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Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. There are several main types of pollution and wellknown effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and "holes" in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter . The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about .0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black carbon" pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quanitites of soot into the air. Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smogand acid rain. Pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. In the United States, we spend about 80-90% of our time inside buildings, and so our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious. It is therefore important to consider both indoor and outdoor air pollution.
<="" a="" style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Swiss, SunSans-Regular; font-size: 12px; font-weight: normal; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letterspacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; texttransform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;"> The Importance Of Air
Other planets have sunlight, but the Earth is the only planet we know that has air and water. Without air and water, the Earth would be unable to sustain life. A diverse community of plant and animal life has thrived on this planet for millions of years, sustained by the sun and supported by the soil, water and air.
The substances that cause air pollution are called pollutants. Cities surrounded by mountains also experience trapping of pollution. the gases that are produced are usually concentrated in the air around them. fumes or odour in harmful amounts. an estimated 4000 people died from effects of fine particle pollution. nature's own systems kept the air fairly clean. in just a few days. Smog is a type of large-scale outdoor pollution. Depending on the geographical location. and many suffer from the effects of smog. Under these conditions the pollution cannot rise and be dispersed. Some forms of air pollution create global problems. rain washed the dust and other easily dissolved substances to the ground and plants absorbed carbon dioxide and replaced it with oxygen. pollution is dispersed differently. A temperature inversion occurs when air close to the earth is cooler than the air above it. Historical Explanation In the days before the proliferation of large cities and industry. As these sources are usually found in major cities. amounts which could be harmful to the health or comfort of humans and animals or which could cause damage to plants and materials. Wind mixed and dispersed the gases. temperature. More About Pollutants Air pollutants mainly occur as a result of gaseous discharges from industry and motor vehicles. humans started to release more wastes into the atmosphere than nature could cope with. However. Nature can no longer manage air pollution without our help. It is when these concentrated gases exceed safe limits that we have a pollution problem. . Since then. There are also natural sources such as wind-blown dust and smoke from fires. Photochemical smog is an example of this. It is caused by chemical reactions between pollutants derived from different sources. commercial and domestic sources. wind and weather factors.Definition Of Air Pollution Air pollution occurs when the air contains gases. and require international cooperative efforts to find solutions. Cities are often centers of these types of activities. dust. With increasing urbanisation and industrialisation. That is. The resulting compounds are called secondary pollutants. Primary pollutant examples include carbon monoxide from car exhausts and sulfur dioxide from the combustion of coal. especially during the warm months of the year. sometimes this does not happen and the pollution can build up to dangerous levels. Additional information about smog and its effects are available from Environment Canada and the Air Quality Management District (AQMD) in southern California. These problems are very complex. such as upper atmosphere ozone depletion and global warming. The adverse effects of air pollution were graphically illustrated in London in 1952 when. the exact causes of pollution may be different. more pollution has been added to the air by industrial. Further pollution can arise if primary pollutants in the atmosphere undergo chemical reactions. primarily automobile exhaust and industrial emissions. Pollutants that are pumped into our atmosphere and directly pollute the air are called primary pollutants. For each city.
Summer inversions are more likely to create smog. Damage due to acid rain kills trees and harms animals. resulting in widespread coastal flooding. This buildup acts like a blanket and traps heat close to the surface of our earth. Ozone depletion is another result of pollution. The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. . is generally believed to come from the build up of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Changes of even a few degrees will affect us all through changes in the climate and even the possibility that the polar ice caps may melt. one of the atmospheric layers surrounding earth. Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause skin cancer and has damaging effects on plants and wildlife. Winter inversions are likely to cause particulate and cabon monoxide pollution.S. The Greenhouse Effect. also referred to as global warming. The U. Additional resources and information about the ozone depletion problem are available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Ozone ACTION. Plants convert carbon dioxide back to oxygen. such as sulfuric acid combines with droplets of water in the air. The situation is made worse since many of the earth's forests are being removed. the Science Education Academy of the Bay Area (SEABA) and the Society of Environmental Journalists (SEJ). It damages plants by destroying their leaves. the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (One of the consequences of polar ice cap melting would be a rise in global sea level. and it changes the chemistry of lakes and streams.) Additional resources and information about the Greenhouse Effect and global warming are available from the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). it poisons the soil. cooling systems and refrigerator equipment removes some of the ozone. When a pollutant. and Environment Canada are among the organizations that are actively studying the acid rain problem. fish. and other wildlife. causing "holes". the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is continuing to increase. the water (or snow) can become acidified . Thus. but the release of carbon dioxide from human activities is higher than the world's plants can process. Another consequence of outdoor air pollution is acid rain. Carbon dioxide is produced when fuels are burned. The effects of acid rain on the environment can be very serious. to open up in this layer and allowing the radiation to reach the earth. Geological Survey (USGS).Inversion can happen in any season. Release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) from aerosol cans. Chemicals released by our activities affect the stratosphere . and plant life is being damaged by acid rain.
There are many sources of indoor air pollution.Black carbon pollution is the release of tiny particles into the air from burning fuel for energy.) In recent years. Tobacco smoke. there has been great concern about black carbon pollution of the air in parts of Eastern Europe.as much as 80-90% of their lives. For these reasons. Additional information about the radon problem is available from the USGS and the Minnesota Radon Project. Radon is a natural radioactive gas released from the earth. but also to the entire global environment. paints. cause pollution inside buildings. Education is one important step toward correcting the problem. drink and sleep in enclosed environments where air circulation may be restricted. some experts feel that more people suffer from the effects of indoor air pollution than outdoor pollution. The California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels and can pose serious health problems. not only to human health. We work. How can we prevent the damaging effects of air pollution? . etc. study. furniture. Pollution exposure at home and work is often greater than outdoors. cooking and heating appliances. and vapors from building materials. Air pollution caused by such particulates has been a major problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution and the development of the internal combustion engine . Mankind has become so dependent on the burning of fossil fuels(petroleum products. and natural gas) that the sum total of all combustion-related emissions now constitutes a serious and widespread problem. eat. Both indoor and outdoor pollution need to be controlled and/or prevented. Many people spend large portion of time indoors . coal. and it can be found concentrated in basements in some parts of the United States. Additional resources dealing with the problems associated with particulate pollution are available from Burning Issues. (This group has additional information at a second site. Scientific publications dealing with the analysis of soot and smoke date back as early as 1896.
II. I. It is caused due to the inflammation of the lung tissue. Cardiopulmonary Disease A little known. a cancer that eats into the mesothelium. Particulate matter can be both. The pollutants that are air-borne cause a lot of harm to humans and animals. and has been linked to the development of numerous forms of cancer. is a very poisonous gas. Ammonia is a gas emitted via agricultural processes. Carbon monoxide. When inhaled. Consistent exposure to pollutants leads to the development of a large number of diseases. It is both hazardous as well as caustic. Lack of proper ventilation causes the radon emission from the earth to be trapped indoors. Pneumonia This is a very common disease caused. It could cause inflammation of the air passage. Lethal lead paint easily degenerates into dust. biological. the emission from combustion of fuels like wood and coal. Left untreated. It is a condition triggered by the presence of air-borne pollutants in the air we breathe. Sources of air pollution are many. methane. like the ash from volcanoes or the carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide emissions from vehicles and factories. cardiopulmonary disease may affect both the lungs and the heart. with large-scale industrialization and vehicle-emissions being the primary culprits. and pollutants in the atmosphere around the living spaces. volcanoes. also put people in the immediate environment at the risk of developing respiratory tract disorders. especially in the underdeveloped world because of the extreme high levels of pollution in these areas. Facts about Air Pollution Air borne pollutants can either be solid particles. it can cause both short-term and long-term damage. WHO statistics report that over 2 million people succumb to the fatalities attributed to air pollution on a yearly basis. Human activities contribute to nearly 10% of the aerosols in the atmosphere. Premature Mortality The air which we breathe is the very essence of our life. natural as well as man-made. These pollutants could either be the result of chemical emissions or the particulate material from biological waste. due to lack of proper fresh air circulation to our organs. or even liquids and gases. and takes a toll on the quality of life. Effects of Air Pollution on Humans The effects of air pollution on humans are in many cases life-threatening. Radon gas is also emitted from building materials and extensive carpeting. radioactive decay. and commonly include anthropogenic sources or those that result from human activity and natural sources like dust. and can be fatal. with the onslaught of a number of respiratory tract disorders. and is eventually inhaled. that seems to be on the rise. This gas is carcinogen. The use of air fresheners. If the air we breathe is polluted. While pets shed dander into the atmosphere. and in turn lead to other serious complications. All bodily functions are carried out because of the constant supply of fresh air that reaches our various organs through the blood stream. Here's a look at some of them. and volcanic ash particulates. other than permanent damage to the natural environment. and the most important factor in our existence too. natural or man-made. pesticides and chemical sprays. . and particulate matter. Secondary air pollutants are the result of the reactions or interactions of the primary pollutants. humans produce dust from dead skin flakes and the decomposition of hair. respectively. yet potentially deadly disease. This pollutant originates within dust storms. With time. a delicate tissue that engulfs and protects important organs such as the heart and the lungs. forest fires or wildfires and sea sprays. they cease to function properly. and ultimately could lead to premature mortality. Sulfur oxides from volcanic eruptions and industrial processes oxidize in the presence of nitrogen dioxide to form acid rain. dust and fumes cause Mesothelioma. within houses and offices.Air pollution refers to the presence of chemical. Example: photochemical smog. it can be quite deadly. Toxic asbestos fibers. poisoning and fatalities. Primary air pollutants are those that are directly emitted via some processes. The condition has reached alarming proportions in the modern world. it affects the human biological system.
and in extreme cases can lead to death. either in a small or a big way. III. This is a chronic condition and greatly lowers the quality of the patient's daily life. The lungs constantly supply oxygen to the heart. Asthma One of the most common effects of being subjected to air pollution over long periods is difficulty in breathing. if not tended to promptly. Thrombosis / Thrombus Formation The body stays healthy due to the continuous supply of oxygen-rich blood to all its parts. Chronic Bronchitis: This is a disease in which the passage of air to the lungs is obstructed due to the inflammation of the medium air passage or bronchi. Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a chronic disease found commonly amongst children. wherein the parents who have been exposed to very high levels of air pollution pass on this disease to their children through their genes. and in more serious cases. asthma. Particulate control is possible with the use of mechanical collectors. Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Acute Vascular Dysfunction Exposure to air pollution for prolonged periods can cause serious damage to the lungs. Wheezing and Coughing Wheezing and prolonged cough attacks are both symptoms of asthma. One such very severe lung condition is acute vascular dysfunction. If proper blood flow is not restored. and can be lifethreatening. if we breathe in polluted air. Nitrogen dioxide emission can be controlled with the help of low-consumption burners and scrubbers. both of which severely damage the lungs and can cause death. Ejector venturi and Mechanical scrubbers. This disease affects the lungs and the pancreas. Sulfur dioxide or acid gas can be effectively controlled with the dedicated use of wet and dry scrubbers . which over time. It is a very serious condition. that part tends to turn blue due to the clotting of the blood. electrostatic precipitators. Controlling Air Pollution There are a number of ways in which these polluting emissions can be controlled. which in turn pumps it through the blood to the entire the body. Emphysema: This is one of the most serious conditions of lung diseases. This in turn affects the functioning of the heart. and even catalytic converters. Without proper treatment. selective catalytic and non-catalytic reduction. affects the passage of fresh air into the respiratory tract. this condition can prove to be fatal. that part begins to degenerate. This perfect synergy of the heart and the other organs of the body ensure a healthy life for us. Cyclonic. as they are called. baghouses and scrubbers like the Baffle.Heart Attack The heart is the control center of the human body. It causes the degeneration of the tissues that hold the lungs and help its expansion and contraction as we breathe. This is all due to the ever-increasing levels of air pollution. The cases of patients with COPD is at an alarming high because of the excessive air pollution all around. When the blood flow to any part of the body is obstructed. Over time. Difficulty in Breathing A very large percentage of people all around the world today have difficulty in breathing. because of the many pollutants in the air. These pollutants tend to accumulate in the coronary arteries and obstruct the flow of rich blood to the heart. It is a progressive disease and leads to the total collapsing of the lungs. it gets into our blood stream and causes many serious problems. and are caused by the pollution in the air. namely. It is caused due to the swelling of the airway or the bronchioles. This condition is called thrombosis. and can cause heart attacks. Asthma causes major problems in an individual's daily life. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) This is a combination of a couple of diseases.
China and India. the world will follow. Accumulation of carbon dioxide gas. Let's save our planet. USA.html . and major modifications in marine ecosystems. hydrofluorocarbons. It's our actions today that are going to decide the fate of the generations to come. Let's change ourselves. wind and tidal energy. and it's up to each one of us to take responsibility and bring about a positive change. This phenomenon is the result of the trapped greenhouse gases in the upper atmosphere.and the latest introduction of flue gas desulfurization. At a very basic level.buzzle. we could turn to the use of green energy. Pollution is a very serious problem which has come upon us. Also we could minimize the use of vehicles and instead take public modes of transport or start a car pool. The greenhouse effect is a life-threatening global phenomenon. Some of the most polluted countries of the world are Australia. the UK. increased acidity of ocean waters. with the use of fuels that do not harm the environment by harnessing solar. that is the creation of air pollutants. This is our world and it is up to us to preserve it for our own survival.com/articles/effects-of-air-pollution. Read more at Buzzle: http://www. methane. nitrogen oxides. perfluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons have brought about a major climate change.
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