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Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials Isaac M. Daniel Departments of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, U.S.A. Ori Ishai Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel New York Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 1994 Oxford University Press Oxford New York Toronto Delhi Bombay Calcutta Madras Karachi Kuala Lumpur Singapore Hong Kong Tokyo Nairobi Dares Salaam Cape Town. Melbourne Auckland Madrid and associated companies in Berlin Ibadan Copyright © 1994 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc., 200 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, ‘without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Daniel, Isaac M. Engineering mechanics of composite materials/Isaac M. Daniel, Ori Isha. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-19-507506-4 1, Composite materials—Mechanical properties. 2. Composite materials—Testing. 1. Ishai, Ori, IL. Title. TAAI8,9.C6D28 1993 620,1'18—de20 93-1047 987654321 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials To my wife Elaine my children Belinda, Rebecca and Max and the memory of my parents Mordochai and Bella Daniel ISAAC M. DANIEL To my wife Yael ORI ISHAI Preface Although the underlying concepts of composite materials go back to antiquity, the technology was essentially developed and most of the progress occurred in the last three decades, and this development was accompanied by a proliferation of literature in the form of reports, conference proceedings, journals, and a few dozen books. Despite this plethora of literature, or because of it, we are con- stantly faced with a dilemma when asked to recommend a single introductory text for beginning students and engineers. This has convinced us that there is a definite need for a simple and up to date introductory textbook aimed at senior undergraduates, graduate students, and engineers entering the field of com- posite materials. This book is designed to meet the above needs as a teaching textbook and as a self-study reference. It only requires knowledge of undergraduate mechanics of materials, although some knowledge of elasticity and especially anisotropic elasticity might be helpful. The book starts with definitions and an overview of the current status of composites technology. The basic concepts and characteristics, including proper- ties of constituents and typical composite materials of interest and in current use are discussed in Chapter 2. To keep the volume of material covered manage- able, we omitted any extensive discussion of micromechanics. We felt that, although relevant, micromechanics is not essential in the analysis and design of composites. In Chapter 3 we deal with the elastic macromechanical response of the unidirectional lamina, including constitutive relations in terms of mathemat- ical stiffnesses and compliances and in terms of engineering properties. We also deal with transformation relations for these mechanical properties. We conclude with a short discussion of micromechanical predictions of elastic properties. In Chapter 4 we begin with a discussion of microscopic failure mechanisms, which leads into the main treatment of failure from the macroscopic point of view. Four basic macroscopic failure theories are discussed in detail. Classical lami- nation theory, including hygrothermal effects, is developed in detail and then applied to stress and failure analyses of multidirectional laminates in Chapters 5, 6, and 7. We conclude Chapter 7 with a design methodology for structural viii Preface composites, including a design example discussed in detail. Experimental methods for characterization and testing of the constituents and the composite material are described in Chapter 8. Whenever applicable, in every chapter example problems are solved and a list of unsolved problems is given. Computational procedures are emphasized throughout and flow charts for computations are presented. The material in this book, which can be covered in one semester, is based on lecture notes that we have developed over the last fifteen years in teaching formal courses and condensed short courses at our respective institutions, and we have incorporated much of the feedback received from students. We hope this book is received as a useful and clear guide for introducing students and professionals to the field of composite materials. We acknowledge with deep gratitude the outstanding, dedicated, and enthusiastic support provided by two people in the preparation of this work. Mrs. Yolande Mallian typed and proofread the entire manuscript, including equations and tables, with painstaking exactitude. Dr. Cho-Liang Tsai diligently and ably performed many computations and prepared all the illustrations. Evanston, Ill. IMD. Haifa, Israel Ol May 1993 Contents 1. Introduction Definition and Characteristics Historical Development Overview of Advantages and Limitations of Composite Materials 1.3.1 Micromechanics 1.3.2 Macromechanics 13.3 Mechanical Characterization 4 Structural Design and Optimization 5 Fabrication Technology .6 Maintainability, Serviceability, and Durability 7 Cost Effectiveness Significance and Objectives of Composite Materials Science and Technology Current Status and Future Prospects 2. Basic Concepts and Characteristics 21 2.2 Structural Performance of Conventional Materials Geometric and Physical Definitions 2.2.1 Type of Material 2.2.2, Homogeneity 2.2.3 Heterogeneity or Inhomogeneity 2.2.4 Isotropy 2.2.5. Anisotropy/Orthotropy Material Response Types and Classification of Composite Materials Lamina, Laminate; Characteristics and Configurations Scales of Analysis; Micromechanics, Macromechanics Basic Lamina Properties Degrees of Anisotropy Constituent Materials and Properties 2.9.1 Fibers 2.9.2. Matrices 2.10 Properties of Typical Composite Materials Ro Cov mmnman 3. Elastic Behavior of Unidirectional Lamina BS w 3.1 4.1 49 Stress-Strain Relations 3.1.1 General Anisotropic Material 3.1.2 Specially Orthotopic Material 3.1.3 Transversely Isotropic Material 3.1.4 Orthotropic Material under Plane Stress 3.1.5 Isotropic Material Relations between Mathematical and Engineering Constants Stress—Strain Relations for Thin Lamina Transformation of Stress and Strain Transformation of Elastic Parameters Transformation of Stress—Strain Relations in Terms of Engineering Constants Transformation Relations for Engineering Constants Micromechanical Predictions of Elastic Constants 3.8.1 Scope and Approaches 3.8.2 Longitudinal Properties 3.8.3 Transverse Modulus 3.8.4 In-Plane Shear Modulus |. Strength of Unidirectional Lamina Micromechanics of Failure; Failure Mechanisms 4.1.1 Longitudinal Tension 4.1.2 Longitudinal Compression 4.1.3 Transverse Tension 4.1.4 Transverse Compression 4.1.5 In-Plane Shear Macromechanical Strength Parameters Macromechanical Failure Theories Maximum Stress Theory Maximum Strain Theory Deviatoric Strain Energy Theory (Tsai-Hill) Interactive Tensor Polynomial Theory (Tsai-Wu) Computational Procedure for Determination of Lamina Strength Applicability of Various Failure Theories . Elastic Behavior of Multidirectional Laminates Basic Assumptions Strain-Displacement Relations Stress-Strain Relations of Layer within a Laminate Force and Moment Resultants General Load-Deformation Relations: Laminate Stiffnesses Inversion of Load-Deformation Relations: Laminate Compliances Symmetric Laminates 5.7.1 Symmetric Laminates with Isotropic Layers Contents 37 31 37 41 42 45 47 48 54 55 57 61 64 70 70 nr 73 74 85 85 85 90 93 99 100 102 106 108 il 114 116 120 126 142 142 143, 145 146 149 152 153 155 Contents 5.7.2 Symmetric Laminates with Specially Orthotropic Layers (Symmetric Crossply Laminates) 5.7.3 Symmetric Angle-Ply Laminates 5.8 Balanced Laminates 5.8.1 Antisymmetric Laminates 5.8.2 Antisymmetric Crossply Laminates 5.8.3 Antisymmetric Angle-Ply Laminates 5.9 Orthotropic Laminates: Transformation of Laminate Stiffnesses and Compliances 5.10 Quasi-Isotropic Laminates 5.11 Design Considerations 5.12 Laminate Engineering Properties 5.13 Computational Procedure for Determination of Engineering Elastic Properties 5.14 Comparison of Elastic Parameters of Unidirectional and Angle-Ply Laminates 5.15 Carpet Plots for Multidirectional Laminates Hygrothermal Effects 6.1 Introduction 6.1.1 Physical and Chemical Effects 6.1.2 Effects on Mechanical Properties 6.1.3 Hygrothermoelastic (HTE) Effects 6.2 Hygrothermal Effects on Mechanical Behavior 6.3 Coefficients of Thermal and Moisture Expansion of Unidirectional Lamina 6.4 Hygrothermal Strains in Unidirectional Lamina 6.5 Hygrothermoelastic Stress-Strain Relations 6.6 Hygrothermoelastic Strain-Stress Relations 6.7 Physical Significance of Hygrothermal Forces 6.8 Hygrothermal Stress—Strain Relations 6.9 Coefficients of Thermal and Moisture Expansion of Multidirectional Laminates 6.10 Coefficients of Thermal and Moisture Expansion of Balanced/Symmetric Laminates 6.11 Hygrothermoelastic Isotropy and Stability 6.12 Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Unidirectional and Multidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminates 6.13 Hygrothermoelastic Stress Analysis of Multidirectional Laminates 6.14 Residual Stresses 6.15 Warpage 6.16 Computational Procedure for Hygrothermoelastic Analysis of Multidirectional Laminates . Stress and Failure Analysis of Multidirectional Laminates 7.1 Introduction xi 156 157 157 158 159 161 162 164 166 168 178 181 189 189 189 190 190 190 194 198 200 203 204 206 206 207 209 213 221 225 234 234