MATHEMATICS: R. C. JAMES
PROC. N. A. S.
By ROBERT C. JAMES
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Communicated by J. von Neumann, December 5, 1950
A Banach space B is isometric with a subspace of its second conjugate space B** under the "natural mapping" for which the element of B** which corresponds to the element xo of B is the linear functional Fxz defined by Fxs(f) = f(xo) for each f of B*. If every F of B** is of this form, then B is said to be reflexive and B is isometric with B** under this natural mapping. The purpose of this note is to show that B can be isometric with B** without being reflexive. The example given to show this is a space isomorphic with a Banach space known to not be reflexive, but to be isomorphic with its second conjugate space.1 A sequence {x"} of elements of a Banach space B is said to be a basis for B if for each x of B there is a unique sequence of numbers Ia". such m n that x  a x in the sense that lim llx  Eatx'II = 0. A fundamental 1 1 n sequence {x"} is a basis if and only if there is a positive number e such that n 1 n+p aJ E axjl 2 ell E aixfll for any positive integers n and p and numbers 1 1 ta}i.2 If e = 1, the basisnwill be called an orthogonal basis. But for any eD basis {x"}, Illxlll = sup,llEatx'II for x = EatxI defines a new norm 111 and for which {x"} is an orthogonal basis.$ which is equivalent to Hence if B has a basis ix"I for which lim lflkn = 0 for eachf of B*, where .+ lfilln is the norm of f on x"+1 D X+2 . ., then the following theorem describes B** completely if the basis is orthogonal and describes B** to within an isomorphism if the basis is not an orthogonal basis. THEOREM. Let B be a Banach space with an orthogonal basis {z"i for which rim lifiljn = Ofor eachf of B*, where llfIlI is the norm off on z"+' @ zn+2 C3 .... Then {g"} is a basisfor B* if gn(zm) = an for each n and m. n If F e B**, then IIFII = lim IIEFiz'hl, where Ft = F(gt). If the sequence
fl"
1 n
urm IF. I issuchthat n* 1I1 Ftzll < + co, thenFF B** if one defines F(f) = ,Fiftfor eachf = Eftg' of B*.
Proof: It has been previously known that {gni is a basis for B*.4 It
MATHEMATICS: R. C. JAMES
175
follows from this that F(f) = jFJi for each F of B** and eachf
1
=fg 1
Ef1gi I IEFif3F 1 1
If(j2Fjz')j 1
llfll(lim IiEFjz1iI), and IIFII < lim = tlEF,z1Ii. For a fixed n, let u EFiz'. Define a linear functional h by 1 1
<
lIfillIEFzIll.
=
Thus
IEFffil
<
h(zt)
0 for i > n and h(u3) = lull. Then ih(auX + E ajz`)I = n1+1 llaunll < llaun + E atzlIl. Thus 11kVl = 1 on un E zx+l e zn+2 ( .
n+1
lihIl
O
jIFl
IIEFiz'll.
1
llEFizll I
quence such that lim n_w Thus for any fixedf e B*, I it follows from lin
n+p
n+p
<
llflln(2M), so that
Thus F(f) =
lIflln
= O that
EFift is convergent.
JZF1ff 1
is defined for eachf e B* and IFil = lim n~ Example: For x = (xi, x2, X3, ...), let
iEFizIll. 1
xv1) ]
(1)
xll
= 1. u. b.
where the 1. u. b. is over all positive integers n and alifinite increasing sequences of at least two positive integers Pi, P2, . . *, pn+,. Let B be the Banach space of all x for which liIxI is finite and lim xn = 0. Then B is isometric wvith B**, but is isometric under the natural mapping with a closed maximal linear subspace of B**. Proof: For x = (xi, x2, . . .), let
11xl l != 1. u. b. [xvP2i_
/2
XP2i)2
(xp2n+l1)
(2)
where the 1. u. b. is over all positive integers n and finite increasing se
176
PROC. N. A. S.
quences of positive integers Pi, P2, *.. P2n+l. It follows from lim xn . Ixp for each p. Clearly . Ix.1 for o and lixll Ixn xpi that each p. But by grouping alternating terms of (1) and isolating x.1, one gets lxii < 1. u. b. Ixp,1j + [(xpn+l))2 + (xpn _I  xPn )2 + (xPn_3  xPn2)2 + ...]1/2 + [(xJPn xP7+)2 + (x7)72  xvn J)2 + ... ]/'A < 3111lxlI. But extra terms can be introduced in (2) to give a sum of type (1), except for replacing (XP2n+l) by (xp2n+l  x,,). Thus ljlxjJJ < 211xll. Since 1/211XI1 1 < ilxll < 3111xlI, these two norms are equivalent. But the Banach space of all x = (xi, x2, .. .) for which lim xn = 0 and IIlxlII is finite is known
lixii
IlixIll
to not be reflexive, but to be isometric under the natural mapping with a closed maximal linear subspace of its second conjugate space.1 Hence this is also true of the space B. Let Zn = (0, 0, . .., 0, 1, 0, ...) be the element of B whose components are all zero except for the nth component, which is 1. Then z' ( Z2 ED n n+p = B, so that {zn} is an orthogonal basis for B if ilEaizl + E bizill .
In
n+1
IEaizfl 1
n
for all numbers {ai} and {b,} and positive integers n and p. Since
Eaizi has only a finite number of nonzero components, a sequence pi, P2, 1
pk+1 can be chosen so that
n
11E
ajzi =
(a,,
 a7)+1)2 +
(ak+1
apl) 2
51/2 1,
(3)
where a, = 0 if r > n. If Pk+1 < n, then it is immediate from (1) and (3) n n n+p that llZatz' + E bizill > IIaizlI. If Pk+1 > n, then each pi with
1
n+1
pi > n can be replaced by some pi > n + p without changing the value of (3), since ar = 0 if r > n. But it will then again follow from (1) and (3) n n n+p For B with the norm J J and that iZEaiz' + E bizill > j 1 1 n+l hence also for B with the norm  it is known that lim n1f11n = 0, where 11f11n is the norm off on zn +1 f Zn+2 .. ..I Hence by Theorem 1 above, B** is the space of all F = (F1, F2, ...) for which IiFIi = lim
IEaizizl.
lim 1 EFizIll is finite. Thus for F to belong to B**, it is necessary that n1 Fn I
) =
MATHEMATICS: R. C. JAMES
177
n
To show that
F,,1) 21.
1_,~1)
(a
follows that llxii < iiFziI, where IiFzll = lim lEFfzxii. Now.consider asum
i&"m
(FnlFv)2], m. Ps+a < then this sum LEi(FD;Fp+) replaced by 0 if p > fomdfor them,element m1Fstis If where Fp is to be
n~~~~
+ equal to
N(x,.+1 x,,+.
(F,*)2
i)2 +
(xF +1 +1(xp,~+

x1a+n)2].
+
Now suppose
F,.+1)2
+ (Fp,)2] = [E
x,"+1 + 1)2
(x,k +
lz)
+ (xzero'. EThus lxl .m Ftzoillfor each n. Henceltxi = iiFi and x *  FZ iS an isometry with domain equal to B. But if F = (F1, F2, ...) is an element of B**, and lim F = L, thenoXF= (L, F1e s and F2L, .. . ) iS, by the above, an element of B for which iixeii = Fiz wh'e' F. Thus the range of the isometry is B**. 1 Jamnes, R. C., "Bases and Reflexivity of Banach Spaces," Ann. Math., 52, 518527
(1950). 2 Grinblum, M. M., "Certain thEoremes sur la base dans un espace du type (B)," C. R. (Dokiady) Ac.ad. Sci. URSS (N. S.), 31, 428432 (1941). eqBanach, S., Thdorie des Oprations Lin2aires, Warsaw, 1932, p. 111. thJames, >oc. cit., Theorem 3.