satisfaction is an individual’s affective response to specific aspects of one’s job. 1989. needed. and challenging work. J. 1988). Tinker and Moore 1978. the bulk of evidence the main reason why employees leave their jobs (Barak suggests that it is situation-specific support. Ghiselli et al.. value judgment regarding work-related rewards. work-supervisor/home-family. family and to the extrinsic rewards provided by the organization for friends that is frequently cited as a source of stress the purpose of facilitating or motivating task reduction. Mottaz. fringe benefits.Am. refer the support gained from talking with peers. 1985) variety and opportunities to use one’s skills and have found that rather than supervisors’ support. Shore and Martin. while Hatton 1977). 1997. dissatisfaction and intention to leave a job. Munn et al. Glick (1992) view job satisfaction as an effective response by individuals resulting from an appraisal of their work roles in the job that they Fig. found lack of Work rewards reflect the intrinsic and extrinsic supervisor support was the best predictor of job benefits that workers receive from their jobs (Kalleberg. provided these values are intention of employees in the travel agencies in compatible with one’s needs. They include such factors as interesting relationship between job stressors and turnover intention. also directly and indirectly nurses’ turnover intention. responsibility. Other researchers such as (Kelly and Cross. other studies Rahim and Psenicka (1996) have associated with doing the job (Katz and Maanan. 1988). Many studies (for example. of American child life specialists. 2001) have reported a significant negative or job experience as stated by Dunnette and Locke relationship between job satisfaction and intention to (1976).. Locke and Henne (1986) defined job satisfaction as the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the achievement of one’s job values in the work situation. predicted in part by low levels of support from superiors. 2012 intention to quit. it is abilities. (1996). seeks to attain. Applied Sci. self-direction. 9 (9): 1518-1526. Consistent with these findings. (2003) satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude 1520 . Two important groups of work rewards that have and Emerson (1998) found that actual staff turnover was been identified include task and organizational rewards. Mobley et al. 1981. 1997). in a study (Spector. According to Williams and Hazer (1986). McBey and emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job Karakowsky. 2001). of one’s job as fulfilling or allowing the fulfillment of Tan (1998) assess job satisfaction and turnover one’s important job values. job turnover intention Source Nasurdin et al. A similar result by Kalliath and Beck toward his or her job. Seventy-two items of Job Descriptive Index (1976). Hellman. Given that values refer to what one desires or (JDI) were used to determine the job satisfaction level. Freddolino performance and maintaining membership (Katz and and Heaney (1992) found that peer social support was Maanan. 2000. This positive feeling results from the perception leave the organization. According to Robbins (2003). 1977. namely depersonalization an employee concerning his or her particular job and and emotional exhaustion and found that supervisory results from the employee’s comparison of actual support reduced not only those symptoms of burnout but rewards or outcomes with those that are expected. Organizational rewards. 1991. 1977. while turnover intention was associated with the comfortable working conditions. or perceived to be fair On the other hand. However. failed to find a moderating effect for social support in the Mottaz. Task rewards refer to those intrinsic rewards directly However. promotions. job Tan also found that job satisfaction was significantly satisfaction can be considered as reflecting a person’s related with intention-to-leave. Similarly. on the other hand. presence of social undermining by co-workers and Job satisfaction has been repeatedly identified as provider agencies. Dunnette and Locke Malaysia. Chan and Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable Morrison. wanted. Mottaz (1988) regard job satisfaction as an effective response resulting from an evaluation of the work situation. that is. Aryee and Wyatt. Dunnette and Locke (1976). 2001. They represent tangible associated with higher job satisfaction among direct rewards that are visible to others and include such factors care staff and home managers for intellectually disabled like pay. Price and Mueller. In sum. (2001) that is most effective.. the job satisfaction (2001) when they tested the impact of social support on construct can be considered as an effective response by two components of burnout. et al. 1: Relationship between job satisfaction and presently hold..
as well work value in the second part.5 25.78. challenging.0 100. 2-Disagree. Vroom (1994) called it as the measure without doubt and the most carefully constructed measure of job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and face scale were the most popular job satisfaction measures. (2003) previous research. co-worker and supervisor under extrinsic job satisfaction and element of work value in intrinsic job satisfaction.0 for Windows. an equal 50 percentage for age group of the respondents which were 18-24 years and 25-34 years. And then. marital status.0 25. 9 (9): 1518-1526. The first and the second part measured the respondent’s working condition. we process the data that Total Position collected from the respondents and several tests were Executive carried out to test the variables.5 62. According to the Table 3.5% group each work less than a year and another 1 year to 2 years plus.0 100.0 75.0 50. J. 5Table 1: Respondents background Strongly Agree). The Status fourth part of the questionnaire was regarded the Single Married respondent’s demographic background.5% of the respondents’ were single. Applied Sci. Cronbach’s Alpha values Non-executive were extracted from the reliability test on the variables Total Education (intrinsic. the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the Extrinsic Satisfaction (Working Condition) scale is 0. the framework were adapted and modified from Nasurdin et al.0 87.0 37. tiresome and burden. Frequency 8 24 32 16 16 32 28 4 32 12 12 8 32 12 20 32 8 12 12 32 Percent 25. According to the Table 2. respected. 1. useful career. Referring to Fig. position Job Tenure (executive/non executive) and education.0 Subjects were the executives and non-executives of a local printing company employee. 62. diploma 37. pleasant environment. That yields 89% of the respondents’ size. the independent variable indicates that the reliability test is in ‘good’ range. 87. co-workers. supervision. (2003) in order to determine the employees’ opinions regarding turnover intention in the company. There are several results which are displayed below from the study. 2012 Saal and Knight (1995) report that JDI. 36 structured questionnaires were distributed through a control environment and 32 return back complete. MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS The statistical analyses were computed using SPSS version 12. 1521 . age. the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the Intrinsic Satisfaction (Work Value) scale is 0. 4-Agree. which the independent variables consists elements like working condition. > 1 Year 1 to < 2 Years Using the Statistical Package for Social Science Above 3 Years version 12.5 12.Am. (1969) and Nasurdin et al. whereby 9 of them (satisfying. endless and give sense of accomplishment) have been omitted to increase the reliability of the measurement. The third part were used as Total an indicator of measurement to measures the Age respondents intention to leave which use multiple18-24 25-34 choice that suits the best decision they will make Total representing their intention in the organization.0 100. Finally.. Random sampling technique was used to distribute set of questionnaire which were adopted and adapted from Smith et al. In addition.5 100. 75% respondents were percent female. JDI is found to be the most frequently used as measurement of job satisfaction compared to the other.0 37. department.5 100.0 50.5%.5 37.0 for Windows to extract the data and results.5 37. Table 1 below explains the background of the respondents. frustrating. correlation analyses on the three Diploma variables were also obtained to identify the most relevant First Degree Total and significant relationship among the variables.5 and STPM 25%. The questionnaires were divided into four main parts. which include Total gender. A five-point Likert scale was used to indicate the respondent’s answers (1-Strongly Disagree. first degree 37.5 % respondents were non executives. the employees were divided into 3 group. 3-Neither Agree nor Disagree. There are total of 20 items in this scale and no item being removed as since the reliability of the measurement indicates that the independent variable is in ‘very good’ range.5 100. extrinsic job satisfaction and turnover SPM/STPM intention). In addition.883. There are total of 18 items in this scale.0 37. Referring to the rules of thumb. However. Supported through Thomas and Gender Tymon (1994) measurement regarding satisfaction and Male Female turnover intention as well. Job tenure shows 37.
898 0.747 0.685 0.166 0.8750 Annoying 42.2500 Knows the job well 41.3750 64.787 0.756 0. Applied Sci.0000 21.2500 64.880 0.290 corrected item-total correlation 0.7500 64.872 0.784 0.464 0.885 0.774 0.113 38. lazy and around when needed) have been omitted to increase the reliability of the measurement.906 0.615 0.380 0. the independent variable indicates that the reliability test is in ‘very good’ range. Being able to do things that don’t go against my conscience Like the way my job provides for steady employment Given the chance to tell peoples what to do Given the chance to do things for other people Given the chance to do something that makes use of my abilities Like the way company policies are put into practice Happy with my pay and the amount of work I do Given the chance for advancement on this job Given the freedom to use my own judgment Given the chance to try my own methods of doing the job Like the working conditions Like the way my co-workers get along with each other Like the praise I get for doing a good job Like the feeling of accomplishment I get from the job Table 3: Reliability test for extrinsic satisfaction (Working Condition) Item.6250 64.615 0.629 On your feet 24.807 0.5000 65.531 0.823 0.468 59.865 0.747 0.7500 64.3750 64.823 0.869 0.097 33.952 64. whereby 4 items (hard to please. J.661 57.5000 23.0000 16.8750 Stubborn 43.total statistics deleted Always ask my advice 42..903 66.968 53.3750 64.164 0.710 57.481 0.5000 Intelligent 41.000 34.274 Corrected item-total correlation 0.467 Cronbach’s alpha If item deleted 0.851 0.7500 Tactful 42.790 62. Item.886 0.386 0.387 0.6250 64.784 0.6250 64.452 33. stupid and low interest) have been omitted to increase the reliability of the measurement.145 57.844 0.799 Cronbach’s alpha If item deleted 0.876 0.437 -.645 0.048 33.8750 Short of supervision 42.807 0.210 60.863 0.517 0.790 58.565 0. bad.258 Boring 25.933 0. There are total of 18 items in this scale.0000 21.823 53.887 0.188 0. slow.871 61.8750 Praises good work 41.0000 Influential in changing my behavior 42.770 0.3750 Up to date in giving information about the job 41.7500 21.413 0.968 32.822 0.349 0.724 0.817 0.177 Healthful 24.258 Table 4: Reliability test for extrinsic satisfaction (Supervisor) Scale mean if Item Item.774 65.516 0.6250 Quick tempered 42.869 0.3750 64.876 0. whereby 4 items (boring.Am.860 0.227 0.0000 Impolite 42.632 -.497 0.total statistics Able to keep busy all the time Given the chance to work alone on the job Given the chance to do different things from time to time Given the chance to be “somebody” in the community Like the way my boss handles his/her workers Like the competence of my supervisor in making decisions.871 Simple 25.790 62. 9 (9): 1518-1526. the independent variable indicates that the reliability test is in ‘very good’ range.419 Creative 25.7500 64.876 0.737 Scale variance if Item deleted 32.790 58.484 33. Table 2: Reliability test for intrinsic satisfaction (Work Value) Scale mean if Item deleted 64.811 0.829.0000 corrected itemtotal correlation 0.818 1522 .2500 18.100 0.827 0.6250 64. There are total of 18 items in this scale.532 31.209 0.3750 64.705 0.677 Hot environment 25.742 Same routine 25.272 0.7500 Tells me where I stand 41. Referring to the rules of thumb.694 28.871 57.888 0.877 0.664 0.total Scale mean if Scale variance statistics Item deleted if Item deleted Fascinating 24.815 0.226 30.7500 64.635 0.600 Cronbach’s alpha If item deleted 0.435 61.8750 18.5000 64.802 0.7500 Self empowered 42.581 63.867 Table 5 indicates the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the Extrinsic Satisfaction (Co-Worker) scale is 0.879 0.401 0.850.806 Good incentives 25.036 0.6250 64.839 35.760 0.349 0.081 31. Referring to the rules of thumb. 2012 Table 4 shows the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for Extrinsic Satisfaction (Supervisor) scale is 0.816 0.869 0.2500 19.884 0.093 0.710 56.769 0.5000 64.383 0.8750 64.3750 Scale variance if Item deleted 62.747 0.3750 20.905 0.984 32.
356 0. they are likely to experience a positive emotional state.817 0. the coefficient has a relationship between job satisfaction and turnover range of possible values from -1 to +1.172 1 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.435 0.3750 0.total if Item if Item item-total alpha If statistics deleted deleted correlation item deleted Encouraging 39.359 0.3750 1.467 0.387 0.857 No privacy 39. which is likely to stimulate them to reciprocate by increasing their loyalty to the organization. Hellman.016 0.849 Loyal 39..903 0.2500 37. which in return.826 0.790 0. 1989.000 -0. When rewards received by employees are perceived as capable of fulfilling their needs and desires.. Shore and Martin.3750 41.339 0. when employees viewed their jobs as interesting. this study has discussed about the According to Sekaran (2003). while the sign to examine the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic (+ or -) indicates the direction 1523 . The value intention in a company. Likewise. 1997. The salary adjustment and the bonuses were done to align the company’s remuneration package with their merger counterpart.355 0. Aryee and Wyatt.000 Extrinsic 0. There are total of 4 items in this scale.841 Intelligent 39.2500 44.831 Hard to be found 40.834 Responsible 39. lead them to feel committed to their jobs and organization..838 Smart 39.723.726 0. Malaysia.581 0.847 Active 40.5000 42.848 Unpleasant 40. 2001.113 0.365(*) -0.853 Ambitious 39. The statistical results obtained in this study showed that both forms of job satisfaction (intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction) have inverse relationship on employees’ turnover intentions.258 0. providing opportunities for autonomy.639 continue working for this organization Table 7.8750 42.05 level (2-tailed). In general. Referring to the rules of thumb. The small correlations existed between these study variables has been expected.763(**) 1.537 0.1250 43. challenging and gratifying. DISCUSSION The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of job satisfaction on turnover intentions among the employees in XYZ Sdn. McBey and Karakowsky. the employees of the company that have been servicing for more than one year have just received salary adjustment plus three months bonus.7500 42. Applied Sci.758 0.745 leaving this organization Your feeling 4. 1981.01 level (2-tailed) * Correlation is significant at the 0.0000 44.355 0. which in turn.817 Easy to make enemies 41.847 Table 6: Reliability test for turnover intention Scale Scale mean variance corrected Item.5000 44.722 0.000 Turnover intention -0.Am.219 0.350 0.713 0. the intrinsic satisfaction has significantly inverse correlated with turnover intention as compared to the extrinsic satisfaction. Correlations between study variables Turnover Intrinsic Extrinsic intention Intrinsic 1.581 0.342 about your future with this organization Prefer to 5. the independent variable indicates that the reliability test is in ‘good’ range.581 0. their intention to leave the current institution will be reduced.total if Item if Item item-total statistics deleted deleted correlation Feel about 5.855 0. induces an obligation to reciprocate their employers by being more committed. 2012 Table 5: Reliability test for extrinsic satisfaction (Co-Worker) Scale Scale mean variance corrected Cronbach’s Item. This result is consistent with those of previous researchers (for instance. For this reason.5000 42.3750 43. relationship among the coworkers and supervisors and positive feelings of well-being will be created. It is plausible that when employees judged the institution as being fair and supportive in their treatment particularly with regards to comfortable work conditions. Price and Mueller.1250 39.889 0. Pearson correlation coefficients in simple bivariate correlation were used to measure correlation between CONCLUSION turnover intention and each variable. J. 2001).550 0.824 Fast 39. Bhd. 9 (9): 1518-1526. 2000.835 Lazy 41. The objective of the study is indicates the strength of the relationship.402 0. they will experience a positive emotional state. However it is found that in this research. Mobley et al. It shows how each of the items associated with all the other items.3750 36.517 0. 1991. Cronbach’s alpha If item deleted 0. Ghiselli et al. self-direction and the use of multiple skills and abilities.635 0.2500 0. Chan and Morrison.968 0.838 Talkative 40. whereby 1 item has been omitted to increase the reliability of the measurement. During the data collection session. 1978.0000 43.511 Table 6 indicates the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the turnover intention scale is 0.356 0.
10. Telling the employee to look separately at the kind of work they are doing versus the conditions of work (pay. J. REFERENCES Do not allow employees job dissatisfactions to go unresolved for long: Job satisfactions and Aryee. Antecedents of dissatisfactions are barometers of employees’ organizational commitment and turnover intentions adjustment to work.. 9 (9): 1518-1526. company and physical working conditions): If they are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the kind of work they are doing. they have to take the initiative yourself. Based on the findings. Therefore.. the company refused to expose the data regarding the staffs salaries and opportunities for promotion. Wyatt. DOI: result from. Recommendation: With respect to the robustness of research methodology. Where here. And. and T. the objective of this study was accomplished. It is hoped that the contributions proposed by the researchers were able to contribute towards improving human resource management at local printing company. J. In this study. More specific area as well can be carried out for the future researcher to study. 1991. (1969) previous study. they should consider a career change.1991. had a stronger influence on intentions to leave in the organization. accidents. Thus.Am. The second limitation were the availability of data or resources-some of the relevant data to support the research may not be available due to the nature of data or information that desired to be obtained is basically not to offend the companies’ confidentiality or policies that remained secretive. the turnover rate among the employees will be low compare if only extrinsic values that focused by the management to be fulfilled. Learn about jobs that are most likely to meet employee expectations: Assist the company to identify occupations that fit employee personality and their interest. There are usually dissatisfactions even in the best jobs. employment settings in Singapore. the findings obtained may not be generalized to other samples within the industry. They may lead to something worse among professional accountants in different -. Limitation of the study: The first limitation of this study relates to the sample. Applied Sci. Since extrinsic satisfaction founded to have less influence with negative relationship on turnover intention. As the study mostly referred from Smith et al. Depression. the in-depth interviews. Psychol. however. tension and interpersonal problems can 13: 545-556. The findings have proved that there are extrinsic values that influence the turnover intention within the organization. the pilot study and the survey questionnaires have exceeded a minimum standard of correlation and reliability analyses. S. Via a larger sample from other organizations in the same industry vice versa would improve the consequential of the findings.9713884 1524 . in today work world the employees cannot expect the employer to look out for them. Overall job satisfaction is a trade-off: Educate employees and remind them that they should not expect 100% satisfaction or 0% dissatisfaction. even mental illness. co-workers. the data gathered from the mentoring research literature. worry. Contribution of the research: So. what can the company act to maximize it employees’ job satisfaction? Based on this study here are five recommendations suggested by the researchers to be adopted in the company. supervisor. Encourage employees to look down the road at their possible career progress: Present dissatisfactions might be worth bearing if they see their career progressing as how good and meaningful is their current situation are presently comparing to the situation before. The study still require in depth analysis as well larger number of respondents to analyze more accurate findings. Soc. which were derived from a company that categorized as a small and medium industry with a small number of respondents. intrinsic satisfaction. 2012 satisfaction on turnover intentions has been reached and completed. anxiety. Statistical analysis on a sample of 32 executive and non-executive employees revealed that both components of job satisfaction had a negative impact on turnover intention. which mean the intrinsic value were fulfilled.1080/00224545. 32 out of 36 employees. telling the employees to look separately at the kind of work they are doing and what they get back in return where conditions of work will not the only factors that can bring satisfactions to their job. Try to get accurate information about each of them.job loss. or be made worse by job dissatisfaction. This may lead to the production of accurate and reliable findings toward the company turnover intention.
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