a

journal

of political

philosophy

volume

6/2

may 1977

page

79

pamela

k. kensen

nietzsche

and a

liberation:
of

the the

prelude

to

philosophy

future
107
clarke e. cochran

authority
ocratic
simon

and

freedom: the dem
of yves

philosophy

r.

124

kenneth

w.

thompson

niebuhr's

conception

of politics

in the
1 32 kai
nielsen

united states and

the world

the choice between

perfectionism

and rawlsian contractarianism

martinus

nijhoff, the hague

edited

at

queens college

of

the city university

of new york

interpretation
a

journal
6

of political

philosophy

volume

issue 2

editor-in-chief hilail
gildin

editors

seth g.

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hilail

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(1912-

1974)
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michael

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wilhelm
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hennis
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erich

hula

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arnaldo momigliano

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oakeshott

leo

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kenneth

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ann mcardle

interpretation it
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79
NIETZSCHE AND LIBERATION: THE PRELUDE TO A PHILOSOPHY OF THE FUTURE*

Pamela K. Jensen

University of Colorado
Nietzsche begins Beyond Good and Evil by asserting that philosophic dogmatism has decisively obstructed the philosophic quest for truth.1 The fact that all philosophy until now has been dogmatic in some fun damental sense is, however, nothing more than a sign of the youthfulness of the philosophic enterprise (Beyond, Preface, I, n, II, 31). Nietzsche strives to bring philosophy to its maturity, thereby to pre pare the way for a philosophy of the future. Because the new philos ophy is to be distinguished from
all past

from,

or mature

transcendence of,

philosophy by its liberation dogmatism, it is actually the first
philosophic

genuine philosophy.

Never before has the authentically
to the
realm of

dedication to
to

a comprehensive examination of opinion and

faith, i.e.,

an openness which admits of an ascent
possible.2

the highest

problems, been

This essay examines the nature of the philosophic liberation which Nietzsche seeks and the means by which it is to be Nietzsche did not consider himself the first man to seek a state "beyond good
attained.3
evil"

and

for the

sake of

wisdom; the "three great
all

religion

also re

gard such a state as

the "liberation from than

illusion"

(Gen.,

III.

17).

Nietzsche distinguishes himself from his
sisting
to
upon self-glorification rather
wisdom

mystic predecessors self-effacement as

by

in

the way

and

by

replacing, as the

sign of

freedom, "the hypnotic

I wish to thank Joseph Cropsey for his helpful comments on the draft. Friedrich Nietzsche, Preface, Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Vintage Books, 1966), p. 2, hereafter cited as Beyond. Major divisions of Nietzsche's works are cited by Roman numeral and the aphorisms within them by Arabic numeral. 2 Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, trans. Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale (New York: Vintage Books, 1969), III. 10, and The Gay Science, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Vintage Books, 1974), V. 343; hereafter cited as Gen. and G.S., respectively. 3 I have relied primarily upon Beyond Good and Evil (1886) but have made considerable use of On the Genealogy of Morals (1887), which Nietzsche prepared as a clarifying supplement to Beyond Good and Evil, and of Book V of The Gay Science (1882), which Nietzsche added to the original edition in 1887 and to which he refers his readers in the third essay of the Genealogy. For the rela tionship between Beyond Good and Evil and the Genealogy to Thus Spoke Zarathustra, see Nietzsche's letters to Jakob Burckhardt (1886) and to Karl Knortz (1888) in Selected Letters of Friedrich Nietzsche, ed. and trans. Christo pher Middleton (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 255, 298, and Ecce Homo, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Vintage Books, 1969), pp. 310-13; the latter hereafter cited as E.H.
*

1

ideal. Gen. Meno 96b. 538b. Nietzsche's criticism is directed toward the more tenacious. 27. is in the further development of truthfulness. Preface. prepa In Beyond Good ration and Evil.. Since philosophers have 1. The dogmatism stroyed which remain dogma" influential exoteric after Christianity has been de "as a (Beyond. The uncondi form. 9.. the problems associated with for a new era in philosophic are resolved almost im mediately into other problems associated with cultivation of a new type of philosophic man. tion 27). they have of never been to see themselves clearly. as itself a kind revealed. 6. within sophic quest has remained imprisoned litical life. thinking the 34).. distress. until now with 358). however. which 4 See Plato Apology 2id. 12.. III. 28). I. which praises self-denial as prerequisite for wisdom (Gen. the which has dominated human life concerned. The philosophers have been "fooled best on ophers accusation that. I. 3. that this the psychological misperception obstructs cultivation of genuine philosophic virtues. never succeeded Nietzsche scending the that philosophers have in tran philo of po realm of popular opinion (Beyond. the 13. I. The piety philosophy has the engendered a superficial psychol ogy 10). 7. Nietzsche is ascetic however. 2. III. 116). 34) Philosophers have never really engaged activity. 5 . never raised III.S.. in a proper self-examina tion. 3. the boundaries 19).. III. III. of argues pain" with the intense desire to create. 2. with platonism in both its original and its modern is equivalent to the hatred not specifically of sensuality. Christian dogma is the most 24. because more subtle. The defeat of religious piety itself brings forth Nietzsche's criticism. 11). 28). ascetic 357. 24.. V. 25. forms of 16. 25. III. of piety or dogmatism (G. The resolution of one type of problem of into the their men. Gen. 343-44). have typically is most serious: philos founded the belief in their superiority to nonupon earth" philosophic men precisely the claim that a clear and comprehensive account of themselves they alone could give (Beyond. V. Ion 530c.. (Gen. Behind the theoretical oppo tional devotion to sition of truth and error or appearance is an unquestioned trust in the the moral opposition of good and evil (Beyond. they have matism esoteric form of dog has obstructed the philosophic quest by preventing the fun damental question about philosophy from being raised the question not justified their The of the value of the will to truth (Beyond. which requires belief in unconditional moral opposites or dogma for its maintenance (G. which but of truth.. upon which contemporary atheism rests. depend Nietzsche argues.80 muting and Interpretation the capacity to feel then to endure. the most important ques able about themselves. I. i. 5. II. 2. . is mediated by a demonstration in Section I to give an account of the characteristic and of all inability of philosophers themselves activity (aphorisms 2.e.S. 23. spirituality or philosophy (Gen. esoteric aspect of ideal. II. 8.S. manifestation of the G. Preface.

III. cifically. it and persists in the which modern scientific quest for objectivity5 in any psychology good and posits I. I. 24. III. philosophic man Nietzsche's able one. belief and thereby to liberate the philosophic individual. Philosophers have therefore believed that the desire for truth originates in the wish to be free of any contact with evil. ignorance is absolutely evil requires that one believe in the self-subsistent and eternally separate existence of the realm of the true and the realm of the untrue. leads them to a misunderstanding about the their desire for truth.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to His a Philosophy of the Future 81 upon self-love. (Beyond. analysis simultaneously liberates the potentially from inhibitive psychological errors and philosophy from its dogmatic assumptions. appearance. 10). I. 17). Preface). has animated the philosopher's judgments. 12. eternal. his physical impulses. intends to transfigure philosophy's relation to Nietzsche.. Beyond. too. they are evil. The judgment that the truth is absolutely the being (Beyond. 207-8. belief in the op position of good and origin of evil. He seeks to cultivate a philosophy that does not believe in itself and a philosophic self that does (Gen. Leben. III. 5 . Until now he has ac 24) corded them a life of their own and worshiped them as the bridge be tween his own mortality and the eternal. identified as conscious rea son. Exposure of the ingenuous dissembling at the root of past philosophy is the one way to banish the infectious moral taint from the philosophic quest. 2). This trust in a possible ascent from the realm of the bodily. pp. 16. VI. Gen. according to Nietzsche. 1920-29). 6. in man specifically. any philosophy begins to believe in for his part. In the end. A psychological conviction ensues to the effect that the ve error. story: what as soon as formerly happened the Stoics happens itself" today. Further. "Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Historie fiir das in Gesammelte Werke (Munich: Musarion Verlag. new psychology about amounts origins of to an attempt to substitute a tenable hypothesis the The "typical" moral prejudice philosophizing for an unten of philosophers. 9). all philosophers have submitted themselves to the an tyranny of a perspective of their own making: with "But this is ancient. spe to the realm of eternal being (Gen. It is on the basis of this misunder standing that philosophers have posited the independence of reason (Beyond. he become good.. In so far as the bodily drives obstruct or distort the reason ing activity. 273-84. must itself be entirely independent of and in principle opposed to everything else. everything lesser.. Vol. the presumed harmony between the absolutely true and the independent mind has led the philosopher to believe that through philosophy he can can escape the bodily self. Although Plato's invention of the pure mind is the original formulation ego as of this error (Beyond. or hicle for human apprehension of the Good." See Friedrich Nietzsche. from the decaying.

The philosophic praise of conscious reason has led philosophers to overestimate the power of conscious thinking in relation to the instincts and thus has made them susceptible to con tinual deception (Beyond. a proper affective other" the intellect III. is equivalent to the impulse to interpret or make known.. 2. all expression of "the active and interpreting forces through seeing becomes seeing (Gen.S.. 23). 211. I.. 8. I. He doubts that consciousness (Beyond. I. The philosophic quest to know. 16. Philosophic exertions of will are the highest which alone ing. 357). 14.. in the is the prideful attempt to infuse meaning and order into Philosophy the commotion of human perceptions (Beyond. VI. 354. Life as means that life 13). G. V.. All know perception. I. inate. 9. the naked intel lect. "evil" II. G. III. accurately distinguish the mental from the the will describes a series of instinctive processes which are (Beyond. studies the structure of its mode of assertion. in philosophy must be recognized and lib clear-sighted vision into what is (Beyond. I. however. free of an admixture of the merely human or conventional (Beyond. is ultimately intersomething" .. 11. IV. I. V. The psy cannot. 301). The self or will is a or affects and complex of obeying and their respective each thoughts.. I. I. 12). according to Nietzsche. 12). Ii. IV. III. The will is active as well is required to do the "willing". 54). 13. 12). the whole self and and instinct He which are 372). 21. 333. the chologist bodily (Beyond. self and Nietzsche's is obliteration the distinction between the the willing The assertions of the philosophic self orig lust to rule or to dominate. IV. I. no independent of agent G. of these drives to The affective element erated. 19.S. the funda mental animators of the self. G. I. Gen. He utilizes the insight that good and evil things are interconnected and interdependent. 22. 36. self-assertion assertions of the is (Gen. self distinguish the as self from the thoughtful. is in will every to case some manifestation of power the comprehensive life activity.S. IX.S. G. II. 333.. 13. by dint of its origin in willing. 3. 7. 126) nor can he does.. Philosophy does not even tuate in the discovery of unadorned nature. V. II.. it weakens the basis for the belief in the opposition of truth and untruth. Gen. Objective or be attained by supports (Beyond. to be objective. self self-affirming. II. its powers only bred into man at a late stage of his development.S. 36. most force impulses are derived from stated. reason alone . Gen. theorizing consciousness to proceed independently of instinct. Thinking commanding instincts is "merely a rela tion 352). Even more fundamentally.. II. he believes that "good" "evil" fully ones opposed (Beyond. 3. 39) rather.82 Interpretation Nietzsche's understanding of the origins of philosophizing is equiva lent to a skepticism about opposites. cannot basis for for (Gen. would be powerless in a confrontation with the instincts. III.S. 6. If it were possible power The understanding of philosophy as an destroys the belief in the opposition expression of of the will to instinct and conscious ness.. 259. what themselves thoughtful 16. G. in fact.

The foundation of philosophy insight into the fact of human bondage is not..S. Ion 534a-e. 188. interpretation is inseparable from quest for objectivity its is. the world of greatest concern to man (Beyond. III. 213) . Man as man is barred from complete union with the text of the world outside himself. so any the philosophic vision is inevitably compelled to be what it is by na ture (Beyond. Preface. Nietzsche's understanding of the character of philosophy attests to the potency of man. or some That theorizing has an identifiable natural or that the errors of past psychological origin suggests philosophy may overcome by the creation of a new type of philosophic man (Beyond.S. appears to possess a different cog evaluative scheme stitutes most vital element : nitive status: man can apprehend The directly the that which he makes (G. VI. I. V. II. 218. affirmation of convention simply. p. G. the species outside world at moment in history. 5. The evaluative world. 34). 4. moral The philosophic I.. III. by its needs. The psychologist addresses himself to the evaluations of the philosopher in order to infer from them what he is (Beyond. V.. 187. 347). 355)..6 inner necessity (Beyond. cf. 83 pretive. 114). "perspectivity. Gen. 100b. III. the liberation of philosophy conventional from conventional upon an orthodoxy requires acceptance of philosophy as a structuring of the natural. 292. implied in every philosophic perspective con it expresses the philosopher's own life. phi- VI. G. undifferentiated and continually shifting. for the sake of mastery. the subrational and unique constellation of drives and values represented by the phi losopher himself.. with nature (G. VII. what he loves and what he needs. V. I. 6. Gen. neous effusion Philosophizing possesses the character of a sponta born of an unperceived 192. however. Liberation of the human mind apparently requires loving acknowledgment of the dependence the intellectual upon the passionate. I. G. 21. an Just as structuring of the is. I. VI. then. 268." Nietzsche's psychology rests Philosophy must be understood upon notion of as both a conditioned and a condition 188). V. 354. 203. IX. II. II. 246). 109. 6. But he seeks to make us aware of man's bondage to him self as well. engages in inter pretive activity. who. the development of science represents for Nietzsche an increasingly successful effort to isolate elements of natural processes which are perceived (G. 19. Plato Apology 22c. V. 370). 231. 20. ing of activity (Beyond. I.S. IX. modality is inspiration. 13.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future evaluation. 11. 374). III. 264..S. . IX. the genuine philosophic thing be closely akin to it. (Beyond. He cannot perceive that world as it actually is. 24). V. Section III. E. scientific description of processes which exist independently of man is not explanation. 32. To be sure. Meno 99c-e.S.H. 112. The refutation of a narrow or superficial 6 Beyond. 6.. elicited All theorizing is rooted in the unfathomable particular. how ever..S.

hence.. G. His increase life as will to of that intellectual life is the which will search for that measure understanding VII. 213. 11).S. V. Preface. IV. for his responsibility. Vol. note attached to Essay I. 345). III. 7 alter 8 See both of Nietzsche's prefaces to "Die Philosophie im Tragischen Griechen. Zeit- . Nietzsche must disentangle the proper affective basis for theorizing of instinctive health from what he calls the normal operations of obstacle to philosophy and the ultimate cause of life. 219. 5.8 be and understood in terms their moral relations to other Philosophy the most spiritual exercise of justice rightfully eventuates in hence in the highest form of 211. 289). 23).7 The orders philosophers of the future must. pp. While lib however. Thus it will prepare philosophic man The ment. He makes this judg himself: the vitality or health of the philosopher. act of new. I. 11. according to Nietzsche.S.84 losophy the can occur Interpretation only by subduing that which is irrefutable in it philosopher himself. of solve the "problem of value". IV. 3.. they must establish a system of ranks and will through which all things things. rather. 192). by way of an assessment of the philosopher the instincts and. I. The phi new spirit" interpreting expresses the desire to overcome the in most cases means the desire to assimilate the and familiar (Beyond. That psy is "the path to the command or rule (Beyond. 24. A new genuine philosophizing and psychology is a necessary first step toward fundamental 'Beyond. appears to de termine the justice of his reflections (Gen. Unless the impulse to know itself becomes instinctive becomes the animating impulse in a human being it will not be a reliable and resolute check upon the basic will to power (G. V. I. The liberation of philosophic willing is an exceptional liberation. Gen. which allows it to flourish. 6. 230). The alien or power or render it secure (Beyond. V. 10.. to liberate the instincts from inhibitive moral judg 186. he is instinctive liberation however understood.. chology ments will begin and will proceed by taking the value of philosophy as problematic. however superficial. The fundamental its continued inno phrase cence and narrowness power means is human life itself. instinctual freedom does not necessarily culminate in health or in philosophy. VII.S. 123. it is satisfied with any inter pretation. psychologist can judge the relative value of a philosophic per spective in terms of its apprehension of what is. the Gen. of the will is crucial to the philo enterprise. which into the old does not seek the truth. Genealogy. The "basic will of the losopher's ignorance of the importance of the instincts in theorizing has inadvertently encouraged man's natural tendency to surrender to the mere feeling of increased power. Nietzsche carefully delineates the meaning eration of sophic not an advocate of and its relationship to the philosophic task.. III. G. 151-52. II." der in Gesammelte Werke. says Nietzsche. (Beyond. 249)..

to the merely personal. power without Nietzsche's attempt corroding or repressing that desire (Gen. the self within because flourish they a pervasive self-interest which will philosophy precisely distorts or nar power allows rows vision. of The sheer power of not assure some that the desire for knowledge will overmaster ruling and ruled elements Nietzsche argues in general terms that the well-ordered self is the only truly healthy or vitalized self. laziness" fear. 22). 7. an essential All theorizing. In its normal to life to lia by imprisoning the the confines of personal need. the the Nietzsche affects that "even in the such as processes of sensation the dominate. 190-91.e. III. This ten dency. is for Nietzsche a prelude to the most slavish of submissions. 8. which is inherent in man as a willing being. therefore has less magnificent generalization of idio- Plato Ion 536b-c. the affects from which theorizing derives describe a sediment in man which does not normally 'simplest' strive to express anything 284). V. V. 10). 8.. 6.e. including 192). a kind of moder The aristocratically organized self is a mark of genuine nobility (die Vornehmheit) Nietzsche seeks to cultivate a nobility in whom the philosophic impulse for objectivity or justice has become the fundamental need or predominating instinct. to liberate the philosophic impulses cannot simply lead to praise of self-assertion. IX. The excep deserves to be called the only Self-assertion typically inclines toward an abject surrender to the self. i. 12). I. a doctrine of liberation. from the highest to the lowest variety. VII. passive af affects will fects that of (Beyond. while all the in ruling instinct exists which controls and coordinates the others for its own ends (Beyond. which is divorced from the insistence upon self-rule as its precondition.. The concept of instinctual vitality is incomprehensible without stincts are or firm strong. as an bility to become the 9 expression of more or life. Such a nobility could resist the distortions of the will's desire for acknowledgment that the capacity for self-rule. hatred. love.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future 85 The affective or passionate origin of all theorizing. However. .. is hostile to phi tional liberation of the philosophic self self. "An Interpretation of Plato's Ion.. genuine liberation of the losophy. III. Allan Bloom..9 The most powerful express human impulses operation. is its basis (Gen. ation. He defines physio-psychological corruption as "the expression of a threatening anarchy among the instincts and of the fact that the foundation of the has been affects. which is called (Beyond. IX.' shaken" hierarchy the others. so within the self is in The well-ordered self is fundamentally a aristocratic . Gen. 258)." Inter pretation 1 (Summer 197) : 58- . i. I. 229. The fundamental human sche strivings for dominion oppose represent to Nietz the primacy of the search for individual significance and mean ing. dispensable to philosophy. deprives reason of its place as the natural ruler of man. 'life. 8. other than its says own settledness (Beyond.

of men 7. has too often been merely a generalization of the personal indi phy cates its reliance upon the reactive affects (G. Ressentiment signifies an inability to transcend intense preoccupation with or oneself. 11. 260. 5. 202. Preface. or one's oppres the correctness of one's own views Gen. III. Their impotence them as their "senseless pendent raging" their rulers mark beings of 11). e. The Jews' for revenge against Rome. IX.S.S. intellectual life has heretofore been directed by an unperceived cal culus of utility. who. 16). 210. 9. VI. 8.g. by enabling man to conquer the reactive him to rise above the merely personal (Beyond. cannot revere himself except is inseparable from self-contempt or 10. II. is capable objectivity or phenomenon healthy human (Beyond. 18). i4). I. revenge. is the most inhibitive of clear-sighted vision into sors. 11. of of 260). In Nietzsche's view. 6). 359).. I. G. I. 14). The physio-psychological deficiency philosophers have shared in common with "the is thus revealed as a lack of independence or autonomy (Beyond. V. the will The man who is independent of the spontaneous inclinations in this sense.. 199. 2. for example. I. I. culminated. is painfully aware of his de pendence. Nietzsche calls ressentiment typical because they cannot rule themselves. The ignoble man insofar as he is attached to something than he is... III. with one's misery.. velopment of Christian dogma (Gen. 3). 13. 11. an ascent Nietzsche from the seeks self. VI... it must. the most malignant of (Gen. IX. 222. Gen. Gen.. 370). 25. he despises himself because of it (Gen. The from the sions assertions of reactive to power which are most common derive affects. personal. G. 2. II. 11). III. 260..S. the will 2. They which insufficiently (Gen. True objectivity is so extraordinary a because of the pervasiveness of enervated rather than noble life (Gen. which has resulted in a clear surrender to the merely the means whereby philosophy can be truly The liberation implied in the attainment of philosophic objectivity requires a radical detachment from the self a detachment that appears as selflessness or humility (Beyond. and who is hence master of himself. Preface. 14. The phi losophic exercise of moderation aims at mastery of fundamental human strivings. in the de In both its exoteric . the power of ressentiment in willing expresses perception or peculiar the general ignobility which of man. what is.. The ignoble man. an ressentiment. V. i. require formidable rulers. III. In this light.. also enables vitality which.. III.86 syncratic characteristics Interpretation (Beyond. the self-serving pas Nietzsche's discovery that philoso therefore. genuine entirely de nobility indicates that degree affects. V. I. I. be specifically directed toward the most reac tive affects. 205. are (Beyond. Ignoble self-interestedness or people" self-love shame (Beyond. Preface. according to Nietzsche. I. 39). IX. 13. 11). Dogma is his passion more powerful and and hence more secure solace his weapon against rulers. II. Gen. 8.. powerful to release themselves from the and bonds both oppress and preserve against them. according to Nietzsche. The or famous such affect discussed by Nietzsche. 10. II.

to 14.... The to power expresses eternally true doctrine the human inclination assertions of the will orig inated in the needs of a species which was not yet capable of self-love. Thus Nietzsche interprets the conventional tyranny over man implied universalize personal need.. however. Genealogy. mastery of the basic will to frees philosophy from its alliance. as a inextricably it has conjoined with the nature of has tyranny the human species be which cause satisfied the passionate longing for significance (Gen. 16-18. hitherto unnoticed. norm of expression (Beyond. The noble man has dependence from the been able to effect some measure of in of dogma. Moreover. of the love truth manifests revenge. V. 199. Nietzsche defends been necessity with reference to the II. dogmatism dogmatism of transforms the into self-love.. the French Revolution of are three archetypal expressions of the needs the people which succeeded at the expense of philosophic charac teristics. of what Philosophizing be at which emanates from a love is masterful in oneself will once candid and power just to life. G. 13. (Gen. that revenge 25). frivolous toler- .. Philosophic dog is to be by that noble being who can transcend the merely personal by means of an authentic selfhood. 9). has been intolerant to overcome truth.S. Nietzsche self-love grows out of matism the capacity for conquered self-rule (Gen. life. the attack The original Christian ruling upon the Catholic Church by Luther.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to a Philosophy shame of the Future 87 The and esoteric forms. prevalence of vidual reveals power of man's passion for indi significance. 1. III. despite its own beliefs. He reveals the conjunction be independence and genuine character of anti-philosophic movements philosophy by to historical instances ascribing the of pop con and ular rebellion against a noble quest of Rome. Its implied piety is vanity. including the faith in truth. Gen. directed against life itself Philosophy. Heretofore the in any willing as an of unconditional of natural morality. "original" Nietzsche argues that Christianity the "noble sought and to destroy a thriving skepticism and impartiality. of the most form form of of self-preoccupation that As the most subtle all-encompassing form of the most subtle dogmatism. III. a passion which seeks sanctification of individual existence by way universally will applicable and (Gen. Ill. its praise of self-denial or disinter estedness is a subtly disguised philosophic expression of exists. III. is. with the always realm non-philosophic realm. I. In order those human inclinations which have proved stronger man's than philosophic impulses. it is necessary envisions a genuine to overcome which self-contempt. 188. class. 22). It 11. Nietzsche teaches the the attitude poten of past tially tween philosophic man to adopt of noble men times toward those noble who are not noble. In the psychological studies ascetic the morality human 117). 7). II. Philosophic dogmatism ultimately derives from the character of appears as a form of the distorting egoism of base or dependent men.

I. 23).. tocracy (Beyond. 46. 251. that self-assured luxury of skepticism and itself" every triumphant as power permits (G. IX.S. The democratic order manifests man's clear-sighted common grasp of the conditions which are Aristocratic regimes are. Skepticism regarding faith the needs that issue in faith is pro by aristocratically organized ruling structures. to power as Because it mass of the will 219. therefore. VI. 61-62. I. the influ aristocratic regime minimizes the realm of faith on the higher man. naturally interpreted found them in the church of nobility on faith.. 283). The proud recaptured to insure philosophic openness. and as the sole justification for aris G. Gen. then. 1.. I. 10). G. V. III. 256. V. Gen. piety with laughter and arrogant skepticism. when he 14). skepticism of the ruling church encouraged a suspicion about man's nature which accommo dated moted psychological realism (G. democratic orthodoxy possesses a solid and foundation in the species life. Con II. a man of the people. effects of Luther. the Gen. 208). says disdain of faith opposes the ingenuousness and superficiality of the common man's mode of self-assertion through dogma (Beyond. his day. and 358). sidering the species as a whole. III. Just these characteristics must be Nietzsche. VIII. Nietzsche's analysis is democracy is thoroughly anti-democratic because he conceives democracy to be the most powerful form which the non-philosophic realm can take. The sense of independence and pride which in formed the aristocracy had enabled it to withstand the seductions of faith : the Romans had overwhelmed seriousness and hence. III. III. democratic regimes are 10). VII. pressed satisfies the fundamental desire for individual and significance i4). V. democracy the need of may be average understood as the most natural regime: it glorifies assertions of average men tocracy may fulfill the very real life. 257.. Gen. II. 10. 252. a hostile external environment (Beyond.. . that will is ex in the imposing the men. as corruption.S. Nietzsche's task is. recognition democracy Gen. it is not absolutely opposed to philosophy: in fact. Ultimately. 261. 262) .S. Gen. the 350.. by its egalitarian animus expresses (Beyond. 2. the effect of dangerous circumstances. the security a new nobility depends upon a new aristocratic regime (Beyond. among most noble example which Nietzsche includes the church 61.10 promise or goal of aristocracy.. The ence of of as the (Beyond. VIII. 358). III.. IX.S. III. that Nietzsche intended to assist the establishment that sort of environment which gives rise to aristocracy (Beyond. His consideration of politics is evidently utili inherently tarian: he regards the sovereignty of the individual as the hidden political. He "misunderstood the tolerance which noble skepticism.. 201 . 23). Insofar the pious substitution of revelation for reason eventuates in the creation of nobility. according to Nietzsche. of 10 born in generally peaceable circumstances (Beyond. IV. One can infer. IX. Of all regimes.88 ance" Interpretation cultivated by the mores of the aristocratic Romans (Beyond. Aris for leaders. the most hostile to philosophy.

265. Gen.e. overcome. 263. the individual culture. i." in What Is Political Philosophy? (New York: The Free Press. and trans.. II. "On the New Spoke Zarathustra. the will to inhibition 17-18). While democratic regimes are upon a similar past disrespect for of a masterful tradition.. V. 10). 11. 160. III. An aristocratic or ganization of vitality from implicit in society is itself. Hiero. at least the potential (which becomes greater as the society approaches maturity) for philosophy. VII. the and 27). to help 2).. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Viking Press. Gen. an exceptional condition. 15. Nietzsche regards the toward which the modern democratic order is progressing. Gen. II. himself . present. 10. the "autonomous as the final glorification of democratic organiza tion ." See also Leo Strauss. The reverence future together at for lineage establishment of firm institutions and mores is integrated into a whole which is supremely confident of itself. especially the within the ruling class. 262. .. it represents a loss of individuality so complete that coercion and hence government is no longer necessary (Beyond. IX. "Restatement on Xenophon's 1959). however. IX.S. Friedrich Nietzsche. aristocratic and expense individuality. he founded creates new him in laws for himself (Beyond. III.S.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future 89 197- favorable to his existence. III.. Aristocracy 257. V. aims at nothing other than its own organization. II. and reconstruct. IX. Gen." . 221. His trained him to good stead. tends to foster something greater than itself (Beyond. 149). 18. The orthodoxy of aristocratic regimes is more precariously established than democratic orthodoxy (Beyond. 262. diverse: the culture gives way to the sect (G. in The Portable Nietzsche. Gen.e. pp. The mature aristocratic society. 202). 114-15. 201. 18). 352). a That culture abhors novelty and strives to preserve its institutions for future generations. V.. supplant. Aristocratic orthodoxy tends to overcome itself as a necessary result of its attempt to tie man irrevocably to the past and the future (Gen. IX. of Initially. 259. 12 The individual experiences a tension be tween the sacred laws of the past and the freedom which might derive from their destruction. Gen. it links the past. 99. his innate prudence (Beyond. constantly resists the organization (Beyond. IX. 10). VI. 202-3. attachment to a glorious tradition has a self-discipline and a self-love which now stand able He is 262. III. 202) Democracy goal herd. the the sovereign individual emerges. therefore. p. is skeptical and. ed. 1968). II.. Aristocracies always possess. Democratic orthodoxy sanctifies the submersion into an awe-in spiring collectivity of individual men who could not otherwise respect themselves (Beyond.. therefore. I. G. the pride and self-confidence which have been cultivated by the faith tradition makes possible.. 228. V. i. will no longer endure oppressive weight of tradition aristocratic culture matures and (Beyond. The which it derives and which it supports.. II.11 in tradition. i. III. Eventually.e... they do 11 not sever man from his because Thus Beyond. 12 Idol. like that of Rome immediately be fore Christ.

G. VI. G. VI. and a (Beyond. V. is directed at the tendency of previous theo- 13 "On the New Idol. The pervasive leveling in democratic society impedes the rare man's confidence exceptionality (Beyond. 2. The cult of the state. IX. 221. of assuaged creation of an the political ortho the masses.. 7. what he calls (Beyond. 198.90 Interpretation power. more remote. II. VII. II. thus.S. VII.S. cannot exist. but which acknowledge an order of rank among men (Beyond. V. V. Men in a democracy are inclined to submit themselves to a political ideology because they dare not recognize what they are. the de for new problems and tasks. the development of further-stretching. Democratic political orthodoxy is dis tinguished from the two sorts of organization of belief found in aris tocracies because it does to imitate the old or not compel men to aspire by teaching them to create the of new. 285. and restless (Beyond. . "On the Famous Wise Gen.S.. 214-15. to instill in the potential philosopher a and Nietzsche "the seeks awareness of the distance between higher distance" penetrating pathos of malicious conscience intends the standing pathos of lower men. V. 228). Democratic orthodoxy owes its immense power and durability precisely to the defects of the democratic order. 371. and. 5. 357. Gen. Nietzsche distance to eventuate in a passion for solitude or atheism.. 356). 238-39). they establish moral judg ments which are not unconditional. (Bevond. G.. 208. 32. 2)... 161. I. confused. II. as a psychologist's weapon. III. Because of its origin in enervated life. necessarily replaces the ordered cultural whole and its successor. the specialized sect. Neither a skeptical attitude toward orthodoxy nor the sense of autonomy necessary to maintain it is possible without love that of oneself as occurs own in his of freeing something rare (G. 55). IV. 223-24.14 alone which requires The malicious conscience. more comprehensive the soul an ever states" higher. 30. 44. but in the face of They break the spell of cus they merely waver (Beyond.S. the impetus to extraordinary activity. Men. G. V. 117). Only admits of a regime which suppresses is compelled to aristocratic regimes cultivate that sort of individuality which development into philosophy. the democratic order openness the they have created. pp. III. IX. VII. 119. as such.13 law-giving or institution-creating tom. 212. 351). itself. 284. 359j 367_ in Zarathustra.S. For the sake philosophy from the influence of democratic political life. the ignore the future." 14 Beyond. provokes a pervasive doubt and unsureness about life which can be all-encompassing only by doxy. most vigorous claims on behalf The regime which makes the the individual tends to obliterate the past individuality . The aristocratic apportionment of higher duties and more extensive privileges accord ing of to class or rank alone within leads to the "craving for an ever-widening distances 257). Nietzsche regards democracy as infirm.. I." p. 19. sire and need Without an acute awareness of one's exceptionality. 3.

310. 27. V. Nietzsche directs his most vigorous attack in Beyond Good and Evil (Section VI) at that dogmatism which is specifically typical characteristics modern. Together they comprise free-spiritedness. 31. of and the men. The elucidation of free-spirited independence is the theme of Section II of Beyond Good and Evil. As rather are men "without solitude. III. Nietzsche seeks to encourage a criti cal attitude toward philosophizing. senses. "The Free The preconditions for Spirit. E. and. In addition. Nietzsche give a proper considers understanding of either mode of re faith in truth to be emphat 204. 3. as something entirely new. he says. the original or classical faith in truth. it is turned against the self (Beyond.. . he emphasizes the differences between the "higher type of the "seeker after man. 40-44). 192. p. levelers (Gen. or offices. These characteristics encourage the philosopher's independence from the thus people and teach self-control . 33. the interests of the "great or or enthusiasms of the and i. 34.9). VI." knowledge in the rest of sense" great and exceptional (aphorism 26).. a thorough going atheism.16 His prelude to a new philosophizing is a as much a recovery of something lost. the capacity to take lightly all that has hitherto been taken seriously (Beyond. 41. 28. II.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future 91 rizing toward dogmatism . 346. more completely accommodated the philosophy its openness. VII. V. 227. 43).." money. of genuine Gen. 24) . G. ically anti-philosophic (Beyond. reaffirm what noble men of the he lives. its full ness. II.. 39.e." genuine philosophizing appear to be. especially the contemporary variety "free-thinkers" (aphs. Because of the age in which necessary to perience. 27. of which Plato is typical representative (Beyond. they are the the masses. they support the passion for knowledge.H. 227. however subtle their influence. Nietzsche does not treat his encouragement of philosophic indepen dence from the people. VII. In this section Nietzsche counsels against "the lures of dependence that He hidden in honors. but continually vanguard of susceptible to the orthodoxy democracy.. however. 229-30). 29.S. Section II.15 as the ability for self-mockery. 35. on the other. 26.." they mere are not inde of pendent. its height. 15 16 Beyond. Preface. a kind of self-inflicted cruelty which teaches the philosophic man to resist a seductive moralizing (Beyond. 26). he finds it past have known from ex for genuine phi of A serious examination of the preconditions losophy tual life. II. the lures in majority" (aphorism 44) of dependence that he hidden in the unexamined praise of philosophic pursuits (aphorisms 25. cannot ignore the decisive defects common contemporary intellec Reference to the dogmatism in its original piety which informs both philosophic formulation and contemporary philosophy the modern does not suffice to flection. 26. 32. 33. I. on the one hand. 28).

204). not about the sciences (Beyond. philosophic rule over life. however. nor does he oppose classical phi losophy by tainment as a suggesting that this insight A candid and must be tempered by a sober reflection. V. It began with an intimation about the possibility of Gen.S. human wisdom concerning the eternal natural order or hierarchy. "by the height and of his (Beyond. Phi losophy's abandonment of belief in its exceptional character is suffi cient to turn extraordinary men away from it (Beyond. III. and thus it reveals its spirituality" in noble rather than impoverished life (Beyond." philosophy to degenerate into This abuse. VI. The scientific man as such cannot approach the fundamental problems of value. the philosopher "demands but The about of himself and a judgement.. i. of wisdom.S. G. the legitimate ruler of the age seeks to destroy this order of ruling the distinction between scientific men and philosophers. value of life the comprehensiveness of the No. 381).. itself. VI.e. The true philosophic is noble. it expresses a desire to be distinguished from other men (Beyond. of the probability of the at devoted attachment to philosophy about modest claim about way life to must rest upon a thoroughly its achievements. VI. fluence. the men presumed accessibility of philosophic reflec tion to ordinary edness of necessarily causes reflections of which ordinary men are capable. 205.. 373). 207.S. Nietzsche does not deny that philosophy must be based on some in sight into the possibility of wisdom.18 According 17 18 Nietzsche.. 212. se or Yes cures the legitimacy of philosophic rule over scientific pursuits. he philosopher power orient origins is ignoble (Beyond. and ex 213). secret. derived from experience. cf.Q2 Interpretation the remnants of VI. 213). ophy" Genuine philosophy sciences. 213). the philosopher's modesty bespeaks his abil- See Plato Republic Strauss. philosophy only if philosophy itself can be can be made the expression of command or rule (Beyond. 211. 211). philosophic exercise of command concern with is ultimately su- perordinate to the a life" rank of science. The noble instinct for the singular and high which Nietzsche seeks to encourage can find its proper satisfaction in made worthy again. 270-72.. Gen. in The contemporary and ruled by destroying The a the first place. VI. G. in general. 8. IX. "Restatement. VI.. ii5-r6. G. Classical philosophy did itself around problems of evaluation. 25). 204. 495c. VI. 123. VI. the venerable. The is distinguished from him by nature. Nietzsche as it is the a eradication of Plato's in seeks reaffirmation of alted character of eros philosophy (Beyond. V. III. VI. 213.. G. 206. VI.S. . 294). 17 In turn. 204. III. IV. 212. 129)." pp. is. "the wretch the most recent philosophy leads to a disdain for phi The attitude of the modern age toward philosophy losophy cultivates "unbelief in the masterly task and masterfulness of philos (Beyond.

204. it knows no 58-59. meaning of evaluation.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future 93 ity the problematic. Modern philosophers. 328. or positivists The "philosophers possibility immodest tence of wisdom of all reality" lay claim not to the claims" but to its possession. have obscured V. 374-75). V. 22. 263. V. way philosophic hearing (Beyond. entirely subject Nietzsche portrays them. 272.S..S. dogmatism truncates philosophic dogmatism for everything that lies beyond the V. 76. as (G. G. Modern inquiry more seriously than classical because.. Positivism seeks "'a truth' world of mastered reason" completely and forever (G. III. II. 9). Both major trends contemporary philosophy. when examined in light of of philosophic standards of cognitive validity. 296. I. I. 296. from the to the absolute rejection of evaluative skepticism of a philosophy is a form of deprives evaluative questions which. Gen. 10) are to the realm of orthodoxy because they are themselves manifestations of of ignobility. another. Philosophizing self-sufficiency for which there is no contem porary model. V. VI. Modern science is ignoble because it cannot tolerate openness (G. 351).S. 373.S. upon 351.. autonomy is intrepid and pene The noble man's disdain for the opinions and systain a philosophic sense of by men can develop into wonder. 347). "the taste reverence" horizons of ordinary men (G. III. There is from the nature (Gen. held 359.S. "It was modesty that in vented the word in Greece and left the magnificent over presumption in calling oneself wise to the actors of the spirit weening greatest questions 'philosopher' to the the modesty Plato" of such monsters of pride and sovereignty 7). III. "the maddest and most (G. It rightfully proceeds from the noble synthesis of mod esty and self-affirming pride.. 263. III. 343. IV.S. as a child of the democratic order. III. V. 373. Beyond. cf.S. one Contemporary hubris as peculiarly within modern synthesis of and shame. 207.. Nietzsche understands philosophy as the constant.. it is a interpretation.S. with of our square . 54. leads to an unprecedented inflation that can of the value of a mechanical or conceptual rendering the aid the operations of be little 23-24). the true philosophy as the ascent to the task of comprehensive The philosophic attachment to truth has undergone an Nietzsche considers evolution. IX...S. V. (Beyond.. beginning with Kant. I. IX. of 375). IV. Beyond. Nietzsche says. or Only that theorizing which is founded lesser self-rule trating (G. V. 9. 265). They believe in the compe to establish replaced of natural science the limits of knowledge : the quest rel for philosophic wisdom is by mathematical physics. as Pythago ras.. unfaltering ap endure ness more proach requires an exceptional to (G. which belief in an eternal hierarchy or of evaluations to have been necessary. V. 359). modesty (Beyond. 208).358).. The scientific demand for some measure of certainty represents to Nietzsche the vanity and lack of vitality of modern man. to desire questions and questionablethan certainty (G.. The ative reliability of sense data. 347. 345. Gen.

errors (Beyond. however. Gen. is indispensable for an illumination of those issues (Beyond.S. II. it inadvertently promotes the continuance of the democratic order. now prevents the additional philosophic strength acquired in the fight against Plato's attached 24). in its character as psychic disorder or confusion. 212. feeble. It originates in ener vated or "less natural" nature. the time ly (G. 262). innocently conceived which fusion. precisely timely "outlived" . i. it is. the virtues of their time. Radical as an skepticism cannot dilute the potency soporific of democratic allays orthodoxy. more radical modern skepticism.. IX. which arises from an intimation about the ness of his innermost impulses. VI. that the honored things. Both the hubris and from coming to fruition the shame of modern values permanently to Christian-democratic can (Beyond. ascetic to the highest degree (Beyond. In Nietzsche's judgment. this time." conscience not of their those them do the see. VII. As "the bad around time. ex presses the lack of vitality of the democratic age. is ap compel it proached.qa Interpretation outset.e. The pervasive shame or self-contempt tenuousof modern man. Gen. asceticism are a 209). luation 202-3.. V. hence a strong will. 380). however. full of mistrust. 238). VI. The willingness judge. the self is unsure. precludes resolute inquiry while dis guising itself as objectivity. They an be overcome by a reva of values which of classical asceticism self seems understanding of the significance for philosophy. Modern asceticism. con VI.. which rejects of sense belief in the the reli data. 49. have been critique of Nietzsche's (Beyond. then. 233. III. therefore. 23. consequently. VI. then. which conquered Platonic asceticism." "internal disorder intensifies makes man unable and and. is exceptional. II. Inquiry only permit a low order of before the question of the value of democracy. philosophic modern intellectual life is a a denial of truly or impulses which derives from denial of true sensuality instinctive health . is an alliance between modern science and democracy. The liberation of the philosophic upon a successful struggle against is based on to depend. Radical skepticism. The ability mind. doubtful. 24-25). is merely evaluation a more extreme version of a modern cowardice about "feast the of noble pursuit for the of generated from a mortal fear that the knowledge will end in a confrontation with problems of evaluation (Beyond. 208). like that which it claims to oppose. for instance. Physiological consider real decay to or a confusion about standards of evaluation which to issues. III. Nietzsche suggests that the philosopher hostile relation to his times: he arises out combat what as such of has a necessarily decadence in order to philosophers see it. Preface. That will alliance strengthened by the fact that the impulse for certainty problems to be revealed. What modern science has ignored will eventually is closed to support the whole closed realm of orthodoxy as opposed to phi losophy.

decadent. A analysis of the value of proper developmental psychology reveals the variety of human rela instinct' being people. must in contrast to the natural sciences. Nietzsche's "virtue" peak of modern intellectual life Redlichkeit. a human forces" affects" tions to things 186. III. which as such opposes the resolute taste and intolerant conventions of aristocratic cultures sense as (G. VII.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to this new a Philosophy of the Future 95 because it rests upon insight into the significance of all phi losophy for its time. origin. for the relation of the authority of values to the authority of active (Beyond.. A genuinely candor. 62). 224). Nietzsche owes his own insight into the relationship between philosophy and its age to the opmental 355.. that typically resists The liberation of the philosopher from philosophy in man. which. The possibility for genuine philosophy is the highest legacy of the latest age. psychology and the self-critique of consciousness (G.e. endowed with a Man has been nature. 214. for nature. therefore. 227)." is itself a prelude to the cultivation of a radically novel phi losophy. he is "the as yet animal" undetermined (Beyond. the 'divinatory valuations. and curiosit alien. 1). or from "modern ideas. Nietzsche concerns himself primarily with the extension of "unnatural" the scientific conscience into the sciences.S. philosophy derive from its basis in historical psychology. philosophic virtue. and the needs that govern those relations (Beyond. for the a society. exotic. The age must. It is "the capacity for quickly guessing the rank of the valuations according to relations of these has lived. 25). the ruthless scientific conscience (Beyond. the problem of man and of philosophy's not yet thus from attaining a clear un function with regard to human life (Gen.. absence of a historical awareness.S. in order to become profound. that the endnote). Thus his prelude to a new philosophy is actuated by an awareness of the unprecedented opportunity for the philosophic man in the contemporary which age. I. V.. V. It regards morality as "a sign language of the (Beyond. the quest Nietzsche underlies suggests 3-6. which Gen.. V. Historical psychology reveals the conjunction between morality and life. Gen. contain within itself the potentiality for a transcendence of the limitations of its philosophy. with particular reference the capacity to psychologize about the to morality as the vehicle for human order of which a development. Nietzsche defines the historical past. and therefore leads to an various moralities for various levels of life. It represents to Nietzsche a "submissive plebeian about the new. 187). III. i. The rare but timely scientific conscience must ally itself with the other timely virtue of which Nietzsche speaks in Section VII of Beyond Good and Evil. V. VII. IV. the historical sense (aphorism 224). 337). be made historical or devel The unique characteristics of the new modern historical consciousness. Preface. 192.. That previous moralities .. The historical sense is necessarily of modern. has prevented past philosophers from discovering derstanding I.e. does intellectual exist at the or integrity i.

instinctual core. Nietzsche considered himself to be the first philosopher to have discovered the cause of the fragility of human aspiration: the highest human aspi rations have been corrupted. the "original problem man" is. rather. That goal or ideal. regarding 1). 13). expends its energy in pursuit of a goal (Gen. Philosophy has fostered the "gruesome chance" dominion assisted men of nonsense and overall over human life and thereby has The higher the degeneration from of man (Beyond. man" The overall philosophers of the future will accept the responsibility for the (Beyond. 213). VII. IX. I. philosophy seriously dressed itself to the order or whole source of man's variability. which is. man had necessary" rarely. 1). They sought. Past philosophers discovered neither the extent of man's capacity to change himself nor the being inevitability of the changing for an indeterminate or (Gen. 5. have suffered most philosophy's errors .S. 218-19). 1. its malleability. however primitive. has been missing (Beyond. 61. the exceptionally complex calculus which must precede the establishment of conditions favorable to their existence. however. I. they will understand that the exis tence of a human nature is dependent upon human will (Beyond. 251). speci glorified "sick" fically. IX. III. VI.e. the modem problem regarding man as well (Gen. its legitimate Because except regular and duty and privilege no (Beyond. II. Human life needs morality because. by unconditional moral judgments made from the perspective of average life (Beyond. VI. in contrast to animal life. . "The acci dental. inhibited. 274). The low aspirations of ordinary men. must be posited by morality. a unique instance of the will to power. III. by chance. Knowledge of the lawful in development 19 Because of psychology's superficiality. II. 203. 274). are both more insistent upon satisfaction by evaluations fa vorable to them and more easily satisfied (Beyond. they reason his reason because of a perceived never openness of ad to the natural order. his instinctual dis has decay. 203)... i. Human life.19 fixed nature. in contrast to conditions favorable to average life. G. in a more comprehensive form. then.e. philosophy as a evaded responsibility for man's future.. Thus they will be saved from the singular defect of all of man past philosophy its ineffectiveness against the assertions of average life to the detriment of extraordinary life. IX. Human malleability derives from physio-psychological decay (Gen. VIII. 16-18). III. 203). he could not turn out well. 270.. i. VI.. In Nietzsche's understanding. Thus. no sufficiently "calculable. 268). the law of absurdity in the whole economy of mankind..96 Interpretation have been overcome or outlived attests to the indeterminacy of the human species. 23. VI. 269. mani fests itself most horribly in its destructive effects on the higher (Beyond. to disclose man's nature. They will make man a determinate being.. it as pires. because they are far more common.

265. II.. unlike the Christian expression of love for man. trans. V. the philosophic project will rep resent an unprecedented beneficence to life. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Vintage Books. which underlies the modern orthodoxy (Beyond. . by extending the historical sense. VI. 365). that compulsion to liberate man from the vulnerability associated with his freedom to become. VI. The philosophic project of determining na ture is equivalent to the attempt to secure aspiration or willing as a fundamental human need and thus to orient man permanently toward the future (Gen. 208). i. Because of the unparalleled de gree of instinctual degeneration which modern man represents (Beyond. The intensity of the modern need heightens the opportunity for the philosophic man but is no guarantee that he will in fact appear (Beyond. 238). The new philosophy. and high human willing (Beyond.S. will not unconsciously strive to make itself un necessary by its narrowness. conversely. II. Nietzsche's project for the future seems to re tain a crucial relationship with his own age. III. it will not refrain from condemning what ought to perish (Beyond. The philosophic activity envisioned by Nietzsche enhances life it self.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future 97 human development permits proper attention to be given to the needs of the higher man and thus gives rise to a new prudence (Beyond. V. such a demand would not only be based on a falsehood but would inhibit or distort willing. 58). Human malleability. IX. G. The Case of Wagner... VII. be directed toward the cultivation of vitality or nobihty. is fully discharged by the revaluation of values (Beyond. in consequence. 203). therefore. In its concern for the higher man it will not disdain severity . The subject himself continually to his own potential unique character of the new philosophy presents the most formidable corruption. 260. an indebtedness to Christianity and democracy. 213. he is particularly ripe for the most comprehensive project of cultivation and education ever devised by man (Beyond.e. increases with instinctual decay: a sick organism cannot resist change. I. extend the disease of modernity and. 44. G.S. The philosophic responsibility. II. its inability to prevent higher visions than its own from arising. The philosophic exercise of justice must. 379).20 20 Friedrich Nietzsche. 1967). II. which has a specific historical origin (Gen. II... by its inability to comprehend and secure the higher aspirations of man or. understood as will to power.. 207). III. the source of resolute. 210-11.. the philosophic man must. Gen. i. far-reaching. Still. 113. 2). 143. G. 16. On the contrary. un like past philosophy.e. If it is successful. III. V. knows nothing higher than its own highest expressions (Beyond. 62. 16-19). 61). 14). 44. 202).S. III. Life. Human life can only be evaluated in terms of its own highest acts of will (Gen.. VI. Philosophy itself is justifiable only as the highest expression of life. Preface. The aspiring man cannot be taught to evaluate himself in terms of a naturally ordained hier archy. VI.

The feebleness defends the modern age from the most extreme of physio-psycho logical decay pessimism or the weariness of life (Gen. I.22 capacity for self-rule allows man to withstand the power The necessity for self-rule is reinforced.. Nietzsche been. I. 4). 12).98 Interpretation to its obstacles appearance. IX. what is timely within him provides the animus for self-mastery and. I. 200. 11. The historical sense. I. by the comprehensive nature of the philosopher's candor. V. and by the power of judgments over pity for man's tendency toward self-belittlement may lead to turn away from man (Gen. levels full as a of of nobihty. As the servant of the democratic order. the by is threatened historical psychology. that a proper genealogy of man's morai past is not shameful. in the modern age hatred of the timely.e. II.21 ration or virilification of of the timely virtues and ensure the possibility their eventual destruction... 2. in its historical mode. and thus the advance of mo pessimism (Gen. change which is easily mastered by the coordi nate but more massive impulse of the age to remain convinced of the superiority of Christian-democratic values. II. The advance of modern the historical sense pre ignoble orthodoxy resists. 6. like everything that originates in degenerate life. 22 Modern psychology has remained unhistorical and hence superficial be cause it does not possess the aristocratic reverence for lineage or age upon which the disclosure of origins or history depends (Beyond.. into human life men- man's general daciousness.. 24-25).. VII. 11.S. Contempt for evidenced by us (G. 4-6. VI.. I.S. requires an untimeliness Noble affects at once permit the invigoin itself. nor Where it appears. The advance of the scien 14). however. V. dispirited impulse for tific conscience dernity which toward is. cure 21 . the historical sense is most often a restless. The philo "that existence which is knowable sophic exercise of will disclosed his life. 25). the which philosophic man of calls the future health" requires a novel vitality. III. of dissolution. I. for noble action: something formidable exists for him to oppose (Beyond. Preface. 264. A confrontation with man's past renders ever philosophy more precarious health" than it has philosopher must possess the "great of defense against the potentially corrupting influence truth. VIII. past. psychology must deceive man. modern G. is applicable to all The noble of orthodoxy. The modern noble man is described as a being in tension with himself.. 12. Nietzsche never denies that the training or education of the potenphilosopher While Nietzsche ultimately prefers the aristocratic regime in order to se human aspiring. however.. 4. 16). Self-rule sig nifies instinctual health or vitality and. appears to replace the disrespect for tradition which characterizes the late stage of the aristocracy. however. noble. V. Nietzsche argues. it reveals the aristocratic origin of moral judgements as such and the activity or potency of man (Gen. thus. as such. 186. III. i. 7). for the sake of his self-love. 34). by the insights false moral 346).. 225. Gen. II. 242. about the past (Beyond. 209. The the "great (Gen. Gen. Gen. III. is ineffectual: it can neither devise a remedy for the modern defects cipitates a crisis for man which the comprehend the properly diagnose them because it cannot truly or effeminacy of the historical sense.

be versatile. 220. the study of human nature. The new philosopher must. The principle "life as a means to knowl of man from a blinding interest in him is the great self: the goal is everything. the phi losopher-psychologist must constantly risk his own well-being. 23) from genuine philosophy. 45. remarks about the orientation of the psychologist to the past serve to distinguish the "queen of the sciences" (Beyond. in the philosopher. at all. dictates that psychology must detach itself I. VI. IV. courage" frontation ... "of what might yet follows his own ideal may pre be made of (Beyond. Preface. The historical condition of man. Gen. 290). 3. his variability. it therefore encourages a con illness. Nietzsche describes his own life as an experiment devoted to knowl edge (G. equivalent develop suffered by the (Beyond. II. therefore. In order to turn the higher man's inability to find the way of evaluation on VI. 324).S. by ex tension. i. and the harmony quest for nature simply which does not exist. 337). IV. III. ment are systematically 45). they Psychology is. . III. a task which demands that he himself undergo innumerable alterations. VI. with (Beyond. The prefaces which Nietzsche attached to his published works attest to the extraordinary importance of the philosopher's personal experi ences with man. He would "be compelled to find the great ness of man. praise versatility. 335. man" behalf of "the whole history of the soul so (Beyond. VI. Nietzsche's ward 211)..S. he must experience the corruption or final illness of all higher men in the past. The self-love which serve is of possible to one who the love man. the concept of precisely in his range and in his wholeness in multiplicity. In order to approach this goal. with the corruptibility of man (G. If the truths must observe the causes of his about human be borne or to introspection (G. 45). Previous philosophy saw at least a between psychology.. He would. 30). that he live through "the range of inner human experience reached so (Beyond. then.. the psychologist must at once own himself vulnerability (Beyond. III. Introspection is the only source of knowledge upon which the highest task of genuine philosophy can establish itself to be known psychologist. G. V.S. III. In order to prepare himself for the task man. the philosopher must become aware of far" far" 'greatness.. recover from illness. 6). its risk to the philos Nietzsche's books "call the signifies The "great health" 382) It allows the passionate seeker after knowledge to tyrannize him self for the sake of his own ideal (Beyond. IV. . 203).' manifoldness" edge.S." "liberator" to his true endanger needs into and a new prudence.e. They suggest as well that only a deeply felt sympa thy for human life makes an authentic experience of its various forms possible and seduces the philosopher to transform his life into an ex perimental laboratory where man in his manifoldness can be observed. (Beyond.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to is a a Philosophy of the Future 99 tially opher philosophic man dangerous enterprise is intended to bravest to their the capacity to constitute its appeal. 212).

. Fred. upon evaluative interpretation (Beyond. mine nature. therefore.e. n. Psychology. i. E. the dormancy of philosophic quest from the 211). psychology. J. hence. the psychology effect of physiological inhibition upon thinking (G.26 can also understood as the tempting dictum the new psycholo is to liberate human willing.S.S. and the genuinely for nature. the unique and personal natures. Psychology is useful to the philosopher because it frees man from that morality which has crushed the will to power by generally praising instinctual repression. the criticism of man's moral past extends the devotion to truth which is the "kernel" esoteric contempt of the ascetic ideal. iSgff. 276. however.e. Amor fati. to aspire or will (G. Review of Metaphysics 20 (March 1967): 424ft.. Psychology guide or secure human willing. albeit by introspection.. nature. Lowith. subtitle. . 192-94.S. it studies what is lawful and necessary for the sake of individual poten Insofar as reveals general tiality. IV. D. e. trans. VI.. G. Moreover. 25 The new psychology counsels men to become what they be are. From Hegel to Nietzsche. therefore. and "Nature. 230). It is a "critical science". VI. i. N. "Restatement..S. ex tends the sophic loyalty for man. Karl Lowith.. Martin Heidegger. Psychology threatens the Nietzsche does not confine the quest for nature." 23 Existentialism. and "Who Is Nietzsche's Zarathustra?. It cannot. pp. 337). From Hegel to Nietzsche. Nietzsche implies that there is no inherent harmony between which examines the past and. "trans.Y. 2). whose enhancement depends upon philo to something higher than the truth. is visible to psy infinite variety of particulars. What Is Called Thinking. The Will to Power. 1967). 2^4.. the intention of which man. act of of which ex pression Nietzsche associates with the highest will. practical 335). VII. Green (Garden City. necessary relations. trans. i. his introspection is circumscribed by the realm of human history (G.H. chology at all. uation. 25S. pp. it is fragmented into an about man is confined to an elucidation of actual The task of discovery lovable for that selves.24 wellpsychology cannot simply seek the is compelled ordered self. 205. 120).. an authentic experience of The psychologist as such is limited to historical data . History. 210). it negates (Beyond. See Leo Strauss." pp.e. Bernd Magnus. Walter Kaufmann and R. n. Insofar as the funda mental natural phenomenon. i. being merely its precondition (Beyond.. David E. pp. 617. "Note on the Plan of Nietz sche's Beyond Good and Interpretation 2 (Winter 1973: 112-13. Evil. the will to power.: Anchor Books.23 self Notwithstanding the fact that psychology can never seek whose order best reflects the eternal order of nature and is reason. psychology to be radically individualistic (G. 324.. See Friedrich Nietzsche. which affects the the future. VI.e.. Preface. IV.ioo Interpretation quest for nature. Glenn Gray (New York: Harper Torchbooks.. 26 Ibid. it must contemn eval cannot. 91. 78. IV." 24 25 Strauss. ro4ff. 1967). 120-21. Hollingdale (New York: Random House. define man. pp. trans. Since psychology is confined to that which can be known about gy.g. and Social Research 19 (March 1952): 91-92.. rg68). III.S. the quest to deter to human nature. it cannot ascend beyond itself. Wieck and J..

Philosophic dogmatism posited a theoretical harmony between life III. was rooted since condemning untruth. no. sistent Science and influence of this of directs man toward the Good (G.e.S. through endure perience. He characterizes the lite. enhanced life. 24). it life which established the quest for knowl edge as a principle of no).. The only point of contact between the task of legislation. and or evaluations and as the necessity of narrow per esteemings. he must. because divergence of truth and spectives.. The nature of the experimentalism to which he alludes assures that.. Nietzsche asks. and psychology. to devote himself more before been done while to Nietzsche tempts potentially philo to test the possibility that philosophy can become a way of life.H." which supports and orders human aspiration (Gen. "To what extent can the truth is the question.Nietzsche task of and Liberation: the Prelude to and evaluation and a Philosophy a of the Future 101 dangerous necessity to the fundamentally be cause psychology glorifies the love of truth at the expense of the love of man. it and . The philosopher of the future must be able ever entirely to the overcoming his sophic men cause of aversion truth than has untruth. Rather. in favor of life. 23). of demands that this expense of what experiment philosophy to the be made. and thus a genuine enhancement of life.S. Accordingly. the "closed system of will. exposes the funda mental tofore. i. He represents the union of universal vision and knowledge. definition is Psychology opposes philosophy philosopher particular himself. i. should a new philosophy in shame. Nietzsche's psychology. the sensual. whose acts of will possess the character of a leap. incorporation? That III. II. E. is in the philosophic man. and philosophy. contemporary thinker those no)... Psychology can be transcended only by a human being.. that is the 42. which simply strives for openness. they have. whether philosophic impulses can be cultivated without this singular devotion to truth as their basis (Beyond. upon "that being life-preserving of a errors clash in whom the impulse for truth for their first (G. by means of a life experiment. The necessity man experiment" (G. test the possibility that the will to truth can itself become a human need or philosophic man will not realize The potentially the represses philosophic condition of life. protec value ex tive of of the will. goal. in fact. to life. could affirm itself only by becoming. p.. Beyond. fight" The possibility the actualization of a philosophy beyond good and evil depends human being who can endure this tension. III. Here their superficiality. 218). III. on the other hand. and interpretation. which otherwise would remain asunder. The question which Nietzsche raises about the the will to truth can only be answered experimentally. his opportunity if he impulse for truth or if he considers the human need for narrow perspectives to be a sign of the defectiveness of human existence. at the philosophy has fostered the security of human inquiry Nietzsche calls a monstrous injustice to life. II.e. philosophy have been promoted under the per erroneous assumption (Beyond. regeneration of Heretofore. I. 4).S.

his ultimate judgment is negative. the divine attribute.S." heart" 27 Writing. Speaking Dionysus. 260.e. as it has hitherto been understood. Piety masks human shame and is.. is no longer necessary or appropriate of for the noble man. Zarathustra. that philosophy would necessarily rep all philo resent a conquest of revenge on life which has dominated would be a sophizing to date. that Dionysus philo sophizes. I. V. i. 294). Gen. V. 153.S. "On Reading and . signifies as its peak. such sublime self-love has been unat itself" tainable without piety (Beyond. 59. 290). certainty about itself : "The noble soul has IX. the philosophic no as the "last disciple and initiate of the Nietzsche reveals. Because in its origin the eros philosophic eros might culminate akin pessimism or in decadence. attribute. detached from a reliance upon tradition or piety. Further.S. a philosophic mockery of man must supersede sophic eros the hatred of the timely out of of which the philo develops (G. Gen. The philosopher of the future envisioned by Nietzsche represents first nobility founded upon candor and suffering rather than upon piety.102 Interpretation philosophy come forth from the it. 265 .. III. The decisive characteristic of nobihty remains its fundamental reverence for (Beyond. 216. "What Is Noble?" nobihty in the last section of (Vornehm). p.. Nietzsche elucidates the meaning Beyond Good and Evil. 228. The pious man finds the human world lovable only insofar as it admits of contact with a more beautiful realm.. however. a disguised intolerance of human sovereignty. The "great includes. 10. mockery rather than hatred invigorates that and makes it effective. 379-80. IX. made philosophic. III.. 379). 287). Heretofore.. There is ap health" parently only one sure means by which the philosopher-psychologist can be protected from his peculiar vulnerability. therefore. The new philosophy the genuine liberation of the philosophic self had been liberation depends upon the creation of a human being demonstration that attained that who loves him the self more than his virtues. actually is the source of action. V. the capacity for mockery (G. first of all. G. 382). some irenic res Beyond ignation Good to piety. Apparently. He begins by locating the origins of every aristocratic regime in acts of barbarous domination (aphorism 257) and proceeds to reveal the way in which nobihty can be spiritualized. Piety. for 10). 289. VII. Mockery that self-love. In spite of the tremendous ennoblement or elevation of man which Nietzsche believes piety in every sense to have been responsible (Beyond. 60).27 The penultimate aphorism of and Evil affirms mockery see as an of philosophic nobihty (295." Beyond. His intimations about Dionysus are intended to tempt others to follow "the genius of the whom Nietzsche himself has been bihty god is also pious. The transition earliest from the nobihty to the men series of aphorisms which allude gist who studies new nobihty is made by way of a to the vulnerability of the psycholo higher (aphorisms 269-82.

Dionysus possesses form all that is potentially philosophic in previous the arrogant skepticism of manifestations of nobility: the mocking nius. the intended result of the liberation from dogmatism. a playful matter.31 Philosophizing in this sense estab lishes a genuine need for the problematic. II. 4. N. to question ever further. scorn of the to be found in Romans.S. : Cornell University Press. man cannot.. 382) may indicate why it is the first problem to which he refers in Beyond Good and Evil (III.28 Plato's contempt for "wise" men (G.S. for its effect upon sense of wonder about will I. is it makes man more "richer in to himself than before" to be pursued (Beyond. He laughs "in a superhuman and new of the expense of all serious around which things. 1974)." has value be profound. he presents inquiry.30 He meaning of human cause of Beyond Good about and a Dionysian that speculation the it makes man deepens the become alization of nature of visible for him. See also G. faced the problem of That Nietzsche to a certain extent shared this problem (G. 282-89. 29 See and immediately child" and nobility. 40. He deprives their seriousness the ideals in divine or perfect human aspiring has been oriented. By teaching man a himself. philosophy instills in him the intrepid interesting (Gen.Y. something for children and those who are development child turns man inward and changes him . V.. IX. Dannhauser. the philosopher love at which characterize Dionysus are equivalent way" to divine mockery. G.Nietzsche and Liberation: the Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future and 103 of tempted to follow. it appears. being" . rather. 43." "knowing and also Werner J. Gen. The wisdom" "daring integrity.213ft. Man Philosophizing does 295). II. 45) when designating the tasks of the "born and why he expresses particular compassion for the sufferings of 28 Pascal.. escape from himself through philosophy.. 377. Philosophizing. or timely Machiavelh (Beyond. III. Preface. truthfulness. in the end..S.. 379) Nietzsche imitates Dionysus. The desire to know broadens and man's concerns: "ever new riddles and images Nietzsche does not despise the human ide suggests inquiry wisdom. a need which knows how to psychologist" genuine noble religious man. In Section III Evil (aphorism 57). Dionysus tempts man to apotheosize his introspectiveness and his bondage to himself. man: not return from him "blessed newer goods" and oppressed by alien but rather himself. V. 9. PP. he of mocks the seriousness with which the human profundity has hitherto been regarded: "Per haps everything on which the spirit's eye has exercised its acuteness and thoughtfulness was nothing but an occasion for this exercise. IX. Preface 3.S. V. Aristophanes. si Beyond. who typifies the conscience. Nietzsche's View of Socrates (Ithaca. 30 This aphorism immediately follows Nietzsche's single allusion in Beyond Good and Evil to the doctrine of the eternal return of the same (aphorism 56) precedes a series of aphorisms (58-61) which associate piety is to super Its placement suggests that man as "an eternal and that a new sede or evolve from the "most world-affirming human innocence which shares something in common with the old innocence or piety is. Petrothe of 28). the disgust for the vanity modern science present in Pascal. Pascal. 230. how ever. 7). VII.

Gen. becomes. (G. protects self-love.. VII. Most important. personalism which can parody himself is not likely to submit to the into dogma (Beyond.S. IV.e. The philosopher who can I. 94. but from overflowing power and abundance with all that was hitherto called holy. than parody.S. II. The supreme reverence the liberation from II. "On the Thousand and One Goals.." Zarathustra. i. Self- mockery generates a feeling of individual irresponsibility in the man with the weightiest responsibihty and. of affect of to intend this form upon her Nietzsche self-mockery to liberate the will to in her seductiveness depends 4). endows man with a new innocence.e. 3.S... 153. the becomes an command.104 preserve Interpretation itself. but a woman. 25-26). I. What might otherwise become an overwhelming sense of one's evilness. good. 107.. 377-78).S. dogmatism. thus it 32 G. II. IV. Preface.. if the part of criticism of the will to truth come integral the philosopher's hfe. 17! . 382). VII. 232. G. In the very aphorism in which he parodies who or the quest for wis dom. V.. terpret. 43) is neither a denial of the self nor a rejection of life. i. necessity (G. VII. He must extend his parody of ideals that is. the philosopher must establish a new ideal for The clear sighted quest for uniquely individual introspective wisdom (Beyond. develop to himself to maintain and an self-mockery combats the philosophic liability to shame. The philosopher of the future is to be a "spirit who plays naively make deliberately. however. p. Mature innocence is necessary for the may discover ideals of his first the man. G. as an opportunity to aspire to profundity. impulse which Dionysus possesses be Self-mockery cause he is free of shame . a new child solution of problem of value. Gen. the belief in ideals (G. he speaks of man as an "eternal child" playfulness after he has outgrown the toys hood.. guilt. If philosophy can be honored as man's opportunity to himself profound. 227. III. he may to revere man as maintains the evaluating being (G. II.S. untouchable. not divine" test his power and self-confidence (Beyond.. IV.S. Preface. 5. V. V. Nietzsche imitates self-mockery by parodying the truth. he does not love his virtues more than him self.. Nietzsche associates innocence and maturity (Beyond. a joyful affirmation of 311). because it rests upon reverence. 4.. it will have overcome all aspects of its aversion to untruth. Beyond.S. 382. in whole importance in the one's the mocking emphasis of one's own un economy of the species. By means of iconoclasm distinguished by its comprehensiveness. who has good a philosophic Dionysus' reasons to hide herself from man : secretiveness seems (Beyond. 20). G. IV. II. 325). 107). is 1. the philosopher undermines deliberately the foundation for pious all instinctive health which has hitherto existed.. thereby. 223).S. Sovereign independence. He does not suppose truth to be God. 32 Thus that which itself by parody is capable of becoming something other for the self takes man beyond beyond free-spiritedness (Beyond.

Such value-creating. IV. there fore.. between truth and untruth. the philosophic government is founded in Moreover. to the future. In con the pohtical-moral serve the problem of . according to both Plato and Nietzsche. II. perhaps eternal. The genuine philosopher is more than contemplative. 10). 301. be justifying the highest human aspiration.. IX. it does not need approval. as good (G. the singular mode of self-assertion anything higher than self-assertion. nature. The noble philosopher experiences no opposition between conscious ness and instinct. The him to approach self-knowledge (G. he is active (Gen. 377). Gen. it judges. in the characteristics of all noble authors of mo rality: "The noble type of man experiences itself as determining val ues. without knowing it. earned the right to heed the demands of his physis (G. the literal rule of philosophy over man (G. Nonetheless. It is. 39. precisely because be tran they are necessary sought emanations from the on self which cannot scended.S. I. It organized in such a way as to support must. 5. He reveres himself for his mastery of himself and has. Philosophy becomes beneficent to hfe.S. 61). therefore. Nietzsche would to bring forth earth a supernal being who deliver man. IV.. it is honors. 2). Nietzsche deals and with who therefore oppose philosophy philosophy require (Beyond. must express self-love by the establishment of morahty.S. Everything it knows as part of itself it I. 'What is harmful to me is harmful in itself. those orthodoxy trast to Plato. 260. he transforms historical psy chology into a mode of self-examination and self-transformation which philosopher's self-love enables is not merely a study of the past.Nietzsche commits and Liberation: the Prelude to philosopher quest a Philosophy a of the Future which 105 the to the future in way in the ascetic noble ideal implied in the for wisdom of the whole cannot. He envisions the actualization of that which is taught by Plato in the Republic to exist only in speech. III. the non-philosophic realm does pose a problem for philosophy. Preface. 266).. 239). IX. He cannot resist self-idealization (G. 335) and to determine the future. his aspirations. newly formed and resplendent. 360). for the 362. V. V. therefore. i.... they by education or imperturbably solid healthy being are by chance (Beyond.. the foundation for the philosophic legislation of val vitalized or ues will in the hberated self is a sufficient guarantee that it be secure. 294. morahty is Since human sovereignty a self-glorifica (Beyond. I.S. The assertions of a neither arbitrary nor changeable are VII. Nietzsche does not advocate the philo sophic rule sake of non-philosophic men but for the sake of life. IV. His self-love transfigures itself into pro jections that seek to characterize the order of things. 231. beginning with which need not acknowledge philosopher serves hfe the characterization of his way of life. He shares. 3).e. it knows itself to be that which accords honor to things. between freedom and necessity. The genuinely noble man unifies psychology and the quest for nature. The by serving nothing higher than himself.S. Beyond. Rather.

all that is for the (Beyond.34 sche's writings as have often had the a question arises entirely faithful to their purpose. In that case. in some It would be more than pitiable if Nietzsche himself had most philosophy sense. that he intended his books to convey to the which non-philosophic reader a respect experience hence. 214. pp.H. Beyond. in brief. 17). abysses for the pro for the refined.. are that for that of which he can never have he will never know. rare nuances and shudders rare" end it remains as it is and al for the great. and whether they the dignity of philosophy might not be better preserved by giving a fuller attention to the demands of the political-moral realm. V. 43).106 Interpretation by circumventing that realm. 152. That he can do this at all is evi dence that his project is a modern one (G. the pohtical-moral assail or smother it. great things remain found. on philosophy in the modern age: "In the albeit not ways obscured his his most instructive lesson. 379).. "taking this sense than has ever been concept in a more spiritual and radical One can infer. the attempt to cultivate transcend the untoward effects of over the ultimate narrowness of Plato.S.S. behalf of the practice of genuine has been. see letters 145. p... however. to illumine that which it opposes. He realm thematically only insofar as it serves. V. 377. 80. and. deluded. This to whether question would be no less urgent if one suspected that Nietzsche's victory historical consciousness. 34 See Arthur Danto. by means of a candid a new form of nar a being who could historicism and rescue from moribundity by an act of will would be. notwithstanding the fact that he wishes to found phi realm losophy gard which upon a new prudence which is to include considers a clear and full re for those forces. His neglect of the regime am plifies the one element of reahsm he claims to have inherited from religious mysticism: for "the man of knowledge there man. by means of a stark con trast. III. he shuns the needs of lower men. (E.33 Since Nietz opposite effect. Out of a zealous devotion to the needs of the higher man. 74-77. 381. Nietzsche as Philosopher (New York: Macmillan. writes Nietzsche openly for the done" noble supra-moral man. II. 1965). 33 G. 219)." Journal of Politics 25 (May 1963) : 211-25. 97. . and. VII. 310. both threaten to more virulent and lower than philosophy. frequently recurring and perhaps his most original one. and 154 in Selected Letters of Friedrich Nietzsche. the gentleman. the duties" are no (Gen. "Nietzsche's Preface to Constitutionalism. was itself a surrender to rowness. Henry Kariel.

p47- Contemporary Theories (New York: Atherton Press. Dahl. "A political system is democratic to the popular that the decisionmakers are under effective control. by as suming them without attempting to justify them. Rejai. The Politics of Freedom: An Analy sis of the Modern Democratic State (Seattle: University of Washington Press. Democracy: The 1967). and from the thesis 1 M."1 The basic "rest to assumptions and prem ises of theories. According to H. Mayo.. 60." arrangement acquire the power the people's vote. extent Mayo. in Rejai. however. Rejai serves In his survey of contemporary theories of that "the nexus between the classical democracy and ob contemporary theo ries of democracy is a tenuous the classical one." ideals have been democratic theorists in favor of the "identifica tion and isolation of observable variables in political life."2 Though itself cast in the empirical-behavioral mold. which upon a series of norms and reality."3 for arriving at political decisions in which individuals to decide by means of a competitive struggle for This first postulate is then usually expanded and deduction and empirical evidence developed by from the rule operation of contemporary democratic the principles of equahty. 84J Cassinelli. 103. for majority example. W. see also pp. ch. derives freedom. C. periodic elections. . Schumpeter. 1.3. Such a definition. 3 1961). Democracy." relatively for "poly government. A Preface to Democratic Theory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Dahl declares that "democratic theory is concerned with processes by which ordinary citizens exert a high degree are and his conditions defined largely in electoral terms. governments. esp. The at tempt is to describe and explain rather than idealize. Mayo. Cochran Texas Tech University M. this summary of the situation lacking abandoned by systematic reference pohtical recent is accurate. i960). is pos only by suppressing normative judgments or. ed. p. p.. Cassinelli con siders "representative which depends on uncoerced. One of the more popular descriptive definitions of democracy iden tifies it with the control of decisionmakers by the people through states exhibit sible elections. And Joseph A. An Introduction to Democratic Theory (New York: Oxford University Press. PP. p. Contemporary theory it ought seeks to define of democracy not in terms of what to be but in terms the features democratic in the real world. 2 Ibid. 307-11. 31. SIMON Clarke E. passim. 195). to be the central feature of democracy. Schumpeter defines the democratic method as "that institutional of control over archy" leaders." Robert A. B.107 AUTHORITY AND FREEDOM: THE DEMOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY OF YVES R. for example. conversely.

1965). 8 The Tradition s Reflections. in his Philosophy such of Democratic of Government.7 terms of a process be found in a philosophical examination of the Most important. pohcy to select the officials ultimately in assert charge of all public He even goes so far as to that "in brief. "The Politics of Interest: The Eclipse of Commu (PH. Duke University. This idea of democracy has. A consideration of democratic theory must also include an analysis of the philosophy of government generally and an exploration of normative questions. rather than the govern the nature of itself and a definition in of normative as well as such a definition democracy is arbitrary. the definition of democracy in tends to leave open the question of the goals to be served ysis. see Clarke E. yet a firm theoretical ground ing of democracy must principles involved. the dynamics civil of the democratic electoral system make it impossible for liberties to be denied to any group within the democratic This type of Schumpeterian definition of democracy has been high difficulties are nu ly influential in American political science. For a recent review of some of the issues. 60-70 and chs. equahty. 'positive' part of of civil used tolerance democratic pohcy. 61. pp. ch. also drawn considerable criti cism. pp. of course. himself to Simon. pp." Theory" Philosopher' .io8 Interpretation of popular control. without an examination of placed upon ment rule. Simon postulated three questions it always makes sense questions which to ask about positive can law. Is Should a democracy should just ever or unjust sys of government? democratic system be altered make it less or more democratic? Why the laws of a demo cratic government be obeyed? These questions suggest that more is needed than a descriptive definition of democracy. "Democracy Attenuated: Schumpeter. that only those who believe in them a cogent argument for democracy. descriptive terms. the Process Journal of Politics 32 (1970): Theory. the guaranteeing of welfare. De nity in Contemporary American Political partment of Political Science. a fundamental flaw in any theoretical anal Speaking about law. It may be true. freedom. . Ricci. Cochran. hberties is a direct result of the periodic uncoerced elections . 6 See David M. 1971). 50. but its be an outgrowth of the value periodic elections may system. by the process.6 First. pp." Houses. Yves R. dissertation. Politics of Freedom. Yves R. the same as a philosophical of consideration Simon's formal definition 4 5 democracy is much that of Ibid. and American Democratic 239-67. 4. 5-8. see Quentin Skinner.4 And Cassinelli argues that "like the . 111-18 (hereafter cited as TNL)."5 merous. 218. "The Empirical Theorists of Democracy and Their Critics: A Plague on Both Their Political Theory 1 (1973): 287-306. devoted democratic theory. as Mayo democracy's values will find in argues. 242. For a critique of certain assump tions of recent American democratic theory and citation of the relevant liter ature. Second. 7 Introduction to Democratic Theory. Thought.D. Vukan Kuic of Natural Law: A (New York: Fordham University Press..8 There seem to be tem analogous which be asked about a a simple de to scriptive definition of democracy. and majority converse. ed.

1951). the people governs democracy there is no distinct governing by majority rule. Simon's development of the theory of political philosophy." 362-67.."12 tional sary. 12 PDG. 9 Philosophy of Democratic Government (Chicago : University of Chicago Press. pp. 1 . 1971). Simon. overcome such As better institutions but rather that it is essential in the ordering of human affairs. . Simon: A Bibliography. The growth of liberty is said to imply the decay of authority. 1940)." Simon. The Political Science Reviewer. particular feature of democracy. is that Simon explores the foundations of government and attempts sential to distinguish those features of government which are es from those which are pecuhar to democracy alone. Simon other 109 theorists: "In direct personnel. Work. See also Vukan Kuic. 1 passim. Thus an examination of Simon's democratic theory uncovers some fundamental issues in a theoretical analysis of democracy and points the way to their resolution. it seems to confhct with freedom. in The Nature and Science. Specifically. Simon. 189-226 and "Bi Revue Philosophique De Louvain. Simon. how ever. all citations are from the paperback edi tion published by the University of Chicago Press in 1961). Vukan Kuic (New York: Fordham University Press. 75 (hereafter cited as PDG. according to Simon. respectively). educa ment.11 authority is probably his most significant contribution to Simon recognizes that in the modern world au thority has a bad name . Simon to Political Simon considered authority systematically in PDG. Carl Friedrich. I have attempted a more Polanyi. ch. and Culture. is freedom of the people to govern itself. Society. pp. in Yves R. 142. The before distinguishing the we can freedom. Valuable bibliographies 1962) (hereafter cited as have been compiled by Anthony O.10 But understand the relation of freedom to democracy." detailed exploration in "Authority and Community: The Contributions of Yves American Political Science Review. "The Contribution of Yves R. and in A General Theory of Authority (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. authority should have less and less of a role in politics. "Yves R." Functions of Authority (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. of 11 Simon's theory consideration here. and Michael 71 (1977): Forthcoming. 76. we its relation must understand to authority. Simon argues that this bad name comes from the prevaihng "deficiency theory of govern This theory holds that only the deficiencies (moral. 10 Ibid.Authority and Freedom: the Democratic Philosophy of Yves R. ed. 73 (1975): bliographic d'Yves Rene 1923-1970. Appendix. Simon. NFA and GTA."9 The dif ference. 4-6 and ch. In representative or personnel indirect of democracy the governing is subjected to the control the people through the procedure of periodical elections. however. or otherwise) in education and men make government and authority neces deficiencies. 4 (1974) : 55-104. believes that authority is not a result of accidental deficiencies. p. pp. it should describe the status of freedom and authority in democracy and facilitate a rigorous all government evaluation of to democracy as a form of government. only authority is quite complex and cannot be given detailed a summary will be provided.

thority would ship but a community. Review of Politics 22 (i960) : Common "CGCA"). 210. 64." The good of a com partnership does consists in a common life of desire and action.18 A partnership. and continuity the formulation of Robert A. is characterized does not necessarily contain any by ties of mutual self-interest and deep personal commitments. is not failure (contracts) by one of the there is some in partnership ar deficiency present (such parties a to fulfill his contractual obligations). 1966) p 47 p. see also TNL. interest. TNL. the partnership. 48-50. 208-10. "CGCA. and." pp. pp. p." 86-109. 49."20 through rules binding for all is what everyone calls Authority thus depends upon and creates communi- 13 Simon systematically considered community pp. community being defined as a society relative to a common Society does not exist to serve individual needs alone: society community. Ibid. Therefore. p." The munity takes place in the heart of Community is "characterized by a high degree of personal relationship man. Nisbet. if society were hold. two kinds mon good of a community calls forth a "common life not. TNL. and according to Simon. a span longer than the individual's life." particular.no Interpretation his theory of authority as. and Freedom and O'Donnell (New York: Fordham University Press. 103-8."17 a form of intimacy. his entire demo philosophy in the idea of the common good and in the concept roots Simon cratic of Community and common good are intimately re lated. 209." to moral commitment.15 were fulfilling only their particular desires and There are. common action authority. The causation of common action in pursuit of the common good is the function of authority: "The power in charge of unifying ernment. pp. 103-9. 1968). 206-7. rangements as as Simon points unless out.19 But. emotional depth." Action. 125-26. partnership. indeed." Books.14 allows men to create and share common material goods. 95-96.. and FC. authority is essential. common val ues. needed private interests Authority. political not a partner He utterly rejects the contract theory of gov Since common action is essential to a community. a munity "unity in for "the most important part of com and loving or knowing good of a hating. and more various and diverse than own would be possible if individuals needs. ed. 130-44 17 18 19 20 p. (hereafter cited as FC). and common good and in three places: PDG. The Sociological Tradition (New York: Basic "CGCA. Charles P. the deficiency theory society is of au for Simon. See also GTA. 88-89. pp. PDG. p. 221. Its good of is simply a "common a sum which happen to be interdependent. pp.16 of The com desire and action. 2. use in on time. "Common Good and 202-44 (hereafter cited as Community. two types of societies: the community of social goods. pp. social cohesion.13 good. . pp. the other hand. ch. common experiences. PDG. see also GTA. pp. 14 is 16 "CGCA. It makes this sharing possible over an ex tended period of time. 62-66. correspondingly. see also See CGCA.

It depends what the possession of virtue and strength of reject which allows him to is or good and good false ends and false means for him clearly in view. openness. that the kind of liberty that which is "terminal" hberty. 1958). information. They are Authority tions. it the spontaneity. hke nature society. . ignorant. unqualifiedly not good. PDG. Freedom is the choose "superdetermination" to the proper means upon to his ends from the variety available to him." Believe: Inquiry 14 (1971) Contract Theory versus Freedom Henry S. of Theory. pre the determination actual goods pursued by the society.21 has three principal mutually creating and reinforcing. and "Foundations of the Liberal Some Implications : 213-37. Simon 11 1 ty and common good. See. functions in unifying common ac First. Therefore.: F. E. Open Systems: Arenas for Political 1969). lack of determination. Here authority the to be and action in the determination the the common good itself. must di "parental. The third function matter of bene from authority is unifies most essential of function. Kariel. Peacock. Simon is in a position to define its re lation to liberty and autonomy. the sheer power of the good or the evil. they put their Authority. and self-expression so exalted in theory. Christian Bay. It is important to recognize. or virtue. Action (Itasca. how ever. re quires authority."22 The of man and human society. this case unifies action when means there is more than one proper and ficial a what to the common good. Such a served pursuit function is necessary if diversity for individual members of society of freedom are to be while common action in the the welfare of the community is guaranteed. is.A uthority and Freedom: the Democratic Philosophy of Yves R. 111. however. for example. "considered in its evil nor a essential lesser good nor a functions authority is neither a necessary lesser evil nor the consequence of any evil and or deficiency nature it is." ordering of goods and unify the community behind This function of authority Simon calls and acknowledges that it is rooted in deficiencies. n above for the sources of this summary. It selects one course of action of variety of worthy Simon calls its of possibilities. II After examining authority. It is not choosing either and character. then.23 some recent Initial liberty of choice is a 21 22 23 See n. their imperfections. Nor is means. Authority in proper the the common good. to keep "initial" hb erty. is essential and would be needed even if men had no deficiencies of intelligence. 59. The Structure of Freedom (Stanford: MakeUniversity Press. hberty the good alone and which consists Simon identifies with autonomy which is the power of choosing in the interiorization of the moral which enables a man law. The second function of authority. since men are often selfish or particular goods rect before the common good. p.

1947). for shared life. i and pp. and not simply as a common good of a member of a particular society. 235-43. The that progress of liberty of does not. pp. may actually increase freedom. In Freedom of Choice. John J. Perkins. 70-71." Wolff. obe dience to authority. 1972). 27 pp. GTA. and be acquired. For a similar analysis of the nature of freedom and its relation to authority. In Defense of Political Philosophy (New York: Harper & Row.27 Simon's contention. Peter Wolff (New York: Fordham University Press. Since the society 24 FC. pp. pp.25 some obstacles to freedom however. as a whole. see John H. Hallowell.. ch. imply the decay of the Indeed." 32-35. 33-34. are essential functions authority. 1970).112 Interpretation and is provided by the very fact of man's rational nature. 1969). the sooner will The more persons come achieve the social deficiencies springing from their lack of autonomy appear. Reconciling Autonomy and Political Theory 1 (1973): Frankfurt. "Contribution of Yves R. therefore. Praeger." pp. desires. esp. esp. experience." Authority?" Authority. and by Jeffrey H. the same perfections which increase free dom also make the essential functions to of creasing the variety good. "On Ethics 82 (1972): 114-23. a This discussion draws on 46-60 and chs. 1954).24 The basic idea here is the prudent ancient one of self-control. then. 64-81. Giovanni Sartori. see Jacques Maritain. even in its coercive aspects. 1965). trans. pp. "CGCA. 1 10-14. and FC. that authority and autonomy are contradictory. PDG. fuller discussion of the relationship between personal and particular goods. The Person and the Common Good. "The Anarchism of Robert Paul 405-14.112~I9'. Reiman.26 of possible means to and matter authority necessary by in for the common autonomy. 70. It implies the substitution of persuasion for coercion and the decay of parental authority. Democratic Theory (New York: Frederick A. pp." pp. 3-4. man who has chosen well his life's The image is that of the goals and has achieved temptations which would deflect mastery over the fears. The opposite argument. PP. by Harry G. In Defense of Anarchism (New York: Harper & Row. 41. must Terminal hberty is an end and a perfection. im plies the decay of any false authority which would attempt to keep mind and character in perpetual subjection. pp. 95-101. 43-44. 244. Simon provides the foundation for this conception of freedom. The removal of deficiencies opens more routes to the dis common good and more possibilities nity. 100-106. NFA. 1961). 36-46. passim. ed. may pro mote freedom. 26 See FC. if it works to remove those obstacles. Simon rightly points out internal to the person . Wolff's position has been strongly criticized by Lisa H. p. Authority. pp. The Moral Foundation of Democ racy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 125-30. has one of its most effective spokes man in Robert Paul Wolff. NFA. "CGCA. 45-46. For an explication see Kuic. Com pare Hannah Arendt. Simon. pp. and him from their pursuit. 137-40. Let closely. PDG. Moreover. is that authority does not confhct with us examine this contention and its social dimensions more Autonomy is related to the transcendent good of an individ person. The growth of terminal hberty. pp. 25 NFA. that ual considered as a is. "What Is in her Between Past and Future (New York: Viking Press. Fitzgerald (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. and commu liberty. 148-56. For . hence.

for such a man. but as embodiments of his moral obligation to support the common good. Because it is society. p. 81 Compare. They cause and guarantee one another. the free man promotes both the good and plied his own personal good. the common which thority Second. Thus. virtue. the tax laws do not stand as external commands and sanctions. "CGCA. and goods must common yield good. NFA. possession and use of particular Thus authority may direct the goods toward the common good.28 In addition to these which has particular goods autonomy is essentially related. The former welfare that of the community requires common action. his How particular goods can internal di direction prin by autonomous man compatible with external by of authority? Simon solves this dilemma by reference accepts to two ciples. (such as wealth. 86-109. health. the the autonomous as means rection to his transcendent (personal) be good. the autonomous man. The principle of asserts common good of authority and "wherever the the community thus requires both the the principle of autonomy. the to the personal good of each member of common good takes precedence over the particular goods of any member. authority do and autonomy do not conflict with each other and not restrict each other.Authority and Freedom: the Democratic Philosophy of Yves R. see also PDG. Simon must 113 be a good shared by the members of the society (thus not a good external to men). 140. 243. American Pluralist Democracy : A Critique . 47. interiorizes the au directs the use of these goods."30 yet By advancing wholeheartedly his particular deferring to authority when it is determined that his to the common goods. pp. authority and autonomy are compatible: "Familiar contrasts are transcended. inter alia."29 community'" initiative of the individual or to that of small social Because both society and the individual interiorize these princi ples. Darryl Baskin. tion the proper functioning or of authority the requires that the promo of particular goods compatible with care of common good the individuals to the smallest associations be left to possible. p. acof American political science. the fulfillment of that task must be left to the the unity of that gans of that common action must units. it is true.31 28 29 3<> See TNL. The End of Liberalism (New York: W W. because he the precedence good over his particular goods. Norton'. First." p. the social plurahsm im in this theory of the relationship between authority and free dom is different from and more adequate than the "interest-group which is alternately praised and damned in the literature Such pluralism does. it to must promote the personal goods (such as integ rity. Theodore Lowi. relation to personal goods God) of its members. be assured by the higher or The latter asserts that "wherever a task can be satisfactorily achieved by the initiative of the individual or that of smaller social units. On individual uses the other hand. 1969) . Moreover. interests) related each person which con tribute to his development.

The Democratic Community (New York: Dodd.. The Bias of Pluralism (New York: Atherton Press. 1971). 72-73 and n.34 preventing the abuse and of pohtical condition. for typical examples of comments on order. its freedom to govern itself. .. over its freedom from abusive power. yet its citizens may still possess Democracy. Connolly. however. for "freedom. Keeping (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.35 government. pp. of procuring This it does or attempts to do by either of two methods or by a combination of the two.32 Because the order of common good is an order which must con notion tain both freedom authority. however. government Simon designates the as a "political system in which governed possess a legally defined and any in stitutionally organized power of resistance to arbitrary Such a regime may be thoroughly non-democratic . 35 1. 1-3. It is the the heart absence of a sound notion of the common good which hes at of the failure of interest-group the and liberalism.' " "balancing" Company. esp. Ibid. 1971). Polity. 74-75. guaranteeing freedom. ed. racy must balance freedom is the most ordered thing in the world. In representative or personnel is elections. Ithiel de Sola Pool." Mead. by autonomy thority. Ill Following Aristotle. Contemporary Political Science (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Interest. Fluno. 'The Public 33 freedom and FC. and group initiative."33 hberty. see Robert Y. 32 I have developed this argument more extensively in "Political Science and Journal of Politics 36 (1974) : 327-55.114 knowledge the Interpretation common values and values individual and common are most often simply rules pursuit of particular and (private) interests.. "The Public and the in Pool. 1971). Thus freedom. pp. abuse attempts to go further than mere prevention of by government : When the and above political idea assumes the democratic form. In direct democracy there is no distict governing personnel. 22-52. pp. 34 PDG. It causes correctly understood. the people asserts. and William E. 19. This holds true in any legitimate form of government. Yet for fairness in the the value of individual terms of the promotion of group initiative is measured only in freedom. order to descend into the depths of the human will. to the control indirect democracy the governing of the people through the procedure of periodical Democracy. the and order simplistic that democ is transcended. Simon's plurahsm is oriented to the common good and the personal good as well as to freedom and particular interests. ed. p. the people governs by majority subjected rule. chs. that As Simon puts it: is. but a special relationship between freedom and authority obtains in a de and are guaranteed and guarantee essential au mocracy. has its own ways of autonomy. 1967).

yet democracy always strives to use the form of authority that is persuasion. Ibid. This topic is too complex to be discussed here. ultimately it may facilitate hberty). the the government government confined within a certain field is people. are often confused. although it results from that es of crucial. pp. and Dahl. especially For Simon.. Ibid. 115 . democracy rules that persuasion plays a decisive role in the designation of the governing personnel. pp. deliberation. 75-76 (emphasis in original). in fact. endlessly struggles systematically the domain of prefers persua government by persuasion. the distinction is cion is not the essence of the state. democracy to extend sion coercion and . Politics of Freedom.39 is Simon. Coercion is only an essential property of the is the completeness of the common good Here again Simon differs from other contemporary de theorists in whose work the identification of the state with essence of which almost a commonplace. 108-9.A uthority and Freedom: the Democratic Philosophy of Yves R Simon . authority to democracy must be considered. 36 37 p. yet coer cion is merely an instrument of authority. and. 16. . . 6-7 .36 Such is democratic freedom. 109-10. 3 As democracy. 2 As an elective regime. Preface to Democratic Theory. (though. he nonetheless contends that to preserve community. Authority uses both coer relation of cion and persuasion.41 Democ- Ibid. Simon observes. their freedom to then the govern is the defining the democratic state. Au thority and coercion. Simon outlines the relation of democracy to persuasion in three principles : According to of government 1 As to a lawful and political regime. pp.40 This of requirement for open expression seems in democracy and implies freedom principles of which sur expression. pp. operation Persuasion is a moral process and imphes the "terminal" free choice. 134-3539 See. For opposing arguments. Cassinelli.37 sence and presupposes state... while coercion conflicts with free choice as we have seen. Although practice deliberations over means and ends may be difficult to distinguish. 79.38 mocratic coercion it. pp. pp. though Simon should to feel that the basic society rounds be exempt from the discussion debate the choice of means to implement those principles. 4 4i n. Mayo. 88 Ibid. coer when coercion is psychic. see Reinhold principles must be above The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness (New York : Charles Niebuhr. Simon recognizes PDG. in addition. democracy is no different from any other form in possessing the right to use coercion. 277-78 . Introduc tion to Democratic Theory. no longer held sufficient the defining has been taken over by the feature of democracy. for example. Although it is often not easy to tell them apart. it rules that attempts at persuading the voter take place in open and public discussion. If the people are to control the government and principle of if. 122-24. pp.. the it pursues. the frequent use of coercion signifies weakness of authority. that in . 1 18-19.

the enterprise. but a theory of anarchy. p.. Ibid. in power. Simon again finds that authority and liberty do not Both democracy oppose. Simon rejects one he terms the "Coach-Driver popular theory of sovereignty."46 the violence. . citi not really a theory of sovereignty at all. free of Democracy also demands Since the freedom principles of these institutions autonomy and authority. Thorson. Democratic Theory. for requiring freedom it is an illusion that democracy will perfect the state. whose influence Simon the paradox of free men being bound to that it does people not obey other men by declaring a exist. and pluralism. Ibid. but Wolff. while accepting its basic premises. that this is . realizes to Wolff their im draws the necessary conclusion." . 135-38. but rather that they support each other. 42 Democracy 43 44 45 PDG. be found only in a unanimous direct democracy. and It argues people that officials have authority. only the do. state. For a similar treatment of this subject. His conclusion is con vincing evidence for Simon's argument that anarchy is the only position con sistent with the assumptions of the "Coach-Driver plications and can Theory. 60-75. the "obe officials argues the dience zen to is mere ought to obey himself alone."44 which do obey other men. and to account for the obvious fact that men good. the citizen would be bound to obey only calculated when he was in the majority on to do away with obedience threatens any issue: "The directly the artifice princi- Scribner's Sons. Legitimate authority. 139-40. 1962). pp. Rinehart & Winston. he argues. One might be tempted to attribute this (Anarchism). The Logic of (New York: Holt. are Freedom such society from state absolutism.42 autonomous cooperative. Authority implies obedience. for "the primacy of the common good demands that those in charge of the particular goods should obey The theory of sovereignty is those in charge of the common designed to provide the foundation for the claim of some men to have the right to be obeyed. for if its necessary implications were drawn. therefore. Ibid. often called Theory" and which is "sovereignty traces to of the people. p. 139-41. see Sartori. . no resolves This theory. What. chs. pp. According illusion Simon obey simply drive to this theory. it also demands other freedoms. These the private closely followed by private institutions. 1950). outside the church and freedom of the press of men are the most important outside institutions. pp. 57. is the relationship between democracy and authority? Simon's discussion of sovereignty sheds some light on this question. Public and they man to go. position 46 PDG. pp.. private ownership. 5-6. then. the independent labor union. Thomas L. 146-54. as school. only themselves in the people where of man democratic want .. thus racy implies not only the freedom of the people to of expression.43 follows from the twin and authority imply freedom. No internal structure will guarantee which the safety of is a constant temptation to checks are needed... 147."45 Rousseau.116 Interpretation govern itself. pp.

92. for transmitted. The there is : a normal situation. 178. then. have designated the ruhng person. political.47 of government and is naturally social obedience follows from the which nature of community and Authority sovereignty. 158-94. . The people may or may not transmit this authority to distinct gov erning personnel. is not necessarily democratic. 158 (emphasis in original).. a man cannot such a thing. only a governed" sent of the to has at least seven few of which are peculiar democracy. 165. In obeying laws we Rousseau would have it. si 52 PDG. 49 Ibid. ever. point (Politics of Freedom. Cassinelli makes the same interpretation differs from Simon's when he applies the theory 98-100). but his See below.Authority and Freedom: the Democratic Philosophy of Yves R. In this case the individual obeys the authority not himself. p. power given they have transmitted to him the recognize by God to the not peo ple. the people as a whole. 167. This fact provides transmission of authority the clue for recognizing the relationship between democracy and sov favors the "what characterizes the democratic condition ereignty (authority). 181. Simon that the argues necessarily that "it [the transmission theory] implies to the government which that this theory is governed consent is theirs. . for the necessity life. but it does not imply that this consent mocratic procedure of election. pp. . also GTA. correct theory right Simon which calls the theory. of consent to democracy. "government by the con meanings. ourselves. sovereignty is never completely is that. how personnel. Ibid."50 is necessarily exercised in the de In fact. Of course. flow from the of nature of political society." consciences : There is something can. p. Simon the "transmission" to be of is the sovereignty is saying. 145. then the form of government is a direct democracy.51 The transmission theory. God This he did by the creation of the human species.."52 in a democracy.. Simon pie of 117 authority in its not obey this other fact. is for authority to be transmitted to distinct governing As Simon men and it. act of genuine transmission suspends the exercise of the people's Any 47 48 The discussion below follows PDG. pp. Simon argues that only God can grant the power of binding most essential as function. and paradoxical about one man's having do the power to bind the alone conscience of another man. If they choose not to transmit it. right what to exercise authority. but puts the community decision. "whenever . have done two things They distinct governing personnel. pp. To explain men. pp. Sovereignty. It was mentioned above that means direct democracy. igi-94- p. but it nonpromotion of democracy. then. PDG. and the first possessor sovereignty and and authority is the seems community. p. so Ibid.48 The to transmission exercise theory holds that God has given the people the follows from the necessity of government."49 It is important to democratic.

therefore. p. 57 Democratic Theory."55 If the circumstances demand transmission must authority to distinct transmission. of and of public opinion are among the powers retained by the rect people. never powers of trans in varying degree. 55 187. for example. par ex Far from being repugnant to democracy. by which he means power based on "per is particularly characteristic of democ suasion.57 ss 54 Ibid. of They tend to corrupt life into a competitive system where all moral idea is absent."56 IV the relationships between au in the thought of Yves Simon. But powers. 138. Theory.. however. in the sense that the typical feature of power democracy is that it tends to transform into authority. then the is implied. prestige. 2). referendum. Mari tain's argument. "democracy Every democracy remains. 185-90 for the proper place of public opinion in democracy. a representative Bristol. 184. see also pp. Jacques Maritain has argued that the concept of sover eignty has no place in a democracy (Man and the State [Chicago : University of Chicago Press.. governing personnel. 85. poses no problems for Simon's discussion. Democratic p. the is democracy. ch. PDG. "Such practices mean rebellion and the core of political treachery political established at life. p. Note that this understanding of authority is different from Simon's." racy: Democracy is the political system which is built on the mode that is called of exercising a vis power authority.118 Interpretation that authority (though it authority. authority If it is not."53 The election. authority is its power formula cellence. Maritain." . 1951]. a vis coactiva into directiva. We are now in a position to unfold thority. "Non."54 and this is so because of the value pressure. Simon's ideas here are quite similar to those ex pressed by Edmund Burke in his well-known "Speech to the Electors of 56 Ibid. because of a governed democracy is molded by the ought of a governing Clearly the idea of direct democracy remains normative and for both Sartori plemented Simon. freedom. and deference. public opinion is designed merely to inform the governing officials. Theory" which place in democracy is real to control and not "Coach-Driver if. while Simon means by it the right to exercise authority. Sar democracy tori imphes that authority. 186-87. pp. "The is that democratically. but it does ercised not remove can be ex mits the only in extraordinary whole of the transmissible a situations). p. direct democracy. Something democracy seems point like this relationship between indirect and di to be what Giovanni Sartori means when he although we are governed we are governed says. Simon is takes careful emphasize that the transmission and genuine. uses the term in a very re stricted sense. it transmission of be real and genuine authority does transmission not destroy the essence of government but ungenuine does. though both argue that it to a cannot be im in existing of polities.

possession of authority is that which makes them lawful. and Democracy is not the only legitimate form government. Simon's careful philosophic anal ysis allows him to distinguish clearly and precisely those factors which governments possess consent. . indeterminate nature of democracy argued is then are we must that the ends of democracy the pohtical ask. has no to serve. however. the more perfect and the more free it is. p.60 unless they are very general and thus permit political dispute over 58 59 60 Politics of Freedom. Simon Simon would not 119 racy. a substantial portion of legitimacy or consent (belief in the lawful moral right to rule). policies. question is over the determinate a means. no final all- ultimate . but he does authority is characteristic of democ closely to democracy. more definitely a commu nity is directed toward its common good and protected from disunity in its common action. lines (Logic of Democracy. Again. As we have seen. pp. PDG. . and of influencing their racy must possess in that it must possess "fuller" Cassinelli argues that democ authority than other kinds of government governors. Mayo is very forceful in supporting 'end' for man. "to indeterminate has what?" often The position been taken. but there is If an extensive debate over the ends which or it is to serve. and it has the values inherent in the operating principles and character which it both presupposes and promotes. often of referen dum. It has its consuming their values. open and indeterminate.58 Simon. the only difference is that in granting consent.Authority and Freedom: the Democratic Philosophy of Yves R. I41- introduction similar along to Democratic Theory. democratic freedom for Simon is the ability to choose the their common good. people therefore. 138-41). no Form scientifically ascertained of the Good. the people in a democ racy retain a portion of sovereignty. and it has a typical Within these limits a democracy may be used to pursue aims which change from The realm of political and social purposes in a democracy is time to time Democracy sets up no purpose. Simon feels that democracy implies not not also only freedom of the people from arbitrary power of government but freedom of the people to govern themselves. These observations have important implications for the concept of freedom. . authority. common of is by nature an active principle directing "The to the good. pp. The people retain the powers of election. It can is that since people are to govern themselves. also p. All lawful govern ments possess authority: in fact."59 Democracy is not often considered to be an end in itself. This follows from the a fact that in which democracy the people retain a portion of action authority. 277-78. argues that all legitimacy. Thorson argues pp. its great value can be correctly perceived when too much is claimed for it. but the fact that not all is transmitted to the governing authority not disagree tie it that' so personnel. 108-9. The basic these ends. only they determine their this position : goals. and characterize democracy as one form of of lawful government. 309. What is unique about democracy is not authority. system.

it is a question for determination by the authorities in light the contingent circumstances within which democratic society exists. than simply purpose of of game. in their public capacity and in cooperation with the distinct governing per a particular sonnel. F. the end of de an mocracy is determinate. that it of cal reason and the requirement Authority is bound by ethi try to lead by persuasion rather reaffirms than by coercion. also pp. the good?" interest. and "The Politics of Interest: Philosophy and the Limitations of the Science of American Journal of Political Science 17 (1973): 745-66. 34." Politics. pp. as a process for resolving interest conflicts is widespread in contempo rary writings on democracy and in modern political science generally. 27-47. As a hope form of legitimate government directed the by authority. common good of good the community.120 Interpretation The logical upshot of this perspective is the theory which identifies democracy so long as the process meets certain ity: "Democracy is a method of taking mising and as a process of compromise between conflicting interests. see Cochran. that the people as a whole. of is. Durbin. but because interests transcend partisan interests. than the dis portant. "How is it possible to mediate differ is resolved. Democracy. in Rejai. of Simon's theory government democracy. "The Politics of ch. for of primarily to the the matter common good cannot be specified a priori. The concept game. and without some standards of justice. 62 Moral Foundation. 4. pp. For sub stantiation of this contention and a critique of the idea of democracy simply as a process of interest conflict. Cassinelli. See also the selections from E. Politics of Free Interest."61 ences. more formative of the resulting These theories have been effectively criticized by putes so John H. 135-38. not "A minority will agree to temporary simply because the minority cherishes the certain common someday becoming the majority. The idea of democracy as the compromise of interests or." common is more of agreement on some common values as "rules the the Simon's the the common good refers Yet the end is also indeterminate. method of compro more im reconciling conflicting interests. p. must be remembered that the common good is an ethical quality and cannot receive any matter which the people and government wish to determine for it. Schattschneider and Seymour M. the common Compromises dictated by strength are inherently unstable: rule by of the majority. The social order. Lipset in the same volume. the ethical nature and establishes normative standards against which actual Yet the greatest deficiency democracies may be measured. E. 36. standards of freedom and equal political decisions. more broadly. to public make compromises."62 Simon's philosophy of de attack on the mocracy is a reaffirmation of this principle and a strong idea of politics as confhct and resolution of private interests." dom. . pp. in determining It the nature of their common goal and the means to its the realization. M. who asks. 1 16-21 and 122-23. in Simon's democratic theory concerns 61 E. then. The unique feature of the democratic state is the active role taken by the people. Hallowell. 94.

Aristotle. the relationship between the alization of the institution of common this relationship needs elaboration if the relation good to private goods is to be fully considered. as private persons and as public persons. look too far in existing democracies to find examples note of Simon does take roles the difficulties and tensions which these may create for the conscientious man. which In words.64 and of small expressing their particular interests or their opinions of The importance of the autonomy of the individual units is the ground for Simon's idea of pluralism. PDG. It also follows that the citizen will have two functions corresponding to these two aspects of his citizenship. Simon discusses the autonomy of small units throughout PDG and attends to some specific condiserations in chs. It is easy to see and we need not of such conflict. then they must be regarded in two aspects. then it must advocate of the public and not the private good. but he does and gives go not consider guidance the problem in the context of can democracy effective a little for its resolution. n." essays "Political Study of "perfective" Education" . 66 Simon's notion of the functions of authority. If the people in a democracy take a direct hand in this. the problem of political so education. which he does in this connection. pp. Ultimately. is brought to the foreground attention by Simon's theory of democracy. As a public person he be concerned with both the form and the matter of common good. Ibid. that these two roles may often come into conflict. is quite suggestive 23. See FC. pp. Michael Oakeshott considers political education in 55. 104. Tocqueville of our were vitally concerned. pp. As a private person will he must will the common good formally the and must must his own particular good materially. For autonomy requires that individuals have the freedom to promote their private goods (see section II above). Simon 121 role of the people in determining their common good.66 63 64 65 PDG. does it become a public person? If furthering in the cease the common good? If individual group acts political process to promote thereby to be a private person and so. 4-5. for he does situations are it clear whether the people in these the common good. Plato. Simon's this discussion of the need for not pohtical parties to be open to the public and the role of public opinion are not make helpful in the resolution of problem. 60-61. 185-90. 43-47pp.65 the The conflict acute between the private and the common good seems par ticularly virtuous resolve other in a democracy. but the discussion is not systematic enough to solve the problem raised.63 How far not the individual ticular cisions good? Might too in promoting his par promotion of it prevent de an or subsidiary its private good. Here plural units and again. 51 and not develop in detail.. in which each man must promote both. 'Politics' and "The in a University. the tension may be incapable of resolution except by the man.A uthority and Freedom: the Democratic the Philosophy of Yves R . The problem of the common good in a democracy may problem itself into the and of creating a virtuous with citizenry.

it demands that risks be all forms of paternal (substitutional) authority of the few over the "It favors over the "common many. 1962). Democracy to the freedoms may have the freedom to common good. Of special importance is Hannah Arendt. has in accepted in ending promoting freedom. 8. it is as not an easy form of of government. 68 .122 Interpretation V One cratic still remains question in our exposition preferred of Simon's demo other theory. noted does away with authority. pp. See. Wolff. While they not always be able to place good men in posi- both in Rationalism in Politics (New York: Basic 3367 Books. Open Systems.67 Second. for example. in promoting its essential functions. As we though not. The passage quoted is on p. Space does not allow a detailed examination of Simon's inflated answer to this question. is because it course. . other derive from the freedom which a man of the people to govern adds them selves. The Theory of Democratic Elitism (Boston: Little. Brown. 1959)." . Peter Bachrach. Recent theorists of de much emphasis on mocracy have pohtical action potential. 17. participate in determining But how function of the content of the is democracy in eliminating the substitutional authority. democracy the a political form government attempts to people leaves the people freedom from arbitrary rule. the people do have may special skills which can promote the common good. Democracy. de authority. N.Y. as democracy it free to govern themselves. however. : Doubleday. 15-18. First. and provides for the full development of a citizen's human ac on While Simon undoubtedly disagrees important points. Why is democracy to be to forms of government if the conditions The that answer to this question allowing its is imphcit in establishment are present? what has of gone before and needs only to be clearly promotes articulated. and Baskin. Anarchism. esp. important for human development.68 placed the benefits which demo cratic participation through voting. the early granting of autonomy in all domains of paternal Since this process involves the dangers of misuse of autonomy. of the "aristocrats" man. The first factor to be democracy freedom. 1967). American Pluralist Democracy. clearly he would find the which these theorists of results these tivities. public discussion. 301- See PDG. sesses genuine authority promotes have seen. any regime which pos freedom because freedom and au a special role thority are complementary. with petition. mocracy demands guarantee heroism. . Neverthe less. ch. The Human Condition (Garden City. and in ad effective vancing the common good ? This is a second factor to be considered in evaluating democracy. pp. Suffice it to say that he of considers an optimism concerning the ability the the people to govern them selves and to promote common good to be dangerous. 111-36. Kariel.

" on in Political pp. It is dangerous to expect too much from any form of government or from imperfect men in an imperfect world. Downton. Rinehart and Winston. Hart. Perspectives Philosophy. Mayo. normative to some and government in terms seems extent. Children of Light and "Augustine's Political James V. ch. The true value of democracy can only be appreciated from the perspective of what optimism" It is this kind mocratic of realism which Reinhold Neibuhr has termed "political informs and elevates Yves Simon's de realism. 6. Simon 123 The they do seem to avoid placing bad men in them. If these results are not in fact the responsibility of any forthcoming. a distribution of power to the many is necessary to protect the people from the mistakes. 77-99.. This paragraph summarizes PDG. Simon discusses optimism and pessimism in FC. pp. and David K. blindnesses. 1971).. See Niebuhr. . have a special skill in dehberating about policy."70 theory. The refusal of many contemporary theorists. Vol. of and even Cassinelli. Jr.A uthority and Freedom: the Democratic tions of Philosophy of Yves R. people also governments.69 ability to distinguish clearly between those goods which are the re sponsibility of all just government and those which are peculiar to democracy. I (New York: Holt. 69 7 Realism. More over. for example. or evils of elitist One of Simon's greatest virtues as a theorist of democracy is his authority. a "disillusioned may be the result. eds. to consider democracy to result in their requiring democracy outcomes which are just government. 243-57.

and his principles did not fit readily ings of political simply into the conventional categories and group thought. He to . The New Left and the New Theologues have pictured him establishment thinker and apologist for the and status quo. or demohshing laying bare illusions. is to lead to the years ? Niebuhr as an unreconstructed was Some conservatives condemn read hberal. Does this fit analysis. How quaint and far-removed he seems from almost every one of the approaches popular in the last decade: positive thinking. as as but he There was movement in pursuing his own illusions to Niebuhr's thought and. Thompson University of Virginia is not based on a compre is it a systematic approach to social systems or political behavior. How many of his critics have run for Congress. order. for dialogue across ideological skeptical of and national boundaries but Huxley's scientific ra tionalism as a universal answer to world peace . not to as an force it prematurely into any ready-made ideological mold. there is an air of selfmockery in his description of his approach as "bastardized He was con and. nor theology" theory. by imphcation. too illusive for others. yet those views were still firmly based on principles too simple for some. problemquestioned UNESCO because he solving. as he did (he was a Sociahst candidate in 1930). and fought for their goals over choice. ending hunger or strove disease. Indeed. black power. intent history. His stance was as relentless on was often understanding reahty. the banning the bomb. exposing hypocrisy." He was skeptical of rigid and rationalistic modes and approaches not correspond and which did to historical reality. law chance." crete political in his thinking. pohtical of the founding its editor of Radical Religion ? His the complexities pohtical style of pohtical with emphasis said on ambiguities passivity and indifference to the needs of the city. He struggled to take hold of reahty. for war against Nazism but for accommodation with the Soviet Union. against Have they his critique of liberahsm ? He for peace but pacifism. the abihty to change his views. June Bingham has shown. those of others.124 NIEBUHR'S CONCEPTION OF POLITICS IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD Kenneth W. and too provisionally stated to satisfy those who seek for "hard theo ries. "bastardized political Reinhold Niebuhr's conception of pohtics hensive and coherent overall theory. giving the system one more and the war. bent and wedded on to a questionable viewpoint. "elimination" "resolution" of waste. "conquest" of of confhct. were founders of such organizations as Americans for Democratic Action. and for containment in Europe but not in Southeast Asia. polemical.

Niebuhr's Conception of Politics in the United States solve and the World 125 but to neither problems. Reinhold Niebuhr's. and they They of were his presence favorite I know occurred comment was "I don't understand what uneasy in he's ad about. and with society's stub born the resistance to change and its sanctification of the status quo on other hand. as self-awareness and identity-seeking lecture or was a personal matter. His ous. he questioned whether Christians were a likely source of social reform. not some was man's which thing sold for a price at a literary not fashion It predicament stimulated and man's possibilities. His indignation focused on . then the world's largest city. pur If theologians suit of and philosophers questioned or the seriousness of theology a philosophy. Perhaps this is he understood inhabitants of both worlds better than they under why stood themselves. on one hand. not in solitude." Niebuhr pohtical entered the pohtical arena not as a pohtical actor but his as a thinker. meditation Niebuhr's concepts and principles were based on experience." talking costly blunders monition on of at least two Secretaries State to whose most from their failure to consider Niebuhr's gain the limits of power. though he early learned that problems were never solved once and for all. never fully at home in either. politicians and were right. strut sent public and pose as a savior of mankind. for he found too much frailty in all men. He have agreed with the words of Walt Whitman: "it is provided in the very essence of things that from any fruition of success. books that he the articles and sermons and published in torrents almost until his death. to although his skepticism and self-critical atti cost with respect principles and policies may have him friends and allies. their that of interests tude and illusions. they were justice there were only two Chris both Jews. He never saw philosophy himself him to as a leader eradicate evil. that of pohtics the mind. show. with all the burdens and constraints this entailed. shall come forth something to make a greater struggle might necessary. beginning with himself (although his humility was never self-conscious or pomp it is with those who make a display of their limitations). given quoted with approval the religious of the words complaceny of Detroit. Two forces in particular re peatedly drew him out into society and drew him away from system atic thought. and the Episcopal bishop Charles Williams that tians in on matters of social and Detroit. He could not avoid the pohtical maelstrom. ers of In the social 1920s and 1930s. His one attempt political office ended and in failure in 1930 : he lived in two worlds. when he was affiliated with follow the gospel. diplomatists doubted that he was one of them. He was impatient with what he considered the irrele vance of philosophical Detroit systems. to root out evil. including their self-deceptions and pretensions. He moved from the pulpit of a contentious parish to the cockpit of social and religious controversy in New York. no matter what. his personal nor his and to extend opportunity allowed and justice.

but quest for influence and power can tie the restrict the freedom of social thinkers. concepts are power. contrast. He retained. he more open pohtics thinking As evolved into of a more or less coherent outlook on social pohtical problems. To achieve his ends he needed support of hands would and held power. he never fhnched from meeting the power ful head on. and practical morality. he did to empirical data. he evolve a proposed the study history. an alternative to system-building in the which. yet from his first denunciation debates with of social his rather shrill role Henry injustices in Detroit to John Foster Dulles over theologian. the was criti cism with a who difference. and media. Niebuhr's criticism." in the world.126 Interpretation role of the duction most auto Henry Ford industry. Henry Luce those or Billy Graham. important. . however. and thus his conception of pohtics evolved. his commitment to both thinking and doing. for on who make no pretense of all out social critics and have no designs decision-makers nor are they depen He dent upon them. THREE CONCEPTS IN A THEORY OF POLITICS Niebuhr's sciences. more of to holders raising. He criticized the notion of "house as he saw in the late 1960's the relationship of Billy Graham to the White House. hke every form of the specter of the social observer power. however. Luce and education. among few close friends many acquaintances the the pow mass the mighty in government. thinkers immune. Niebuhr's sentially most of on conception of United States These and world politics rested es three working principles which he apphed consistently in his political writings. and beheved. especially those who and be both thinkers the influencing muckrakers powerful are doers. abandoning his independence as critic and interpreter. He continued along I and and this path even when not his acceptance by influential leaders of grew and he did hesitate to challenge the illusions social John Foster Dulles. by numbered erful and thinking and into the marketplace. theory of ethics remained and which provided a basis for a serious dialogue with ethicists (whom he criticized for being too Utopian) and pohtical reahsts (whom he sometimes found too cynical). community. America's not only as an abridgement of the historic American as separation of church and state subservience but. and influential the mighty leaders of the new mass pro in challenging them he was defying the powerful people in that city. carried his a Niebuhr. business.

and not government cannot we be at estabhshed where community is present. jus tice and injustice. one man's security another's insecurity." 1 Vol 2 56. p. 3 4 Ibid. is not openly nor plainly stated but is cloaked in the language of right and wrong. Christian Century. as have seen in the tempts toward world government."4 Community security in their relationships. . from the most intimate and enduring units such as the family to ever larger groupings of As men struggle for identity and also join together out of convergent states."1 Niebuhr pohtics is to recognize the elements of power . recognition. Indeed. 14."2 may be obscured or sub Whatever the ultimate means goals or claims men and nations mediate ends and never pursue." tack made upon him by his year-old sister. p. which merged.. Community was approximated when American. One is sor and reminded of similar the Germany's claim that Poland was the aggres Russian charge against Finland [in World War II]. Christianity and Power Politics (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons."3 Power for Niebuhr was both inevitable the component of pohtics and and an inescapable the source of corruption. and "reasons of Rivalries such as these among nations are also played out in microcosm.. Community exists at almost every level. Niebuhr writes. security and insecurity. Community precedes government. he seeks influence. 1939. 1405. Anxiety insecurity are at the roots of quest for power and of excuses men make for their aggressions on the basis of morahty every day of their lives.. 123. p. . 1946). 104. To end this anxiety. the to both their im their ultimate ends is power. but which cannot be eliminated. The existence of power and powerlessness. and power. . "there has not been a scheme of justice in an history which did have a balance of power at its foundation. as when "my little five-year-old boy comes to me with the tale of an at state.. Ibid. Man who is dependent upon God but seeks to make himself self-sufficient and independent must inevitably be anxious. One man's power is another man's powerlessness. thereby threatening others and bringing anxiety into their hves. "Leaves from the Notebook of a War-bound November 15.Niebuhr's Conception of Politics in the United States and the World 127 Power "The wrote: contest of power "To understand is the heart of pohtical hfe. escape parental judgment for being too rough This tale is concocted to in playing with his sis ter. which underlie all social structure . interests and common pur they poses. p.

implying the existence of a prior values which moral and pohtical community. (at least in Niebuhr's time) the pohtical interests not converge. partly because the East did not share the moral con prevailing in Europe and the United States. yet for Niebuhr the two were least limited interconnected is at and provide the fulcrum of his thought. The Founding Fathers wrote of forming not a pohtical union of states but a more perfect union. a modicum of shared values and some minimal agreement on pohtical means and ends. fear. the for power as a means of compound the problem. they are fruition in the later the argument that practical concrete choices. cooperation Community provides the cement for among states. these problems are further comphcated by the human tendency to project upon the state un- . the un every the moral certainties of predicting the consequences of choice. sence of such a community: World pohtics is plagued by the ab only for limited periods and in limited geographical areas is community approximated on this wider basis. as the power/security di lemma leads to rivalry for influence and prestige. insecurity. Niebuhr beheved. To these must security and identity further be added ignorance. then. but it is equally hard to perceive and the interests quest and moral positions of others. Moral and choices involve discrimination among many goods. of shared American pohtical hfe has gone on within a framework least partly the heritage of a common European tradition. involves within which sible. not abstract ones. at of a thermonuclear holocaust. It is the framework the give and take of pohtics and accommodation on When society is based primarily most on the tentative and provisional is pos huddle together basis in the face of the threat. nations say. partly because East and West did Community. This interests and of was interests lacking in War. At the national level. Practical A final possible pohtical concept which reached Morality work was stages of Niebuhr's morality may be the highest attainment in national and international pohtics. Fear. Relations between nations more often resemble proceedings in the course of an armistice among contending states than they do a dis cussion of common interests. Men seek to do the right. but what is right? It is hard to perceive the correct solution for a problem or the right course to take in a given situation.128 Interpretation states of western common action the Europe in and the United States discovered the basis for a convergence of pohtical and moral convergence of following the Cold sensus World War II. It may be too simple to juxtapose power and community in these terms. the hazards of premature moral judgments and self -righteousness of individuals and groups.

Niebuhr beheved that cynicism had httle to com mend it as a positive and constructive approach to moral decisions. and Johnson have been similarly issue and problem is intercon Niebuhr. there is often a better chance of making the right moral Presidents says Kennedy and . however limited and (for example. Morahty becomes goal. the more they turn to achievements for personal satisfactions. those offer moral guidance tend to take five positions. Given these complexities and problems. Confronted with the complex and ambiguous choices of morahsts statecraft. is impossible. for who by a considerable all degree one of of moral consensus which no longer exists. Added to all this is nationalism : the more insecure the fact that moral choices are made more difficult because of the com plexities of modern life. in effect. The pragmatist grapples with basis : each decision has to be made as reahty solely on if it were unique . The Moralists The moral practical would make every question. it in relation to criticized President Nixon for such an other decisions. In nected.Niebuhr's Conception of Politics in the United States fulfilled personal ambitions nature of and and the World 129 aspirations. and criticized. their acts with moral ideological rationalizations when ambition and self-interest are in fact the true determinants. he said. Thus cynics call for recognizing what is. every fact. a pure issue. they defer true moral choice or to the millenium. that men which cover maintains. James Reston for looking at every issue as if it were isolated from every approach and the effective policy-maker cannot afford to see other one. The ancient and enduring moral codes were drawn up for rather simple societies and ways Barnard wrote. a prime cause for the crusading national anxious men and contemporary feel in their personal lives. not a awaiting matter of making choices among lesser evils or of the least imperfect good among available moral choices. they come from a time of sheep societies marked of and hfe (as Chester shepherds). whether to grant a travel visa or not). Morahsts tend to scorn those who make present choices. Niebuhr throughout his career attacked this ap proach and appears for contemporary societies at least to reject it a matter of a perfectionist declaring outright. not what ought to be. The Pragmatists Pragmatism a case-by-case appeals to those who are impatient with broad and gen eral moral viewpoints. The Cynics The that and opposite of moralism moral choice is cynicism.

130

Interpretation
if decisions is
are viewed

choice

in this

way.

However,

although

prag

matism

an advance over

cynicism, it

remains

for Niebuhr

a plau

sible

but inadequate

approach.

THE POLITICAL REALISTS AND PRACTICAL MORALISTS

Two

other

traditions have

respected moved

histories,
and

pohtical realism and

practical morahty.

Niebuhr

throughout his
moral choices

writings

in pohtics interests. Practical morahty is relevant because political choices which would be moral must consider competing moral claims. Both realism and prudence are essential to moral choice, the one in evaluating com
peting pohtical claims and the other in evaluating moral claims. Some may say these are distinctions without a difference, and that
what counts
with

forth between the two and speeches. Reahsm has its place because can never be made in isolation from practical
back

in

practice are

those frequent decisions

which are made

seemingly httle influence from underlying philosophies. Yet the success of our foreign pohcy over the next five or ten years may well depend
upon whether pohcy-makers substitute reahsm or prudence or cynicism.

for

pragmatism practical

Pragmatism looks to

what

is

possible and what mor

in

a single

isolated case,

while prudence seeks

to balance
at

is pohticaUy ally
values. what

possible with what

is

conceived of as

being
kind

least

right and subjects pohtical

decisions to

some

of

hierarchy
tell

of us

While

neither principles nor

circumstances alone can

is right, they do
moral

principles,

which seldom

framework for

up the fabric of moral choice. General (if ever) decide concrete cases, do provide a reasoning, and circumstances influence priorities
make

as we leave an era of plenty (one set of cir cumstances) and enter an era of scarcity (another circumstance). A nation cannot do everything; its leaders must choose. One choice

among values, especially

select methods of assuring national and international se Most of the energy of the Nixon administration (and perhaps of the Johnson administration) was dedicated to this task. If collec tive security is dead, what are we to put in its place? Because of ex cessive pragmatism, both these administrations were more effective in coping with individual crises as they developed than in deahng with must

be to

curity.

the larger

general question.

However,

pragmatists suffer most

by

com

parison with practical morahsts with respect

to the

problems of

the the

developing
answer,
nor

world.

Here

neither

charity

nor

crash

programs are

transfer of capital or people. Western pol Third World problems are likely to remain pe ripheral to the central issues of negotiating with the Russians and the Chinese for some time, and those who espouse economic and social
massive

is the

icies toward

so-called

development
minded

programs

as panaceas

for

world

peace

need

to be

re

that their

concerns are not yet at

the

center of world

atten-

Niebuhr's Conception of Politics in the United States
tion. Yet
center of

and

the World

131

somehow

future

policy-makers who would
move

be both

realistic

and prudent must

help

to

these issues

somewhat closer

to the there

the

action.

From the
while

standpoint of practical morality,
over

is something
percent of

99 worrying paying homage to a new structure of peace only once or twice a year at the United Nations when the leaders of gather in New York for the opening of the General Assembly. To be more specific, critics of the Nixon-Kissinger strategy, perpet
the time
nations'

obscene about

Great-Power

problems

by Mr. Nixon's successor, note a seeming obliviousness to the intangible aspects of foreign policy. The United States, these critics say, has been both ruthless and short-sighted in abandoning its friends Japan, India, and Taiwan. It has used its power with little magnanimity or grace. Kissinger and his allies seem to have lacked the
uated more
personal self-confidence and

security necessary to

establish and main

tain individual

relations of

intimacy

and

trust

with

Europeans

and

Asians. Their

pragmatism

has been

so relentless and cold-blooded

that

their intentions have been
one might expect peans.

suspect even

to be

most

trusting

of

Americans,

(and especially) among those namely, the Euro

The trouble
eign

with

pragmatism can

policy pattern, it

be

expanded

is that, much like every other for into a religion. Where human

plays a controlling role, limited political precepts and tactics be transformed into absolutes and there has been plenty of vani ty in the Nixon-Kissinger approach. Secrecy becomes not a means for accomplishing certain ends but an end in itself, justified not by doc trine or words but by a sense of omniscience and self-righteousness

vanity
can

is impervious to alternatives. Such pragmatism, though less of fensive than the florid public moralism of John Foster Dulles, is none theless all-pervasive in its effects. It leads to isolation from other views, ruthlessness in dealing with those who differ, and unwillingness
which

to

acknowledge

that

one

may be
though

wrong.

Those
not

whose acts speak

self-righteousness,

even

they

do

spring from in its language,
the
present-

may be the most self-righteous We can assume that Niebuhr

of all. would

have

reflected upon

day

conduct of

the thoughts the

on pragmatism

foreign pohcy in terms of practical morahty, although just outlined cannot, obviously, be at

tributed to him.
ed

Likewise, it is fair to suppose he would have
toward detente
and moral consensus
approached or

approach

Soviet-American efforts
of

with an awareness of

the

importance
also

any problem without His legacy is not that of a pundit or prophet, however, but it is rather his concepts and their usefulness in studying those issues which as a basis for study and thought remain the unfinished business of American political and in
careful consideration of

community unhkely that he would have
the

lack thereof. It is

problem of power.

ternational life.

THE CHOICE BETWEEN PERFECTIONISM

AND RAWLSIAN CONTRACTARIANISM

Kai Nielsen University It is
with of
Rawls'

of

Calgary
his
conception of

claim

that

when we compare

justice

(average utility, classical utility, and the different kinds perfectionist theories) that his theory at least appears (a) "to match

its

rivals

our

common

sense

convictions

more
unsettled

and
cases1

(b)

more

ade

While quately extrapolates to previously accounts to be his most serious rivals, I want Rawls takes utilitarian here to examine whether Rawls has demonstrated or even made con
332).

(p.

vincing 1) his
tualization
of

claim

that his
of

principles give a more adequate

concep

the basis

justice

and

morahty than does

perfection

ism

and

2) his further

and related claim

that there is "no basis for
justice"

acknowledging (P- 330). I
shall argue

a principle of perfection as a standard of social

that Rawls has

not made a

am not mistaken
struction

in the

essentials of
of

Rawls'

of

critique

compelling case here. If I my argument, and if some recon perfectionism cannot be made which
sound or at overall

will show such a critique

pelling than it

now

to be essentially appears to be, then his
part of

least

more com

theory

will

be

rather

considerably weakened, for to show that rival accounts
greater

are

its plausibility turns on his ability inadequate or at least suffer from even
own account.

difficulties than does his

Rawls begins his
fection"

examination of what out

he

calls

"the

principle of per

by

(p.

325).

pointing In the first

that there
us
call

are

two

variants of

the

principle

let
to

it "extreme
principle

perfe

the

principle
which

of

perfection

is the

sole

of

a

teleological

theory

directs

"society

arrange

institutions
to

and

to define the duties the
achievement of

and obhgations of

individuals

so as

maximize

human

exceUence

quotation posture: great

in art, science and from Nietzsche's Schopenhauer

culture"

(p.

325).

The

following

as

Educator illustrates this

kind must work continually to produce individual human beings this and nothing else is the task for the ques tion is this: how can your life, the individual life, retain the highest
value, the deepest significance?
of
. . .

"man-

Only by

your

living

for the

good

the

rarest

and most

valuable

specimens."2

Whether the

greatest

1 A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971). References to A Theory of Justice are given in the test. There are important remarks about his appeal to considered judgments and the rationale for extra polation from them on pp. 316-320 of the book. I have critically examined this matter in my "On Phliosophic International Philosophical Quarterly,
Method,"

(September,
2

1976). p. 325.

Quoted in ibid.,

and art. as a counterpoint to the egalitarian ism advocated by Rawls. Rawls' Let arguments against this moderate of form of per of fectionism. and.) Many of his criticisms depend on an appeal to be chosen in the original position. that they what would position apply to both variants. If.The Choice between Perfectionism number are made and Rawlsian Contractarianism 133 or happy or not. whether equal hberty is furthered not. if the methodo logical device of the original position has the effect of excluding consid people eration of such a substantive theory simply on those grounds. whether all men are taken to be of equal concern or cul tural achievements of was humankind must be preserved. of course. then or at position) have in that very fact cannot understand or assess good grounds for least seriously questioning the use of that methodological jecting device. perfectionists. use it to and cul tural amenities of us consider hfe.. and rightly. as a kind of moral basis for conservativism. A second form a of perfectionism of tionism" is form let us call it "moderate intuitionism in which the principle of perfec perfec tion is tionist accepted as only on one (though Such and a very crucial one) of several irre ducible culture. could argue against the difference principle Applied moderately for a limit to the redistribution of wealth and most income met.e. the least favored tribution should stratum of society tends to have been undermine Such a redis met and be halted when subsistence needs have been the where such a redistribution cultural values preservation of a situation ation of . impartial desires can be evaluated. that is to say. one should the arts. for he believes. ultimate standards. To say. But this would not be so for rational." institutions" in everyday life capable of a sense of justice. for example. 327). Persons in the original do not "share a common conception of the good by reference to which the fruition of their so powers or even can the satisfaction of their hardly "have an agreed-on cri they terion of perfection that can be used as a principle for choosing between (p. once the sub sistence needs or the basic needs of people including.P"s (people in the such original we conceptions. i. sciences. Such a conception would be utterly empty and inapplicable for them. the not. science. at least of extreme perfectionism. that re "O. instead of using the expenditures in such to enhace the happiness and reheve the suffering and alien more unfortunate strata of the preserve and to add to the flourishing of society. What we need to know is whether rational and impartial per sons in normal circumstances would have good grounds for adopting principles of justice rather than either extreme or moderate Rawls' perfectionism. slavery necessary to attain and preserve the achievements of the Greeks in philosophy. (In doing this I shall consider some his criticisms extreme perfectionism as well. a view can be more or less perfec depending the weight given to the claims of excellence and reasonably. then slavery was morally jus tified in those circumstances. that a ra tional person would not adopt such a principle because it might lead .

stipulate as a we will that rational persons take no simplifying device. but only if. Where is it written or estab lished that no rational man can risk his freedom to further or protect the sciences and the arts ? of objection Rawls moving to a different kind cannot. and then to point out that such people will opt for the principle of greatest rather hberty than the principle of perfection. then the worse for his will conception If. the freedom and well-being of individuals. for he avers the grounds even tolerably that "comparisons as of intrinsic there value can be made" and that. is too obvious a gerry mandering to require further comment. on without radically changing his own position.3 is quite arbitrary . as Rawls does." Philosophical Papers 69 (1972). Studi internazionali di filosofia. all or even most ra There tional with are no sufficient reasons for believing that and impartial persons in everyday hfe operate in accordance that simphfying device. then so much the worse for such simphfication. Even moderate perfectionism must generally give greater association" 3 I have argued against such a conception of Rationality. He agrees that the judgments we make ly tion that the work of one person here are not so vague that they must fail on that account as a basis for assigning rights. To point out. he to maximize that which rationally not is in his self-interest to such a conception of ratio will such a claim undermine perfectionism. im partial human beings might not adopt the teleological ideal-regarding freedom principles of perfectionism. is vast different in value (p. To set it up so that they must do so.134 to some curtailment of altogether Interpretation his own hberties and indeed even to a loss of is not yet to make a non-question-begging criticism of perfectionism. for the question is of priority. when measured by the excellence of their activities and works. for we have to be given a reason why rational. 327). alternatively. "clearly creative are at obviously standards in the within par ques arts and sciences for appraising traditions of efforts. and rationality in my "Principles in "Rationality and of Egoism. Indeed. he puts it." . interest in one another's interests. their own) may "fall before the higher social goal of maximizing of raising or maintaining the level of culture (p. 328). principles which commit them to the claim per that in certain circumstances some personal hberties (including. haps. reject perfectionism that it is a doctrine which captures nothing which is clear. Only if we were justified in claiming that seeks a man acts if. least ticular styles and thought. if Rawls is so much committed rationality. Very often it is beyond is superior to that of another. Rawls is saying that. as he points out himself. that justice a well-ordered as fairness "allows that in are and society the recogn values of excellence that "human principle of one perfections are to be pursued within the limits of the free is not to the point. (1975). But such a claim about ra tionality of nality.

but even if we do. Maximization or the total intrinsic on no (defined in perfectionist with a principle of equal particular circumstances. circumsta . 320). be responded. to see whether they have consequences that con Some of these considered con that we seem un victions. He that we need. better to stick with a principle of perfection with different principles of justice subordinate to that principle. Rawls has done nothing to should. Rawls. the what?" principle of equal hberty. it should be evident that at "some (p. Whether it is or not will depend Thus in a perfectionist account there is pillar of be compatible secure foundation for against a key justice as fairness. indeed. "So Per haps it is more reasonable and. it to From the fact (if it is themselves to Rawlsian doc a fact) are that im partial rational agents would commit a principle of per fection it does committed not follow that they would be. terms) may may liberty. point we cannot avoid relying upon our intuitive In the above argument we were forgetting that in comparing the ade It would morals and judgments" quacy to of these rival moral postures. And even the moderate a perfectionist a and the Rawlsian ment contractarian will not find basis for lower-level agree in a mutual commitment to the indispensability of human equal for the equahty of rights does not follow from the equal capacity ity. Rawls could claim. 318). Rawls rightly argues that the principle of perfection provides an insecure foundation for equal hberties and would depart widely from the difference principle. them to the value principle of equal hberty. as well. of individuals for the higher forms of hfe. we must at some point appeal might add to our considered convictions (p. and indeed is it the case. The willing to revise under any is that justice as fairness harmonizes better point. 318). including those deepest convictions flict with our considered convictions. we they lead (p. if they of to a conception of right which would in turn not commit of consistent. . . "are fixed points foreseeable (p. A criterion of perfection will be such that rights in the basic structure are to be assigned so as to maximize the total intrinsic value. It may well not even be true that trine we have such equal capacities. a that by itself would not commit a perfectionist who accepted of equal rights as well. with our considered convictions. . In particular. Why must it be the case. 319). morally speaking.The Choice between Perfectionism weight and Rawlsian Contractarianism 135 to principles of perfection than to the Rawlsian principles of justice. that rational and impartial people with a capacity for a sense of justice must opt for the priority of a principle of equal liberty rather than the However. it could priority far as I even of a principle of perfection when the two show are in conflict ? As can see. Rawls reminds us. need develop more fully the to develop them in we need consequences of these detail and see where principles . that they must or that they be reasonable for Rawls to respond that in arguing about in arguing morally. namely.

Ross argued that pluralist such as eralize beyond this. Presumably. are as dis tinct from his principles. sidered convictions and mine are not con hkely. "Criteria principles unsettled of and perfection. perfec tionist mine. it seems to me that such a perfectionist of is a rather distinctive kind of pluralist. the principle Rawls's two we should balance what he called prima facie duties. however. in the case and. ent groups of people. considered only remarking (accepting at least appeal) that in appealing legitimacy convictions. Rawls has not. the as Hare and any such considered convictions of Singer do.4 considered convictions. principles. M. differ rather radically from mine.136 Interpretation which are fixed points we are not willing. for he has on not been achieve a reflective equi rational librium between. "we" and We must. D. is contending that we cannot reasonably gen (Indeed. to challenge such an ap to considered convictions for this to such discussion. It may be the case that including most fixed considered convictions. and if we are both rather representative of differ account is in deep trouble. Moderate princi perfectionists argue that to balance fundamental and moral prin ciples. Rawls is particularly we are of perfection vulnerable. sometimes in favor of one shifting weighting of the principles and sometimes another. . as far as I can see." Reflective Monist I. Singer. social as political will not provide us with a single standard of excellence. Through engaging in this activity. his 4 R. to "our" revise (pp. ples of including justice. 330). then Why his Rawls' should we accept as normative for humankind the as considered convic Rawls' tions of his particular group? If." he claims. Ross. the one hand. impartial men with a sense of justice (a moral understanding) should opt for his two principles rather than the traditional teleological that the principles of perfectionism. then Rawls is also more able I think to in deep trouble. very different. "Rawls' ' Theory of Justice' 144-55. If that is so. Hare. The moderate perfectionist. In either case he has not shown why rational. the facts on the other. Sidgwick and Philosophical Quarterly Equilibrium. peal principle which clash with am not I trying. hke a much as W. I am of such an given us grounds for opting for justice Rawls' as fairness over perfectionism. Peter 490-517. we come to appreciate in a particular circumstance what is suitable to the situation. except purely in theory. be careful with the use of in drawing implications from the Rawls has not succeeded here. 381-20)." 28 58 (1973) : (1974) : . informed.) Rawls tells us that so construed the principle justice. Where claim rion we accept a moderate perfectionism and do not insist on any principle of perfection provides the sole ultimate crite for what we are to do. beliefs. our considered convictions which will register against perfectionism and for justice as fairness. to too "imprecise questions their application public is bound to be idiosyncratic" and (p.

"they are not pubhc their least seemingly in confhct with Rawls' Rawls' voured" all vantage equally imprecise. as the least favored stratum can be identified by its index of primary goods. for to be influenced by subtle aesthetic of preferences and personal and feehngs propriety. at least in theory. The claim is that we can."7 But this is or so it seems to commit oneself mirable way of To have a moral point of view Stuart Hampshire. and of the entirely desirable and ad hfe. he claims. vague. "What Is the Just 18. determine rather more exactly than can the perfectionist what we are to do. that Rawls' account virtue of from Stuart Hampshire one-sided emphasis in ex as plaining "the as social justice. were meant as part of some narrower tradition and community of thought. with them there is less consensus model would not work "we are likely Perfectionist principles. and what kind of character kind of life they is among other things. Mat feelings of propriety can. if there actually is such a comparative non-vagueness. No."6 have. 7 Ibid. but. but still quite centrally.. and the two principles of justice have an ad in the greater clarity of their demands and in what needs to them" be done to satisfy are less determinate: over such matters (p. and goes on what claim that "to adopt the moral point of view is to think to and aims men should should lead.The Choice between Perfectionism remarks about and at and Rawlsian Contractarianism 137 ascertainability made two pages earlier this last remark. "of the wholly admirable man. using account. a has.38. or try have. The nearly as well for perfectionism. 331). P. and individual. tues. . 5 Society ?" New York Review of Books . ethical principles are. for we can ascertain in a rather straightfor ward manner "what things will advance the interests of the least fa (p. vague though it may be. be ehminated. general agreement. to have a conception. Moreover to take a distinct consideration perhaps the Rawlsian doctrine in counterdistinction to perfectionism does not ple of perfectionism. as Rawls recognizes. And. class (p. Indeed. and even more of planned the other essential vir rational consequences cooperation in a rational setting. he continues. 6 Ibid. we can apply the difference principle fairly precisely. as we have known at least since Aristotle. 3 (1972). name ly when it violates some obligation or natural duty or interferes with the basic hberties of others. 321)."5 Hampshire or of queries whether this is the to rriost funda mental role of justice morality. group differences are often sharp and Surely. We know on ac count rather exactly when hberty or freedom can be restricted.. 320). irreconcilable" ters such as personal leave enough scope for ideal-regarding suffers considerations? In defending perfectionism one might argue against Rawls. it counts in favor of the principles of justice as fairness over the princi Yet how decisive this is is far from evident.

in question is from the history from the psychology of moral senti Hampshire is appealing to cen The kind ters around of reflective moral opinion the claim. reflected in the moral beliefs of many intelli that it is not the justice of the prevaihng practices and insti gentsia. particularly to the although genetic a To this I think Rawls point about the psychology an sentiments. 38-39. . the conceptions Rawls without to and utihzes are more cen a tral. separation. appeal (p. grounds of human cooperation and interests and for setting the re the other moral considerations ferred to by Hampshire justice Hampshire talks admirable would have no point. and of what ally to obtain among Such an argument virtue of and kind of relations are ide from the psychology justice is of more of moral sentiments stresses ciated with that the of guilt of the conceptions of innocence. 125). Thus in that obvious way they are more funda- 8 Ibid. tutions which are at the center of moral concern but a conception of what kind of person to become people. Rawls admits that such perfectionist conceptions involved in morality but denies that they are as fundamental as are his principles of justice in thinking about the necessary bases of rational cooperation for a well-ordered society. that of ally and historically speaking these ideas have had understanding the basis refers very considerable role and indeed that their the origins should not rational be lost. in law and "asso due and procedures of law. 9 Hampshire. However. See also P. escapable Nowell-Smith has moral "evidence" well. as Hampshire points out." is less centrally On society. respond. H. 39. admittedly indeci the sively. The considerations of about and the possibility of finding a truly way of life. aims. it is to the moderate not obvious how the issue can be ration ally settled as comparative arianism and as adequacy of Rawlsian contract perfectionism. for a basis of rational cooperation basis for cating conflicting claims. The "evidence" of reflective moral opinions and respectively.. "What Is the Just Theory Justice?" of p. "A Society?" Philosophy of the Social Sciences 3 (1973). impartiality rational judgment. Nowell-Smith.8 But Hampshire. are dependent for their very possibility on the considerations Rawls concerns himself with.138 Interpretation to a form of perfectionism as a still more fundamental feature are of mo rahty than anything to which Rawls appeals. ations offers as capable of for perfectionism following "consider of determining the ones the to intellect" considerations the same order of rigor as which Rawls feels that he can legiti mately ments. where such a postion is taken. Hampshire further remarks as plausibly. a rational and thoroughly desirable life plan. that this indecisiveness is in in philosophy."9 associated Rawls' "with the own positive account could and should of moral distribution of goods in just the opposite is the case. of yet when one reconstructs foundation adjudi out morality. pp.

here which the rest would be shambles. it is not a principle of justice. the issue of whether justice the more adequate articulation of fairness or perfectionism provides the foundations tice. is less im and it be the house it is without its basement. of some form to his guns and respond that in much of what I have mistakenly that the standard of perfection is a principle of justice. but even if it is true it would not touch the essentials of my argument. What not yet as of we must recognize settled. that consideration aside. on the contrary. Rawls' considerations pro of the edifice My house would not stand without its foundations. "Is There a Fundamental Problem in Australasian Journal of Philosophy 33 (1955) : 1-19. the others depend on them. My argument has been that he has not established this essential point.The Choice between Perfectionism mental not and Rawlsian Contractarianism 139 are a than the others. considerations give us the Perhaps. perhaps with conceptions taken from utilitarianism as are essential and tary in any effect points all of more adequate account of indeed essentially complemen morality. where they conflict. Rawls acknowledges that perfectionist principles are rational moral principles.e. i. from the above discussion is that we have Rawls thinks we have. natural and admirable way of hfe but from that it does not follow that would not Rawls' possible. The crucial question involved in the above argument is whether Rawls has shown that his principles. This perhaps is true. though it is a moral principle and a principle con cerning which moral arguments can be made. but. even if vide the base." terrain. should take pride of place. See here Stephen Toulmin.. but well." such considerations.10 Perhaps all we morahty or even the foundations of social jus should say something eclectic such as this : neither the most central aspects of gives the whole or even the picture of what morahty is about. Rawls claims that the princi ples of justice as fairness should take pride of place. but it by no means follows that my basement is the most important room in my house. said i Rawls I have might stick assumed . rather than the perfectionist principles. it does not follow that the rest portant. inquiry into reasonable foundations as of morahty. both. If they coherently a set out and rationally justified.e. i. and my argument would hold here even if (a) perfectionist principles are not principles of justice and (b) the moral terrain is so complex that we should not say that either form the most basic elements of morality but that they both are indispensable parts of the moral Ethics. And perhaps this in of plurahsm to the superiority these elements and encompassing eschewing anything like priority rules. should be said to be the most basic elements of morality and which principles. as Hampshire points out. There is lot of metaphor may resist more hteral state ment. are at rather than considerations about what constitutes the the most truly desirable the way of hfe with its concern an for ideals of perfection core of moral philosophy. theory of the kind of social order a theory of just institutions which provides the machinery "that makes a desirable.

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