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In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Teaching English as a Foreign Language

By Beatriz Luna Garca Dr. Gerrard E. Mugford Fowler Thesis Adviser February, 2013


I should like to acknowledge the assistance of Professor Mugford who believed in my project right from the beginning. Also, I want to be grateful to Ana and Ruby, my nieces, who made valuable suggestions.Gracias, mijas! Also - and finally to my family: Gordo, Jess, Rafael, and Luisa, gracias por regalarme parte de su tiempo para poder realizar mi deseo de titularme.





Table of Contents ... iv Abstract............................................................................................................viii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Background................................................................................... Statement of the Problem.............................................................. Purpose of Study...................................................................... CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Definition of Terms........................................................................ Discipline Discipline . Disruptive behavior . Anger management .. Classroom management .. Classroom management .. Lesson planning Interpersonal relationships Ability. Age Anxiety . Aptitude ... Attitude Behavior .. Motivation ... Personality .. Risk taking... Social Power


Language functions Greeting ... Body language Eye contact .. Gestures Sociolinguistics Language usage . Language use . Register Style .. The teachers role

Relationship to Other Studies ......................................... Theoretical Foundations .................................... CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Hymes Speaking Model Presentation . Hymes Speaking Model Case Study.. CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION OF RESULTS Graphs .. CHAPTER V DATA ANALYSIS

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Greeting .... Eye contact ... Language use .. Gestures ... Teachers performance .. Teachers feedback Students performance ..

CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION APPENDICES Observation sheet 1 Teachersperformance .... Observation sheet 2 Students performance REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY



This thesis project provides a framework for teachers, students, parents and school authorities regarding discipline and learning English in secondary public schools. There is a clear example of what happens in the classroom during an English lesson. The investigation was conducted following the Dell Hymes Ethnographic research method in which a group of a public secondary was observed. The findings without a doubt set the need to pay more attention to students and the classroom management in this particular class. This specific class might be a clear example of what happens in Mexican public secondary schools in general.



It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the problem with discipline in education in general. It is a real challenge for teachers and parents to work with students in Secondary Public Schools in Mexico. Students have trouble following the rules from authorities; they also have problems with attitude.Therefore, it is now my concern to identify how discipline affects teenagers learning a language. In recent years, there has been an increasing challenge in relation to teaching teenagers. Teenagers are the most challenging group of students to teach, even though, they are the most interesting group too. My perception is that keeping students attention inone-hour class, and keeping them quiet during an activity has become more difficult over time. It has also become more difficult to keep students on track of any routine during lessons. They can hardly concentrate, moreover, they hardly show respect to each other. For instance, they make bad use of language and body language, and their appearance is sometimes open to discussion. Interacting with the authority (in this case the professor) has become an issue in Secondary School; students do not listen nor follow the teachers instructions. The aim of the investigation is to find out what role discipline plays regarding teenagers and the language learning process. The research was conducted in a Public Secondary School in Tonal Jalisco. Discipline consists of more than punishment, at the hand of authority, for wrongdoing, on a way of life. That is, if a person is disciplined his/her projects become more productive. Learning a language requires of sociolinguistic, psychological, methodological and practical issues; discipline is part of these features.


The intention of this chapter is to present different terms, studies, theories and opinions regarding this thesis project main concern:How discipline affects teenagers when learning English in Secondary Public Schools.The first section introduces a list of terms defined by different authors, institutions and publishers. The second stage presentsother studies related to this same topic. And finally the third stage describes different theories related to the research.

DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Discipline With the general growth of discipline matters in education in general, the language learning settingcould have been influenced. For that reasonand in attempt to go beyond any assumptions I would rather consider how discipline isdefined by some experts, authors and institutions. Discipline is a state or code of conduct in which both teachers and learners accept and consistently observe a set of rules and standards about behavior in the classroom. Having this communion will facilitate a smoothand efficient teaching and learning situation in a lesson (Harmer, 1989; Jones, 2012; & Ur, 2006). As a consequence, it is the teachers responsibility to send positive and sane messages to students in order to address situations and individuals to become more cooperative in order to maximize learning and minimize disruptions (Jones 2012). These messages should guide students away from inappropriate behavior towards behavior that is appropriate and lasting followed by specific skills (Ginott1968). As Zeremba, 2012 mentions: The aim of making students responsible is to make them become well-adjusted people in any social skill respecting rules and order.If there is an appropriate discipline in the language teaching setting; students become more susceptible to memorizing, understanding or performing any given task.As a result, they will achieve

the goal of learning the target language. To this point, controlling bad behaviors is not enough; not having them would be better(Harmer 1989). While then, Jones (2012) states that in order to build up positive classroom discipline, teachers should have a positive and appropriate behavior, and therefore end up with a positive classroom management condition.Experts from theAmerican Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACH&AP) recommend that teachers speak in measured calm voices and that they avoid the use of negative correction actions mentioned by Zeremba, 2012. There seems to be an agreement on how discipline involves teaching others right from wrong including methods to prevent or respond to behavior problems so they do not occur in the future. Students could receive a corrective action if they do wrong, although these actions might not be somehow accepted. For example,physical aggressions or involving loss of property or privilegesare controversial forms of corrective actions, but in most cases not considered abuse. In contrast, if students do something good they might receive a reward which could help to achieve goals much easier (Kounin, 2012 & Slavin, 2009). On the other hand, discipline is a vital factor in shaping ones personality, even more when the language learning input varies from individual to individual. Discipline is not an imposition but a normal growth under the process of learning; with that, defining self-discipline will enrich the findings of this research. Self-discipline is the ability to motivate oneself in spite of a negative emotional state. Qualities associated with selfdiscipline include willpower, hard work, and persistence, as found on the self-discipline Wikipedia homepage/self-discipline: 2012. Considering that secondary school students might not still be mature enough to discern what is good from bad assertive discipline plays an important role. Assertivediscipline is a given limit with clear rules and consistent enforcement making clear that the teacher is in charge of a positive classroom management. It is important to take into account parents, and administrators assistance when it is needed. The underlying goal of assertive discipline is to allow teachers to engage students in the learning process uninterrupted by students misbehavioras found in the Wikipedia homepage/ assertive discipline: 2012.


Despite the fact that, any kind of discipline gives a person the power to hold together with their decisions and follow them through. This makes discipline a critical component and one of the most important requirements for achieving goals of any kind in life Grijalbo Language Dictionary, 1986. The contrast of having a positive discipline in the classroom is the presence of disruptive behavior or negative discipline. This seems to be a problem nowadays in secondary schools. According to Bowen (2012) and Everston&Weinstein (2006) disruptive behavior in the classroom is a repeated, continuous or multiple student behavior that prevents the teacher from teaching and/or prevents students from learning. Some examples of disruptive behavior are: Any kind of violence in the classroom and outside Cutting classes Persistently speaking without being recognized Harassing behavior Interrupting other speakers Insulting others Using cell phones in class After having all these different definitions of discipline I will write what to me has worked when teaching English to teenagers regarding discipline. First of all, I work side by side with parents, school authorities and the students themselves whenever discipline problems arise. Having a clear set of rules right from the beginning of the course support me to avoid any misunderstanding with parents, students or school authorities. Moreover, I think that discipline depends so much on effective lesson planning and classroom management. 2. Anger management One reason for having discipline problems might be the frustration students face when they feel threatened or criticized. This emotion is called anger, if anger is not controlled it could result in health, mental or emotional problems. Within the teaching-learning context it is relevant to take this issue into account; moreover when it is well-known that teenagers are in constant emotional and physical changes. Furthermore, anger leads to violence and the least teachers want is to have violence in the classroom.


Along the lines of the American Psychological Association; APA(2012) anger is a completely normal, usually healthy, human emotion. It is considered that when anger gets out of control from a person to become destructive, it brings up problems in any persons life setting, say work, home, school, and even during theirpersonal domain. In agreement with American Psychological Society; APS (2012)anger is an emotion that could go from a light irritation to an intensive ire. People not only feel angry but act angry; they yell, throw things, criticize, ignore, storm out and sometimes withdraw and do nothing. Anger goes alone with biological changes in your body, your blood pressure rises and stress hormones are released. Considering that anger is a harmful issue when in the language classroom, even more when teaching teenagers; anger management is a tool to avoid the problem. Anger management refers to an educational process during which students learn very basic anger issues. For example, students rarely distinguish between the emotion of anger and the behavior they exhibit when angry. Most often students believe that when overcome by anger they are out of control. In fact, they are most often very much in control of their behavior while not in control of their emotions. It is often difficult to accept this as fast as it is much easier to excuse their misbehavior when the behavior was committed while they were out of control. The teacher is there to remind students of their personal responsibility while providing strategies to assist in avoiding the emotion of anger in the first place. Some advice teachers can provide students to reduce stress and scale of anger episodes are:to sleep well, to do exercises andto avoid drugs or alcohol. Wikipedia homepage/anger management: 2012 3. Classroom management There seems to be a general agreement on defining classroom management between Harmer (1989) Nunan (2011) & Wragg (2003). Classroom management deals with the efficiency a teacher has to organize a class, the way to involve students in the task on hand, and having good classroom management skills. There should be a variety of activities and materials. Creating a positive atmosphere is important to make young learners feel secure, furthermore, teachers should be aware of using correct and appropriate teaching techniques, such as: language use, eliciting, error correction, giving feedback or giving instructions.


Nonetheless, all these techniques involve teachers personality, the aim of the classand students profile, as well. On the other hand, classroom management refers to the ways in which student behave, move and interact during a lesson organized and controlled by the teacher(Richards&Nunan1990; Underwood 1987). Taking into account all the experts opinions and what to me has worked regarding classroom management (Prevention is the cure Harmer, (1989). I decided to write a list of possible tools to provide an integrated framework for managing students positively and creating a more productive working environment in the classroom.
A rule is a small thing to learn, but it can have big results. Shrum and Eileen (2009)

a. Control -having a good control of students in class will give them selfconfidence, and make them feel you care about them. However, avoid raising your voice. It has disastrous consequences for it contributes to a general rising of the level of noise in the classroom. b. Rules establish a limited number of rules and make sure they are clear, as well as the reasons for having them. A school policy would make the difference. c. Rights and Responsibilities - make a list of dos and donts with students at the beginning of the course, so they take into account what is or is not allowed in class time. And, be consistent. Teachers can model through their own actions to make these rules more valuable. Moreover make sure you are always prepared regarding language, lesson planning, material and appearance. d. Respect students who are treated respectfully by the teacher, school authorities and classmates will respond in a similar way. If students are treated as individuals they would feel more confident and respond as individuals and not with a collective group mentality which could affect the interactions in the class. Use an appropriate language, swearing, speaking of others or being too informal might influence students own language. Always be positive. e. Listen -make sure that whenever students speak; you pay attention. If students make mistakes or what they are saying is not relevant to the class, take into account that there is always time for error correction and free topic time during class. f. Relationships - creating and maintaining a positive relationship with students is at the heart of establishing a happy learning environment. Dont be unfair by having preferences and prejudices in the classroom.


g. Routines - classroom routines make it clear to everyone what is expected of them and what they should do. Nonetheless, having a good lesson plan with a variety of activities will keep students away from getting bored. h. Rewards - reward systems can be an effective way of reinforcing appropriate behavior e.g. giving extra points, free topic classes, listen to the newest hit, play sports or games, etc. Dont threat students with negative punishments; it is better to make students conscious that if they misbehave they will miss their privileges.

Lesson planni ng
Harmer (1989),Richards (2002) and Woodward (2001) pronounce that lesson planning is the key to have a successful class. Lesson planning is the art of mixing techniques, activities and materials to help teachersachievean ideal balance in a class; considering also the possibility of being adaptable and flexible to any circumstances within the class time. Flexibility refers to the abilityof changing needs of the group as the lesson progresses.Adaptability is to be able to choose and adjust the program on the basis of the different groups. If the lesson is well organized there is always a feasible way to confront problems. A good lesson plan must include the following stages: i. description of the class, ii. recent work, iii. content: context, activity organization, aids, and language iv. additional possibilities. Additionally, planning the lesson activities must consider the attention span students have during a lesson, this in order to avoid switching off(Nunan, 2011). Also, trying new things in a group will allow studentsto make an extra effort to become more effective, and at the same time keep them from side tracking (DeLucia-Waack, 2006). Including TPRactivities (total physical response); and catering to different learning styles: visual, auditory, or kinesthetic will also, deal with limiting attention span in order to avoid having negative reactions.


4. Interpersonal relationships

Learning languages demands ability, that is, students should have any sort of quality or power to achieve or accomplish the objective; these abilities could be either mental or physical. According to Cooper, (1999) abilities can sensibly be evaluated and a possible way to do so is by monitoring behavior (how many words can he memorize in a minute). The key point is that it is possible to count the number of words and making sure students understand its meaning in context. In addition, ability plays an important role in motivating and learning; when learners think that learning experiences will lead to certain meaningful results, they exert more effort (Shrum and Eileen 2009) Alternatively, a learner, who is willing to learn a language but does not have the ability to do so, might turn his frustration into indiscipline or disruptive behavior, thus, the need to understand and know students in class. For example, as teachers we could make gestures or perform intentional acts of communication to catch students attention or teach the language. That is what (Vygotsky, 2012) named intramental ability. He also recognized the intermental ability which occurs with the interaction, for example, when a teacher makes a gesture and students act on his behalf giving meaning to his communication.

As said by Chomsky, (1965) there is a specific age in which it becomes more difficult to learn a language. He believes that the younger the student is the better and sooner he or she becomes language fluent. Nonetheless, teenagers could be an exception, due to the fact that they also present some physiological changes that might affect their emotions (Nunan, 2011). For instance, they easily change moods; feel attacked, threaded or questioned. According to Krashen, (1987) there is so much going in their thinking quarters to allow second language learning to be efficient. On the other hand, teachers should never forget that teenagers need to be seen in a good light by their peers, and that negative criticism might make them prone to humiliation which will make them do wrong in learning. Students who are highly stimulated will become better learners. (Harmer, 1989:7) 15

Therefore, there should be considered to have well planned lessons that fit students needs in order to accomplish any goals of language.

Some students might change their attitudes in some specific circumstances, for example when they are asked to come to the whiteboard, or read out loud. These changes might be directed by the anxiety they feel at this specific moment.Anxiety is the subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the automatic nervous system (Spielberger, 1983). Being in a stressed situation makes learning more difficult, even more in a language learning context and dealing with teenagers.Some anxiety indicators on students are tremors, muscular tension, shaking body and so forth. There seems to be an agreement on balancing activities in class in order to reduce anxiety on students, (For example, Mayer, 2000 & Krashen, 1987) Having stressed students increases the difficulty on tasks and challenge grows gradually; therefore, the need to organize activities. Nonetheless, it is important to consider that if anxiety does not minor students should be taken to a counselor. Without a doubt, Krashen, (1987) claims that learners with low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Supporting Krashens idea, (Littlewood, 1991) states that learners who feel anxious or insecure are more likely to have psychological barriers to communicate.

According to Brown (1994) & Stansfield, (1989)aptitude is the amount of time it takes an individual to learn the task in question. Thus, students might differ not in whether they can or cannot learn the language, but rather in the length of time it takes them to learn it or to reach a given degree of competency. Certainly, learners are not all the same, some have good imagination, others good memory, others might solve problems easily;others might be risk-takers, and so on. What is true is that whenever they have thedesire to learn a language they will be successful learners.Considering that in the teaching language environment students who are likely to take risks and make mistakes become successful learners; aptitude is taken as a great tool to achieve the objective (Edge, 1993).


Attitude is a disposition to react favorably or unfavorably to a class of objects. There are three important components to act: 1. Thoughts, cognitive elements.Students thoughts during the class must be connected to the task in time. If students are not paying attention there is no way they can assimilate the information given. 2. Feelings, affective elements. Students who have emotional problems will not achieve any objective during class. 3. Predispositions to act, behavioral elements. Students with a negative perception to the class will lack any information given. Quite the opposite, a student with a positive attitude will have a better performance or learn more than a student with a negative attitude towards the language (Edwards, 1989). In view of the fact that, teaching English to teenagers is a challenge itself due to different physiological changes they are going through;Write (1987) mentions that it could be worse if they had a negative attitude. During this specific stage in life human beingsconfront many negative situations in their lives. It is state of mind.Students negative attitude can be towards classmates, school faculty, parents, settingor the language itself. Therefore, it is a very important aspect to consider the psychological baggage students bring to classroom. Students attitude may influence how much social distance they feel or choose to keep with others.

Behavior is anything a person does or says that can be directly or indirectly observed and measured. Within the teaching-learning context, the teacher has a strong influence on students behavior by manipulating their background, consequences, or both. (Dreikurs and Cassel, 1972&Connolly, 1995) For instance, if students find themselves in an unsuccessful situation, like not obtaining acceptance, teachers must direct them in class and not let them get into any negative assumptions that will lead them to misbehavior. The emphasis is on teaching students how to behave rather than on how not to behave.One way to correct behavior is not to ignore negative situations in the hope that they will stop.If teachers ignore any problem behaviors or students, the classroom disruption will get worse. Going beyond, one clear example of misconductis swearing. Swearing is an aggression that is likely to be imitated by students Mayer,(2012). Once this problem is faced appropriately it will not be necessary to resort to


reprimanding, lecturing, redirecting students or overreacting since these actions only gain attention.

Motivation is the most influential factor in learning new languages, in other words it is the motor used to accomplish the goal. Motivation involves a constellation of actions, beliefs, desires, efforts, favorable attitudes,interests, perceptions, persistence, and values that are all closely related in order to carry on the motor to become bilingual(Gardner, 2001&Littlewood, (1991). There are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure; whereas, extrinsic motivation is what comes from outside the individual (Nunan,2011; Harmer, 1989; Gardner,2001). Academic motivation could be the pleasure of learning characterized by curiosity, persistence, and challenge.Without a doubt, and according to Nunan, (2011)students motivation can decline due to the lack of clear objectives, or themes. Sometimes, students can be demotivated if they do not find lessons related to their daily lives; or if they do not follow or see any progress in their learning,

Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One understands individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other understands how various parts of a person come together as a wholeAmerican Psychological Society, (2012).Furthermore, Freud believed that personality has three structures: The id, acts according to the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification of its needs regardless of external environment. The ego, then must emerge in order to realistically meet the wishes and demands of the id in accordance with the outside world, adhering to the reality principle.


The superego (conscience) inculcates moral judgment and societal rules upon the ego, thus forcing the demands of the id to be met not only realistically but morally. In the language teaching context teenagers personality affects how students react under different circumstances. For instance, students might be asked to play different roles for a specific activity, though their personality will not change; their performance will be affected by their personality. However, some students tend to be attracted by certain roles which they hope will satisfy their personal needs, such as a desire for power or caring for others Write, (1987). What is more, it is important to mention that there are different kinds of personalities: extroverted and introverted. Extrovert students, in contrast with introvert students, are those who do not have any problems to take part in social interactions, attracting more attention from teachers or feeling inhibited when asked to display their proficiency. They can take risks to make mistakes or projecting a reduced image of themselves. Self-esteem gives students the opportunity to feel less threatened when learning a language. Moreover, taking into account students personalities makes the language process more effective(Littlewood, 1991).

Risk taking
Risk-taking is the ability to gamble, to be willing to try out feelings about the language and to take the risk of being wrong Brown, (1994).

Social power
If students have the ability to influence others in a class, they have social power. Students who have social power usually make use of eye contact, in order to express friendship, agreement/disagreement, control, or liking/disliking as mentioned by (Steward, Shamdasani, &Rook 2007). Teenagers should be taught necessary social skills to avoid having hostile and foster behaviors in the classroom. The goal of social skills training is to teach students socially acceptable behaviors that will result in natural recognition and acceptance (reinforcement) from their teachers, classmates, and others (Mayer 2012).


5. Language functions Language functions describe what is done with the language, for example, agreeing, complaining, greeting, inviting, etc. Therefore, students who are learning a language need to recognize the use of language for specific purposes (Harmer 1989).

Greeting is according to Miller (2002) a good way to start a class, due to the fact that most students think that teachers make them feel good when class starts with a simple Hello or just by calling them by their name. Furthermore, students say that teachers who greet are the ones who also care about them personally, and this personal interest motivates them to do better in class. There are five ways to greet students: say hello; shake hands; make individual comments like: nice hairdo, nice jacket; talk about what students were previously doing, like sports, chit chatting or last class; and always give a positive comment to start the class. 6. Body language Teachers body language has a strong impression on students, Thus, making use of facial expressions like smiling, or eye contact; proximity like touching students shoulders to establish rapport are good strategies to break the ice and have a nice class setting.

Eye contact
Eye contact is essential; it helps to find out needed information from others, synchronizes conversations, and controls the environmental influences such as rapport and participation (Steward, Shamdasani, and Rook 2007). Additionally, a single fleeting look from across the classroom can speak volumes.Longer eye contact is associated with trust, good feelings, and rapport. Be aware,however, that too much eye contact can be intimidating, especially for shy students.


Using gestures in the classroom can enhance the learning and help students to better understand certain objectives. Gestures provide a visual interest as well as reduce the need for verbal explanation, especially for learning vocabulary or verbs.Using gestures does not mean talking with your hands or gesturing while speaking. Gestures in the second languagelearning context need to act as visual cues as to what the speaker is talking about. For example; waving to signal hello, pointing to the object one is talking about, holding ones hands to look like they are steering a car while talking about driving, etc. 7. Sociolinguistics Sociolinguistically oriented discourses in the classroom are related to thinking and learning. That is, both oral and written languages acquire meaning through social usage. In order to communicate there should be meaning and discourse; meaning between the listener and speaker or writer and reader, and discourse to reflect ideologies, values, beliefs and social practices. Having a good management of sociolinguistic skills will promote the development of students self-regulation. For example, students will be able to know what to say, when to say it and to whom say it, creating then a positive interaction among students and teachers (Evertson and Weinstein 2006). Students who know the language rules either grammatically structured or in the social meaning will have a better language performance. Some language rules must be given to students within the language context. First, students should know the rules for making language. i.e. what language structures are used when writing or speaking. This is called language usage. Second, language use refers to the communicative meaning of language, i.e. how and when to use the different grammar structures. Third, students must understand that there is specific vocabulary for different situations. In other words, there is a language variety named register; also known as jargon. People speak according to their occupation, social status or place of living and very important to this investigation according to their age. And finally, style which refers to the variations within registers that can represent individual choices along social dimensions. That is, people speak in a formal or informal way, according to the circumstances (Davies and Fraenkel 2003).


Learners should be taught in ways that make clear their relationships between linguistic form, communicative function and semantic meaning (Nunan, 2004). 8. Teachers role The physical setting gives the opportunity to immerse in the language, whereas the emotional situation offers a warm environment to perform and learn better, teachers should make sure this happens. A way to facilitate students this setting teachers should communicate and have a good rapport with them (Stevick, 1981and Connolly, 1995). Once the teacher has the control over the class he/she will play different roles according to (Harmer, 1989).
Controller: He will be in charge of whom, when and about what will speak or do. Assessor: The teacher`s job will be to assess the student`s work. Organizer: The teacher will tell students what to do or say and when. Prompter: The teacher`s activity is to encourage students to participate. Participant: The teacher will take part during the lesson. Resource: He will provide students information if they need.

While DeLucia-Waack, (2006), says that teachers must be feedback givers as well. Giving feedback to students will allow them assimilate what they have done correct or incorrect. Once students are aware of their weaknesses and strengths the learning process will be easier. In addition, making comments about the work students do or perform arises their emotional stimulations. Feedback is another important way of providing attention and recognition. The emphasis, of course, should be on what is being done correctly. Stress the positive. Feedback has been found to be more effective in promoting learning when it is combined with praise Mayer (2012).


RELATIOSHIP TO OTHER STUDIES Language teaching and discipline have been studied by many different writers, professors and psychologists. In this section there will be a brief introduction to different research, studies, or books related to this specific case study: How discipline affects teenagers when learning English in public schools. The first study to be mentioned was conducted by the teachers Fernandez and Peralta in a primary school. The conclusion of this research was that in order to avoid indisciplinary manners it was necessary to implement a teaching model. This model basically followed the general classroom management techniques. Identify the problem, give possible solutions, evaluate each solution, work using the keys and learn from the given results (Fernandez and Peralta, 2009). Diaz, 2012 presents the results he obtained from his case study showing that some of the teachers declare using a rising tone ofvoice, scolding and expelling difficult students from the classroom as key disciplinary techniques; otherteachers claim that disciplinary strategies help them to accomplish the teaching aim in a lesson. Rodriguez (2012), Kizlik (2012), and Amanda (2012), Everstonand Weinstein (2006) found in their different investigations, (conducted in different schools of the United States), that the most common misconduct issues are the following: disrespectful behavior, food and cell phone disruptions, frequent absences/tardiness, not following instructions, plagiarism or lying, refusal to participate, spacing-out or sleeping in class, too much chit-chat and undermining teacher authority. The Council of State Governments in Texas conducted a study on discipline in high school in the year 2011. The results were that students were suspended off campus, expelled, or connected to criminal activity due to their lack of discipline. Many experts did not agree with the school authority response toward these reactions as found in the local newspaper (Schwarz, 2011).


As a consequence, the entire group of researchers concluded that in order to addressmisbehavior, there must be good classroom management. For example, the need to plan a class according to its needs, thinking of the number of students, seating arrangement, student vs. teacher talking time, attention span, material use, students personalities and so on, also some of these experts considered the social, educational and cultural backgrounds as the key to decrease this problem. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS According to Skinner`s behavior theory; it is easier to make students understand and well-behave if there is positive reinforcement. Behavior is shaped by its consequences across situations. That is, if students behave badly, teachers should not highlight his/her attitude, though if this same student follows the rules teachers should reward him/her to keep up a positive attitude (Wikipedia, 2012). The Jones Discipline model shows how his author visualizes discipline from two different angles. He believes that there are an inside and an outside of the classroom discipline views. The inside view deals with all that happens during class time in the classroom. It manages prevention and remediation- the integration of discipline, instruction and motivation. The outside view is whatever happens out of the classroom, for example, noise in the halls, management of the lunch room, rowdy assemblies, etc. (Jones, 2012). Rogers model of discipline, as written by Andrius, (2012), suggests that teachers should use their teaching tools, such as: body language, verbal language, and attitude to make students work once instructions have been given. Although, there might be some indecisive teachers who hope for compliance, but in the real world, rarely receive it. Therefore, teachers should always be straightforward on their classroom rules. Andrius, (2012) mentions Sprick who states that classroom rules are an essential part of any discipline plan and they should be formulated right at the beginning of the school year/ course. Sprick`s model of discipline consists of giving positive feedback to individuals and to the whole group; work in a cooperative environment and if there is misbehavior the whole class should be punished and finally take time off from students it they do not follow instructions.


There are two focuses Glasser gives to having a positive classroom discipline, as mention by Andrius, (2012). First, provide a nice classroom environment and curriculum to motivate students, so there will not be any inappropriate conduct. This should be accomplished by meeting students basic needs like making them feel comfortable, giving them power, fun and freedom. And, secondly, focus on helping students make appropriate behavioral choices that lead ultimately to personal success. To conclude this chapter I will paraphrase (Andrius,2012) citing Glasser discipline is not a matter of choice; it comes from making good choices. Therefore, if there are bad results it is due to the bad choices made. And, a teacher's duty is to help students make good choices.



Dell Hymes Speaking Model Presentation The present study was conducted following an ethnographic research methodology based on the model of Dell Hymes. First, I will introduce some information about the Dell Hymes, second, I will describe the structure of the model used; and finally, I will present my research information. Dell Hymes was best known for his founding role in the ethnography of communicationor ethnography of speaking; a new approach understanding language in use. Hymes believed that people not only use words to express themselves; he thought of hesitations, gestures, movements, and more environmental or socio-cultural factors that influence a person when talking. Consideringthat a language is not only a set of grammar rules but also social context, Hymes developed a valuable model, the speaking model.The speaking model contributes to the identification and labeling of the components of linguistic interaction in order to speak a language correctly. When we learn a language it is not only a matter of memorizing vocabulary or grammar, but also the context in which words are going to be used. Hymes first divided the speaking model into sixteen different components, and these components are: the addressee; the addressor; the audience/receiver/hearer; the channels; the forms of speech; the genres; the key; the norms of interaction; the norms of interpretation; the message content; the message form; the purposes (outcomes); the purposes (goals); the setting; the scene; and speaker/sender. Then, he developed an acronym based on the sixteen different components: S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G

Setting and Scene

Setting refers to the time and place of a speech act (making request, asking questions, giving orders, making promises, giving thanks, offering apologies and so on.) and, in general, to the physical circumstances. Scene is the "psychological setting" or "cultural definition" of a scene, including characteristics such as range of formality and sense of play or seriousness.



The participants are the speakers or audience. Linguists will make distinctions within these categories; for example, the audience can be distinguished as addressees and other hearers.


In an ethnographic research the end are the purposes, goals, and conclusions that a speaking situation would have.

Act Sequence

The scene and development of the talk will have a structured sequence; there may be interruptions, or a clap at the end of the talk. This is what will be known as forms and order of the event.


Signs that establish the "tone, manner, or language" of the speech act are the keys in a talk.

speech, for example:

The instruments are forms and styles of questionnaires, observation sheets, or interviews.


Social rules governing the event and the participants' actions and reactions are the norms. In a playful story, the norms might allow interruptions and collaboration, or possibly those interruptions might be limited to participation. A serious, formal story might call for attention, no interruptions might be allowed.



Genre refers to the kind of speech act or event. Different disciplines develop terms for kinds of speech acts, and speech communities. A speech community has a certain set of speech habits, according to the social and natural environment, prestige of speakersand internal requirements to keep the linguistic code. Hymes, 1961


Dell Hymes Speaking Model Case Study As mentioned before, this project is based on the speaking model Hymes developed.(Hymes, 2012)I am focusing on the following components: setting and scene, participants, ends, act sequences, keys, instrumentalities, norms, gender, considering that these are the main issues in an ethnographic research. S Setting and Scene

Pedregal de Santa Martha is a small low middle class neighborhood in the suburbs of Guadalajara. There are around 3,000 people living in this community, most of thepeople work as employees in shoe, clothes, or plastic factories, or at Farmacias Guadalajara (a pharmaceutical franchise in Mexico) as drivers or clerks. There are only three schools, a kindergarten, a primary school, and a secondary school. They are all public schools. In the secondary school there are three groups, first, second and third grade. The third grade class has 18 students, the second grade class has 21 students and the first grade class has 48 students. There are nine teachers, and 10 different subjects: Art, Biology, Computer Science, Counseling, Culture, Geography, Mathematics, Physical Education, Spanish, and English. Apart from teachers there is a principal, a secretary and a prefect. The school was recently opened, in September 2011.


This ethnographic research was conducted only in the first grade class. In this group`s roll page there are 21 girls and 27 boys registered, however notall attend daily. Most of these students have been taking classes together for at least three years; they live in the same neighborhood which is small enough to get to know everybody. Students` age average is 13 years old. They study three hours of English per week, (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays). And they take tutorial lessons once a week. The purpose of taking tutorial lessons according to the Mexican Secretariat of Public Education (Secretara de Educacin Publica) is to develop a social, affective, cognitive and academic context that will help students in their daily life. And the objectives to accomplish are the following:


To improve interpersonal relationships among students within their daily life. To give students guide on social abilities. To acquire respect habits in relation to others. To improve students self-esteem To develop a reasonable communication and expression of students feelings and opinions. To help student accept and recognize others` physical or psychological differences. Taking into account that this projects goal is to find out what role discipline plays in learning English in a public school context, I findit relevant to mention that in this specific group its English teacher acts as the groupstutor and also its guide. The teacher has a B.A in teaching English as a foreign language, he has taught English in the public system since 2011, and he also teaches in other institutions. The role of an English teacher in public schools is to plan classes that guarantee that students will learn the new language.(The National Program for Basic Education 2012).On the other hand, the role of the tutor is to guide students into well organized and orientated contexts. That is, the tutor is to contribute to the development of skills to cover all students` necessities. (Integrated Reform to Basic Education 2012.) In the year 2006 there was an Educational Reformnamed Integrated Reform to Basic Education introduced that states the need to increase the quality of teaching and learning English in Secondary Schools. The National Department of Education, then, illustrates that in order to accomplish the reform teachers should take training, the syllabuses need to be reviewed, the English teaching methodology should be evaluated and students should receive tutorial lessons. Secretariat of PublicEducation 2012 According toThe National Program for Basic Educationpresented by The Secretariat of Public Education (SEP)students in secondary school should develop a plurilingual and pluricultural competence in order to face successfully any communicative challenge in this globalized world, that is to build up a broad vision of linguistic diversity at a cultural global level, and finally to respect students` own culture as well as that of others. This is the goal students should reach after taking three years of English in Secondary Public School.



The objective of the study is to let the reader know what role discipline plays in a specific English classroom, and if this affects the learning process. This study was conducted taking into account different classroom situations such as, teacher-students interaction, use of language, classroom management and others.

Act Sequence

After having done different observations it is possible to find out that both the teacher and students have a very peculiar behavior in class regarding discipline. For instance, they hardly ever speak academic language nor follow disciplinary rules, if thereare any. The class is usually out of control.


During the research there is a variable in language use and usage. The communication between students and the teacher ismostly too informal.


There were 10 classes observed in which two different observations sheets were used, one focusing on the students and the other on the teacher. Also, there were foot notes taken in order to have more reliable data.



In a classroom setting there should be rules established for both the teacher and the students. Rules regarding time, material, language use, personal appearance, good manners, hygiene and, obviously the responsibility to perform any task given in class. G Genre

This specific study keeps a traditional language teaching setting. That is, the classes observed are basically lectures. The teacher speaks most of the time whereas some students take notes or pay attention to class. The researcher is basically observing, nonetheless, she cannot keep a low profile. Students sometimes approach her to ask for different things.



The objective of this chapter is to present the results obtained from the different observations conducted during the research. The research was conducted in a Secondary Public School taking the first grade students as subjects alone with their English teacher. During the investigation there were some classroom management factors taken as reference to find out how discipline affects teenagers when learning English in Public Secondary Schools. The different learning issues that were taken as reference were the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. greeting eye contact use of language gestures teacher`s performance teacher`s feedback students` performance


Graphs Teachers performance

90 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Greets students 0 0 Gteets students pleasantly Acknowledges all in the room by name 10 10 0 0 Addresses students properly 30 20 10 40 always usually sometimes never 90



Table 1.1

This chart shows that 90% of the classes observed the teacher did not greet students. It also displays that 90% of the times observed the teacher did not greet students pleasantly, nor addressed them properly. Based on the observations conducted the results showed with a 40% that the teacher sometimes acknowledged students by name, in contrast with the 20% where he never did.


Students performance



Greet the teacher Greet the teacher appropriately Do not greet the teacher



Table 2.1

The table 2.1 illustrates that 50% of students in class did not greet the teacher. Beyond that, only 22% of the students who greeted the teacher did it appropriately. And the rest 28% greeted not very pleasantly; some of them screamed at the teacher, others just welcomed in a very relaxed way, others just did not look up at the teacher.


Teachers performance
90 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 00 0 10 0 10 00 00 50 40 70 70

Eye contact

60 50 40 40 30 30 30 10 0 10 always usually

20 10 0


Table 1.2

Table 1.2 exemplifies that 70% of the observations the teacher did not assign homework, and consequently the other 30% in which homework was assigned, the teacher did not quite use eye contact. He basically turned to the board and wrote its description for students to copy. On the other hand, 70% of the classes observed there was sometimes eye contact when the teacher elicited from students, and only 10% more occasionally. Furthermore, 60% of the classes observed there was eye contact when instructions were given, although out of this 60%, only 10% was more frequent. In addition, merely 10% of the times observed, the teacher greeted students, which means there was hardly eye contact when greeting. 40% of the times observed eye contacted was sometimes used when praising. And 60% of the classed observed there was no eye contact at all when praising. Additionally, eye contact was sometimes used during the 50% of classes observed when there was prompting. And only 10% of these lessons the teacher always used prompting. Finally, there was quite a balance in the classes observed regarding scolding. 30% of the classes observed the teacher always scolded students, 30% of these lessons the teacher sometimes scolded students, and lastly in a 30% of these classes there was not scolding at all.


Students performance
70 60

Eye contact


70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 When greeting To answer To ask for information Always Usually Never Sometimes 30 40 40 Always Usually Sometimes Never

Table 2.2 Table 2.2 illustrates that 70% of the students involved in the research did not use eye contact to greet either the teacher or classmates. Moreover, 60% of them did not use eye contact when giving an answer. Lastly, a 60% of the students in the class did not use eye contact to ask for information. Only a 40% of students in class sometimes used eye contact to either, greet, give an answer or ask for information.


Teachers performance
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 100

Language use

60 30 10 0 00

60 40

60 40 40 30 30 ALWAYS 00 000 000 0 USUALLY SOMETIMES NEVER

Table 1.3 The table 1.3 shows that in 60% of the lessons observed the teacher sometimes promoted chatting in the class; whereas, 30% of the time observed the teacher focused on academic language use. Out of the different lessons observed 40% the teacher sometimes screamed at students. And, 60% of the classes observed the teacher sometimes spoke with humor. Moreover, 100% of the classes observed the teacher used correct vocabulary, in other words he never used incorrect grammar. However, 40% of the times observed the teacher sometimes had to scream or increase his voice volume.


Students performance

Language use

Know the use of language

30% Know the use of language 70% Do not know the use of language

Table 2.3.1 Table 2.3.1 demonstrates that in this specific research 30% of the students involved did not know the use of language; either Spanish or English. 70% of the learners were aware of how to use language. In other words, they knew the correct use of vocabulary, grammar structure, intonation etc. but they did not speak the language correctly.


The following chart takes into account only the 70% of students who knew the use of language.

Use of language

20% Use the language appropriately Do not use the language appropriately


Table 2.3.2 Chart 2.3.2 labels that out of the 70% of the students who knew the correct use of vocabulary, grammar, and intonation, only a 20% of them spoke appropriately. The other 80% of students did not speak in a correct way during class.


The following chart takes into account the 20% of students who use language appropriately
100 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

80 Always 30 30 0 0 0 Speak nonacademic language 20 20 20 Usually Sometimes Never

0 0
Speak with humor Use very high voice volume

Table 2.3.3

The table 2.3.3 illustrates that the 20% of students who used language appropriately always spoke non-academic language during class. 30% of those students who used language appropriately always or usually spoke with humor; 20% of the students who spoke using correct vocabulary, grammar and intonation sometimes/never did it with humor. Moreover, 80% of the students who spoke in an appropriate way always screamed. And 20% of those students who knew the use of language usually screamed.


The following chart takes into account the 80% of students who did not use language appropriately, even though they knew it.

90 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 80 60 20 10 10 20 10 10 10 10 5 5 Never Sometimes Usually Always Always Usually Sometimes Never 80 80

Table 2.3.4 This chart illustrates that out of the 80% of the students, who knew the correct use vocabulary, grammar structure and intonation but did not use it, 80% always spoke non-academic language. 60% always spoke with humor in class; 80% of them always screamed during class. Considering the 80% of the students who knew the correct use of language but did not use it, 80% always said bad words in class time, and finally 90% of the students who knew the correct use of language always insulted others with their vocabulary.


Teachers performance


70 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 70 70 70

30 20



30 10 Always Usually Sometimes Never

Table 1.4 Chart 1.4 illustrates that during the classes observed gestures were used a 20% sometimes to call students` attention, 30% sometimes to elicit from students, give instructions, prompt or scold and finally 10% sometimes to teach vocabulary. The rest of the time during the classes observed gestures were not used.


Students performance


100 50 0
Call the Insult with teacher body attention language appropriately Interrupt the Laugh at the teacher teacher Talk to the teacher Throw stones, papers, trash around the classroom Use inappropriate body language



55 13 25 35 40

Table 2.4 Table 2.5.1 shows that only 25% of the students observed during this research called the teacher`s attention in an appropriate way. In addition, 38% of the students insulted others by using body language; whereas a 55% of the students interrupted the teacher while he was either teaching, talking or giving homework. Moreover, 13% of the students laughed at the teacher during his performance. During the classes observed 25% of the students chatted with the teacher. Furthermore, 35% of the students had the habit of throwing different objects around the classroom throughout class. 40% of the students in the class used inappropriate body language while the class took place.


The following data analysis will separate teachers performance from students performance due to the different issues observed.

Teacher`s performance
100 70 50 40 10 10 10 10 10 0 10 0 0 60 70

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0



30 0

30 0 0 Always Usually Sometimes Never

Table 1.5.1

Table 1.5.1 shows that 50% of the times observed the teacher usually acknowledged students points of view; and 10% he never did. In relation to eliciting the teacher 70% of the times observed sometimes elicited. 60% of the times observed the teacher sometimes prompted students, whereas, 30% he never did. Keeping students attention during the time observed was never done in a 60% of the time; while a 30% of the time it was sometimes carried out. Speaking of discipline in class, according to these results 70% of the time observed there was not order in class. And finally classes never started on time during the time observed.


Teachers performance
60 100 80 60 40 20 0 40 10 40 10 50 30 0 0 0 0 Always Usually 60



Table 1.5.2 Ongoing with the teachers performance table 1.5.1 illustrates that 60% of the times observed students only copied from the board what the teacher had written. 40% of these times observed sometimes the class had a balanced-activity structure, for example, the teacher had drills or elicited from students. Taking the 40% of times in which sometimes activities were balanced 50% of the time there was no control whatsoever. During the classes observed only 40% there were instructions given sometimes. There were not any classroom management techniques or teaching material, except for the book, pen or notebook, (and not every student had them) during the lessons observed.


Teachers feedback
80 70 70 60 70

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 40 30 20 10 0 0 0 0 10 40 20 Always Usually


Table 1.6.1

Table 1.6.1 demonstrates that 70% of the times observed the teacher sometimes applied disciplinary techniques. But, 30% of these times there were any disciplinary techniques applied. Furthermore, 50% of the times observed students were never separated from privileges, though 40% of the classes observed sometimes the teacher took away some privileges. The teacher 80% of the times observed never gave extra work, and 20% sometimes. Students were not penalized 70% of the time observed with points, 30% of the time observed the teacher kind of took away some points. 40% of the times observed time out was sometimes given to students. 70% of the time observed the teacher used sometimes disciplinary words.


Teacher`s feedback
100 100 90 90

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Always Usually 10 0 0 10


Prizes Prizes Rewards students students students with extra with candies with free points time

Rewards students with fun activities

Table 1.6.2

Keeping up with teachers feedback chart 1.6.2 illustrates that the teacher never praised students in any situation. Out of the classes observed 90% the teacher never rewarded students with free time or fun activities.


Students performance

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

55 38 38 38




Table 2.7.1

This chart illustrates that 55% of the students interrupted classmates during class time. Moreover, 38% of the students in the class fought while the class took place, hit classmates, and laughed at classmates when they expressed an opinion. 30% of the students in class played at wrestling. And 25% of the students called their classmates attention in a very rude way, as well as, when they talked to each other.


Students performance
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0



65 35 35 25 5

Table 2.7.2

According to chart 2.7.2 65% of the students in the research went in and out the classroom, as they wished. 40% of the students did other subjects homework while the English class took place. Furthermore, 35% of the students danced, did their hair, or drew during class time. In contrast, only 25% of the students followed the instructions given or worked in class.


Students performance

80 60 40 20 35 38 38 35


40 25

Have the needed material Hit the floor, Jump over chairs, wall, the windows etc. Listen to music

Move from their seats

Play sports in the class

Pull-down someone`s pants

Table 2.7.3 Table 2.7.3 illustrates that only 35% of the students had the required material during the classes observed. 38% of the students in the class observed hit objects while the class was taking place, 39% of the students jumped over the windows and went out the classroom. 40% of the students played sports during class time, 35% of the students listened to music in class, and 25% of the students pulled down the pants to their classmates.


Students performance

100 80 60 40 20 0




35 18
25 18 33 35


Table 2.7.4 According to table 2.7.4 100% of students talked during class time. 35% of students in class sang out loud during class. And, only 35% of students wore uniform. Moreover, 33% of the students in this research whistled in class time. Other 25% screamed or slept, and only 25% of the students worked on the different tasks given. 23% of students put make up on while class was taking place. Lastly, 18% of the students either sent notes around, or spit on the floor.



The aim of this chapter is to present the conclusions and possible solutions to the thesis statement. How discipline affects teenagers when learning English in public secondary schools. 1. Greeting Regarding greeting it is stated during the research that it is not a main issue to the teacher orto the students. For instance, the teacher only greeted students once within all the observations. In contrast, only half of the number of students greeted the teacher, furthermore, out of this 50% of students who greeted the teacher only 22% did it appropriately. These results let us conclude that there is still a lot to work on in relation to greeting in this specific class considering that greeting could be taken as a disciplinary tool, a teaching technique or alanguage reinforcement. Greeting as a disciplinary tool helps students to be aware of social language in use, that is if greeting becomes a routine, students will then be aware of how to starta conversation in the target language, for instance. Moreover, greeting could establish a good connection between students and the teacher right from the beginning of the class. On the other hand, greeting as a teaching technique will allow the teacher use different ways to greet in the target language using the classroom as a setting and introducing a little bit of culture at the same time.As mention by Miller, 2002 waving hands, smiling, having a song, a short game saying hello, hi, or any other expressionor short activities could be used as a warm-up, too. Also, a good warm-up will lead the teacher to a more productive lesson. Harmer, 1989 And finally, greeting could also be a follow up from the vocabulary just been taught. That is the teacher could greet students by pronouncing the language taught the previous class and at the same time reinforce social and behavioral language. To sum up, greeting is a very important element to have a positive discipline and language learning development.


2. Eye contact According to the teacher`s performance, the use of eye contact was very poor, despite the fact that eye contact is essential to control students discipline and classroom communication. The teacher did not make quite an assertive use of eye contact to assign homework, elicit, prompt or give instructions in class. What is more, eye contact was strongly used when the teacher scolded students; this issue gives a negative input to the research,since eye contact reinforces communication and could control discipline. The message that teachers cannot get from student`s voice or words can be expressed through their eyes. Therefore the importance of having a good use of eye contact in the classroom, even more when teaching teenagers, since their age could be a vulnerable issue to understand body language. However, eye contact techniques could also help to avoid bad behavior in the class, just by giving a glimpse. This again, supported by Bowen (2012) and Everston & Weinstein (2006) who mentioned that disruptive behavior are repeated bad actions which prevent, the teacher from giving a good class and students from learning. Following students performance in the investigation the use of eye contact was not any better. Students did not even use eye contact in the most relevant moments in a class. That is, students did not make any eye contact to either ask for information, or give an answer, and even less when greeting. Coating (Steward, Shamdasani and Rook, 2007) a good used of eye contact will lead the students and teachers to have a good rapport and control classroom situations. Therefore,it is important to make a good use of eye contact in the language classroom setting.


3. Use of language Even though, the teacher always used correct vocabulary and grammar he still needs to work on the voice volume and to avoid screaming at students. The fact that the teacher yells at students gives them the opportunity to misbehave. Recalling(Jones 2012), it is on the teachers hand to send positive and sane messages to students in order to have a good discipline in the classroom.That is to say, once students find out the possibility to side track from class in negative ways, they would right away engage in disorder. During this investigation 90% of the classes were a chaos. There was not any control of students attitudes or of class activities. Then again, having a good sense of humor when speaking is a risk in the language classroom, there should be a certain time for making jokes or kidding around with students; especially taking into account that in this class students age is a risk itself. On the other hand, it is surprising, most of the students did know the use of language and they just did not speak appropriately in this specific research. What is more, students made an excessive use of bad words and screamed all the time, the class seemed to be a supermarket. The fact that students swear in class showstheir power as (Mayer 2012) suggests swearing is a way to imitate and to be powerful. Also, even though students in this class had tasks to perform they preferred tochat about other issues, such as, sports, TV programs, parties, or even got into fights. Students insulted each other using really negative language; it did not matter if they were boys or girls, they did not seem to care. If we consider that a good management of sociolinguistic skills will promote positive interaction among students and teachers according to Eventson and Weinstein 2006; in this specific situation the aim is not been accomplished. Students do not make good use of their language skills to learn or even get to know the new language.


4. Gestures The use of gestures in the language classroom will reflect the students` and teacher`s performance. Moreover, gestures are tools which teachers and students rely on to illustrate speech; in order to improve understanding and memorization. Nonetheless, gestures will also show discontent or anger from either students or teachers. Unfortunately, the use of gestures in this research was only done to either insult or to ask the teacher to move with really bad manners, not to mention the high percentage of students who discourteously interrupted the teacher during class making use of gestures or screaming. Even though anger is a natural emotion in individuals, when it gets out of control it can be very harmful. The America Psychological Association (APA), 2012.In this particular situation students make use of very bad gestures showing their anger and coincidentally these students are those who do not work during class. Academically, the use of gestures was null, that is, it was an English class and English was merely spoken a 10%, and only by the teacher. Again, if gestures were used in a correct way and time, they could be a great help when learning a language.


5. Teachers performance Teaching takes time to think about the class, the students and the program needs. Therefore, planning is a necessary tool to achieve the objectives set right from the beginning. Moreover, having a good lesson plan for any class will minor the risk of having indisciplinary attitudes during the lesson (Harmer, 1989). As it was illustrated in the data there was not any planning during this research. Discipline starts by having the class control over the rules established; for example: starting class on time, having the appropriate material, balancing and having suitable activities, establishing a good rapport and having a right seating arrangement, all this to meet students needs. As teachers besides having a lesson plan it is our responsibility to create a good classroom atmosphere in the language learning setting. Therefore, it is relevant to be conscious of what role we will play during any lesson given. Teachers are not only lecturers anymore; we must play more than one role in a classroom, even more in a language classroom. A teacher can play the role of a controller, assessor, organizer, prompter, participant, and resource in a class according to (Harmer, 1989), having this in mind teachers will avoid having students sidetrack during their class and have more chances to reach the objective of making students learn the new language.


6. Teacher s feedback Feedback expresses opinion in any circumstances. In the language teaching context feedback considers grammatical issues, behavioral components, and classroom management that will encourage students to improve in any situation. Taking into account that discipline is the main concern in this research feedback plays an important role. Students, who have correct feedback, at the right time and in the right way, commit less disciplinary mistakes. As there is not a good quality of feedback in this research, there could not be a satisfactory discipline environment or learning achievement. The teacher hardly ever gave feedback, not to mention if it was good or bad. He only gave feedback to offer students a free hour time to play soccer the following Friday. Feedback is another important way of providing attention and recognition DeLucia-Waack, (2006). Giving positive feedback to students motivates them. Reacting to good or bad situations makes students improve and learn from mistakes. The teacher is the one who knows, the teacher is the one in control, therefore the importance of making good use of feedback strategies.


7. Students performance This is the climax of the research. According to different language teaching methodologies, classroom management techniques, and sociolinguistics, there should always be a sort of classroom organization and interaction in the learning atmosphere. In this research happens to be that these elements did not count, students performance was truly harmful. Students in this class did not show any respect to the teacher even less to their classmates, there were fights, verbal and physical aggressions, rude games, ditching class, interruptions and so on. To conclude this chapter, students broke all the disciplinary rules there could be inside a classroom. This students attitude reflects that there might not be any academic motivation to learn a new language. That is, there seems not to beany curiosity, persistence or challenge to become bilingual in this particular class. As Nunan (2011) mentions if students do not find their lessons related to their lives; if they do not see any projection in their learning, they will not find taking English classes useful or important. Forthis reason,it is fundamental to write lesson plans suitable to students needs.


A disciplined person is capable of discerning between that which seems good and that which is good. As teachers, it is our responsibility to monitor and guide teenagers in school towards clear and helpful aims. An excellent way to monitor students is by teaching them what effort, organization and responsibility are in order to accomplish the aims established, in this specific case, learn English. Discipline is essential because it protects individuals from a corrupting or disruptive influence. Our society is reflected in the increasing numbers of students who choose to violence more than practicing sports or cultural skills, and/or studying a language could be an opportunity to tell the differenceof these skills and become bilingual and more acculturated. The results of this study indicate that there is a lot of work to be done in this specific class regarding discipline. Students did not follow or listened to any directions given. Though, these instructions were not clearly set by the teacher. The evidence of this study suggests that it is true; discipline affects the process of learning a language. However, with a small sample size, caution must be applied, as the findings might not be transferable to stress the fact that students who misbehave will never learn a language. There is, therefore, a definite need for further investigation. My suggestions for the teacher, parents, and school authorities would be to write a discipline manual for students to follow right from the beginning of the course. Also, give students a syllabus for them to know what they should be able to do at the end of the course. Take students into account for any extracurricular activities implementing what they have learnt during the school year. And finally, take into consideration the discipline model the department of Education has implemented in public schools.


Observation sheet 1 Number of students______ Greeting 1 Greets students 2 Greets students pleasantly
3 Acknowledges all in the room by name

Teacher`s performance Class started at ______ Class finished at_____ Always Usually Sometimes


4 Addresses students properly EYE CONTACT

5 Uses eye contact to assign homework


Uses eye contact to elicit

Uses eye contact to give instructions

8 Uses eye contact to greet 9 Uses eye contact to praise 10 Uses eye contact to prompt 11 Uses eye contact to scold USE OF LANGUAGE 12 Pronounces non-academic language 13 Screams at students 14 Speaks with humor 15 Uses correct vocabulary 16 Uses incorrect grammar 17 Uses appropriate voice volume GESTURES
18 Uses gestures to call students attention

19 Uses gestures to elicit 20 Uses gestures to give instructions 21 Uses gestures to prompt 22 Uses gestures to scold 23 Uses gestures to teach vocabulary PERFORMANCE
24 Acknowledges students points of view

25 26 27 28 29 30

Balances the class activities Controls every activity Elicits from students Gives clear instructions to each task Keeps the class attention Maintains order in class
Organizes the group in each task (pair work)

32 Starts class on time 33 Prompts students 34 Uses a variety of material FEEDBACK 35 Applies disciplinary techniques 36 Gives deprivation of privileges 37 Gives extra work 38 Gives penalty points 39 Gives time out of class 40 Prizes students with candies 41 Prizes students with extra points 42 Pronounce disciplinary words 43 Rewards students with free time 44 Rewards students with fun activities

Observation sheet 2 Number of students ______ Class starts at_____ Greeting All students 1. Greet the teacher 2. Greet the teacher appropriately Eye contact Always 3. Use eye contact when greeting 4. Use eye contact to answer
5. Use eye contact to ask for information

Students` Performance Class finished at ______ Most of them Some of them None of them




Use of language 6. Use language appropriately 7. know the correct language use
Use language appropriately 8. Speak nonacademic language 9. Speak with humor 10. Use very high voice volume Always Usually

All students

Most of them

Some of them

None of them



Use language inappropriately 11. Speak non-academic language 12. Speak with humor 13. Use very high voice volume 14.- use bad words in class 15.- Insult others with language





Student-teacher rapport
16. Call the teacher`s attention appropriately

All students

Most of them

Some of them

None of them

17. Insult with body language 18. Interrupt the teacher 19. Laugh at the teacher 20. Talk to the teacher appropriately 21. Throw stones, papers, trash etc. 22. Use inappropriate body language Student-student interaction 23. Call classmates` attention appropriately 24. Fight during class time 25. Hit classmates 26. Interrupt classmates 27. Laugh at classmates opinions 28. Play wrestling 29. Talk to classmates appropriately Performance
30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. Dance Do other subjects` homework Do their hair Draw cartoons Follow all instructions given Give electro shocks Go out of class Have the needed material Hit the floor, chairs, wall etc.. Jump over the windows Listen to music Move from their seats Play sports in the class Pull-down someones pants Put make up on Scream during class time Sing during class work Send notes Sleep Spit Talk during class time Whistle Wear uniform Work in each given task

All students

Most of them

Some of them

None of them

All students

Most of them

Some of them

None of them

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