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174

MATHEMATICS: R. C. JAMES

PROC. N. A. S.

A NON-REFLEXIVE BANACH SPACE ISOMETRIC WITH ITS SECOND CONJUGATE SPA CE

By ROBERT C. JAMES
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Communicated by J. von Neumann, December 5, 1950

A Banach space B is isometric with a subspace of its second conjugate space B** under the "natural mapping" for which the element of B** which corresponds to the element xo of B is the linear functional Fxz defined by Fxs(f) = f(xo) for each f of B*. If every F of B** is of this form, then B is said to be reflexive and B is isometric with B** under this natural mapping. The purpose of this note is to show that B can be isometric with B** without being reflexive. The example given to show this is a space isomorphic with a Banach space known to not be -reflexive, but to be isomorphic with its second conjugate space.1 A sequence {x"} of elements of a Banach space B is said to be a basis for B if for each x of B there is a unique sequence of numbers Ia". such m n that x - a x in the sense that lim llx - Eatx'II = 0. A fundamental 1 1 n sequence {x"} is a basis if and only if there is a positive number e such that n 1 n+p aJ E axjl 2 ell E aixfll for any positive integers n and p and numbers 1 1 ta}i.2 If e = 1, the basisnwill be called an orthogonal basis. But for any eD basis {x"}, Illxlll = sup,llEatx'II for x = EatxI defines a new norm 111 and for which {x"} is an orthogonal basis.$ which is equivalent to Hence if B has a basis ix"I for which lim lflkn = 0 for eachf of B*, where .+ lfilln is the norm of f on x"+1 D X+2 . ., then the following theorem describes B** completely if the basis is orthogonal and describes B** to within an isomorphism if the basis is not an orthogonal basis. THEOREM. Let B be a Banach space with an orthogonal basis {z"i for which rim lifiljn = Ofor eachf of B*, where llfIlI is the norm off on z"+' @ zn+2 C3 .... Then {g"} is a basisfor B* if gn(zm) = an for each n and m. n If F e B**, then IIFII = lim IIEFiz'hl, where Ft = F(gt). If the sequence
fl-"
1 n

urm IF. I issuchthat n-* 1I1 Ftzll < + co, thenFF B** if one defines F(f) = ,Fiftfor eachf = Eftg' of B*.
Proof: It has been previously known that {gni is a basis for B*.4 It

VOL. 37, 1951

MATHEMATICS: R. C. JAMES

175

follows from this that F(f) = jFJi for each F of B** and eachf
1

=fg 1

of B*, where Fi = F(g'). But, for eachf =

Ef1gi I IEFif3F 1 1

If(j2Fjz')j 1

llfll(lim IiEFjz1iI), and IIFII < lim = tlEF,z1Ii. For a fixed n, let u- EFiz'. Define a linear functional h by 1 1
<

lIfillIEFzIll.
=

Thus

IEFffil

<

h(zt)

0 for i > n and h(u3) = lull. Then ih(auX + E ajz`)I = n1+1 llaunll < llaun + E atzlIl. Thus 11kVl = 1 on un E zx+l e zn+2 ( .
n+1

Extend h to all of B so that

lihIl
O

= 1 on B. Then, for this h, h =


n

with hi = 0 for i > n, so that


n

lEFthil = IEFth4l = Ih(un)l =


1 1
n

Eheg hlull < IIFiI.

Since this can be done for each n, it follows that


and

jIFl

lI FjztIl for each n


n-o-o

lim jFll 2 n-_c

IIEFiz'll.
1

It has thus been shown that lim

llEFizll I

IFII for each element F

quence such that lim n_w Thus for any fixedf e B*, I it follows from lin

{F.) of B**. lIEFiz'll = M < 1


=
n

Now suppose that .n+p + c. Then 11 E


.n

tFR& is a seFizjll < 2M.

n+p

n+p

E Fifl = If( E Fizl)I n n

<

llflln(2M), so that
Thus F(f) =

lIflln

= O that

EFift is convergent.

JZF1ff 1

is defined for eachf e B* and IFil = lim n-~ Example: For x = (xi, x2, X3, ...), let

iEFizIll. 1
-xv1) ]
(1)

xll

= 1. u. b.

E xPi+)2 + (x"'+1 (xpij=1

where the 1. u. b. is over all positive integers n and alifinite increasing sequences of at least two positive integers Pi, P2, . . *, pn+,. Let B be the Banach space of all x for which liIxI is finite and lim xn = 0. Then B is isometric wvith B**, but is isometric under the natural mapping with a closed maximal linear subspace of B**. Proof: For x = (xi, x2, . . .), let

11xl l != 1. u. b. [xvP2i_-

/2

XP2i)2

(xp2n+l1)

(2)

where the 1. u. b. is over all positive integers n and finite increasing se-

176

.VA THE AIA TICS: R. C. JAMES

PROC. N. A. S.

quences of positive integers Pi, P2, *.. P2n+l. It follows from lim xn . Ixp| for each p. Clearly . Ix.1 for o and lixll Ixn- xpi that each p. But by grouping alternating terms of (1) and isolating x.1, one gets l|xii < 1. u. b. Ixp,1j + [(xpn+l))2 + (xpn _I - xPn )2 + (xPn_3 - xPn-2)2 + ...]1/2 + [(xJPn- xP7+)2 + (x7)7-2 - xvn J)2 + ... ]/'A < 3111lxlI. But extra terms can be introduced in (2) to give a sum of type (1), except for replacing (XP2n+l) by (xp2n+l - x,,). Thus ljlxjJJ < 211xll. Since 1/211|XI1 1 < ilxll < 3111xlI, these two norms are equivalent. But the Banach space of all x = (xi, x2, .. .) for which lim xn = 0 and IIlxlII is finite is known

lixii

IlixIll

to not be reflexive, but to be isometric under the natural mapping with a closed maximal linear subspace of its second conjugate space.1 Hence this is also true of the space B. Let Zn = (0, 0, . .., 0, 1, 0, ...) be the element of B whose components are all zero except for the nth component, which is 1. Then z' ( Z2 ED n n+p = B, so that {zn} is an orthogonal basis for B if ilEaizl + E bizill .
In

n+1

IEaizfl 1
n

for all numbers {ai} and {b,} and positive integers n and p. Since

Eaizi has only a finite number of non-zero components, a sequence pi, P2, 1
pk+1 can be chosen so that
n

11E

ajzi =

(a,,

- a7)+1)2 +

(ak+1

apl) 2

51/2 1,

(3)

where a, = 0 if r > n. If Pk+1 < n, then it is immediate from (1) and (3) n n n+p that llZatz' + E bizill > IIaizlI|. If Pk+1 > n, then each pi with
1

n+1

pi > n can be replaced by some pi > n + p without changing the value of (3), since ar = 0 if r > n. But it will then again follow from (1) and (3) n n n+p For B with the norm J J and that iZEaiz' + E bizill > j 1 1 n+l hence also for B with the norm || it is known that lim n1f11n = 0, where 11f11n is the norm off on zn +1 f Zn+2 .. ..I Hence by Theorem 1 above, B** is the space of all F = (F1, F2, ...) for which IiFIi = lim

IEaizizl.

lim 1 EFizIll is finite. Thus for F to belong to B**, it is necessary that n--1- Fn I

exist. Consider the correspondence:


X
=

(X1, X2, ...)

X (X2 - X1, X3-X1, .. , Xn -X1

) =

(F1, F2, ... =-Fx.

VOL. 37, 1951

MATHEMATICS: R. C. JAMES

177
n

To show that

llxll = iiF,11, first consider a sum E (xPi - xpi+l)2 +


If p' = 1, it is equal to [E2 (F,,...1- Fp+l
+

(xnl- x,1)2]. If Pi 2 2, this is equal to [2 (Fp,_1 - F,i+1_1)2 +


(Fll-

F,,1) 21.

- FN)2 + (FN - F,1)2], if N > Pn+i - 1 and FN is replaced

1 (F 2 + by zero. Since iI|Ffz'iI is a monotonically increasing function of n, it (frmd

1_,~1)

(a

follows that llxii < iiFziI, where IiFzll = lim lEFfzxii. Now.consider asum

i&-"m

(FnlFv)2], m. Ps+a < then this sum LEi(FD;-Fp+) replaced by 0 if p > fomdfor them,element m1Fstis If where Fp is to be
n~~~~
+ equal to

N(x,.+1 -x,,+.
(F,*)2

i)2 +

(xF +1 +1(xp,~+
-

x1a+n)2].
+

Now suppose

thatpk+l > m, butp

m if i < k. Then the sum becomes j i(F,-

F,.+1)2

+ (Fp,)2] = [E

x,"+1 + 1)2

(x,k +

lz)

+ (xzero'. EThus lxl .m Ftzoillfor each n. Henceltxi = iiFi and x * - FZ iS an isometry with domain equal to B. But if F = (F1, F2, ...) is an element of B**, and lim F = L, thenoXF= (-L, F1-e s and F2-L, .. . ) iS, by the above, an element of B for which iixeii = Fiz wh'e' F. Thus the range of the isometry is B**. 1 Jamnes, R. C., "Bases and Reflexivity of Banach Spaces," Ann. Math., 52, 518-527
(1950). 2 Grinblum, M. M., "Certain thEoremes sur la base dans un espace du type (B)," C. R. (Dokiady) Ac.ad. Sci. URSS (N. S.), 31, 428-432 (1941). eqBanach, S., Thdorie des Oprations Lin2aires, Warsaw, 1932, p. 111. thJames, >oc. cit., Theorem 3.