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B cn bng c s dng b tr li mo bin v mo pha do mi trng, b

tin khuch i v b khuch i chnh gy ra to ra mt m biu mt m bo cho


mch quyt nh pha sau. Chng ta c th coi hm truyn t ca si quang c c tnh pha
cc tiu c cc tham s bin i ngu nhin theo thi gian. Cu trc b cn bng tha mn
cc c tnh , khng nhng n b li cc loi mo m cn gim c tc dng ca s trt
thi im c ngha ca tn hiu, hn ch c giao thoa gia cc k hiu. Cn bng l mt
bi ton ln trong thng tin quang th cc tham s ca si quang bin i chm theo thi gian
nn kt cu ca b cn bng khng phc tp nh trong vi ba s v thc t n thng c kt
hp chung vi b lc thnh mt c cu duy nht.
1.1.3.6 B lc
B lc c s dng gii hn bng tn thu, lm gim ti thiu tp m pht ra t b
tch song v cc mch khuch i.
1.2 T S TN HIU TRN NHIU TI THI IM QUYT NH
1.2.1 My thu quang
S ca my thu quang in hnh nh Hnh 1-2:

Hnh 1-2: S ca my thu quang

B ngun dng tn hiu i(t) = R.M.P(t) (1.1)
Vi P(t): Cng sut quang vo
M: H s khuch i quang thc (M=1 vi PIN).
R: H s p ng ca b tch song.
R
L
: Ti ca b tch quang
C: in dung tng ng ca diode v in dung vo ca b khuch i.
Gi: f
C
l tn s ct ca mch RC
B
N
l di nhiu tng ng ca b khuch i
Ta c:
f
C
=
1
2R C
L
= .B
N
(1.2)
Vi l mt h s no .
B khuch i cn bng b tr tn hao v mo ca si quang v mch RC
gy ra trong bng tn ca tn hiu.
B ngun dng nhiu tp m lng t:
Tp m lng t c hm mt ph cng sut trung bnh c dng:
W
iq
= 2q.R.M
2(1+a)
.P
r
(1.3)
Vi : P
r
l cng sut quang thu c trung bnh
q l in tch in t
a l h s tng tp m ca qu trnh thc.
B ngun dng tp m nhit
Tp m nhit c mt ph cng sut trung bnh.

W
it
=
L
4kTF
R
(1.4)
Vi K l hng s Bolzman K = 1,28.10
-23
J.K
-1

T l nhit tuyt i T= 290

K
F l h s tp m ca b khuch i lin quan n tp m do tr
vo R sinh ra.

T (1.2) v (1.4) ta c:
W
it
= 8KT.B
N
.(fc) (1.5)

Tham s fc biu th chnh xc (cht lng) trong vic thit k my thu, fc cng thp th
my thu cng tt. Vi cc h thng truyn dn s dung lng cao v trung bnh th fc = 1pF.
Trong thc t 1 cch gn ng c th b qua nh hng ca nhiu dng ti.
1.2.2 Cng sut quang yu cu
xc nh cng sut quang yu cu, ta c nhng gi thit sau:
Ph ca xung ra loi cosin tng vi un cong .
Nhiu l tp m cng Gause, vy xc sut li ca t s nh tn hiu trn tp m t
im quyt nh l mt hm erfc.
Cc xung quang c pht i c dng ch nht vi gi tr nh P
t
v chu trnh ch
hot ng d
C
.
Cng sut quang khng c pht i khi khng c xung.
Khi dng tn hiu nh ti thi im quyt nh cho bi biu thc sau:
= R.M.d
C
.
^
P (1.6)
T suy ra cng sut pht trung bnh P
t
lin h vi
^
t P
P
t
=
^
1
t
c
d P
h
(1.7)
Vi h l nghch o xc sut xut hin l
P
r
= P
t
. e
-2L
hoc P
r
= P
t
.

(1.8)
Vy l mt hm ca cng sut thu c trung bnh
= h.R.M.P
r
(1.9)

i vi m ng quang c hai trng thi th h=2. Vi h thng s dng cc loi tn
hiu nhiu mc, nhiu khi s dng tn hiu gn nh bng gc nh tn hiu truyn hnh th
biu thc trn vn ng, nhng h ph thuc vo thng k tn hiu vo, ni chung l h>2.
Nhng nhiu khi tnh ton, v mt cch gn ng vn s dng h=2.
T cc biu thc (1.3), (1.5), (1.9) ta rt ra c t s tn hiu trn nhiu ti im
quyt nh:
=
2(1 2 ) 2
2 Pr
2 Pr 8 ( )
N N
MR
qRM B KTB FC
o
t o
+
+
(1.10)
Nu nh l mt s cho trc c nh (ng gi cht lng mong mun) t (1.10) ta
c th xc nh c cng sut quang yu cu trung bnh theo
Pr =
2 2
2 2 2(1 2 )
32 ( )
1 1
4
N
qB M KT FC
R M
o
o
o t o
o o
+
(
+ +
(

(1.11)
Vi PIN th M=1 R=0,5 A/W
Cng sut quang yu cu t l vi bng tn nhiu tng ng ca b khuch i ,
ng thi khi m yu cu cao hn th cng sut quang cng cao v tp m lng t s ln.

Hnh 1-3: Cng sut quang trung bnh trn mt n v rng bng tn theo
Hnh biu th cng quang trung bnh trn mt n v rng bng tn i vi t s tn
hiu trn nhiu im quyt nh i vi PIN diode. c tnh ny cn gi l tp m lng
t gii hn. Thng trong truyn hnh tng t, t s tn hiu nh trn tp m yu cu
cao hn 50dB. Trong trng hp truyn dn s gi tr thp hn khong 23dB, tng ng
xc sut li thp hn 10
-10
, v tp m ch yu l tp m nhit.
Vi diode thc, t (1.11) c th nhn thy ng vi mi gi tr ca c mt gi tr M
ca hm cho cng sut quang yu cu t gi tr ti thiu. o hm (1.11) theo M ta c:
dPr(M)=0
Rt ra:
M
opt
=
1
2(1 )
2 2
8
(1 )
a
KT FC
a a q
t o
o
+
(
(
+

(1.12)

T biu thc (1.12) thy h s khuch i ti u khng ph thuc vo rng bng
tn nhiu. Khi t gi tr cao th M
opt
>1 th biu thc (1.12) mi ng.
Kt hp biu thc (1.12) vi i(t)=R.M.P(t) thy rng khi dng tn hiu t l vi M th
tng nhiu lng t tng nhanh hn t l M
(1+a)
. iu c ngha l nhiu lng t chim
u th ( gi tr cao) th khng nn s dng diode quang thc.



Hnh 1-4: Pmax, G
opt
c th thu c bng APD i vi t s tn hiu trn nhiu thi
im quyt nh


T s tnh ton v phn tch pha trn, ta c th so snh tnh tit kim cng sut
quang thu c cc i Pmax gia diode PIN. Thit lp t s Pr c tnh cho diode PIN
khi M=1 v Pr c tnh cho APD vi M=M
opt
:

2 2 (1 2 )
(1 2 ) (1 ) (1 2 )
2 2
1 1 8 ( )
2 4
.
(1 )
8 ( )
l
MAX l l
KT FC
q
P
KT FC
q
o o
o o o o
t o
o o
o
t o
o
+
+ + +
+ +
A =
+
(
(

(1.13)
Nhn thy Pmax cng khng ph thuc vo rng bng tn.

Hnh 1-5: So snh gia hai loi diode thc c h s tng tp m khc nhau v Pmax v M
opt

vi FC=1
T cc biu thc tnh ton v cc hnh nhn thy rng cht lng b khuch i cng
thp (FC) cao hoc diode quang cng tt (a nh), th diode quang thc cng c th t ti
tit kim cng sut tt hn. Kt qu l khi thit k mt b khuch i c chnh xc thp th
phi chn diode quang thc c nhiu thp v i vi cao th cc u im ca diode quang
thc khng cn na.
C th tnh c cng sut thu ti thiu yu cu i vi mt mong mun. Thay
(1.12) vo (1.11) ta c:

( )
( )
(1 2 )
1 1/(1 2 )
2
1 2
8 ( )
Pr min 1 2
2
l
N
B q KT FC
R
o o
o o
o
t o
o o
o
+
+ +
+
(
( = +
(

(1.14)
T biu thc (1.11) ta biu din di dng cng sut yu cu l mt hm ca mt
cng sut dng tp nhit u vo, n l mt tham s ca b khuch i thu nh gi tham
s FC:
- Vi PIN:
2 2
2 2 2(1 2 )
4
Pr 1 1
4
N it
N
qB W
R B q M
o
o
o
+
(
= + +
(

(1.15)

-
Vi APD:
( )
/(1 2 )
1/(1 2 )
(1 ) /(1 2 )
2 it
W
Pr 1 2
2
N
q
B
R
o o
o
o o
o o
o
+
+
+ +
(
( = +
(

(1.16)