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Objectives

Direction

Pressure variation

Incompressible

Forces

Atmosphere

Manometers

Summary

Notes

**DEN 4101 Mechanics of Fluid 1
**

Part 2: Hydrostatics

**Dr. Jens-Dominik M¨ller u School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London
**

j.mueller@qmul.ac.uk Room: Eng 122 c Jens-Dominik M¨ller, 2011-12, updated 1 Oct 2012 u

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Outline

Objectives

Direction

Pressure variation

Incompressible

Forces

Atmosphere

Manometers

Summary

Outline

Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs, immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary

Notes

2 / 59

Outline

Objectives

Direction

Pressure variation

Incompressible

Forces

Atmosphere

Manometers

Summary

Outline

Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs, immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary

Notes

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Outline

Objectives

Direction

Pressure variation

Incompressible

Forces

Atmosphere

Manometers

Summary

Learning objectives

Notes

• Directionality of pressure and pressure forces • Variation of pressure with height in incompressible and

compressible ﬂuids

• Pressure measurement with manometers

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Outline

Objectives

Direction

Pressure variation

Incompressible

Forces

Atmosphere

Manometers

Summary

Outline

Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs, immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary

Notes

5 / 59

Outline

Objectives

Direction

Pressure variation

Incompressible

Forces

Atmosphere

Manometers

Summary

Forces on ﬂuid particles

Notes

**Forces acting on ﬂuid particles: • body forces:
**

• act on the body of the ﬂuid: • gravity • inertial forces

• surface forces: • act on the surface of a ﬂuid particle: • pressure (normal to surface) • shear (due to ﬂuid motion)

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Almost true for: • unsteady ﬂow in ideal ﬂuids (inertia term is often small) But: in practice this can be assumed in viscous ﬂuids for most practical purposes. 9 / 59 . • no inertial forces (i. lim δx.e. • steady ﬂow in ideal (inviscid) ﬂuids. • The pressure at a point is equal in all directions 8 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Assumption for ’Pascal’s triangle’ Assumptions: • No shear forces.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Pressure variation in a ﬂuid: Pascal’s triangle Notes Force balance in the y -direction: py δzδx − pΘ δsδx sin Θ = 0 δz py δzδx − pΘ δx sin Θ = 0 sin Θ py = pΘ 7 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Pressure at a point in a ﬂuid Notes Force balance in z-direction: pz δy δx − pΘ δsδx cos Θ − W = 0 δy δxδy δz pz δy δx − pΘ δx cos Θ − ρg =0 cos Θ 2 ρg δz pz − pΘ − =0 2 • As we go to a point. Notes True for: • All stationary ﬂuids. then pz = pΘ . δz → 0. δy . no acceleration).

immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary Notes 10 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Pressure variation with height If a ﬂuid element is at rest then the sum of forces in any direction is zero: Notes 11 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Pressure variation with height Force balance in the z-direction: p0 δxδy − pz δxδy − ρg δxδy δz = 0 Divide by δxδy δz and rearrange: pz − p0 δp = −ρg = δz δz In the limit as δz → 0 we get: lim δp dp = = −ρg δz dz (1) Notes δz→0 This is the hydrostatic or barometric equation 12 / 59 .Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Outline Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs.

• ρ may vary with pressure p.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Pressure changes in other directions Equation (1) gives rate of change of pressure in the z or vertical direction. Note that if Θ = 900 then cos Θ = 0 and so dp = 0. 15 / 59 . • g is practically constant on the Earth’s surface. immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary Notes 14 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Solutions to the hydrostatic equation Solutions to Eq. 13 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Outline Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs. 1 are found by integrating it from a known point at height z0 with p0 : p1 z1 Notes dp = − p0 z0 ρg dz • We need to know the relationship between ρ and z in order to solve this. In another direction a: Notes The z-direction and the a-direction are related as dz = da The pressure varies along a (using the chain rule) as dp dz dz dp = = −ρg = −ρg cos Θ da dz da da δz δa = cos Θ. Hence da pressure is constant on a surface perpendicular to the direction of gravity. and hence with elevation z.

g. 17 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Gauge pressure • Engineers often ﬁnd it convenient to work in terms of gauge Notes pressure which is pressure above atmospheric.3 kPa: 101. 16 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Absolute pressure Notes To determine the pressure at point 1 below the surface of a static ﬂuid. 1. 13600 kg/m3 × 9.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Hydrostatic equ. • The gauge pressure at point 1 is p1 = p1 − pa = ρgh. 1000 kg/m3 × 9. E. pa = 101.81 m/s2 101. Pressure gauges are often set to read zero at atmospheric pressure.3 × 103 kPa ha = = 8395 m of air. 1 then becomes: p1 z1 dp = −ρg p0 z0 dz (2) p1 − p0 = −ρg (z1 − z0 ) • p varies linearly with depth z. use Eq.81 m/s2 hw = 18 / 59 .23 kg/m3 × 9. i. the pressure above vacuum.3 × 103 kPa = 10.3 kPa • p1 is the absolute pressure at point 1.81 m/s2 3 kPa 101.76 m of mercury. for an incompressible ﬂuid Notes • In an incompressible ﬂuid ρ does not vary with p and is hence independent of z • Eq. • Engineers also often ﬁnd it useful to express pressure in terms of equivalent pressure head: the height of the static ﬂuid p p column which produces the same pressure: h = ρg = ω • The pressure head depends on the choice of reference ﬂuid.e.3 m of water.3 × 10 hm = = 0. 2: pa − p1 = − ρg (za − z1 ) p1 = pa + ρg (za − z1 ) = pa + ρgh • pa is the atmospheric pressure pa = 101.

19 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Notes The pressure p1 at the top of the gate is: ρgh1 = 1000 kg/m3 ×9. The gate is square. so we can simplify the integration (this would not work with other shapes): no variation normal to the drawing plane. Notes 21 / 59 .81 m/s2 × 11 m = 107.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary An example: forces on a submerged gate A vertical square gate with sides of 6m is hinged at the top. The pressure diagram can be split into two parts as below an equivalent force can be calculated for each. Notes Calculate the force T exerted on gate.05 kN/m2 Pressure p2 at the bottom of the gate is ρgh2 = 1000 kg/m3 × 9.91 kN/m2 20 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary An example II The total force on the gate due is F = pA.81 m/s2 ×5 m = 49050 N/m2 = 49. The top of the gate is 5m below the water surface. since the pressure is not constant we have to work out the integral F = A pdA.

58 kN 2 The total pressure force is FT = F1 + F2 = 1765.5 kN = 2825.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary For the rectangular component: F2 = 49. immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary Notes 23 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Forces on curved surfacs Consider a force acting on a a small area of width δs and unit length l1 (perpendicular to the image).8 kN Notes For the triangular component: 1 F1 = 58.8 kN + 1059.3 kN 22 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Outline Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs.05 kPa · 6 m · 6 m = 1765.86 kPa · 6 m · 6 m = 1059. Notes The force acting on the surface element is δF = p δA = p δs l1 24 / 59 .

the pressure forces remain unchanged. However. 27 / 59 . the vertical pressure change needs to be taken into account. vertical components of the total force F on the surface AB. FV are the horizontal. • If we remove the body of water. bodies Consider the force balance on the volume ABC with unit length l1 normal to the plane: Notes • FH . then the body will sink. 25 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Archimedes’ principle Notes • The body of water (left) is i equilibrium: pressure forces balance gravitational forces. • If the gravitational force of the replacing body is larger than the body of water at same shape. 26 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Forces on immersed surfaces. the vertical component of the force is δFh = δF cos Θ = pδs cos Θl1 = pδxl1 the projection on the horizontal plane. • W is the weight of the ﬂuid in ABC .Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary The force acting on the surface element is Notes δF = p δA = p δs l1 The horizontal component of the force is δFh = δF sin Θ = pδs sin Θl1 = pδyl1 The horizontal force component acting on a curved element is equal to the pressure times the projection of the element on the vertical plane Similarly.

the vertical force on a curved surface is equal to the weight of the ﬂuid above it. there is a net upward force.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Horizontal force balance Notes • Horizontal force balance: FH = FBC • The magnitude of the force on a curved surface is equal to the force on its vertical projection. 29 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Bouyancy Notes • Boyancy: the sum of pressure forces is equal to the weight of the displaced ﬂuid. • If this is larger than the weight of the object. • The force on the vertical projection is equivalent to the weight of ﬂuid above the projection. 30 / 59 . 28 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Vertical force balance Notes • Vertical force balance: FV = FAC + W • The vertical force is equivalent to the force on the vertical projection plus the weight of the ﬂuid between surface and that projection.

Notes 33 / 59 .Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Outline Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs. for dry air: R= 287.04 J/kg K. which is a gas and is Notes compressible. Its density will vary with height. Eq. immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary Notes 31 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Pressure variation in the atmosphere • The atmosphere consists of air. R is the speciﬁc gas constant. 32 / 59 (3) Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary The standard atmosphere The atmosphere is thicker at the equator than at the poles. • The universal gas law relates density ρ and pressure p as p = ρRT . T is the absolute temperature in K : 0◦ C= 273. 1: dp pg = −ρg = − dz RT dp g =− dz p RT • We need to know how temperature changes with altitude. • We can substitute ρ from the gas law into the barometric equation.2 K. we base calculations on the standard atmosphere which is at 40◦ latitude.

s2 == 2 = 2 = 2 = [1] αR s K J s K Nm s K kg m m 36 / 59 Notes .259 αR 0. altitude is within the troposphere.t dp and dz.81 m/s = = 5. The lapse rate α is α= 15◦ C − (−56.r. T = T0 − α(z − z0 ). 11000 m (4) Notes Substituting (4) into (3) dp g gdz =− dz = − p RT R (T0 −α(z −z0 )) Integrating w. Everest Mount Everest is 8848 m above sea level.065 K/m.2 K α = .3 kPa T0 = 15◦ C = (15 + 273. p = p0 and T = T0 . we can assume that the temperature falls linearly with height.04 J/kg/K for air The value of the exponent in (6) is g 9.0065 K/m 287. from sealevel to 11 km altitude. Atmoshpere.04 J/kg/K g m m kg K m m kg K m m kg K. ground level: z = z0 . What is the air pressure and density at the top? Assume the Std.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Integrating the compressible hydrostatic equation In the Troposphere.5◦ C) = 0. e.2) K = 288. ln p = g ln (T0 −α(z −z0 )) + C αR (5) 34 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Determining the integration constant At a speciﬁc height. ln p0 = g ln T0 αR g C = ln p0 − ln T0 αR Notes Substituting C into (5): g g ln (T0 −α(z −z0 )) + ln p0 − ln T0 αR αR g ln p − ln p0 = {ln (T0 −α(z −z0 )) − ln T0 } αR p g (T0 −α(z −z0 )) ln = ln p0 αR T0 g p α(z −z0 ) αR = 1− p0 T0 ln p = (6) 35 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Example: at the summit of Mt. hence linear temperature decay from sea level: z0 = 0 m p0 = 101.g.0065 K/m R = 287.

474 3 RTEverest 287.259 Notes pEverest = p0 = 101. i.7 K Using the ideal gas law to obtain density at sea-level and at the summit. 37 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary The temperature (acc. 11 km ≤ z ≤ 20 km.3 kPa kg p = = 1.474 kg kg /1.22 3 = 38. Everest is 31.4 · 103 N/m2 = 31. Everest is 0.1% of the pressure at sea level.2 K 5. 39 / 59 Notes . T is constant.4 kPa/101.3 kPa = 30.e.2 K − 0. ln p = − +C (7) p RT RT If at height zs (e.04 J/kg/K 288.0065 K/m 8848 m = 230.04 J/kg/K 230. ρ0 = ρEverest 101.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Using these values in (6) g α(zEverest −z0 ) αR 1− T0 . Atm) at the summit of Everest is T0 − α zEverest = 288. gzs gzs ln ps = − + C .4 kPa kg = = = 0.2 K m p 31.0065 K/m (8848 m−0 m) 288. so integrating (3) yields: dp g gz =− dz. i.4 kPa The pressure at the summit of Mt.e.g.7 K m Notes The density at the summit of Mt.22 3 RT0 287. 8 is the pressure variation for an isothermal gas. C = ln ps + RT RT Substituting for C in (7): gz gzs ln p = − + ln ps + RT RT p gzs ln = (zs − z) pg RT p g = exp (zs − z) (8) ps RT Eq.3 kPa 1 − = 31. the interface stratosphere-troposphere) the pressure is ps as worked out using (6).7% m3 m 38 / 59 of the density at sea level. to Std. Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Atmospheric variation in the lower stratosphere In the lower stratosphere.

1: “Pressure at a Point” • Munson 2.1: “Boyancy. • A pressure force acquires direction by projecting pressure Notes normal to an area.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Summary of hydrostatics • Pressure does not have a direction. Archimedes’ principle” 41 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Outline Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs. • In incompressible ﬂow pressure increases linearly with depth p = ρgh.9: “Pressure prism” • Munson 2. • In compressible ﬂow we need to know the temperature variation to integrate the hydrostatic equation. immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary Notes 42 / 59 .2: “Basic Equation for Pressure Field” • Munson 2.3: “Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest” • Munson 2.11. 40 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Reading assignments Notes • Munson 2.8: “Hydrostatic force on a plane surface” • Munson 2.10: “Hydrostatic force on a curved surface” • Munson 2. • Pressure changes with altitude due to the weight of the ﬂuid column above • Diﬀerentiate between absolute pressure relative to vacuum and gauge pressure relative to the atmosphere.4: “Standard Atmosphere” • Munson 2.

For absolute pressure. • The pressure does not change horizontally between points (1) and A. Pressure does not vary horizontally: pressure at the same altitude is identical in communicating vessels. Notes All particles at the same altitude in an ocean of ﬂuid have the same pressure 43 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Notes A ﬂuid particle is only aware of the collisions with neighbouring particles. So we can consider ﬂuid in a container/vessel/manometer to be ’cut out’ of an ocean of ﬂuid. Away from the wall it has no knowledge of the wall. but has only limited versatility. p1 = pA = pATM + ρgh1 p1 = pA = ρgh1 absolute pressure gauge pressure 45 / 59 . Notes • The pressure at the open surface is atmospheric pressure. • In the vertical manometer arm the pressure increases linearly as ρgh.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Vertical pressure variation I Pressure varies vertically due to the weight of the ﬂuid column above. 44 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary A simple pressure measurement device: Piezometer The piezometer is the simplest form of manometer. we include the weight of the atmospheric column of air.

• The legs of the manometer are communicating. then we can neglect ρ1 p = ρ2 gh gauge pressure 48 / 59 . then use a U-tube manometer. or if p is too high (long manometer column). • If ﬂuid 1 is a gas with ρ1 << ρ2 .6 as larger than ρ1 . Notes 47 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary • Fluid 2 is chosen to be heavier than ﬂuid 1 and not to mix with it.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Inclined piezometer What changes if we inline the manometer column? Notes Only the vertical altitude diﬀerence adds pressure: p = ρgh = ρgs sin Θ With smaller Θ the same gauge pressure p results in the same vertical displacement h. but a larger displacement s along the manometer tube. which can be read oﬀ with more accuracy. • If p is small. then choose ﬂuid 2 such that ρ2 is only slightly Notes absolute pressure gauge pressure • If p is large. 46 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary U-tube manometer If the ﬂuid in the pipe is a gas. hence pressure at A − A is identical: p + ρ1 gy = pa + ρ2 gh p = pa + ρ2 gh − ρ1 gy p = ρ2 gh − ρ1 gy ﬂuid 2. then use mercury with relative density of 13.

blood pressure will be higher in the feet and lower in the head. converted to SI units: p = ρM gh = 13.Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Example: blood pressure measurement The sphygmomanometer used in your doctor’s surgery is basically a U-tube manometer: Notes pB + ρair gy = pa + ρM gh pB = pB − pa = ρM gh − ρair gy pB = ρM gh gauge pressure since ρair < ρM < 49 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Blood pressure measurement Notes • Typical blood pressure: “120/80” • i. 50 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Inverted U-tube manometer Use it to measure a pressure diﬀerence between two pipes or two diﬀerent sections of the same pipe carrying a heavy ﬂuid. Notes Assuming the same ﬂuid in the pipe sections with ρ > ρAir then > p1 − p2 = ρgh 51 / 59 .81 2 0.9 · 1000 kg m 9. • When standing. the systolic (high) pressure is 120 mm Hg.e.9.120 m = 16. • Mercury has a speciﬁc weight of 13.4 kPa m3 s • Blood pressure is measured with the arm angled at the height of the heart.

p1 − p2 h= g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) Notes i. 53 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Example: inverted U-tube Notes The manometer connects pipes A and D. p1 − p2 = ρ2 gh − ρ1 gh. Using (9). C and D? 54 / 59 . Hence for a particular ∆p = p1 − p2 . by choosing ρ2 − ρ1 to be very small. i. then use a U-tube manometer: Notes Equating pressures at A − A p1 + ρ1 g (y + h) = p2 + ρ1 gy + ρ2 gh p1 − p2 = ρ2 gh − ρ1 gh If ρ1 < ρ2 .e ρ2 ≈ ρ1 .Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary If the ﬂuid in the pipe is a gas. The gauge pressure at A is 30 kPa What are the pressures at B.e. and hence the sensitivity of the manometer. the level diﬀerence h can be increased. < p1 − p2 = ρ2 gh 52 / 59 (9) Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Diﬀerential gauge A U-tube manometer can be made very sensitive by using a ﬂuid in the U-tube with a very similar density to the the ﬂuid to be measured.

Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Pressure at B pB = pA − ρW ghA = 30 kPa − 1000 = 15.2 m) m3 s kg m 9.81 2 2.8 m + 1.0 kPa 55 / 59 Notes kg m 9.8 · 1000 = 18.29 kPa − 0.29 kPa Pressure at C pC = pB − ρ0 ghB + ρ0 ghC = 12. immersed bodies Pressure variation in the atmosphere Pressure measurements using manometers Summary Notes 57 / 59 .43 kPa + 1000 = 40. use a manometer with one arm that has a very large cross-sectional area: Notes The volume drop on the left equals the volume gain on the right: z1 πD 2 /4 = z2 πd 2 /4.2 m m3 s Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary To avoid having to read a diﬀerence between levels in two manometer arms.81 2 1.43 kPa Pressure at D pD = pC + ρW ghD = 18.81 2 (−. z1 = z2 (d/D)2 The pressure diﬀerence p1 − p2 is then p1 − p2 = ρg (z2 + z1 ) = ρg (z2 + z2 (d/D)2 ) = ρgz2 (1 + d/D)2 ) With d << D this simpliﬁes to p1 − p2 = ρgz2 .5 m m3 s kg m 9. 56 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Outline Learning objectives The direction of pressure Variation of Pressure with height Incompressible solution of the hydrostatic equation Forces on curved surfacs.

Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Summary Notes • Pressure varies with height due to the weight of the ﬂuid column above.6: “Manometry” Munson 2. • Manometers are communicating vessels.5: “Measurement of pressure” Munson 2. atmospheric. For an incompressible ﬂuid: p = ρgh.7: “Pressure measuring devices” 59 / 59 Notes .g. 58 / 59 Outline Objectives Direction Pressure variation Incompressible Forces Atmosphere Manometers Summary Reading assignments for pressure manometers Notes Munson 2. • Starting from a known state. work through the ﬂuid columns for each ﬂuid to the next interface. e. pressures are identical at the same level in the same ﬂuid.

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