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CHAPTER 5 ( WATER & SOLUTION ) 5.1 The physical properties of water 1. Water is colourless, tasteless and odourless liquid.

2. Water exists in three states, which are solid, liquid and gas. 3. Water can change from one state to another.

4. The changes in the state of water occur at specific temperature. ( Water freeze at 0oC ) 5. The temperature of a substances remains constant, that is it does not rise or drop, during the change of state.

6. Pure water boils at 100oC (at a pressure of 760mm mercury) and freezes at 0oC. 7. The density of water is 1 g/cm3 . ( 1 cm3 of water has a mass of 1 gram. ) 8. The solid form of water (ice) is unusual because unlike other substances, it is less dense than the liquid form. That is why ice _________ on the water. The reason is that water expand upon freezing unlike other liquid substances. 9. Impurities in water can affect freezing point and boiling point of water. 10. Water is a poor conductor of heat. 11. The relationship between the freezing and boiling points of water and the Kinetic Theory a) When water is cooled, the particles lose kinetic energy (heat is released). The particles move more slowly. b) At freezing point, liquid particles cannot move freely anymore. c) Liquid particles are pulled together by strong forces of attraction between particles.

d) When heat energy is supplied to a liquid, the liquid particles obtain a lot of kinetic energy and they vibrate faster. e) At boiling point, the energy obtained enables the liquid particles to overcome and break the forces of attraction between the particles. 5.2 Water Composition

1. Water is a chemical compound that consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen.

2. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in one molecule of water is 2:1. 3. Water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen through the process

of electrolysis.

4. Electrolysis i) In the process of electrolysis, oxygen is discharged at the anode (positive electrode) and
hydrogen is discharged at the cathode (negative electrode).

ii) Confirmation test for the collected gases;

Oxygen gas is tested with a glowing wooden splint. The wooden splint lights up when oxygen is present. Hydrogen gas is tested with a lighted wooden splint. Pop sound is produced when hydrogen is present.

Checking Your Understanding 1. The process of splitting the water into its component elements by passing electric current through it is called _______________. 2. The carbon rod connected to the positive terminal of the battery is called the ____________. 3. Why the dilute sulphuric acid added to the distilled water in the electrolysis of water? ______________________________________________________________________________ 5.3 Evaporation of Water 1. Water evaporation is a process in which liquid is slowly lost from surface of the liquid in the form of water vapour into atmosphere.

2. Evaporation occurs at any temperature below boiling point of water and at any time. 3. The amount of water vapour in the air is called its humidity. 4. Factors which affect the rate of evaporation; a. surface area - A larger surface area allow more water molecules to escape from the surface of water into the air. b. temperature - At higher surrounding temperature, more heat energy is being supplied to the water molecules, thus increasing its kinetic energy. This allow the water molecules to break the force of attraction between them and escape from the surface of the water. c. humidity - A high humidity decrease the rate of evaporation. This is because of the presence of a large number of water molecules in the air and prevent other water molecules from escaping from the surface of the water. d. air movement - Air movement helps to remove water molecules above the surface of the water, thus allowing more water molecules from escaping from the surface of the water. 5. Comparison between Evaporation and Boiling. Evaporation Boiling Similarities

1) Both involve the change of state from liquid to gas 2) Both processes absorb heat Differences Occurs at the liquids surface Occurs throughout the liquid Occurs at all temperatures below the liquids boiling point Occurs at the liquids boiling point A slow process A fast process No air bubbles seen. Air bubbles seen. Affected by: Affected by: 1) Humidity 1) Air pressure 2) Surrounding temperature. 2) Pressence of dissolves impurities. 3) Surface area 3) Rate of heating 4) Air movement 4) Amount of liquid. 6. Application of Evaporation of Water a) Drying of clothes under the Sun. e) Drying agricultural products. b) Drying hair f ) Drying fishes and prawns. c) Cooling the body with fan. g) Production of milk poweder by evaporating d) Producing common salt. liquid milk. 5.4 Solution & Solubility 1. Definition of Solute, Solvent and Solution as below.

2. There are 3 types of solution; a) Dilute solution = contain a little solute in the solvent and it still can dissolve a lot more of the solute. b) Concentrated solution = contain a lot of solute in the solvent and it still can dissolve a little bit more of the solute. c) Saturated solution = contain maximum amount of solute possible in the solvent at a given temperature and it cant dissolve any more of the solute.

3. A suspension is a mixture of insoluble small solid particles in a liquid. 4. Characteristic of a suspension; a) It is opaque, that is, we cannot see through it. b) It is non homogeneous. c) When it is left to stand, particles in suspension settle down at the bottom of the container. d) The particles can be easily filtered out by filtration. 5. Solubility is a measure of how much a solute will solve in a solvent at a particular temperature. 6. Solubility of a solute can be measured by determining the most quantity of a solute ( in grams ) that can dissolve in 100ml of solvent at a certain temperature. 7. For example, the solubility of potassium nitrate in water is 90 g per 100 ml of water at 50 oC. This means that 90 g of potassium nitrate salt are dissolved in 100 ml of water at a temperature of 50 oC to form a saturated solution of potassium nitrate. 8. Factors affecting the solubility of solutes as below; a) The Nature of Solvent : Solubility of a substance is different in different solvents. For example, iodine crystals dissolve slightly in water but dissolve very well in alcohol. b) The Nature of Solute : Different solutes have different solubility in a given solvent. For example, copper chloride has about twice the solubility of sodium chloride in the water at 20 oC. c) The temperature of solvent : Most solutes dissolve better in a higher temperarature. 9. Rate of dissolving = How fast a solute can dissolve in a given amount of solvent. 10. Factors affecting the rate of dissolving as below;

11. Water is called the universal solvent because it can dissolve many kinds of solutes either in the state of solids, liquids or gases. 12. The importance of water as the universal solvent; a) Function as solvent in many of our body systems such as digestive, circulatory and respiratory systems. Water is also a solvent in transpiration. b) Cooking is done primarily using water as solvent. c) Many types of drinks are made using water as solvent. d) Dissolve carbon dioxide and oxygen for aquatic organisms. e) Dissolves mineral salts in soil for the absorption of plant.

f) Dissolves washing agents to get rid of stain on clothes. g) Dissolves chemicals used in drugs and medical preparation. 13. A non-aqueous solvent or organic solvent is used to dissolve substances that are insoluble in water. 14. Substances that insoluble in water are mostly organic ( carbon-containing ) compound. 15. Table shows the organic solvents and its solute ( organic compound ). Organic solvent Solute
Alcohol Turpentine Thinner Kerosene Petrol Acetone Benzene Chloroform Ether Amy acetate Milk Common salt solution Borax solution Citric acid Toluena Iodine, ink, chlorophyll, shellac, varnish, Grease, tar, paint Paint Paint, grease ( oil & fats ) Paint, tar, wax, grease Ballpoint ink, lipstick, nail varnish, lacquer, wax Rubber ( latex ) , grease and rust on the metal surface. Plastic Fats, oil, nail varnish. Lipstick, nail varnish, wax. Ink Dried blood stain tea and coffee's stain fruit stain Sulphur

16. Organic solvents should be handled carefully and contact with avoided as they are toxic, volatile ( evaporate quickly ), flammable and carcinogenic ( cancer-causing ). 17. Long-term exposure to organic solvents should be avoided to safeguard our health. 5.5 Acids and Alkalis 1. Acid is a chemical substance that releases hydrogen ion when dissolved in water. 2. Acid can be divided into 2 categories; a) Organic acids - found in living things and foods. - Contain carbon. - Weak acids - Example : citric acids, acetic acids and formic acids. b) Mineral acids / Inorganic acids - obtained from the stones and mineral resources. - Strong acids and corrosive. - Example : Hydrochloric acids, nitric acids and sulphuric acids. 3. Properties of Acids; a) Sour taste. b) Has pH value of less than 7. c) Corrosive in nature. d) Turns blue litmus paper red. e) React with reactive metal such as magnesium and zinc to give off hydrogen gas. f) React with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas ( turn the lime water chalky ), salt and water. g) Neutralise the alkali to produce salt and water.

4. Alkali is a substance that releases hydroxide ion / hydroxyl ion when dissolved in water. 5. There are three common metal oxides which dissolve in water to form alkalis. a) Sodium oxide form Sodium hydroxide ( Alkali ) b) Potassium oxide form Potassium hydroxide ( Alkali ) c) Calcium oxide form Calcium hydroxide ( Alkali ) 6. Most of the metal oxides do not dissolve in water except the three above. 7. Ammonium hydroxide is an alkali which formed by dissolve the ammonia in water. 8. Properties of Alkali; a) Bitter taste b) Feel soapy ( slippery ) c) Has pH value greater than 7. d) Turns the red litmus paper blue. e) Corrosive ( for concentrated alkali solution ) f) React with ammonium salts to produce ammonia gas when heated. g) Neutralise the acid to produce salt and water. ( Neutralisation ) 9. Role of water in Acids and Alkalis a) Acid and alkali may exist as solid, liquid and or gas. b) Acid and alkali only show their acidic and alkaline properties in the presence of water. For example, solid acid and alkali have no effect on the pH paper or litmus paper. 10. The pH scale is a scale that used to show whether a substance is acidic, alkaline or neutral.

11. The value of pH of a solution can be determined by using pH paper or a universal indicator. 12. Universal indicator show green colour in neutral solution, purple colour in alkaline solution and slightly orange colour in acidic solution. 13. The uses of acids in daily life. Acid Use Acetic acid a) producing paint. b) preserving food. c) making vinegar. Ascorbic acid Needed by our body to maintain good health ( Vitamin C ) and build up resistance to disease. Formic acid For coagulating latex. Hydrochloric acid a) for cleaning metal before welding. b) for removing rust. c) for making chemical substances. Benzoic acid For preserving food. Nitric acid a) For producing explosive substances. b) For manufacturing fertiliser, dyes and plastics. Citric acid a) Found in lemon juices. Sulphuric acid a) for making detergents, paints and fertilisers. b) As electrolyte for lead aicd acumulator ( car

batteries ) c) as a chemical in soda acid fire extinguishers 14. The uses of alkalis in daily life; Alkali Use a) As a cloth dye. Potassium hydroxide b) Fro making soap. Calcium hydroxide a) For neutralising acidic soil. b) For making cement. Magnesium hydroxide For making toothpaste. Sodium hydroxide a) For making soap, plastic, synthetic cloth, detergents and nitrates. Ammonia a) For preventing latex from coagulating during export. b) for decolouring cloth. c) for making fertiliser and detergents. 15. Neuralisation is a chemical reaction between acid and alkali to form a salt and water.

16. Examples of neutralisation; a) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride + water b) Hydrochloric acid + potassium hydroxide potassium chloride + water c) Hydrochloric acid + calcium hydroxide Calcium chloride + water d) Sulphuric acid + sodium hydroxide Sodium sulphate + water e) Nitric acid + potassium hydroxide Potassium chloride + water 17. The products ( salt + water ) of neutralization is neutral, with pH value of 7. 18. Complete neutralisation of acid and alkali can be done by using a method called Titration. 19. Titration is a method where an acid is gradually added from a burette to an alkali until the end point of neutralisation reached.

20. The end point of neutralisation is reached when an indicator that has been added to the alkali change colour. 21. At the end point, the neutral solution formed with pH value of 7. 22. The Indicator is a substance which changes colour according to pH. 23. Table below show some common used indicator in titration; Indicator Acidic Neutral Alkaline Universal Indicator Yellow Green Purple Litmus solution Red Purple Blue Methy orange Red Orange Yellow Colourles Colourles Phenolphthalein s s Pink 24. Application / Use of Neutralisation in Daily life. a) Toothpaste which is alkaline help to neutralize the acid produced by the bacteria acting on the food stuck between the teeth. b) Chalk which is alkaline mixed with the soil to reduce the acidity of soil. c) Alkaline shampoo can be neutralised by acidic hair conditioner that make the hair smooth, soft and shinny. d) Antacid is alkaline and is used to neutralise excessive hydrochloric acid produced in the stomach which cause gastric pain and indigestion. e) Acidic water can be treated by adding lime to the water to neutralise the acid. f) Wasp stings which are alkaline can be treated with vinegar which is a weak acid. g) Bee stings which are acidic ( formic acid ) can be treated with alkaline solution such calamine lotion or paste of baking soda mixed with water. h) Ant bites contain tiny amount of formic acid can be treated by washing with soap and water to neutralize the acid.


Purification of Water

1. Water can be obtained from natural sources of water such as; a) Rain - Purest and cleanest but contain dissolved gases and a little dust. b) Spring / wells - Originate from ground water - Clear and quite clean. - Contain dissolved gases, minerals and microorganisms. c) Sea - The dirtiest sources of water. - contain dissolved gases, minerals, microorganisms, decaying substances. - Taste salty. d) River / Stream - Not very clean. - contain dissolved gases, minerals decaying substances, soil particles and microorganisms. e) Lake / Ponds - Stagnant, dirtier than river water. - Contain dissolved gases, minerals, decaying substances, soil particles and microorganisms. 2. Water from natural sources may not be safe to use as they may contain various kinds of impurities and microorganisms that are harmful to our health. 3. Therefore, it is important to treat and purify the water to make it safe for drinking and other purposes. 4. Reasons to purify the water; a) To remove floating debris such as leaves, twigs and water weeds.

b) c) d) e)

To removed suspended particles such as dust and soil particles. To removed dissolved substances. To kill microorganisms present in the water. To remove unpleasant taste, smell and colour. d) Distillation e) Ultraviolet light treatment f) Ozonation ( Ozone treatment )
Water still contain suspended impurities and dissolved substances. Water still contain dissolved impurities and microorganisms. Water still contain suspended impurities and dissolved substances. Not suitable for drinking as it doesn't contain any beneficial minerals. Water still contain suspended impurities and dissolved substances. Water still contain suspended impurities and dissolved substances.

5. Methods of Water Purification; a) Boiling b) Filtration c) Chlorination 6.

Method of water purification

Water is free from microorganisms.

In making drinking water at home.


Water is clean and free from suspended impurities. Water is free from microorganisms.

In water treatment plant and in rural areas to filter well/river water. In water treatment plant and swimming pools.



Water is free from suspended impurities, dissolved substances and microorganisms. Water is free from microorganisms.

Distilled water is used in preparing biochemical solution and car batteries as well. Prepare drinking water at home and hospital. Besides that, UV also used to treat water in swimming pools. Used to treat water for drinking and water treatment plant.

Ultraviolet Water is free from microorganisms. Ozone treatment


Water Supply System 1. Water supplied to our house must be treated to ensure that is clean and safe for consumption. 2. Water treatment plant is the place where the raw water go through several purification processes to remove suspended impurities and to kill microorganisms in the water. 3. Processes in Water Treatment Plant in sequence; a) Water in reservoir g) Filtration b) Screening h) Chlorination c) Aeration i) Fluoridation d) Coagulation j) Storage e) Mixing tank k) Channeled to consumer f) Sedimentation

4. Ways to save water; a. bathes by showering b. Wash clothes in big quantities. c. Wash vegetables in a basin. d. Repair all water pipe leaks immediately. e. Turn off the tap when not in use. f. Use a watering can to water plants.


Preserving Water Quality

1. Water pollution occurs when water is contaminated with waste product or pollutants 2. Polluted water is not suitable for living organisms. 3. Pollutants are classified into 2 categories; a) Biodegradable pollutants which are pollutant that can be broken down naturally by decomposers. Examples are animal and plant waste. b) Non-biodegradable pollutants which are pollutant that cannot be broken down naturally. Examples are plastics, chemicals, heavy metals and radioactive residues. 4. The main types of water pollutants commonly found are
Types of water pollutant Domestic waste Discharge of chemical, metals and radioactive residues Cause Rubbish and untreated sewage Effect Disruption of water flow, harmful microorganisms cause diseases (cholera, typhoid) Kills and poisons aquatic life, may cause other diseases and cancer as well.

Industrial waste

Agricultural waste Siltation Oil spillage

Runoff from forms containing pesticides, fertilizers and animal wastes Runoff from construction sites and exposed areas Spillage from ships and tankers

Algal bloom and reduces the oxygen level River becomes shallow and muddy Kills aquatic life and sea birds

5. Ways to control water pollution a) Educate people on the dangers of water pollution and how they can prevent it. b) Enforce laws to prevent the indiscriminate disposal of rubbish and toxic waste into rivers and seas. c) Recycle domestic waste to reduce the amount of garbage. d) Reduce and control the use of chemicals fertilizers and pesticides. Instead use organic fertilizers, natural pesticides and biological control. e) Monitor the logging activities to prevent uncontrolled deforestation. f) Control and monitor the development of land for housing industries and agriculture activities. g) Treat sewage and industrial waste before discharge into rivers or seas. h) Setup efficient system to deal with accidental oil and chemical spillage from tankers. Waste Water Today , Live Desert Tomorrow.