This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
, Vol. 10, No. 4 (December 2002), pp. 277-306 Published by: Springer Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41053189 . Accessed: 16/05/2012 15:10
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com.
Springer is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Archaeological Research.
Journal Archaeological Vol. 2002 (t 2002) Research, 70,No. 4, December of
a of Leroi-Gourhan, Philosopher Technique and Evolution
With publication twovolumes technologyL'Hommeet la matière and the on of Milieuettechnique 1943-45,and Le gesteet la parole(translated English into in in 1993as Gesture Speech,) Leroi-Gourhan as and asserted himself a majorsocial anthropologist, schoolsof the and thefounder theFrench prehistorian, of the This and ethnology technique ofprehistoric of ethnology. paperanalyzes innodrawtheir vative and which works, inspiraconcepts thecontent these original of and tion datafrom and biology, anthropology, prehistory physiology, psychology, to study to and as evolution, technique its medium, createa global scienceof humanity.
KEY WORDS: Leroi-Gourhan; of theory; evolutionary ethnology technique; prehistoric ethnology; of and of origins techniques language; history socialscience.
INTRODUCTION in André Leroi-Gourhan 1) is far as from (Fig. being famous theAnglo-Saxon or world his contemporary as in Claude Levi-Strauss social anthropology even has 's in Bordes prehistoric Yet, François archaeology. Leroi-Gourhanimpact been much broader deeper Old World and Bordes'swork in undoubtedly archaeology. is his was an essential in milestone prehistoric research. However, influence no felt the whereas directions by longer tothesameextent, explored Leroi-Gourhan world(Bleed, are stillevolving are now spreading theAnglo-American and to 2001; Dobres, 2000). his It Severalfactors his anonymity: was onlyin 1993 that explain relative and into Le work, gesteet la parole,was translated Englishas Gesture major that Until time, readers. and American to and Speech madeavailable British North
National laboratoired'Archéologie des Sciencesde l'Antiquité et (ARSCAN- UMR 7041), Centre 10.fr. de la Recherche e-mail:audouze France; Nanterre, @mae.u-paris Scientifique,
£ 1 1059-016 1¿02/200-0277/0 2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation
Breuil with on AbbéHenri Leroi-Gourhan Fig. 1. André (standing theleft) at at Curein 1951(photograph faunal remains Arcy-sur looking Mousterian byHélèneBalfet).
de Art Leroi-Gourhan known was of onlyforthetranslation hisPréhistoire I1 ocof cidental In addition, the undertook constructiona vast Leroi-Gourhan (1965b). theoretical was notalwaysa framework whichtheactualplacement facts of into is from consideration. typically This French prime perspective quitedifferent the nature North is of A factor theabsence American socialsciences.2 third empirical ofepistemological that full definitions theuse ofa style ofimagery combines and rather definitions discussions a dialectic makthan in and descriptions progression, of rather to difficult read,in spiteof theclarity theconcrete ing Leroi-Gourhan he vocabulary used. of researchers and (inBeyondtheseproblems translation language, many someFrench his found difficult criticize multidisciplinary to it authorities) cluding becauseoftheoriginality histhought. borrowed from of Leroi-Gourhan approach
¿The 1960sand 1970shadbeenperiods intensive in as of theoretical development thesocialsciences a wholeinFrance, with exception archaeology remained the of that And,although totally empirical. social scienceat thesame periodwas characterized a strong dose of empiricism, Anglo-Saxon by itself was distinguished itsdesireto createan approach that was Anglo-American archaeology by both scientific solidly and explicitly grounded theoretically.
p. and Binford theNewArchaeologists In in more whowas interested cultural relevant crossswords to with Bordes. view(1989. and followed leadofJulian Steward. actually a obtained degree Leroi-Gourhan other academics. 140). philosophy. interpretation art proposed s on dealtwith anydetailhere.3 a result. theage of 14. Audouze( 1992. wellas theapplication quantitative of as and methods thestudy formal to of variables 1968.Sackett. As of thefull theoretical framework practice anyofthem. and adopting in as to functionalists English-speaking preferred selectLevi-Strauss an opponent it found socialanthropology.4 Raisedbyhisgrandparents. 1960). wouldalwaysbe and from of a man proud being self-taught andwouldalwaysclaimhisindependence all schoolsofthought. Entering university a in Russianat theage of 20 in 1931.1982). appeared France matter. prehistory. Leroi-Gourhan' s contributions including andBrézillon. tosuggest he and research.Binford Binford. 1989. than most did more received he diplomas Despitebeing self-taught. Philosopher Technique 279 without and social anthropology.Leroi-Gourhan secondary he andbegantowork a hosiery a library.In Margaret Conkey's with "intheearly1960s(Leroi-Gourhan's was incompatible approach) strikingly and theemergence theAnglo-American in worldof theNew Archaeology its " denialof 'mind/ the were toprehistory wideranging.and thenextyearsaw himwith degreein seemfairly in it 3Most reviews Le geste la paroleatthe of et time originally superficial.. Cultural ecology of theNewArchaeology LewisBinford.g. lostinterest sociology school informal left education At early. biology. (e.Instead essayconcentrates Leroi-Gourhan' in this 1940s the from midandevolutionary works fundamental (published technological and tothemid-1960s) order introduce in to someoftheprincipal methodological for relevance contemporary their theoretical directions explored.American archaeologists theoretical both their owninnovative which energized powerfully developments.a of Leroi-Gourhan.Cowgill. the with book'ssubject to as iftheir authors encountered difficultycoming grips had in real 4Formore see detailed (1987). Butthese not ofcave (Leroi-Gourhan. 1966. accounts.archaeology. François ideas. then the research fieldwork. 8-12) and Gaucher . than evolution rather toconfront Leroi-Gourhan's from of Evenmore the issuesminimized influence ideascoming fundamental with werepreoccupied Europein the1960sand 1970s. THE MAN A Few Elements Biography of in Bornin 1911. paleontology. LEROI-GOURHAN.Leroi-Gourhan tomaturity 1930s. the directly.a very came lively period he for French andethnology.pp.Spaulding. in Laterinhislife. ofexcavation methods 1966)andhis (Leroi-Gourhan development are 1965b.
He began publishingpapers and books in 1935. he asserted his position as a major social anthropologist. In thecaves of he and laterat theopen air site of Pincevent. His teachingtherewas considereda mustforsocial anthropolin of ogists. At the Musée de VHomme. a curatorat the Museum of Far of Eastern Art.These methodswould make prehistoric the lattersite veryfamous. Leroi-Gourhan in participated theintense to the reorgatheoretical debates of the times as well as theirdirectapplication nization of the Musée de l'Homme. 1966). gists. at From 1968 to 1982.collectingthe data thathe later used for his research in technology. In 1937-38. By 1943 and 1945 his two major volumes on technology came out: Evolution et techniques ¡.Milieu et technique. In 1954 this accomplished scholar submitted dissertation paleontology in a fora science doctorate. and specialist major prehistorian. Indeed hundredsof studentsfromall over the world were trainedthere. at an assistantdirectorof the Musée de l'Homme.workingon Japanese and Ainu materialculture. Leroi-Gourhanheld thechairof prehistory theCollege de France in Paris. With these books.and Jacques Soustelle. and the first monographon the famous Magdalenian site of Pincevent(Leroi-Gourhan and Brézillon. publicationofhis majorwork. Préhistoirede VArt occidental (1965b). The early 1960s were extremely years withthe 1964a.theTrainingCenterforEthnologicalResearchin 1946 and the Research Center forPrehistory in and Protohistory 1962. Leroi-Gourhan witha followed the seminarsof these two great social anthropologists together generationof brightstudentswho would later become major social anthropoloHaudricourt.such as Claude Lévi-Strauss.L 'Homme et la matière and Evolution et techniques//.In 1945 he defendeda dissertation ethnology a in for humanities doctorate. devised new methods Arcy-sur-Cure forexcavatingand recording livingfloors. authorof a dozen majorbooks.as muchas Levi-Strauss's lectures.His yearsas a student Marcel Mauss and Paul Rivetbeof foretheSecond WorldWar werecrucial. in art.280 Audouze Chinese and in Humanities. 1992). creatorof thedisciplineof culturaltechnology. André-Georges Georges-HenriRivière.Thestbooks securedLeroi-Gourhan'sintellecof tual notoriety placed him at the forefront a new school of theethnology of and techniques. He also published Les religions de la préhistoire(1964b).Le gesteet la parole (Leroi-Gourhan.Whole generations students social and prehistory attendedhis lecturesand took partin the fieldtrainanthropology ing schools thathe created.and renovator thestudy of prehistory withhis novel approachto "paleoethnology"or prehistoric ethnology (Audouze and Schnapp. 1965a). Leroi-Gourhanheld a range of positionsduringthecourse of his career.Marcel Griaule.He was successivelya researcher theCentreNational de la RechercheScientifique. . Leroi-Gourhanspent 2 years in Japan. and a professorof ethnologyat the University Lyon and later fruitful at the Sorbonne in Paris. severalhundred of papers. Leroi-Gourhandied in 1986.
he refused between or to either respect to erectbarriers himonlydifferent werefor and plines. psychology. 1993. is becausetheproblems wanted it to solvehad to be tackled a philosophical a at level. considered social the 5He included in his science of man fieldsconcerned withthe verylong termand the shortterm. sociology. upon figurative upon upon symbolic 1992b. verydifferent disciplines of and and as psychology. in of and substantial the to disagreement amongthemselves.but he de excluded history facto because its time span was too shortforevolution. thehistory art. concerning analysis human major question diversity. . 141).p.he devisednew evolution. symbolic) (Stiegler. from Leroi-Gourhan's in is ways:He stoodapart originality manifest several dimension most other of diachronic with on ethnologists hisinsistence inclusion the inthe of For technology. ethnology scale. p. 1952b. natural. paleontology.Indeed. with thecomplementaritysuch Leroi-Gourhan sought in interested grasping He mediators. and methods approacombined Leroi-Gourhan's research multidisciplinary ches from such as biology. Biology. 34). Philosopher Technique 281 An OriginalMode ofThinking: Towardsa Scienceof Man If It was never to Leroi-Gourhan's intention becomea philosopher.or theinterpretationarchaeological and that to approaches methods corresponded his particular pointof view. art. well as ethnology. whatwas probably greatest to approach Jean and contribution the with Swisspsychologist epistemologist (shared original derived from wastoconstruct arguments and his methods analogies Piaget) through to in and biology anatomy) order makeintelligi(mainly physiology comparative Leroi-Gourhan bleprocesses related thesocialrealm to 1994).1993.His to he often of thepairing topicsthat considered be reasoning proceeded through to to related complementarity orcontinuity. and the of hadfrom outset strong the a for intuition thecontinuity living beings for the He relations between biologicaland thesocial realms. ofhumanity integrated thefields biology ethnology5 that all of and (Guille-Escuret. wasas a consequence concepts through mostly theprocesses interaction articulation levels(cultural of and upon amongdifferent functional physiological. define contours limits science holistic their conceived a single. combined perspectives a From and it. every rock of sites. than opposition one another.Leroi-Gourhan. of Leroi-Gourhan respective disciplines.Ata time notwithout whenother scholars thesocial sciencesweretrying. 1994. technology. replaced of interacted one another. (Schlanger.Inhis and at levelsofobservation time waysofapprehending reality various he as all from thesefields well as ecologyor arguments. rather in and Thusfor culture him nature supplemented technique language and it. thestart without formulatingheemployed sysexplicitly his temic andoften But referred systems.He sought globalapproach to thediversity humanity seize "thehumanphenomenon its totality" in of to (Leroi-Gourhan. p. physiology. functional.a of Leroi-Gourhan. sociology. someof he his works concerned are withphilosophy. disciIn thisvein. 141). neurology.
areof(Milieuandtechnique. 1988. to neither himnor was whichhe himself deniedenergetically. he and I were essentially tryingto do the same thing.401-402. to . Because Leroi-Gourhan in made some additionsand modificationsin the latteredition. (Man and matter. evident kinship. for and and identifying system changes the had Sucha methodology as a wholeandcorrelated changesin thesocial system. these ones.to tryto reduce the chaotic diversityof the empirical data to invariant relationsand to use . technology helpedestablish newfield comparative or that at theorigin theFrench is of schoolofcultural technology theethnology oftechniques theConcluding Discussion below).one sees thatthe key idea that thanthe between thingsrather was always to studythe interrelations governedhis thinking thingsthemselves.inpaying Our relationswere not as close as theyshould have been. considered He as are of only techniques are and times that present human that backtotheearliest undertaking canbe traced for method comparing an human evolution.each of themajorquestions to In to interested calledforitsownspecialmethodology. also that ine resorting a singleapproach. (see The twovolumes L'Homme la matière et Leroi-Gourhan.prehistoricarchaeology and art. death. 34). (Leroi-Gourhan.pp. his view. When one rereads his writingson physical anthropology. 1945) 1943) andMilieuettechnique Leroi-Gourhan. bodyas "a prolongation theanatomical body"(Leroi-Gourhan. evidencing similarity diversity. him tailored itsownspecial But of is alliedto that structuralism. pointwas underlined Levy-Strauss yearafter This by Leroi-Gourhan's to tribute him. to the point in factthatwe found ourselves perceived as in opposition from time to time.6 is infact It of only of and thanthatsinceit contains onlyan innovative not typology classification 6The two volumes of Evolution et techniques were reprinted 197 1 and 1973.. technology. 203-204).I refer the second edition in thisessay.282 Audouze of 1993. 1993. means to as a powerful in histexts. a to his contemporaries. pp. a methodof transformations (Levy-Strauss. said. he becauseof his diachronic becausehe couldnotimagbut part perspective. Organic metaphors serving constantly appear whois at thevery root casta newlight Vhomme on zoologique(zoologicalman) ofevolution 1992b.although working in different domains. Stiegler. 20). establishing in technical ations causalrelationships.p. p. THE WORK A New Field of Investigation: Technology Comparative insoand culture techniques material Leroi-Gourhan's goal was tostudy first tobethe far they characteristichumankind. in In thedomainof methodology neverfeltclose to thestructuralists.. this Todayhisapproach often requirements. thusneeded analytical He throughout covarifor or technical their for facts. much more tenconsidered as a vastencyclopedia techniques.In addressing tobe applicable pasttechniques wellas to modern as to of Leroi-Gourhan the themes. who. But in rereadinghis work I am now profoundlystruckby the fact that.
wash.Leroi-Gourhan explains the unityof techniquespresentall over the world and evolving everywherein a comparable way. p. Elementarymeans include prehension. Many other classificationsexist. As alreadynoted. but the utility such a classificationresides in the potentialsignificanceof the of forces questionsthatcan be derivedfromit.whichare localized in space and timeand whichcan be techniques a observed. first He of asserted the universality technique (Stiegler. on and innovation. acquisition techniques. responseto physicalconstraints. or shape. e. higher There was. and fluids.Raw materialsare classifiedas solids..theirinnovation. incidentally. semiplasticsolids.g.soften. contemporary techniquesand machines as well as simple prehistoric on cards. of course. . Forces include the forceof human and animal muscle.1993. p. and to use in different dry. fabrics. air. sificationhad entriessuch as elementarymeans and forces. percussions to break. moral connotationhere: "No judgement of value can no be made aboutan evolutiveprocess" (Leroi-Gourhan. melt. or saved by equilibrium.and la tendancetechnique(technicaltendency).These forcescreatemovement thatcan be directed. 57) and itssystemic nature(Leroi-Gourhan. By reducingcategoriesto elementary and gestures. Ratherthanfollowing mostethnographical classificationinto typesof tools or products. manufacturing classificationare physical forces.etc. 1971. supple solids (hide. pp. to diffusion.The entriesin the first and actions. 1994.000 entries(written manuscript thattime) describingtools and technical processes. The technical a in tendency. The second clasproperties. waterto mix. by amplified levels or transmissions. Even moreimportant us today thanhis classificationare theconcepts he for and their introduced account forthe evolutionof techniques. long-term evolutionary of thataccounts forthe unendingimprovement tools and techniquesfor process and better solutiontasks.Leroi-Gourhanwas able to divide techniques into theirelementary steps.). In an important discussion. 61-67). imitation. to tan or preserve. melt. Philosopher Technique 283 but of techniques also a theory technique(Lemonnier. 342). cook. any case. 18-19).a of Leroi-Gourhan.a better efficiency. evolves through numberof solutions limitedby physical in a way thatis comparable to the pressuresof naturalselection. solutions and bend.This procedureis stilla greathelp when analyzinga productionsequence. p. They provide a usefulgrid of analysis. 253). and air to dry.cut. using this concept of technical tendency. his classificationwas based it on (1) the physical propertiesof matterand the means of action to transform and and (2) a divisionof techniquesaccordingto theirfinality. 1994. fireto heat.1992).Leroi-Gourhan This led him to enlightconcentrated thetechnicalmodes of action on matter. or stir up fire(Leroi-Gourhan. pp. and water.1973. Leroi-Gourhan and put in oppositiontwo typesof phenomena:les faits presented (technicalfacts). at Drawing on some 40.Leroi-Gourhanwantedhis classification encompass complex to ones. By constraints. He then explains the diversityof technical facts and theirrelationsto the social systemsin which theyexist (Stiegler. ening conceptsand theoriesabout technicalprocesses.clean.
'* corresponding function devised forincreasingtheforceof a throwing weapon such as a spear or a javelin. and major attributes. 1993.If a logical order is chosen. Leroi-Gourhangives primacyto function and physical constraints.all spearthrowers musthave a body made of a small board or a stick(usually of wood.284 Audouze For Leroi-Gourhan.Affiliation diffusion be inferred different and fromsuch a dendrogram the chronologyof the appearance of types is known if (Cresswell. 30-35).Fromthethird degreeand beyond. secondaryor superficial importance. Leroi-Gourhanadds thatanotheruseful methodwould be to compare networks technicalfacts(in otherwords.an end forholding(a handle). technicalfacts(operationsor tools) can be classifiedin two different In orders:a chronologicalorderor a logical order.tools and implementsare the "objectivation"7 concreteexpressionof Pa tendance in technical factsat a specificplace in space and time. all specialists of style. includingthe prehistoric ones.then. In All the examples. fitthisdefinition. however.virtually fromLeroi-Gourhan's school. in Australia).We can thuscreate a dendrogram levels or degreesoffacts. isolated items can be included in a series and can acquire a real comparaand tive value.. takea classic exampledeveloped byLeroi-Gourhan I in L'Homme et la matière the spearthrower atlatl. To clarify theseconcepts.Leroi-Gourhan fromtheessentialto thesecondary.1971. would deny any secondaryposition to the social 7Thisis thephilosophic of meaning theterm.The atlatlis an implement or thathas existedsince prehistoric all timesand intorecentcenturies over theworld. social aspects express themselvesin variationsof In whichare expressedin thelastdegrésdufait. other words.varietiesare classifiedaccordingto their withtwo to five the shape of theboard or stick.and an end on which the spear or weapon rests. find . Choices and style are in his view secondaryand relate to ethnicity. or For Leroi-Gourhan. To work.includingthe ethnologists Today. manycases whena classificationwas notpossible because of the absence of chronological/historical on turned a logical classification.The corresponding les illustrates dendrogram of or and allows theidentification affiliation degrés dufait (degrees of specificity) diffusionof traits. we If we classifyall thedifferent in typesof spearthrowers a dendrogram.techniof cal systemsor subsystems). pp. Brieflyput. In this way. technicalfacts mustbe analyzed as a networkof a dominantattribute. . Regional distributions can ethnicgroups(e. thebasis of variation to evidence. 29). Leroi-Gourhan. is leverage. ancillaryones. human arm. or antler).thetypesbecome more technicalsystemsrelatedto reflect regionallydetermined.1971.g. bone. and precisionof the its function to augmentthe strength. p. Such descriptions in-depth descriptions rarelyhave been achieved (Leroi-Gourhan. subsequent ends (active parts)and/or degreesof fact. Among the degrés du fait.an implement a first to level. It also is possible to identify different values forthe attributes to rankthemaccordingto les degrés dufait.but this can be accomplished only through detailed of the materialculturesassociated withrelatedethnicgroups. "the first degree of fact.
knowledgeremainsin the new unitscreated fromthatethnic group(Leroi-Gourhan.and milieu technique (Leroi-Gourhan.bobbin. Sackett.he eventuallystood back and adopteda moreconformist position.The milieu intérieur (internalmilieu) is the inmodifiedmentaltraditions tellectualcapital of a givengroup. 1-16.1971.1973. pp. pp.and probablybecause he had decided from start to deal at thisinitialstage withthesocial dimension. 334-346). p. 39^0).1973.Leroi-Gourhanargued. reasons we will presently for the group in its entirety. or milieu techniquegeneratesinnovationthroughinternalmodifications by borarise. 12-16). wood lathe. Philosopher Technique 285 dimension of technical facts (Lemonnier.Transmission. When an ethnicgroup transforms the itself. and innovationwere analyzed through the three concepts of milieu extérieur. was lateranalyzed in detailby such cultural This phenomenon technologists 1994). 331-376). 1966).a set of perpetually of and modes of thought thatincludes as one of its componentsor subsystems the milieutechnique The evolutionofthismilieutechniqueproceeds (technicalmilieu). 344). thatof ever originalor gifted).milieu intérieur.and cartusuallycoexist in theethnicgroups thathave one of them. pp.a of Leroi-Gourhan. as Cresswell ( 1983.whenfavorablecircumstances rowingfrom external of resultingfrom property the milieu techniqueis its coherence and continuity.hydraulicwheel. There are indeed many examples of groups that refusedto adopt a potentiallyuseful technique because theyfoundit incompatiblewiththeirsystemof representation (Descola. Leroi-Gourhaninsistedthatthe appropriate level at which to analyze innovationwas not thatof the individual actor (howexamine.whereas others have theplough and thespinningwheel. 1973.Some groups have the hoe and the spindle. The mill wheel.diffusion. pp.8 Covariations made of intertwined of occur. not the Leroi-Gourhandid not commenton the fact thatthese techniques also mustbe socially compatible(Latour and Lemonnier. (Leroi-Gourhan. potter'swheel. etc.Leroi-Gourhansoughtto analyze technical creations. Giventhesepremises. 1994) and Lemonnier( 1994). 1993.The ternalpressure.spinning wheel. of thepermanent of relationship each elementwiththetotality otherelementsand fromtheirperpetualinteractions (Leroi-Gourhan. Technicalactions.1994.borrowing and as milieux systems subsystems. This continuity the milieu techniqueimplies thatthe techniquesincluded of in it are compatiblewithone another. In thelast partoí Milieu et technique.butrather. . thedistribution basketry twigs precedes constantly thatof pottery made withcoils. pp.Strangely enough. An essential the milieu. We see here one of Leroi-Gourhan'sparadoxes. by accumulation. 8Inother his Leroi-Gourhan conceived different words. The milieu extérieur(external milieu) is a very broad notionthatforLeroi-Gourhanincludes the naturalenvironment plus the material cultureand ideas of othergroups. Althoughhe did create a theoretical thatshould have allowed him to avoid such dichotomies and escape framework fromassigning preeminenceto one of its terms.can be consideredresponsesto exbut theyalso are a deliberateexpansion of milieu technique.so thatits acquisitions neverdisappear.
phialthough hasaffinities Teilhard Chardin's share viewofcontinuity zoologietosocial).ifthere what only preexisting a to Leroi-Gourhan a technical calls the intention (usually desire establish newtype ofcontrol overmatter.pp.Martinelli. 1992. diverging states directly is from derived converging Bergson. must it occurin a compatible milieu. it and scious that finality evolution retrospective thusartificial that the and of is other wouldbe easy.Leroi-Gourhan from the losophy (they refuses teleology the the of Omegapoint 1988. and An accumulation borrowings of of leadsto a mutation milieu technique henceto a mutation milieu Leroi-Gourhan of A intérieur. (Lemonnier. with to technique). also the lead Considered this at the leveloftechnical evolution. For him. (operational concept chaîneopératoire .. thecollective is but level.e. de with On theother he hand. (Stiegler. is clearthat tendance very he of force progression. other to of series facts. 351-384). 95). that is p. milieuintérieur mustbe favorable. La chaîneopératoire Leroi-Gourhan After the of et completing twovolumes Evolution technique. 77). of elements creating associations technical and new already existing receive local a to be successful. found itintheearly1950sinthe At of sequence).286 Audouze from neighboring a is since to similar inventing itcallsfor recombining group very For elements. goodexample by given in concerns introduction reindeer the of breeding amongsome Eskimogroups Alaska between1890 and 1900.Whendiscussing is his (lifeforce).i. fulfill requirements thelocal rawmaterials someof itsoriginal cultural attributes). This dialecticbetween (Leroi-Gourhan. In a finalist perspective. source technical and of The progress ofinnovations of within milieu the associations elements (Leroithrough technique Gourhan. identify tendencies. 1973. borrowing and the of (evenifitretains imprint. Although "the it close to it. Thus the pertinent level at whichto analyze innovation nottheindividual.themilieu technique.la tendance technique a trajectory has no predetermined from as resulting physical he goal. by philosophy Bergson élan vital of avoidstheconcept Bergson's Leroi-Gourhan pp. it and also Leroi-Gourhan makes clearthat is conhowever. view in Leroi-Gourhan beeninfluenced thisevolutionary oftechnology had the créatrice ofHenri inhis1907Evolution 1994. according orinagreement thetendance As in thecase of borrowing. He continued search a better to for to technical method analyze phenomena. samemechanisms to general liesintheaccumulation invention borrowing." oftechnical with great a facts be endowed to propensity in Bergson's book refers thechapter Activité to V créatrice creative (the activity) and tendencies 1973. is Invention occur can in if are elements already place. p. 58-59). other considering finalities.p. sees predetermination At constraints "naturarselection act alongthetrajectory. thebeginning and that he ofGesture Speech. 14.
Nevertheless. which is appropriate of forchipped stone and morebroadlyforothertypesof lithicsprocessing.theterm more.. It is even more explicitlypresentedas a methodology Leroi-Gourhanwas the first by Marcel Maget in the 1950s (1953). its from natural a raw are of which transform material Operational sequences series actions to state a manufactured Theseoperations madewith on are actions matter. This perspective what would come to be called thechaîne opératoire: is are in and syntax Techniques at thesametime organized sequencebya true gestures tools. for and tacticchoices at everystage of the provenitsefficacy identifying strategic of evidencedby hundreds papers written duringthelast manufacturing process (as 20 years)and as a means to approachcognitiveproblems. phases rest they associated a knowledge a know-how. is only a testimony the extériorisation an efficient of gesture. As occurred several times duringhis life. This. matter partof theproduction is The chaîne opératoiremethodhas adding process. 1980.it is similarto the core reductionsequence. appropriate. to create the concept and to suggest its utilityand its implications.pp. But thereis a semantic difference betweenthereduction sequence and thechaîne opératoire. Already in the 1940s. however. But it is a verycomplex gridthatallows one to relatethedifferent nothing stages of productionto each otherand to order themalong with related factors. it 9 Bibtraits. places. terminology.9 anycase.a of Leroi-Gourhan. theidea of an operationalsequence composed of various momentsof materialtransformation implicitin the technologicalwork is of Marcel Mauss (1936). 114.This knapper led himto realizejust how informative analysis of a technicalprocess could be the whenitis consideredin terms a meaningful of sequence of operationsand actions. Today. includingphysicaland economic ones.. . 1993.Laming-Emperaire. social relations.p. preparatory of and are with and (Lemonnier phases. henever are and liographic acknowledged debt Mauss. Philosopher Technique 287 thattime. incidentally. For lithics.basketry.It is inwhere or whendealing withceramics.230-234) (Leroi-Gourhan. operational stability their and the the is and the syntax generated memory is bornfrom dialoguebetween brain by material realm. Leroi-Gourhan had crystallized also an idea or a set of ideas thatwere emergingat the time.he became aware of the flintknapping of experiments Francois Bordes. state. thishypothesis articlesand a book on thestructure prehistoric of cave art. metallurgy. As further definedby Lemonnier. etc.symbolics.The term"reductionsequence" implies a subtraction matter. which The both and series their givestheoperational flexibility.. Leroi-Gourhanpromoteda dynamicconcept of tools and techniques: of "the tool .. 8) to chaîne opératoirerefers a methodthatis an analyticalgrid. orRaphaël.includingintentionality. occurredwiththe studyof prehistoric when Leroi-Gourhanpublishedseveral art. and he also invited experimental an to practiceat one of his seminars. just after was taken up by the art historianMax Raphaël and the archaeologist Annette In Laming-Emperaire. was one innovations ideasofother or Acknowledging prehistorians not ofLeroi-Gourhan's to his references minimal.
social grouping theanimalrealmitself.becausefrom point he this forward had a meansforinveshumans the of and through tigating mental processes representationsprehistoric their manufacturelithic saw cognitive of artifacts. (Dobres. connections. are Gesture Speechalso is a of with in vastfresco whichLeroi-Gourhan an describes evolution starting thefirst developments beingsand elaborating living uponwhatwe knowas its ultimate (Groenen. is essential stress It with is than more him much interested wererelations. in that framework wouldallowhimtoconceive human of development continuity withtheevolution theanimalkingdom of 1994. 319. levels relations gestures. recent aralso has becomeincreasingly influential Anglo-Saxon concept amongseveral 1994. and Liberation. immediately the He perspectives division With he could giveup theartificial it openedby thechaîneopératoire. technology of prehistoric technology archaeology. 1973. of an constitute most Leroi-Gourhan's ambitious work.1991.p. broadening approaches research questions. 1996). stages. speech. 333). modesof reasoning from in derived The biology prevailed. memory. p. The concept chaîneopératoire at theheart his nextmajorwork. of was of Le gesteet la parole. chaeologists and of in 1989. first the of animals. society.1992.p. and To express continuity animalsand humans at the the between existing from sametime shedlight thetransformations makehumans stand to on that apart and Leroi-Gourhan sought origins technique.1997).1995.Enloe. 112). themediation the thesocialrealm a search interactions between twothrough and for and oftechnique themainconstants hisapproach. in A New Vision:Continuity Evolution in The twovolumes Le gesteet la parolewerepublished 1964and 1965. to realm from between and Continuity thebiological technique. hehadinitially between Homo accepted faberandHomosapiens(Leroi-Gourhan.1999.288 Audouze is thematerialization theinteraction matter themeansto transform it" of with of (Leroi-Gourhan. . Thisconcept chaîneopératoire proved be extremely or in influential thedevelopment theFrench of schoolsof comparative cultural this In and and years. memory. essaythat encompasses They societies a reflexion thequestion origins also thedevelopment human of on of but a to intended create theoretical andeventheir future.DobresandHoffman. andlinks. Exteriorization Mobility. He wanted (Akrich. language. categories. to in from animal human the he instead continuity perceived 1952a) andexplore to thetechnological oí realm. 1971. what that to to showhowculture articulated nature. this In Leroi-Gourhan book.resulting a welcome White. evolutionary and and or between tools.
this In the forms those that. What is essential is the way in which Leroi-Gourhananalyzed the mechanismof and exteriorization (Leroi-Gourhan. liberation. Human ancestors evolved in parallel with othermammals untilbipedalism.Much of thisdiscussion is now obsolete because of the notions verylimitedknowledge available at the time and the rathersimplifying thatLeroi-Gourhanchose to use.a of Leroi-Gourhan. liberation. is as though were on of that that thewholebodyfrom liquidelement.when a drasticchange occurred. and the brain as the significant parameters. Unlike othermammals. pertinent the for and the achieve most balance between mobility capacity survival from triple perfect of of and (Leroi-Gourhan. 1993. Philosopher Technique 289 The first includes a descriptionof various evolutionary partof the argument drewheavily Here Leroi-Gourhan as analyzed by functional changes paleontology. the toward human of It is possibleto regard feature evolution as mobility thesignificant evolution.p. p. locomotion theorgans responsiveness. in A second partof Leroi-Gourhan'sargument Le geste et la parole concerns theevolutionof hominids. the suspension of the skull. pp. point viewof nutrition. are and exteriorization. relationto the paleontological concept of technicity.1993. The coevolutionof theseparameters occurs along six successive stages. the to The two poles act in close relationship perform most elaborate technical operations"(Leroi-Gourhan. 25-26). In thismanner. Locomotion be considered as thedetermining ofbiological will here (Leroi-Gourhan. introduced Leroi-Gourhan techniqueas a biological dimension It of humanity. dentition. oftheheadfrom the resting theground.using mobility.Leroi-Gourhan or anterior field. But the details and the flaws of this scheme are not really important. 25-26) two identified poles inthe Havingreachedthevertebrate body. it is exteriorizedoutside the human body. Paleoanthropians(Neanderthals) and Neanthrvpians(Homo sapiens tween the Archanthropians (Homo erectus) sapiens)." He identified mechanical organizationof the spine the and limbs. factor state. follows in thenthattechnicalaptitudeswere presentsince the originsof life and developed graduallyover the course of time. thefieldof responsiveness (senses): "a facial pole governedby the actions of the head and a manual pole governedby the actions of the forelimb. humanevolution. eachstage theprocess. 1993. 26) manin in Within perspective a the which starts with fish thePaleozoicera and endswith liberations: of a theQuaternary we it witnessingseries successive period. .Every time a specialization occurs.pp. the from that and that thehandfrom requirements locomotion finally ofthebrain of the of of at are facial mask. "The Mechanical Equilibriumof on his 1954 dissertation paleontologyentitled in the Vertebrate the Skeleton. Homo habilis was not distinguishedfromthe and personifiedin the which are called Australanthropians AustralopitheceneSy bewereconsideredintermediate Zinjanthropus. by framework mobility. 1993. hand.each The keyconcepts of his theoretical characterized an acquisitionor a liberation. 31).humans are generalists. sequence.
.connectingit withcenters related to the area involvinglanguage. 97-98) zoologythan anyother This situationchanged withthe Paleoanthropians.. with the migrationof the occipital foramenand the area of the skull. from different the of The freedom thehandalmost a activity necessarily implies technical Tools appear that of implements. apes .pp. well as for him real "stereothe Acheulean bifaces of the Archanthropians. The chopper and chopping tools of the Australanthropians.because of the existence of burials and some incipient aestheticconcerns.Leroi-Gourhanendowed and themwithtechnicalintelligencebecause of the diversification specialization of theirtools and because of the foresight thattheirmanufacturing appears to reas evidenced by theirchaîne opératoire. develop the opening of the frontaland middle frontoparietal middle corticalarea. was as a "secretion" theanthropoid's of bodyand brain. were still. 90) (Leroi-Gourhan. the is.Dp to thisstage. a We might tools say thatwiththe Archanthropians. Tools and Language: FromPaleoanthropiansto Neanthropians thatdefineeach stage Leroi-Gourhanwenton to describe the characteristics to Homo sapiens sapiens. 1993.(Leroi-Gourhan.extériorisation .He finds parallelevidencefortheemergence of language in thedevelopmentof thecerebralcortexof thebrain.290 Audouze It created the conditionsforfreeingthe anteriorfield the hand. and commands use of artificial organs. initiatinglongtransitional slowly during sociology period 1993. 1994."which correspondto mentalpicturesand remainidenticalforhundreds controversial thousands of years. an evolutive Fromnow on it becomesa technical tendency . The biologicaltendency. employing they . He concludes with this strongand potentially statement: the seems Australanthropian to possesshis toolsin much samewayan animalhas claws. . and the "excorporalization"of memory (Stiegler. . This resultsin increasingthecomplexityof the motorareas and in fullyexpandingthecortex in a fan-shapedway. . 162-182).to a largeextent. human wouldthusseemto havebeenrelated technicity to science. the mouth. represent of types. The origin language anthropoids of in Homosapiensthusseemsto be closely preceding as do linked with technical motor Indeedthelinkis so closethat function. pp.but also the brain. directemanation specific the of . . which can. and of animal human marks frontier the between emergence toolsas a speciescharacteristic a tookoverfrom which zoology.p. Throughout greater partof our chronologito moredirectly . The concept of exteriorization was used again laterin his workin describing the transition fromtools to machines. behaviour. Freeing the hand fromlocomotion brings tools intoexistence. cal existence. Paleoanthropianswith symbolic intelligence. Leroi-Gourhanalso endowed the quire. in theevolutionof earlyhumansfrom Australopithecus and he also sought to relate the identified noveltiesto the tendenciesevidenced as earlier.
how does thetransition geneticto social developmentactuallyproceed? Recently. Philosopher Technique thesamepathway thebrain. however. a in circles. Leroi-Gourhan Concerning dencies: a constant increasein efficiency. different from thesis postulates modularity adopted very of man ofthemind with modules of inthe onlyintertwining mind prehistoric atthebeginning Upper transforPaleolithic rests of 1983. From thatpoint. p. different and he mediums.biology and technology diverged. 183-185). knowledge complex composed man anorganic Paleolithic as as 1992a). withthe evolutionof tools acting as feedback process as an epiphylogenetic the on thedetermination thecorticalization of process. Leroi-Gourhanwas impressedby thisparallelism betweenthebeginning technologicaland biological evolution(Leroi-Gourhan. thecontrary. 144) (Leroi-Gourhan. toolsthat develops. 1992a. The volume thehuman of brain apparently its has reached peak. 1996).at thestart itsvertical development to 1993.but ratherthe productof "culturaldiversification. unlikenon-artificial lithicindustry process of selectivemutations in or preserved itsform beyondtheindividualswho manufactured used it'XStiegler. p. 291 Leroi-Gourhan'soverall thesisis not. and specialization. 115)10 (Leroi-Gourhan. by This diversity lithicindustries of to had led prehistorians create Upper Paleolithic "cultures. It would act by influencing is life. in cranialcapacity. 206). 206). FromtheUpperPaleolithiconwards. 1994..it is notclear whether development tools remainsbased in zoology.1993. of Tables 64." whichis themain regulating of in factor thedevelopment Homo sapiens (sapiens) (Leroi-Gourhan.p. genetics.Mithen.Leroi-Gourhanargued. The greaterdiversity tools is.Once again.His concept evolution upona progressive on accumulated of his mation a three-part of as being.not the result of an acceleration of technicalevolution."AlthoughLeroi-Gourhanacknowledged the regional diversity of these cultures. At the same time. starting early Early .a French philosopher. proposed to overcomethiscontradiction consideringthis has by one.he observedanother majorchange.e.he also warned us thattheymightnot be equivalent to ethnic of groups.1993. In an examdiversity. 28. (Fodor. 1993. a which 10Leroi-Gourhan a and Fodor Mithen. BernardStiegler. pp.he presented graphof theratio ple thatbecame well-known prehistoric of the lengthof usable cuttingedge per kilogramof flint fashionedin tools of a This ratiodrastically increasedovertimein parallel withan increase specificform.He suggestedthattherootsof social evolutionwerebiological and thatthere were numerousexamples of groupingfor mutual benefitamong mammals and morewidelyamong vertebrates (Leroi-Gourhan. 65). 1993.without weak aspects and its unsolved contradictions.p. p. The analysis of social evolutionwas the nextstep in Leroi-Gourhan's argument. (Stiegler.as he statesin severalplaces. Moreover. "because.of course. behavior is no longer regardedas Since manufacturing of the genetic. twomain in to the couldbe attributedone functions anthropoid andthesamephenomenon.and the(lithic)industry on cultural is ascent Human of curve. threemajortenidentified Homo sapiens sapiens. begins be dominated socialphenomena. from i.a of Leroi-Gourhan.
which he calls primitivethinking. sedentismand urbanizaand animal husbandry.sendingtentaclesin manydi's volume of Gesture connected.292 Audouze and technoeLeroi-Gourhanstressedthatthe developmentof "social machinery" conomic organizationis closely connectedto theevolutionof techniques. stability space (i. At the end of the first rections.an individualwho is engaged in the or tasks notdirectly relatedto food production and who is supported thegroupas by a whole.e. resulting what Leroi-Gourhancalls the "snowball effect" accelerated technicalprogress of (Leroi-Gourhan. As he triedto relatemajor inventions to vanced. he introducedinto his general theoreticalframework intellecall tual properties humans:Language and thought. characterizedby a feeling of continuity between is .pp.the social body includeda new element in its constituents: craftsman technician. related whichas earlyas theUpperPaleolithicled tographics to initial concepts associated with mythologicalmotifs.These are moof torskillsand rhythms. and memory. Motor Skills and Rhythm: Leroi-Gourhan thinking was like an octopus. It his was characteristic him to modifyhis concepts and reformulate conclusions of of fromone chapterto the next.The two poles he identified as the key poles of evolution hand/tooland face/language are the actors in this development.and to involvethe reader in the construction his ideas. mechanizationand industrialization) withnew formsof society. thatfromthe agricultural stage onwards.he observed tion. techniquesactuallyevolve muchfaster and in an uncontrolled way. Itcan be said that seasonal pauses inagricultural workhavecreateda milieu the A favorable (favorablemilieu) fortheappearanceofthistechnician. p. (such as agriculture metallurgy. new liberation occurred thefreeingoftime. to to Why are we surprised see himgive prominence language? Because. do Leroi-Gourhanwas probablythe first notice that. sedentism)and the in increaseofresourcesthrough induceda newstateofthemilieu demographic growth in intérieurwithincreasingneeds and a strongdemand forinnovation. Although he constructedan argumentto prove the coevolution of the two poles. shouldexplain whytechniquesundergosuch a rapid he cording evolutionwhenlanguage and thinking not(Guille-Escuret.but all ultimately the and Speech. evolve of writing in a synchronizedway mediated through technique. But among the familiaror commonplace arguments adAges the followingis particular him. acto his own criteria.This first stage.1994. His analysis of the evolution of societies through the Neolithic and Metal he is less original. 161-162). The Originof Writing Language and Hand.in thecoupling of technique to and language.Likewise. 169).1993. Leroi-Gourhanproceeded by associating mental and manual operationshe considereddeeply rootedin biological characteristics mammals. Leroi-Gourhaneventuallygave dominance to language..
inscribed the Graphics. first ofmemory of The that one guishes is a specific genetic are or in in programs memory present all living beings.g. as Bernard the has calls it. 1994). distinof to kind memory ways kind three kinds memory overlap another. 187-216). Progress handmotor skills.radiates ofengraving fluting material and Another this on reflect stage.p.g. Jacques pher sees Leroi-Gourhan memory a setofprograms operational as of brief. through repeated of percussion musical the etc. part Leroi-Gourhan's work attracted It has renewed French from attention several philosophers. bythe biologically the body(e. writing with symbolism is quite a that distinct that hunter-gatherers.g. wellas specific (clay equipment and and and pottery tablets) a needforaccounting forstoring capacities(1993. theconjoined of to development thematerial theverbal (Leroi-Gourhan. and kindof memory: virtual a or that memory is theethnic social memory that as belongs a wholeto theethnic group. associated is part theagriculturalists' of milieu Leroi-Gourhan. Earlytraces space.that influenced philosoStiegler Derrida wellas Stiegler as himself 1967. in are whichare at theoriginof artand writing. This implies narrowing thereasoning outwards a modethat ceased to radiate of andbecamelinear For and rational. human are For expressed bodythrough rhythms.as a consequence. which channels. and laterexteriorized use tools. in instruments. surfaces perspective onhishypothesis provided thetopographical cortex is of by organization thebrain in which motor and skillsand speechareasareclose neighbors operate together. A Programmatology: Memoryand Rhythms Memory of is This for Writing themeans exteriorizing memory. ego. impulses Thesecond kind memory individual that of is programs memory accumulates andeducation. then heartbeats). 1993. . Leroi-Gourhan.Stiegler. rhythms first in body(e. butthrough narrow shapedbyexperience species-specific prespecified Theseprograms activated thecentral are under nervous physiological system by andexternal stimuli. 299).breathing. technique.e.In (Derrida. Philosopher Technique 293 humans their and from where environment.. through experience is butis quantitatively qualitatively in and in different humans. individual access to thethird ethnic the every group.singing and dancing). occurred and as with sedentism agriculture. ledtowriting.is mostly hisprogrammatology. pp. existsat a certain levelin higher It mammals... comes from of writing with increase techniques motor an in as and skills. sequences that usedindifferent according the He are activated. whommemory channeled knowledge transmitted preserved languagein and and by totally by has Withthisknowledge.a of Leroi-Gourhan. and This leads. alongwith evolution oflanguage thinking and also towards and reflexive rational thought.
of transfer the largestsegmentof knowledge outside the individualto the social trendoutsidethehuman or ethnicmemory. the By reproduced nineteenth was fixed in a new multidimensional systemwith century.humanityexperiences a double exteriorization.). oneselfduring (e. The second is partof theevolutionary thatinitially and transmitted thenfixedin writing body. However.which introduces confrontation situationand experiencethrough language symbols. To refuseto see thatmachines will soon overtakethe human brain in operations involving who would have denied the memory and rationaljudgment is to be like Pithecanthropus possibility of the biface. such as feedingor sexual behaviorsor body attitudes. whetherfor repairingan accident in an operational sequence or for creatinga new one. Libraries were created to preservewritten memory.g. We mustget used to being less clever thanthe artificial . it was quite innovative.294 Audouze According to the type of operationalbehaviorinvolved. the archer who would have laughed at the mere suggestion of the crossbow.But mostof our lives are filledwithsemiautomatic the through familyunitor youth operationalsequences thatare transmitted typed peer groups. these files appearredonly a century first mechanical loom).A second level of behavioris concernedwithoperational sequences acquired througheducation and experience.the individualcalls upon or activates one of these threememories. 227-233). The Exteriorization Memory of One is the With memory. Leroi-Gourhanobservesthatalthoughverysimilarin their perforated afterthe Jacquardloom (the nical structure. as soon as an incidentor interruption behavioris semiautomatic suchactivity). The next step occurred withcomputersand artificial implying intelligence. geography. pp. accidentallyinjuring betweenthepresent a replaced by lucid behavior. most of all like the Homeric bard who would have dismissed writingas a mnemonic trickwithoutany future. not only memorybut also human reflexive thought(anotherdimensionof exteriorization). The thirdlevel is lucid behavior in which language takes a dominantpart.The nextstep was realized only in the midtwentieth sorting techcards.They are the necessary to to freedomof behaviorin exceptionalcircumstances (Leroi-Gourhan. forthegeneticmemory. Periodical operationalsequences and exceptionaloperationalsequences stereorequirelucid behavior.but when Leroi-Gourhanwas in writing the early 1960s. machinesand kind. memory files and indices thatpermitted sortingof data in different the ways (by subject. brushingyour teeth and puttingon your clothes do occurs not requirefull attention.but which take place in a "semiautomatic" mode. counterpart 1993. chronology. Automaticbehaviors related to call one's biological nature. Memory was first orally oral lore.. They formthe basis of individualbehaviorwithinthe ethnicgroup and give the strongestethnic imprint the individual.This may seem commonplace today. Files can be considereda manual machineof some etc.
he also intendedhis frombiological aestheticsto analysis to encompass all aestheticmanifestations themostrefined art figurative or abstract painting. Leroi-Gourhanmade a veryoriginalcontribution the fieldof aesthetics. is inadequate as ourhandsand eyesare inadequate. and rhythms.Withinthisframework. itcan be supplemented that just by electronic and fossilin the of methods.and he soughtevidence forthisin two directions aesthetics. living rhythms. theycorrespondto a truemechanical determinism related to laws of matter.1987).) Reflexiveaestheticsare embodied in figurative (Leroi-Gourhan. p. as ourteeth lessstrong a millstone ourability that are than and just tofly with of how or know. aestheticswas muchmoredifficult documentbecause "at first But to glance.Physiological aestheticsare deeply rooted in livingbeings through Functionalaestheticsare present and symmetry rhythms. He workedatthree different levels. technical. p. musteventually evenfurther exteriorizing faculties. takeintoaccount notonly auditory but and visual representations also the totality of thesensoryapparatus.and social. Philosopher Technique 295 brain we haveproduced. couldsaythat humans to take thegreatest of the possibleadvantage thefreedom gainedbyevading riskoforganic they in their overspecialization.He thought thatthe conquest of tools and language represented only partofhumanevolutionand thatwhathe called "aesthetics"in our ascenthas been as important.which was carried further French ethnologists(Bromberger. that evolution thehuman analysis being a living thecontext thepresent of thantheneuronic conditions life must of followa pathother one ifitis to continue. Whatit meansis that cerebral however our admirable.symbolicactivitiesand chines. by Instead of directly analyzing style forhim an essential componentof ethnicity and ethnicidentity he preferred analyze aesthetics. pp. it leftno tracesin skeletonsand tools" (Leroi-Gourhan. in Indeed. 274). Thus he identified threekinds of aesthetics. are it if we Putting morepositively.1993. representations theseconceptswas thusbased The ethnomorphological analysisderivedfrom mode of expression(frompure on different dimensionsof artistic representations: . and Aesthetics Symbolism Leroi-Gourhan was convincedthathumansweredistinct fromanimals or ma. In the manyprevious examples I have noted. (Functional aesthetics are associated withthe search for objects whose formsare perfectly adapted to and nonfigurative theirfunction. on values. willsoonknow negligible compared that a jetcraft Wealready toconstruct machines and the capableofremembering complex everything ofjudging most situations without error. and such as tools and instruments.physiological. in all humanproductions. became the means through style whichethnicgroupsput theirimprint forms.Leroi-Gourhanwanted to forms. 281-31 1). they go (Leroi-Gourhan.a of Leroi-Gourhan. cortex. thenand now.a much broaderfieldthat to is notlimitedto creatingimages materializedin artistic productionbutextendsto as a whole through and flavors. Leroi-Gourhanwas interested more in analyzing the internalcharacteristics of artproduction thanin their ideological meaning(althoughhe was also interested in thelatter in In thishe differed from main trends social sciences both the aspect). 265) 1993.1993.
style is a subut of perstructure restingon the infrastructure materialconstraints. shapingof forms exuberant distribution. 1993.000and 26. spatial composition(includingperspective. p. pages. But at thesame timehe also indicatedhow the choice of intervals and their overlappingwere deeplyrootedin ethnicstyle.leading to specialhad of ization and decentralization townsand cities.500/25. 35O-353). comprehensiveexpression In a few illuminating aestheticsto symbolism.and to thegrowingimportance of networks. unpractical '*■ Leroi-Gourhanworkon prehistoric is well known Anglo-Saxon s readers has beenthe and to art of of Whilehistheory cave paintcomments here. were forhim This particular productions example makes it clear thatartistic and mostlydetermined materialand technicalconstraints only subsequently by by Howethnicstylewithinthe narrowmarginallowed by functional requirements. we findhere one of the paradoxical situationshe created by changing his perspectiveor the manner of his discourse. rhythms). showed how these figurines were constructed He according to repetitive the intervals.his stylistic ingsorganized chronology obsolete. In In this last part of Gesture and Speech he also introducedhis analysis of de cave artthathe thoroughly prehistoric developed in Préhistoire Vartoccidental publishedthe same year (Leroi-Gourhan. In some paragraphs.. is The to rulesis stillvalid. thishe foreshadowedmuch laterurbangeographystudies.296 Audotize outlinesto (fromelementary geometricto analyticalfigurative). creating (framing Leroi-Gourhanapplied thismethodto theanalysisof Africanand prehistoric statuesand figurines. also recognized space thatindustrialization introduceda breakin townevolution. it is also a all thatimprints aspects of an ethnicgroup's culture.linking century He and timethrough and solar or stellarmythology calendar. he succeeded in connecting For example. 1965b). pp.12 The Futureof Human Evolution The vast theoreticalframework constructedby Leroi-Gourhanin the two volumes of Le geste et la parole ends witha tentative prospectiveview of human 1' Much he earlier. ornamentation). 1989). and construction and creationof intervals movement). (Leroi-Gourhan. ever.11 Leroi-Gourhanattempted demonstrate how cityplans fromoriginsdown to to the eighteenth of were symbolic representations the universe. according structural that Chauvet cave (datedtoaround documentation the 30. 676). 1970. had was totally conditioned its symbolic by arguedhow theJapanesecostume function thepoint beingrather to of 1946).It was thuspossible "to isolate ethno-stylistical which [could] be defined characteristics as infrastructural" (Leroi-Gourhan.000 brought final B.) to art from schematics there no evolution was and Aurignacian was in no wayonlyschematic that realism. lengthof whichwas relatedto thewidthof theadze used on wood or to the size of the hand.P. It is notanalyzed subject many (Conkey. . he demonstrated thattheaestheticsof clothingwere rootedin symif bolism and thatthe symbolicrole of clothingwas as important notmoreso than its function (Leroi-Gourhan.
came to reconsiderhis However. sysbut of temof responsiveness. ethnicgroupsor social groups) as the place wheresocial evolutionreplaces or takesover biological evolution. potential.p.1993).he wroteon occasion several trend.In a large section of Techniqueet language. wanted Leroi-Gourhan andaesthetics. in was evolving towardswhat he called a "megaethny. distortion unlimited withnearly between civilization a is stillexistsand there some contradiction the from timewhenkilling and which remained has unchanged powers man'sagressivity reindeer? meant survival. he Extrapolatingfrom the evolutionarytrajectory designed. exteriorization timetookplace simultaneously along The becamelockedat themodifferent timebecamethegridwithin whichindividuals lines." a process that Humanity we would call globalization today the globalization of the economy and of inthe of formation. or his to thatis to rest leisure regulate or herright absence. curindifferent network hand/face. 145-183) or "the social body" (i. pp. p. 1993.In sectors a within network theindividual of functions a cell. eventually seconds.in thecourse of his researchLeroi-Gourhan belief thatethnicgroups were indeed the basic social componentsof humanity. about thedegradationof motorand actingand thinking of in technicalskills. effective his activity also time. to for of ment whenthesystem responsiveness the reduced period required transmission has wherethelimit been reached. standardization modes of lifeand of culture. to studyethnicgroups. . an element a collective as program.a of Leroi-Gourhan. "The technicalliberationunquestionablyreduces the technical freedomof theindividual"(Leroi-Gourhan." The technicalliberation of has led to theexteriorization tools.He devoted lines on his expectationsand concerns about thisevolutionary an entirechapterto this subject concernsabout physical Man overcome by the machineshe had devised. and eventually thenervous of ..He saw thatas part of social evolution. but mental or of signalsthatnotonlycontrol or hergestures.. Individualsfoundtheiridentity members ing and a significant of an ethnicgroupand in sharingits characteristics muchin automaticbehavior as as in reflexive behavior.1993. Industrialization adapts theworker to the machine. minutes. form. of Fromthebeginning his first volume. memory /rhythms. tool/language/rhythmic technique/language. 253). p. he expressed of concerns that are now at the heart of the interrogations the twentieth century. he studied "the social organism"(Leroi-Gourhan..concernsaboutdiminishing participation theproduction symbols replacedby access to virtualleisuresorganizedby a few specialists in charge of creation(Leroi-Gourhan. associationsas partsof an intricate hand/tool. 317) is 50 Ourelectronic culture barely yearsold andis supported a physiological apparatus by the our which itself 40. 402) (Leroi-Gourhan. function. 1993. so that"the liberationof a facultyalways leads to accelerated not improvement. Philosopher Technique 297 rebuiltas a musical fuguein whichthemesassociated by pairor triplets evolution. creation.e. of the individualas such butof the individualas an elementof a supermechanism.He thought thatthiswas thetypicalformof humangroupas unitof analysis. 1993.(Leroi-Gourhan.While developingotherthemes. of muscle.000years Whilewe havetotrust adaptive is old. and to hours.
decide to remain to will sapiens preferred imaginethathumanity consciously sapiens. Every Diggingwith or to was forth newhypotheses. and was site of open-air of Pincevent discovered spring 1964.theMagdalenian all Leroi-Gourhan All pulled forgotten. His Swiss. will with In suchan event.Eachserved inaninsoluble wereassociated observation theory and proach. as to correct consolidate other thework and the (Guille-Escuret. Thisshort slender and man. fluence French on andon someFrench prehistorians methexcavation as on German. by he adventure. 408) (Leroi-Gourhan. Guillehis intellectual butalso his wayof conducting trajectory in because. professor whole. CONCLUDING DISCUSSION as on influence hisstudents hiswrithad Leroi-Gourhan's teaching as much have insisted students his former or evenmore. hisapEscuret was Leroi-Gourhan sucha prodigious recalls.andSpanishprehistorians. everybody entitled comment question.p. with 1993. interrupted university and the 4 himuntil and with Malraux.Leroi-Gourhan a considerable. was Leroi-Gourhan an exciting morning. wanted continue they the the him. imagination. 10). thelandpurchased thestate. spent months. thehorizontal décapage involving .The scientific Duringthe approachwas there.298 Audouze of Inhissober the Leroi-Gourhan assessments. evendecisive. begantobe destroyed a quarry.This impact ings. explainswhy is whilethisemphasis strangely on thesocial roleplayedby techniques missing faceofa fox. digging of had minister culture.Leroi-Gourhan an intelligent in the of meaning theword. lectures intellectual captivated an exciting As excavations. not reflected only His in adventure.with sharp becauseofhis and secret. also dismissed hypothesis a totally Instead Leroi-Gourhan manbeingswouldonlybe thecells of a megaorganism.shy the in hiswritten work. progressed p. rigor. author then courses. as well socialanthropologists. etymological inand the had From 1950son. problem theindividual's the of relationship society haveto be of to we faceup squarely thequestion ournumerical density completely rethought: must andourrelations theanimalandplant worlds. answered. slow speaker this who avoidedmostof hiscolleagues to him. shyness by and theacademicand political he strings couldto stopthedestruction calledhis their Morethan students 50 students the to rescue. 1994.you were was a fascinating charismatic teacher. anyone every in situation uncommon sit withhimat mealsand engagein discussion very (a man was French academiclifeat thetime). and put could and in Overthenext years spent months thefield 20 he 2 year. apocarejected fear anatomic a towards Utopian as wellas Teilhard Chardin's of de vision anascent Omega lypse huin world which artificial He of the point. and Listening shyness. with to As soonas students discovered Leroi-Gourhan. innovative areas(Leroi-Gourhan ofliving ods atPincevent.
Central chaeologists working America. and froma muchyoungergeneration. 1979). to relatetherationality inscribedin theevolution by try of techniquesto theanalysisof theMarxist"productive forces"and to linktogether technical and social orproduction Digard. processes (among them. Some French social anthropologists also having been influenced Leroi-Gourhan.1994.using the powerfulconcept of the chaîne opératoire.Technology is now as essential a componentof Paleolithic or Neolithic researchprojects as Claudine Karlin. 199 1. Bromberger(1987). in contemporary social anthropologywith an agronomic and a linguisticbackcreated the ethnoscience approach in France (Haudricourt.a of Leroj-Gourhan. Philosopher Technique 299 and Brézillon. Ploux et al. A school of comparativeethnologyand culturaltechnologywas created di's undertheinfluence Evolutionand Technique. But here. Much more thanLeroi-Gourhan. Pélegrinet ai.Haudricourt stressed Haudricourt 1968. 1988.but thenonly in a verycriticalfashion. 1992). have broughtimportant or theoretical methodologicalcontributionsto prehistoric and cognition(Boëda. 1967). Digard (1979).Major figures thismovementare RobertCresswell withhisjournal Techof niques & Culture(1993). typology. his of one mustalso mention influence Haudricourt. 1988). experiments Equally importantly. A memberof theethnoaspect science school. PierreBodu. It took much longer for Leroi-Gourhan influenceto be feltin the United 's set different of scienStates and GreatBritain. Georges Guille-Escuretalso of a directconnectionto Leroi-Gourhanin his theory thesocial fact acknowledges (Guille-Escuret. 1992). Tixier. Prehistorians such as Jacques Tixierand collaborators.. These tworesearchgroups. together was veloped in JacquesTixier's laboratory.and theNear East. have been accumulating veryimportant a knowledgeon techniques body of theoretical and cognition. Many of these researchershave shown a deep interest understanding reciprocal influencesof social orgain the nization and techniques. Jean-MichelGeneste. and Eric Boëda. and Martinelli(1988). Geneste.where language and an altogether It tific had establishedalmost insurmountable barriers.They were able to perceive the weaknesses butnot the innovativeaspects of his work (Ucko and Rosenfeld. Nicole Pigeot. 1987. Lemonnier(1980. was at thetimeof priorities thetranslation Préhistoire I* occidental (Treasuresof Prehistoric of de art Art)that rock art specialists such as Andre Rosenfeld and Peter Ucko became interested in his work.b). Pélegrin. dewithknapping Leroi-Gourhan. 1990.1994). 1991). Pigeot. Balfet (1991a.Sylvie Ploux. 1966). 199 1. ground. were further to developed and refined become standardprocedure foropen-airsites in the Old World. 1991. Karlin technology et a/. at theoriginoftheschool of prehistoric at thatdeveloped from practiceof flint the technology conjoining(or refitting) the siteofPincevent. 1987.1993.whichjoined forcesinthe 1980s. Sigaut.Leroi-Gourhan first of major rectly work. thesocial and cultural of techniques(Bonte. His influence extendedto French arin on living floors and settlements Mesoamerica. 1992.y 1991. . Jacques Pelegrin. Karlin and Julien. the alongside Leroi-Gourhan.
1999). 1978. Dobres and Hoffman. Margaret Archaeology Conkey's work in the late 1970s and early 1980s seems to have been the first to regardLeroi-Gourhan'sstructuralist approach to artas one capable of offering her new perspectives. Bar-Yosefet al. This took place at of the momentwhen postprocessualismhad begun to weaken the thrust the New and when a spiritof intellectualrenewal was in the air. 2000. Apartfroma PhD dissertation applyingthe chaîne opératoireto the manufacture and subsequentrejuvenationof bone tools (Dobres. Leroi-Gourhan's work now seems to reach a wideraudience in the Anglo-Saxon world (Bleed. notonlykeptup-to-date it chaîne opératoireresearchbutin factincorporated intohis own approach. 1994. His ideas ican audience with access to Leroi-Gourhan's major theoretical the also were diffusedto English readers through worksof Marcia-AnnDobres. in the 1980s. In the same of his year Mark Edmonds brought understanding chaínes opératoiresto bear on . to several Frenchprehistorians were given theopportunity reviewthemajor theoreticaland methodologicaladvances made in thisfieldin the 1980s. In this.where it was allied withrefitting studyof tool supports analysis and the morphometric it 199 1. For stillotherprehistorians. reference thechaîne opératoire expert Beginning and French thinking the subject appeared in the bibliographiesof Angela E. Althoughtheythemselveslacked firsthand on theprogressof icans workingin the Near East were keptconstantly up-to-date and Leroi-Gourhan'sschool. Ofer Bar-Yosef. Randy White recognized the methodologicalpotentialof the chaîne opératoire as he began his analysis of personal ornamentsfromthe Aurignacian. all themoreiftheyworkedat Pincevent as Enloe did forhis PhD. 1992). 1999.300 Audouze of beforethe influence Leroi-Gourhanwas Anotherdozen years intervened feltin the United States.a Harvardprofessor on at in working Israeli withFrenchprehistorians Kebara. Amerknowledgeof his writings. in Aboutthesame timeas in theUnitedStates. even among Old World specialists. The belated translation Gestureand Speech in 1993 provideda widerAmerwork. 1980. her articlesand book from the on a of furnish criticalsynthesis thehistory Frenchthought technology of time of Marcel Mauss to the present(Dobres. Since then. 1994). This interest of pearance of an entirenumberof the CambridgeArchaeological Review(edited by Nathan Schlanger) devoted to "Techniques as Human Action" in 1990. 1995). was as a (Bar-Yosef.thewell-known to prehistorian to on technology. Phillips (1991). informed workon engravedbone and antlerassemblages fromMagdalenian sites of north-coastal Spain (Conkey. 2001).his excavationmethodsforuncovering living France have retainedmuch of floorsand his field school at Verberiein northern Leroi-Gourhan'smethod(Enloe. on Close (2000) and James L. By 1985. . it Among otherthings. thanks JacquesTixier. 199M992). 1989). withthe intellectual directresultof workingin France thattheybecame familiar heritageof Leroi-Gourhan(Simek.an interest technology emerged withthe apbore fruit at the University Cambridge in England.
engage theirown concerns(Gamble. Gestureand Speech also foundan echo in Great Britainamong social anthropologists such as Tim Ingold (personal comsuch as Clive Gamble who.have foundtheirown thought be greatlystimulated notadoptinghis ideas to by Leroi-Gourhan'sdistinctive and attackingthe issues thatnow mannerof defining 2001).AlthoughJapanese prehistorians practice to lithicrefitting et al.refined.thanks themassivecontribution no todaythan currency associates. and younger made by his manystudents to Indeed. Philosopher Technique 301 his studyof the productionof polished axes in northern England (Bradley and Edmonds.When Leroi-Gourhan's major lished. 1937-38 mission Leroi-Gourhan'sinfluencetoday does not rest solely on his printedworks. 1990).The same commentapplies to Le geste et la parole.centered thatstressesagain the importanceof Leroi-Gourhan. For terprehistorians.1998). or Foucaultor Derridahave been interested even inspiredby Leroi-Gourhan'sconcepts. other to referred methodsfrom whichconstantly one to do withsuch an enterprise. forthat could psychologists.where he constructed networksof biological. seems to themhighly sion of theevolutionof technique.a of Leroi-Gourhan.when Marcel Mauss read Leroi-Gourhan's first had he Civilization Reindeer( 1936). have retainedthe and Thirty years later.while munication. Frenchphilosopherssuch as adopted." . a highlyabstractlevel level forobservingfactsand manipulating analytical could onlybe approached vastquestionssuch as originsor evolutionthat involving and an intermediatelevel of abstraction. theacquisitions analyticalmethods opératoire. into in Gestureand Speech is partof the archaeologyreadingsat the university Japan. Edmonds. psychologisocial relationsthatestablished the technical realm as the mediatorof cal. it was received not only with admirationbut also with some perplexity.and the excavation methodshave all been and enlarged. book on the Thirty years earlier. 2001 ). theyhave closer affinities Bordes's approach.prehistorians social anthropologists at thepracticallevel: thechaîne and. fieldsand whichdisplaced primary Biologists could not use it in their questions? matnor social anthropologists.Gestureand Speech was ignoredas an intimiLeroi-Gourhan operatedat threelevels of reasoning:a concrete datingmonument.mostofall. 1993. but this did not lead to real influence. and neither discipline.the analysis of techniques.his "programmatology.his workand thought doubtenjoy muchgreater work was pubtheyever did in his own lifetime. he had toldhiminjest that feltlikea henthat of What was hatcheda duckling. (Aita But thereis interestin Leroi-Gourhan's earlier work on Japan thatresulted in fromhis the recentpublicationof two volumes of Leroi-Gourhan's photographs in Japan(Yamanaka 2000.His vion BernardStiegler. After translation its intoEnglish.At the abstractlevel. and evolution. data. its Because itwas translated Japanesenotlong after publicationin France.%1991). There is todaya school of philosophersof science and techniques. the the most original. personal communication. as well as prehistorians . severalyears. throughphilosophical investigations.
ability combine a uniqueapreal his inspiring. des une des différentes du en au In techniques Paléolithique technologiques supérieur Japon. thoseaspectsof hiswork Yet that havenotbeenassimilated stilloffer potential a If sourceof insights interrogations. Margaret forgiving thoseopportunities providing me and useful comments. it is farmoreimportant worthand All but "politically whileto remember in his workLeroi-Gourhan that an extraordinarily provides theoretical and evolution framework thinking for abouttechniques their powerful andthat furthermore he andconcerns about expresses very insights contemporary aesthetics ecology. Kato. Le remontage pièceslithiques: illustration I.302 Audouze in to Leroi-Gourhan's originality. of has yet andsocialsciences. in Berkeley. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This paperoriginated publiclectures I presented in that whilea GeorgeA. early prehistoric technology. onLeroi-Gourhan meclarify ownviews. Last. Nathan version this correcting imperfect Schlanger English forhis constructive the and for to critiques. am verymuchin debtto Hélène Balfet. Lemonnier.I express gratitude Janet to and Keller. Randy and White of me the helped sort through insandouts American I amalso extremely toAnick Dinanfor Girard Elizabeth and archaeology.one maynote hisdescription early humans nowinaccurate. hissweeping are far art reconstructions at times that too ambitious. REFERENCES CITED Aita. my Conkey Olga Soffer. hischronology structural ofpreis that and interpretation historic needsto be revised. grateful the to ofthe first of text. and Leroiaboutfreedom politics. that and to wouldnowbe considered be someof his terminology incorrect. Thereis no doubt that and Gourhan's workconstitutes majorcontribution bothFrench and a in prehistory socialanthropology. to JimSackett translating additions this text." of thisis true.Y. followers. not found proach biology of Le that Uponreading gesteetla parole. 25 ans d'Etudes IJ However Guille-Escuret attempted Le décalage humain has in of (1994) to explaintheorigin the socialfact drawing biology. Stiegler. .I warmly DouglasPrice the final editing.andina classthat taught theUniversity California. ethology.Georges Pierre whose andNathan Bernard Guille-Escuret. Schlanger. AnnDobres. I AnickCoudait. I at of 1996. Millervisiting at infall of professor theUniversity Illinois. shallhaveto societies.we wantto know and more about we andevolution. Urbana-Champagne. spring 1998. on and by ecology. 13 a science man.MMand Yamanaka. thesocialsciences. use thisopportunityexpress gratitude himfor I to to me introducing my toAmerican 30 thank for archaeology years ago.. preparing In thispaper. Marciawritings helped my MegConkey. (1991). deal with fundamental at Leroi-Gourhan formulated questions thelevelat which andaddressed them.
.D. (1991b)..). l'homme.). (1992). Aldine. L'Homme ou fin J. In B. Observer actiontechnique. S. Découverte. La technologie anthropologie: de parcours nouveausouffle? en Digard.pp. 25 O. (eds. Binford. Transferts techniques chaînes Techniques Culture 144.Arensburg. Goldberg.Academic Press. Antibes..( 1994). Un homme une œuvre:AndréLeroi-Gourhan. André Bromberger. Press. Chicago. L. Lamberg-Karlovsky. Unpublished ofCalifornia.329-344. (1991). ( 1992). at J. (ed. (eds). (eds. (1968). University Cambridge C.. 2: et R. (1978).Ph.andWeiner. Tillier. and Lemonnier. techniques... andLemonnier. M. de Paris. Cambridge University Cambridge. le entre technique le social. L.DD. (1980). aux de P. V des La Paris. Excavations Kebara. Techniques Culture 5-37. Britain.Symbol Sense. E. Leroi-Gourhan 48/49:5-54. ( 1993).D.. (ed. Mt.). as NewYork. J. ologicalThought America. E. Belfer-Cohen. An Analysis Design Structure: Variability of of BonesFrom North-Coastal University Spain. 157-168. Press. O. pp.De la préhistoire aux missiles balistiaues. Découverte.-P(1979).). du des de de des Boëda. 305-317. In industries. Tendance fait.). R. (1989). Department Anthropology. 225-248. oeuvre: F. M. nologique la chaineopératoire. Press. Nouvelles VArcheologìe Les d'e Les .. Laville. pp.. P. ofChicago. Berkeley. opératoires. et de In B. sociologies la technique. des P. de et Cresswell.APDCA.. chaînesopératoires pourquoifaire?. (1992). pp. 'intelligence techniaues.Approche des Cresswell. Current 33: Anthropology 497-550. Paris. Meignen. ( 1983). of of Ph. In in Cowgill. L.-A. V Des Balfet. Latour.. Observer actiontechnique.(1987). R. André actesdu colloquedu CNRS. 19: 73-104. etperspectives. among MagdalenianEngraved Conkey. E. (1993).. C. in structure efficacy paleolithic In Foster. and Conkey. Paris. C.Ed. (dossier). Découverte. Nouvelles VArchéologie de 48/49:5-54.Thesearch lithic variability Epi-Paleolithic among Rencontres ans d'Etudestechnologiques Préhistoire. (1989). Après ethnologique faits Les de 48/49: 18-22. Midi-Pyrénées. 21: et R. (1991). Cambridge University Cambridge.pp.. Tchernov.andBinford. S. (eds. in Social Relations Production the in LateMagdalenian M. des M.. chaînes au In H.Carmel. d'Archéologie d'Histoire d'Antibes (18-20 octobre France. 105-130. M. Vandermeersch. Reconstructing of Theory 7(1): 49-77..) (1991a). logiqueet histoire. balistiques. et Cresswell. Balfet.. (éd. In B. (1994). H. d'Archéologie d'Histoire France. Conkey. (eds. techet R. Actesdes Xlèmes en Bilanetperspectives. de H. pp. Gender theMaking: Dobres. (ed. D. C. G. Rak. French University Department Anthropology. andEdmonds. Présentation diverses sortir la dichotomie de Akrich. Unhomme. pp. H. . 135-154. Context. objets anthropologie l'objectivation. ou C. l'intelligence techniques. A.159. d'une variabilité Techniques Culture Paléolithique Chronique 17/18:37-39. and Schnapp. La nature cyclique relations aux de P. V opératoires Ed. des le les d'Amazonie n'ont-ils domestiqué pécari? Généalogie Descola. Comment technique/société. Antibes. 74-88. Latour. Bar-Yosef. M. Archaeological Thought America. (2000).) (1992). NewPerspectives Archeology. (eds. 1990). Dissertation. Paris. 87-95.Pourquoi Indiens pas P. Audouze.Paris 1987.Chaînes exemples façonnage quatre opératoires organisation Des de poterie Maghreb. A. une F. Paris. In Audouze.. duCNRS. du CNRS. B.Archaein MA. Internationales et d'Antibes (18-20 octobre1990). balistiques. et inférieur moyen.APDCA. pp. andSchnapp. De la préhistoire missiles des La l'intelligence techniques. pp.Speth. Cambridge. Leroi-Gourhan les voiesde In et Leroi-Gourhan l'esthétique. M. in MA. Derrida. Latour. et socialedutravail: Balfet. Audouze.F. Chicago.Albin-Michel.. B. A.. De la préhistoire missiles des La Paris. L. andBrandes. Nouvelles l'Archéologie in and M. 319-335. d'uneapproche et Leroi-Gourhan: tendances problèmes Bonté. art.. Dissertation. Approche la variabilité sytèmes production lithique industries et attendue. (1994). Philosopher Technique 303 et Bilan Actesdes Xlèmes Rencontres Internationales Préhistoire. Bradley. in S. andLemonnier. in Close.A. pourquoifaire?. A. the R.. 275-289.a of Leroi-Gourhan. Editions Minuit.P. Formal approaches archaeology.( 1995). for Levantine Bar-Yosef.). Essai de portrait. The structural analysisof Paleolithic In Lamberg-Karlovsky. art. and Method Journal Archaeological movement prehistory.).Interpreting AxeTrade:Production Exchange Neolithic MA. H 9671 De la Grammatnlnpie.Y.
Before R. Bruxelles. Paris. de et Lemonnier. de of reducof process lithic J. andChavaillon. de P..Ethnologie technologie. (eds. aux P.). (1980). P. Social agency thedynamics prehistoric Dobres.andPélegrin.logiquetechnique. M.). (1994). La Paris. André Leroi-Gourhan.MIT Press. du A. de Leroi-Gourhan. 48/49: de P.). (1994). Somesocio-economic C. (1952a)..G. octobre-décembre: 506-508. Karlin.. technology. (ed. pp. Subsistence Organization theUpperPaleolithic: of of Ph. Dissertation. A. Edition la Maisondes Sciencesde l'Homme. Homofaber-Homosapiens..-M. Subsistence organization theearlyUpperPaleolithic: Lascaux: Complex Abridu Flageolet.D.(1968). Technology unfolding technique In technician. A M. (1991). In les préhistoriens élaboréparles technologues. (ed. (1990).University Microfilms. Paris. La Guille-Escuret.G. Karlin.). Guinée.-G.Edition la Maison des Sciencesde l'Homme.. and Lemonnier. (1999). Haudricourt.. Systèmes variations de Geneste. Lemonnier. Culture: C. .M. De la préhistoire missiles B. Latour. (1983).).-A. of ofthe among groups hunter-gatherers ParisBasinarea. TheAncient Archaeology. Dobres. De la préhistoire et In B. Paris. 731-882. pp. du Leroi-Gourhan. Poirier.-A.Rythmes Monde4: 31-40. Bodu. Practice. des techniques. De M. 84:302-315. Découverte. Evolution techniaues . J. (ed. Bodu. A. Boeck Essence et contingence Groenen. Leroi-Gourhan. University New Sharingat Pincevent.Milieuet techniques. (1987). A. (eds. des balistiques.In Berthelet.Boca Raton. andJulien. et il Leroi-Gourhan. (1946). Choixtechniques représentationl'enfermement lesAngade Nouvelleaux P.-G. Leroi-Gourhan. (1994). DC.(2000). Paris. (1945). Université. AlbinMichel. 87-95. (eds.-A. et / et Leroi-Gourhan. (eds.Transformation P.Edition CNRS.(1991). Technology Social Agency. (1991). (1994). R. et d'histoire de technologie Recherches A. and Edmonds. Washington.Cambridge. Balfet. and Dobres. Latour. dd. (eds. World Views. and C.. Sur la position scientifique l'ethnologie. of C. Paris Revuephilosophique.M. of Française G. Paris.Making Essayson Technological and MIT Press. Arbor. TheModularity theMind. Karlin. Press.. Les Salinesde l'Ouest.-A. La Technologie sciencehumaine. Clarendon dd. Press. Practice. Le décalage humain. Les des Lemonnier. MakingCulture: Essayson Technological World DC. 152-164. R. pp. Paris. Record theEarlyUpperPaleolithic. Processus C. Pike-Tay. (1952b). Smithsonian Institution Views. CRC Press. R.P. 30: Revuede Synthèse 79-102. chaînesopératoires Des pour quoifaire?.-A. biographie. Comment et N. Press. Leroi-Gourhan ethnologue techniques.P. and Theory Method of and C.andHoffman. Review M. Lemonnier. of MA.). 1-35. missiles La Paris. techno-économiques lithique. Dobres. Blackwell. G. and Carcass Refitting Food in Enloe. H. Kneicht. Fodor. ( 1992). pp. techniques production et 17/18:1-35. hunters the of Reindeer in Enloe. Introduction.). A. 3). danslesprocessus réalisation outillages de des Techniques Culture paléolithiques. Découverte. and Pigeot. techniques chaînesopératoires. (1993). and White. technology: cognitive E. Prehistoric C. dans la destinée humaine. Nouvelles l 'Archéologie 13-17. (1943). J. pp. A. A. Mind:Elements Cognitive Zubrow. London. From 9: Cambridge 55-70. FL.( 1992). Obun s'approprient concept du serverl actiontechnique. chez P. Department Anthropology. 124-146.). des techniques.J.(1987). Bulletin la SociétéPréhistorique de Gaucher.and Hoffman. science?In Renfrew.M. In H. Archaeological understanding thechaîneopératoire. 1. AlbinMichel. Symbolique vêtement japonais. Routledee. aspects the J. logiquesociale.Oxford.. Washington. andLemonnier.) (1994). Description. (1999). (1996). Journal Archaeological 1:21 1-258. Technological Material Cultures SincetheNeolithic. In Lemonnier. Oxford. Paris. l'intelligence balistiques..J. 254-270. Evolution techniques L'Homme la matière. University Cambridge of MA. in choices.andHoffman. TheuseofTools Humans Non-Human (symposia theFyssen by No. Générale Gallimard. Ethnologie Haudricourt. Découverte. Cambridge. In J. Ann Mexico. 3 18-340. l'intelligence techniques.304 Audouze of and linksand chaînes:The processual Dobres. and M. tion A. Essai de méthode. Foundation of Primates and (eds. La technologie culturelle. (1992).
et Iet Leroi-Gourhan.Les religions la préhistoire.. du Editions CNRS. Evolution techniques Milieuet techniques. assemblages. (1971).25 ans d'étudestechnologiques préhistoire. and ). (Seine-et-Marne). F. (1988). from Sinai. aux In des techniques. d'Antibes et 1991. (1960). occidental. directe comportements des Maget. Art.De la préhistoire missiles P. 61-89. andChavaillon. du des Edition civilisations Sud.pp. Leroi-Gourhan. de Leroi-Gourhan. Ploux. Phillips.. pp. J. (eds. etfonction fonctionnement maisencoupant. Leroi-Gourhan. J.AlbinMichel. les Martinelli. culturels. (1970). MA. andBodu. Techniques Culture tools. Tixier. . ( 1987). 55-62. Lévy-Strauss. TheDawnofEuropean Cambridge University Cambridge.).In 25 ans A J. L. d'Etudestechnologiques Préhistoire. B. (eds. In of and A. and of J. opératoires: case study edge-wear chaînes internaActesdes Xlè rencontres Bilanetperspectives. pp.Magdaléniens Etiolles. edn. du d suppi économie. sur Leroi-Gourhan. of Anthropologist Sackett. Lévi-Strauss). Press.S. l'intelligence techniques. MIT Press. pp..a of Leroí-Gourhan. Paris. et des N. F. Latour. ThePrehistory theMind. Cambridge. Leroi-Gourhan. Leroi-Gourhan. 118-123.. In B. Michel. Uncouteau sert à couper pas actes en dansl'analyse objets. at and social actors:Flintknapping Pigeot. de A.. (eds. Piagetet Leroi-Gourhan.141. Albin et A. 658-676. A. 201-206. A. Mauss. ( 1953). Carr. Exchanges comA. toGallia-Préhistoire. Quantitative analysis UpperPaleolithic 68: 356-394. sociale. In the Notesfrom continent. Heizer. Monographs Prehistory. (ed. stonetoolsmanufacture a tentative for Pélegrin.N. S. London. Philosopher Technique 305 Paris. ( 1991 D'une chaînel'autre: 17/18:81-1 14. application someearly No. Clarendon Press.mars1987). Chaînesopératoires: outilpourle préhistorien. en France. of and J. Paris. Technologie pp. Evolution techniques L'Homme la matière.(ed. actesdu colloquedu CNRS.Technique langage. F. pp. Mithen. Deux conceptions biologiques connaissances Schlanger. C. Cambridge Archaeological Review 9: 126. Gesture by MA. Paris. ( 199 1). ( 1991 Refitting. (Mélanges offertsC. 60-92. A.).Paris 1987. Journal Psychologie. 21-34. Berthelet. Les techniques corps. to In industries. des J. of and Non-Human Primates byHumans (symposia theFyssenFoundation 3). balistiques. ne Sigaut. Statistical description comparison artifact in Methods Archaeology. Simek. andLemonnier. The organization technology evolution: StoneToolsTechnologies. (1965a). 165-183.. (1973). (1993). and Brézillon. du Editions CNRS. (1936). TheUse ofTools A. L'habitation près magdalénienne de Pincevent. Montereau Gallia-Préhistoire 263-385. Spaulding. Nous avonslui et moiessayéde faire peu prèsla mêmechose. André ou Leroi-Gourhan les voiesde l'homme. A framework analysing prehistoric J. (ed. n~l M. Technical specialists Magdalenian dans et Normes variations le débitage S. pp. Paris. pp. Antibes. Etiolles. C. desXleRencontres internationales d'Archéologie d'Histoire France. Observations technologiques le rythme à La munications Mouton. ). Karlin. A. Books. In un J. PressesUniversitaires France. Pélegrin. (1988). (1966). AlbinMichel. (1964b). Karlin. (1994). R. Arbor. APDCA.In André Leroi-Gourlian les Voies l'Homme ou de du (Actes colloquedu CNRS. laminaire et magdalénien. Prehistoric American P. (1990). des La Paris. Thamesand Hudson. Le gesteetla paroleIl-La mémoire les rythmes. Oxford. P. et Leroi-Gourhan. TheOrganization North Chipped of Ann in International MI. (1966).APDCA. A. Structure. and Bodu.AlbinMichel. de du 32(3/4): 271-293. Antibes.).). Découverte.).P. R. 2nd A.AlbinMichel. M. Le gesteetla parolei. (1982).305-317.M.Chicago. (1965b).). C. Guided'étude Paris.American stone J. et tionales d'Antibes 1990). Après AndréLeroi-Gourhan: cheminsde la technologie. Paris. Leroi-Gourhan. F. (1994). (1964a). préhistorique. 9(2): à C. edn. (1993). Paris.XXVe et N. (18-20 octobre d'archéologie d'histoire pp. Hague.Préhistoire l'Art et In statuaire. débitage organisation Pigeot. Paris. 2nd A. de Mazenod. Paris.pp..Paris. (1988). and Speech (translated Anna BostockBerger). (1996).Albin-Michel..In Tixier. et IILeroi-Gourhan. 302-314. TheApplication Quantitative Viking of in FundPublications Anthropology Quadrangle 28. and Cook.
(2001). Nouvelles l Archéologie 31-36. quelques réflexions. de Pélegrin.TheHumanRevolution: on and Humans..Paris. pp. Leroi-Gourhan.. Is post-processualism everywhere? French 73(279): 161-167.. (2000). Association. and J.A. L Osaka Culture Yamanaka. Cave Art.. Scotland.). Nanterre. du Editions CNRS. Substantial Frommaterials meaning UpperPaleolithic representation.andRosenfeld. (eds. Understanding Neolithic North-Western C. Stone.. 73-86. Leroi-Gourhan. 277-311. and Bodu. Academy Sciences. Tixier. Technogenèse système production lithique Paléolithique de en Europeoccidentale au Proche-Orient. Jeunesse. ML.Jeudy.H. Les techniques débitagelaminaire Tardiglaciaire: et In B. . Vol. France. Association. Europe. (1989). University Edinburgh. M. D. Press. Treesorchains. acts: to White.2.P.. of sequential 101-127. 37: 191 A. (1997). pp. La programmatologieLeroi-Gourhan. (1986). In praise horizontally: de critères diagnoseet au J.F. From rawmaterial theNeolithic processes socialcontext. de au Tardiglaciaire. et au de du inférieur moyen Boëda.506 Audouze de Les B.Beyond Upper California of Symbolism. de de Les Stiegler.Nemours.. Pélegrin. Conkey. (1999). Glasgow. Osaka Culture Yamanaka. Stratmann.D. the In Edmonds. de Université Paris. (eds. La fauted%Epiméthée. Monnier. Ucko. Paris. Valentin. Pétrequin. Le Japonvu par AndréLeroi-Gourhan. de Stiegler. (1995). inaudite l'anthropologie... Japan. (2001). VIndustrie. (1994). of Cruithne Press. CREP. 1937-1939. Valentin. pp. O. 48/49: B. Le Japonvu par AndréLeroi-Gourhan.). dans au B. W. Technologie préhistorique. McGraw-Hill. Technology TerminologyKnapped of Inizan. et humains leurstraditions Tardiglaciaire le BassinParisien. andJablonski.) (1988).. et Habilitation. Paleolithic bead R. (1967).L. Nouvelles l'Archéologie part 48/49:23-30. Kyoto. andTexier. 1937-1939. La technique le temps.I. in and White. Japan. 1-1986. P.I. des B. M. and Praud.E. (1992b). Les groupes Ph. and axe. Conceptual 8: and Method Theory toolproduction other Journal Archaeological and activities. ( 1997).P.-M.). Dissertation. York. L'Europecentrale septentrionale APRAIF. (1992a). Evolutionary implications. (1999). ( 1999). Paleolithic Art: N. case. andRichards. 366-390. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECENT LITERATURE 73: in Audouze. Antiquity The boundto happen Coudait. manufacture: In C. J. New advances French Antiquity 167-175. Behavioural BiologicalPerspectives theOrigins Modern Edinburgh of Scotland.San Francisco. J. Stringer. New A. F.. Production complexity standardisationearlyAurignacian and pendant P. C A. Kyoto.Y. Pétrequin. Paris. 93-121. and Mellars. des Confrontation modèlesrégionaux peuplement. Vol. P. prehistory. Université ParisX-Nanterre. Production stone the to (1998).October 3-5. of for alternatives consideration stone or links branches: Bleed. (eds. (2000). pp. (eds.Soffer. J. (éd. In in R.). Roche. Galilée/Cité Sciencesetde L et Stiegler.. of André Michelson.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.